Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 4, April 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 All comments are welcome: editor@americanscience.org

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

1

Relationship between Body Fat Percent and Maximal Oxygen Uptake among Young Adults

 

1A.R Amani, 2M.N. Somchit, 3M.M. B Konting, 4Kok L Y

1,3,4Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

2 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Medical, Universiti Putra Malaysia

¹Alireza.daryasar@gmail.com , nazrul.hakim@gmail.com

Abstract: The present study was conducting to examine the relationship between maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body fat percent among international students in Universiti Putra Malaysia. VO2max and body fat percent are importance factors at health and sport research. Twenty six male student (26 +/- 5 years old in age and 168 +/- 5 cm in high and 73 +/- 5 kg in weight) at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Maximal were participated at this investigation. Oxygen Uptake and body fat percent have been measured by the routine protocols. At the end of this research have been shown signification and negative correlation (-0.042) between the VO2max and body fat percent. Results of this investigation show that there is negative correlation between maximum oxygen uptake and body fat percent. Increase the VO2max have been shown with decrease and improve on body composition. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.01

Key Words: Maximum Oxygen Uptake, Body Fat Percent, Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity

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2

An Investigation on Supplier Delivery Performance by using SPC Techniques for Automotive Industry

 

Soroush Avakh Darestani 1, Md Yusof Ismail 2, Napsiah bt Ismail 3, Rosnah bt. Mohd. Yusuff 4

1. Department of Mechanical and manufacturing engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia, soroushavakh@yahoo.com,Tel: +60172986210

2. Department of Manufacturing engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300, Malaysia

3 Department of Mechanical and manufacturing engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia

4 Department of Mechanical and manufacturing engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Malaysia

 

Abstract: As about 60% of finished price of goods are allocated to raw material and purchased parts by suppliers in the chain of automotive industry, the importance of supplier management and its performance is an ongoing problem. Moreover the need of monitoring of supplier performance has been emphasized in Quality Management System of automotive industry ISO/TS16949. To meet standard requirement and also continuous improvement in business, companies need to monitor their supplier performance. Delivery and quality are two of the most important indicators of supplier evaluation. This paper introduces a statistical approach to monitor supplier performance over time by using control charts. To monitor supplier delivery performance, a statistical control chart is developed based on conceptual model of how to implement in industry. Normality test is done on data and upper and lower control limits are calculated. Data gathered from supplier of a tier 1 company and out of control signals are recognized on chart. All out of control signals are removed from control chart and updated “In control” is obtained with improved mean and standard deviation. It can be employed in the industry and should result in improvement in supplier performance over time. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):5-11]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.02

Key words: Delivery Performance, Statistical Monitoring, Quality Management System (QMS)

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3

A New Species of Cuttlefish , Sepia vecchioni (Cephalopoda,Sepiidae) from
Colachal Coast, South India
 
Neethiselvan1 N, Venkataramani2 VK
1. Fisheries Training and Research Center,VUTRC,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University,Aavin campus,
Nanjikottai Road, Thanjavur-613 006, Tamil Nadu, India
2. Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Thoothukkudi - 628 008, Tamil Nadu, India
[email:drneethi@yahoo.co.in]
 
Abstract: A new species of cuttlefish Sepia vecchioni sp. nov. hitherto wrongly treated as S. prashadi Winckworth, 1936, collected from the Colachal fish landing centre (8o10’ N, 77o15’E ) of South India is described. The dorsal mantle of S. vecchioni sp. nov. has distinct white stripes facing upwards in contrast to transverse zebra type stripes with the ends facing downward in the closely related species, S. prashadi. Unlike S.prashadi, a well-defined sexual dimorphism with respect to shape and length of arm is also seen in S. vecchioni sp.nov. In matured males of this species, the first and fourth pair of arms are greatly extended and the first pair is whip like. Males of this species also differ from that of S.prashadi with regard to sucker arrangement on hectocotylized arm. Though both the species can be classified under Acanthosepion species complex of Rochebrune (1984) based on cuttle bone characteristics, Sepia vecchioni sp.nov. also shares the characters of the Rhombosepion species complex of Rochebrune (1984) by having weakly and incompletely calcified cuttlebone. The comparison of morphological characters, meristic characters and cuttlebone characteristics of S.vecchioni sp.nov. with that of other five closely related species of the genus Sepia of world waters are also discussed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):12-21] (ISSN:1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.03

Keywords: Sepia vecchioni sp.nov.; Sepia prashadi; Acanthosepion species complex; Rhombosepion species complex; Hectocotylization

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4

Water quality monitoring in Nigeria; Case Study of Nigeria’s industrial cities

 

Ekiye, Ebiare * and Luo Zejiao

China University of Geosciences, Department of Environmental science.

388 Lumo road, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei, P.R. China. luozejiao@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the state of water quality management in Nigeria’s industrial cities. In a developing country such as Nigeria, there is immense demand for advancement in various facets of living and economic development is a priority of the government. This has led to increase in industries resulting in an increased quantity of discharge and a wide range of pollutants reaching water bodies. This study indicates that both urbanization and industrialization have contributed to the large scale of pollution currently observed in most Nigerian cities notably those swarming with industries namely; Lagos, Rivers, Kano and Kaduna states. There are no incentives for implementing pollution reduction measures. Wastes are disposed indiscriminately especially for small and medium scale industries. Data for this paper were obtained by observation, investigation and from related studies on the subject matter. Finally, this paper proposes constant river water monitoring as a step towards pollution abatement. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):22-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.04

Key words: Water, Quality, Monitoring, Nigeria, Industrial Cities

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5

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):29-33]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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6

Embedded System Using Ultrasonic Waves and Voice Biometric to
Build an E-Glass for the Blinds
 
Kenza Meridji, Khalid T. Al-Sarayreh.
School of Higher Technology (ÉTS), University of Québec, Montréal, Québec H3C 1K3, Canada.
kenza.meridji.1@ens.etsmtl.ca, khalid.al-sarayreh.1@ens.etsmtl.ca
 
Abstract: Currently, embedded and real time systems are used in wide range of a related human applications to improve the quality of our lives such as embedded systems for communication (Mobile, satellite, and avionics systems), and control systems such as (microwaves, refrigerators and embedded system in vehicles). Nevertheless, embedded and real time systems are still immature. The application of these systems is used for various devices. However, these systems are never used for a human body to complete human missing-part functionality; which means the embedded system can be used as part of natural neural networks in a human system nerve. This paper proposes a technical view to build an electronic glass (E-Glass) for the blind people. Moreover, this paper provides the complete E-Glass electronic circuit in which the electronic scanning system to tackle the objects and time signals are included. This E-Glass could be used by the blind to assist them in their ways without any human assistance. Moreover, it will be used by the blind to make them self confidence, to let them walk independently and to increase their morality. It is important to note that the hardware and software components of the E-Glass are not expensive. This work could be provided to the practitioner’s people in the industry or to the students of the department of electrical or biomedical engineering. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):34-42] (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.06

Keywords: Embedded System, Neural Networks, Ultra Sonic Wave, Artificial Intelligence, Voice Biometric.

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7

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):43-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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8

Treatment of Light Contaminated Surface Water Using Slow Sand Filtration in China

 

Gracious Grace Lwesya*, Yilian Li

China University of Geosciences, School of Environmental Sciences, 388 Lumo Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei province, 430074, P.R.China. graciouslwesya@yahoo.co.uk; yl.li988@yahoo.com.cn

 

Abstract: This was a comparative study to investigate the effectiveness of slow sand filtration with the best type of sand in filtering water from the domestic lake at China University of Geosciences (CUG) in Wuhan. It was a laboratory scale experiment which had four columns with all having a length of 100 cm in height, 3cm in diameter, and the sand was filled to a depth of 80cm with sand sizes of 0.075-2mm, 0.075-0.5 mm, 0.5-2mm and a control of 0.075-2mm with no pre-growth of bio-film. The rate of trickling water was set at 2 rounds per meter (rpm) and the filter run period was 15 days with 7 days wet and 3 days dry cycle to prevent clogging. COD, TN, TP, DO and OC were analyzed. Overall, fine sand column had the best results but specifically, COD efficiency rate was best in column of fine sand with 83%, TP in mixed sand with 81%, TN in fine sand column with 67% and DO in the control column with 8.15mg/L and OC was best in fine sand column with 22.59g. The best type of sand would be considered as 0.075-0.5 mm because it dominated in most results. With all the conditions in place, slow sand filtration was very effective as it removes most of the organic matter and suspended materials hence the water can easily be re-used not only due to its efficiency but also its simplicity in operation, cost effectiveness as well as being environmentally sound. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):47-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.08

Keywords: Sand, filtration, bio-film, sand effectiveness.

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9

Mineralization of organic compounds in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon using Fenton’s reagent: a kinetic study

 

Gbehou Nounagnon Achille 1,*, Li Yilian 2

1. School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Hubei province, 388. Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan, P.R China, achillegbehou@yahoo.fr, 008615927014830

2. China University of Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, 388 Lumo Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan City, Hubei province, 430074, P.R.China,

 

Abstract: In the present work, the possibility of using chemical oxidation through Fenton’s reaction for the pre-treatment of wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon was investigated as laboratory-scale experiments. The effect of different operational conditions, namely, hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ion concentrations, temperature, and initial pH were evaluated. Operating at initial pH of 3, with a temperature of 28oC and a molar ratio H2O2/Fe2+=9:1, it gave us 70.58% removal of COD. A kinetic study was carried out using a modified pseudo-first-order model. The experiment was performed at different temperatures hence allowed the calculation of Arrhenuis equation parameters and the global activation energy for the first-order reaction. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):58-66]. (ISSN:1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.09

Key words: Chemical oxidation, wastewater, COD, activation energy

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10

Similarity Identification and Measurement between Ontologies
Amjad Farooq and Abad Shah
Computer Science and Engineering Department
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore – Pakistan
amjadfarooquet@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The retrieval of relevant and precise information from web has always been remained a serious problem. To address this problem, the idea of ontologies-based web, so-called semantic web, was proposed in 2001. But the problem is not completely solved due to the semantic heterogeneity suffered by ontologies. In this paper we propose a semi-automatic technique to measure the explicit semantic heterogeneity. The proposed technique identifies all candidate pairs of similar concepts without omitting any similar pair. The proposed criteria for similarity measurement are based on theme semantic web. The proposed technique can be used in different types of operations on ontologies such as merging, mapping and aligning. By analyzing its results a reasonable improvement in terms of completeness, correctness and overall quality of the results has been found. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(4):67-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.10

Keywords: Semantic Web, Heterogeneity, Ontology Matching, Similarity Identification

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11

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):86-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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12

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):90-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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13

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):94-97]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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14

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):98-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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15

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):102-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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16

Biodegradation of Produce Water Hydrocarbons by Pure Cultures of Alcaligenes sp.

 

Chuma C Okoro 1, Olukayode O Amund 2

1 Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University, Lagos

2 Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Nigeria

chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Biodegradation studies of hydrocarbons in untreated produce water from an oil production facility in Nigeria was undertaken over a period of time using pure cultures of Alkaligenes sp. Isolated from Escravos River where produce water was being discharged as at the time the studies were carried out. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to monitor the rate of reduction in some petroleum hydrocarbon fractions while the index used to evaluate biodegradation was the decreasing trend in the ratios of nC17/Pristane and nC18/Phytane. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that untreated produced water used for the study had an oil and grease content of 1407mg/L, this includes n-alkanes (608mg/L), Aromatics (13.88mg/L), NSO compounds (12.68mg/L) PAHs(0.833mg/L) and some unidentified greasy components. Upon mechanical treatment, the oil and grease component of produce water was reduced to 44mg/L comprising of n-alkanes (38.40mg/L), Aromatics (2.65mg/L), NSO compounds (1.78mg/L), PAHs (0.0655mg/L) and some unidentified greasy component. A pure culture of Alcaligenes sp. after 40 days of exposure to untreated produced water reduced the oil and grease content to 19.58mg/l comprising of n-Alkanes (16.87mg/l), Total aromatics (1.25mg/l), NSO compounds (0.98mg/l) and PAH (0.0096mg/l). This result indicate that produce water is readily biodegradable and pure cultures of Alcaligenes sp. used for the study were very efficient in the degradation of produced water hydrocarbons especially the recalcitrant PAH component when compared with the conventional mechanical treatment process. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):107-113]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.16

Keywords: Pure culture, Produce water, Biodegradation, Hydrocarbon, Alcaligenes sp.

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17

Recognition of Nonrandom Patterns on Supply Performance by Employing Statistical Monitoring

 

Soroush Avakh Darestani 1, Professor Dr. Md. Yusof Ismail 2, Associate professor Dr. Napsiah bt. Ismail 3

1. Department of Mechanical and manufacturing engineering, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400, Malaysia, soroushavakh@yahoo.com

2. Department of Manufacturing Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), 26300, Malaysia

3. Department of Mechanical and manufacturing engineering, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Malaysia

 

Abstract: This paper introduces a practical methodology of assignable signals and Run chart tests for identification of nonrandom patterns of supplier performance by statistical monitoring. The assumption of normal distribution is one of the important factors to implement a control chart in industry and service. It is supposed that natural data shows lack of any nonrandom pattern signals or out of control points on control chart. The data of supplier’s on-time delivery for automotive industry has been gathered and illustrated on control chart by employing appropriate transformation and assignable signals and run chart were tested on the control chart accordingly. The results show that tests were able to identify nonrandom patterns of supplier performance data. Out of control signals were removed from the control chart and show that on-time delivery performance was increased accordingly. The control chart with natural pattern can be used as pilot for monitoring supplier delivery over time and improve supplier delivery performance. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):114-122]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.17

Key words: Run Chart Pattern Recognition (RCPR); Johnson Transformation; Supply Performance; Statistical Process Control (SPC); Anderson-Darling test (AD); On-Time Delivery (OTD)

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18

Estimation of Shelf Life for Water-based Paints Using Regression Methods

 

Obidi Olayide F 1, Nwachukwu Simon C1 , Aboaba, Olusimbo O 1, Nwalor, John U2

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, 11001, Nigeria

2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, 11001, Nigeria

laideob@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The shelf lives of water-based paints made in Nigeria were investigated. The mean changes in the microbial population count of six freshly made paint samples (PS1 – PS6) were monitored fortnightly for a period of 10 months. The growth data of isolated organisms from the fresh and spoilt paint samples were fitted into a multiple linear regression model to predict shelf life for the fresh paint samples. The microbial population ranged from 1.0 x 101 – 4.7 x 105 cfu/ml and from 1.0 x 101 – 5.5 x 103 cfu/ml for bacteria and fungi over the study period. Physico-chemical parameters such as specific gravity (SG), optical density (OD), transmittance (TR), pH and viscosity (VIS) were also determined every two weeks for the fresh paint samples over the ten-month study period. The measurements of the physico-chemical parameters suggested deterioration related to microbial population count of the paint samples. Consequently, the model developed comprised of two equations with particular attention to microbial population count and physico-chemical parameters of the paint samples. The microbial population counts of the spoilt paint samples were 3.4 x 1010 cfu/ml and 3.2 x 105 cfu/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters ranged from 2.8658 – 1.0853, 1.49 – 3.91, 6.9 – 2.3, 8.5 – 5.6, 11.7cst –10.8cst for SG, OD, TR, pH and VIS in fresh paint samples. The percentage residual error between the shelf life predicted and the shelf life experimental ranged between 0.001 and 0.500. The shelf lives obtained for the fresh paint samples were 19, 21, 23, 22, 37, and 22 months respectively. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):123-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.18

Key words: Shelf life; Paints; Regression; Physico-chemical parameters

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19

SOME STUDIES ON LEAD TOXICITY IN MARINO SHEEP

 

Mona S. Zaki(1); Susan Mostafa(2); and Isis Awad(2)

(1) Dept. of Hydrobiology, National Research Center,Cairo, Egypt

(2) Dept. of Biochemistry, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The problem of lead toxicity originated in a private farm in El- Katta “Giza governorate”, due to ingestion of plant polluted with lead. About 8 out of 50 Marino sheep animals showed lead toxicity. The animal’s age was 6 months. The animals suffered from depression, pressing head against objects, dilatation of eye pupils, total blindness (in 2 cases) with normal light reflex in both eyes, edema in briskets, enteritis with bloody diarrhea and pupil dilation. Also there were lacrimation, pale dirty mucous membrane and sunken eyes. Serum analysis from these animals revealed high lead concentration. In addition too, significant decrease in the levels of testosterone, LH, FSH. PCV, haemoglobin, R.B.C.s and total proteins were also decreased. Highly degeneration of kidney, and liver accompanied with elevation of AST, ALT, Urea, creatinine, cortisol, sodium, and potassium. Moreover, S.epidermidis and S. Aeruginosa were isolated. We conclude that the cause of animals morbidity and mortality in this farm was not due to bacterial infections but due to lead toxicity and we can say that polluted environment, especially with lead, can cause severe harm to animal health, in addition to serious danger on human health, by eating food polluted with lead. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):128-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.19

Keywords: Lead toxicity in Marino sheep, environmental pollution, biochemical and microbial changes

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20

Perception of Women towards Family Values and Their Marital Satisfaction

 

Ali Edalati & Ma’rof Redzuan*.

Faculty of Human Ecology,University Putra Malaysia

43400Serdang, Selangor, malaysia

*Corresponding Author: E-mail: marof@putra.upm.edu.my; Tel: +60123484810

 

Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between perceptions of women toward Iranian traditional values and their marital satisfaction. The 337 of women were selected as the population of the study. Stratified random sampling was used to select samples. The Kansas Marital Satisfaction (KMS) is used to measure marital satisfaction. It shows a positive relationship between perception of women toward traditional values (inequality in family affairs and inequality in regulation) and marital satisfaction. It has also shown that there is no relationship between perception of women toward traditional values of inequality in access job and inequality in political in relation to marital satisfaction. The multivariate regression analysis is utilized to answer the last objective. The analysis showed that among the two predictor variables, the variable of inequality in affairs was found to be significant in explaining the observed variation in marital satisfaction (DV). Generally, the final model has explained 4.6% of total observed variance in marital satisfaction. The findings show one reflection of the inequality and discrimination that there is in family affairs and inequality in regulation between men and women in the Iranian society. The findings highlight the need for screening and identification of other factors and unequal situations in the family and society in which women are growing. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):132-137]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.20

Keywords: Family Values, Marital Satisfaction, Women perception.

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21

The effect of Diphenyl Dimethyl Bicarboxylate and Dexamethasone on Immunological and parasitological parameters in murine Schistosomiasis mansoni

 

Ibrahim RB Aly*, Mohamed A Hendawy*, Eman Ali*, Mohammed S. Hedaya** Mona MF Nosseir***.

Departments of Parasitology*, Surgery** and Pathology***

Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Diphenyl Dimethyl Bicarboxylate (DDB) or dexamethasone either alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on different parasitological, immunological, and pathological parameters that reflect disease severity and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis. Diphenyl Dimethyl Bicarboxylate (DDB) or dexamethasone had no effect on worm burden but altered tissue egg distribution. This indicates that under the schedule used, both drugs did not interfere with the development of adult worms or oviposition but it can modulate liver pathology. Meanwhile, dexamethsone showed a marked reduction of granuloma size more than DDB. Dexamethasone-treated mice, also, showed lower levels of serum gamma interferon (IFN-g), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-4 together with higher IL-10 level compared to infected untreated control animals. These data suggested that dexamethasone is a convenient and promising co adjuvant agent causing decreased morbidity in murine schistosomiasis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):138-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.21

Keywords: Schistosomiasis – Morbidity – Cytokines – Treatment.

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22

The role of catechin against doxorubicin – induced cardiotoxicity in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EAC) bearing mice

 

Samiha Abd El Dayem, Fatma Foda , Mona Helal,

 Asmaa Zaazaa.

Zoology Department-Women`s College for Arts, Science and Education.

Ain Shams University, 1 Asmaa Fahmy Street Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt

samdayem1153@yahoo.com

Abstract : Doxorubicin (Dox) is a chemotherapy drug used for treatment of wide variety of cancers. It known that, Dox may cause cardiotoxicity by producing free radicals and oxidative stress along the period of treatment. Catechin is considered one of the flavonoids which has powerful antioxidant properties and free radicals scavenger. The present work was designed to investigate the protective role of catechin on doxorubicin – induced cardiotoxicity in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) bearing- mice and to test whether catechin has an effect on the antitumor properties of the Dox. Mice were divided into five groups as follows: (G1): Control group, (G2) Mice were injected with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells (2.5 x 106 EAC/ml) to form a solid tumor , (G3) Mice were inoculated with (2.5 x 106 EAC/ml) and injected (i.p.) with Doxorubicin (15 mg/kg), (G4) Mice were inoculated with (EAC) at the same dose and were injected (i.p.) with (200mg/kg) Catechin , Group5 (G5) Mice were injected (i.p.) with Doxorubicin 15mg/kg of and 200mg/kg of Catechin in addition to the inoculation with EAC (2.5 x 106 EAC/ml). Dox (15mg/kg) and /or Catechin (200mg/kg) were administrated after 10 days in EAC bearing- mice through a period of 2 weeks in six equal injections. Results showed that, EAC -bearing mice treated with Dox plus Catechin recorded decrease in the mean tumor weight and significant increase in the cumulative mean survival time as compared to the other treated groups. Biochemical studies of EAC inoculation showed decline in serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activities, while serum total lipid has significantly increased. The treatment of tumor-bearing mice with Dox plus Catechin (G5) improved these levels. Significant increase in cardiac lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents for both tumor-bearing mice (G2) and doxorubicin groups (G3) were recorded. Combined treatment of Dox and Catechin (G5) caused amelioration in these contents. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities showed highly significant increase in all treated groups. Administration of Dox plus Catechin (G5) modulate these activities. In conclusion, the present study suggested that Catechin treatment may significantly reduce cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in Ehrlich Carcinoma - bearing mice by the induction of the cardiac antioxidant enzymes and blocking lipid peroxidation. Also, Catechin enhances the antitumor properties of doxorubicin by increasing its inhibitory effect on tumor growth. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):146-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.22

Keywords: Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC); Doxorubicin; Catechin; Antioxidant enzymes; Lipid peroxidation; Heart; Mice.

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23

Effect of Hyperthermia at Different Ages and Mode of Recovery on the Chromosomal Aberrations and Biological Parameters in Female Rats.

Amal I Hassan* and Abeer H. Abd El-Rahim**

*Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. ** Department of Cell Biology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Center, Egypt. dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The present investigate the various biological changes induced by hyperthermia (at 42°C) in female rats and the mode of recovery at 1, 6 , 24 & 72 hrs at different ages ( 2, 6 , 12 & 24 months) . Biological parameters studied were red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBC,s), hemoglobin (Hb) , B% & T% lymphocytes. Immunoglobulin G &A (IgG & IgA) and serum activities of triiodothyronin and thyroxin (T3 & T4), the heat shock protein 70(HSP70). Besides, the chromosomal aberrations test and micronucleus formation were investigated in female rats. In attempt to find out the interaction between age and hyperthermia in such parameters in normal female rats. The results revealed that Highly significant increases of WBC,s, B%, IgG and HSP70 at 1 till 72hr post WBH in aged 2 and 6 months. On the other hand, WBH caused a significant decrease in each RBC,s, T3 & T4 at 6 till 72 hr post WBH. As well as, the count of Hb decreased in age 2 month at 1 till 72 hr post the heat exposure but increased at 1 & 6 hr in 6 month aged post WBH then decrease at 24 hr & 72 hr post WBH. T% lymphocyte count significantly decreased at 1 hr post WBH and increased at 6 hr & 24 hr then decrease again at 72 hr post WBH in ages 2 & 6 month. IgA level significantly increased in 6 aged rats at 1, 6 & 24 hr post WBH then decreased at 72 hr below the control value post WBH. The results revealed that WBH caused a significant increase of B% lymphocyte, Hb and IgA at 1 & 72 hr post WBH in age 12 & 24 months, except Hb in 12 month decreased at 72 hr post heat exposure. On the other hand, T% lymphocyte, RBC,s , IgG and serum T3 &T4 decreased at 1 & 72 hr post heat exposure except IgG level increased at 72 hr post WBH . The level of HSP70 increased significantly at 1 till 24 hr post WBH in 12 month and reached to the control value at 72 hr post WBH. On the contrary, HSP70 decreased significantly at 1hr in aged rats (24 month), then increased significantly at 6 and 24 hr post heat exposure then decreased below the control value at 72 hr post WBH. In the chromosomal aberrations test, we observed positive responses at all ages but in different frequencies and recover may occur at 72 hr for the all except young age (2 month) which needed more time to completely recover., in the micronucleus test, we observed positive responses in all ages at 24hr only, while at 72hr post heat exposure the mean frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) were within the vehicle control group at all ages except 2 month which increased significantly than control group. The results suggest that hyperthermia can induce both chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus formation. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):153-166]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.23

Key words: Hyperthermia –HSP70, chromosomal aberration –micronucleus.

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24

Some Promising Wild Edible Plants of Srinagar and its Adjacent Area in Alaknanda Valley of Garhwal Himalaya, India

 

J. K. Tiwari1, R. Ballabha1 and P. Tiwari1

1Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand- 246 174, India

jktiwari31@rediffmail.com, radhekuniyal.2007@rediffmail.com, ptiwari29@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: The present communication deals with the ethnobotanical exploration, identification, concerns and future potentialities of the wild edible plant species consumed by the local people inhabiting in the hilly areas of Alaknanda valley that fall in the Uttarakhand state of India. A total of 55 plant species belonging to 35 families were recorded from the study area. Amaranthaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae were the dominant families with 4 species each, while Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae and Rutaceae followed with 3 species and rest were represented by one species from each family. The four major life forms were herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees. Herbs made the highest proportion of the edible species (18) followed by trees (17), shrubs (13) and climbers (7). The plant species were divided into two classes - prepared in to vegetables and consumed as raw. 23 species belonged to the former category while the later was represented by 32 plants. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):167-174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.24

Keywords: Wild edible plants, Garhwal Himalaya, indigenous knowledge, local inhabitants.

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Genetic alterations induced by toxic effect of thermally oxidized oil and protective role of tomatoes and carrots in mice

 

Mariam G. Eshak1, Inas S. Ghaly1*, Wagdy K. B. Khalil1*, Ibrahim M. Farag1, Kadry Z. Ghanem2

1Cell Biology Department, 2Food Science and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre. 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt

wagdykh@yahoo.com ; Inas.ghali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations and sperm abnormalities in male mice fed diet containing thermally oxidized sunflower oil repeatedly used for frying processes (FO). Also, tomatoes and carrots were added to FO diet to test their protecting ability against potential hazards caused by oxidized oil rich foods. The genetic alterations including DNA fragmentation and chromosome aberrations as well as changes of mRNA expression of some lipid metabolism related-proteins were determined. The results revealed that rate of DNA fragmentation was significantly higher in animals fed FO diet than those of animals fed normal oil diet (NO). On the other hand, the rates of DNA fragmentation decreased in animals fed FO diets plus low (5%) or high (10%) concentration of tomatoes (FOT1 or FOT2) or carrots (FOC1 or FOC2) compared with those fed FO diet. Chromosome examination showed that total structural aberrations increased significantly in animals fed FO diet than those fed NO diet. On the other hand, animals fed diets containing FO plus low or high concentration of tomatoes or carrots had significantly lower frequencies of total structural aberrations than those fed FO diet. Sperm studies showed a significant increase in the number of morphologically abnormal sperms and a significant decrease in the sperm count in animals fed FO diet compared with those fed NO diet. However, the animals fed diets containing low or high level of tomatoes or carrots showed significant decreases of sperm abnormalities. The mRNA expressions of the lipid metabolism related-genes, RBP, H-FABP and C-FABP were significantly higher in liver tissues of mice fed FO diet than those found in mice fed NO diet. However, the expression of all tested genes was down-regulated in FOT1 and FOT2 or FOC1 or FOC2 groups compared with those detected in the FO group. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence for a link between prolonged feeding intake of FO diet and induced mutagenic effects in animal cells. However, tomatoes and carrots proved to be good protective agents against hazards of such mutagenic foods. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):175-188]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.25

Keywords: Thermally oxidized oil, mice, tomato and carrot, genetic alterations, RT-PCR, sperm morphology.

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Preparation and Characterization of Amine-Imine Derivatives Used in Organic Thin Film Transistor

 

1Chien-Chih Lin, 2Hsien-Chiao Teng, 3Shen Cherng, 1An Chi Yeh

1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chengshiu University, Niaosong, Taiwan, RO China

2Department of Electrical Engineering, ROC Military Academy, Fengshan, Taiwan, RO China

3Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chengshiu University, Niaosong, Taiwan, RO China

cherngs@csu.edu.tw

 

ABSTRACT: In this report, synthesis and characterization of Amine-imine derivatives of BIP and NIP are presented. Amine-imine derivatives have more delocalization molecular orbits having excitation spectra with red shift. Additionally, the different distribution of molecular energy levels for BIP and NIP causes the emission and absorption of different wavelengths. In this study, both BIP and the NIP were used as the organic thin film transistor active layer deposited on a silicon wafer substrate and the surface morphology, structure of permutation as well as carrier mobility rate were discussed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):189-192]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.26

 

Keywords: molecular orbits, carrier mobility, surface morphology

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Cyanobacteria of a Tropical Lagoon, Nigeria.

 

Adesalu, Taofikat Abosede 1, Nwankwo, Dike Ikegwu.2

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

2Department of Marine sciences, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

boseadesalu@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Investigations for the first time into the blue green algae of Lekki lagoon were carried out for 24 months (June 2003- May 2005) at monthly intervals using standard plankton net of mesh size 55µm. One hundred and seventy nine species belonging to thirty genera were observed. The filamentous blue green algae Oscillatoria formed the most abundant genus making up twenty three species followed by Phormidium eighteen species. Anabaena and Chroococcus recorded thirteen species each while the genera, Gleocapsa, Merismopedia and Microcystis recorded ten, eight and twelve species respectively. Only one genus each of Cyanosarcina, Calothrix and Scytonema were encountered. Bloom forming species identified were Microcystis aeruginosa, M. flos-aquae, M. wesenbergii and Anabaena flos-aquae. In this study, thirty-nine new species were recorded for Lagos lagoon complex in which Lekki lagoon is one of it while Cyanosarcina hueberliorum is new record for Nigeria. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(4):193-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060410.27

 

Keywords: Cyanophytes, tropical, bloom, Lagos lagoon complex

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