Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 5, May 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

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Titles / Authors



Creative Perception Inventory as a predictor of I.Q

Habibollah. Naderi

Department of Educational Studies, University of Mazandaran, Street of Pasdaran, Babolsar, Iran

Abstract: This research examines the extent to which the level of creativity and different components of creativity: What Kind of Person Are You, Acceptance of authority, Self confidence, Inquisitiveness, Awareness of others, Disciplined Imagination among undergraduate students predict intelligence. Respondents in the research comprises of 153 from six Malaysian universities. Multiple regression analysis reveals that a total variance in intelligences accounted for by the creativity factors is 16.4 % (multiple R2 = 0.164, (6, 146) = 4.761, p =.000). This implies that creativity is significant when considering the factors that influence the intelligence of students. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Intelligence, Creativity, What Kind of Person Are You, Acceptance of authority, Self confidence, Inquisitiveness, Awareness of others, Disciplined Imagination.

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[Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):6-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


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Study the effect of Diphenyl Dimethyl Bicarboxylate and Dexamethasone on Immunological and parasitological parameters in murine Schistosomiasis mansoni

 Ibrahim RB Aly*, Mohamed A Hendawy*, Eman Ali, Mona MF Nosseir**.

Departments of Parasitology* and Pathology**

Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

Abstract: This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Diphenyl Dimethyl Bicarboxylate (DDB) or dexamethasone either alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on different parasitological, immunological, and pathological parameters that reflect disease severity and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis. Diphenyl Dimethyl Bicarboxylate (DDB) or dexamethasone had no effect on worm burden but altered tissue egg distribution. This indicates that under the schedule used, both drugs did not interfere with the development of adult worms or oviposition but it can modulate liver pathology. Meanwhile, dexamethsone showed a marked reduction of granuloma size more than DDB. Dexamethasone-treated mice, also, showed lower levels of serum gamma interferon (IFN-g), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and IL-4 together with higher IL-10 level compared to infected untreated control animals. These data suggested that dexamethasone is a convenient and promising co adjuvant agent causing decreased morbidity in murine schistosomiasis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):10-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Schistosomiasis – Morbidity – Cytokines – Treatment.

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Anti-S. mansoni MAb-based Latex Agglutination: A reliable field applicable immunodiagnostic test for screening of active Human Schistosomiasis

Ibrahim RBٰ Mohamed SH*, Demerdash ZA*., Diab TM**., Maher K**., Safwat W***., Shaker ZA*.

*Immunology, **Parasitology and ***Clinical Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute.

Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of this disease by simple and rapid immunoassays is a priority. The objective of the present study was to standardize and evaluate the latex agglutination test (LAT) as a simple test for the detection of circulating schistosomal antigen (CSA) in serum and urine samples of S. mansoni patients and compare it with ELISA. According to stool examination this study included 70 S. mansoni infected patients, 32 other parasites infected patients and 30 negative control samples. Characterization of MAb 12D/10F was done using several techniques including: ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting as well as periodate and trichloroacetic acid treatment of target antigen for identification of its chemical nature. A polystyrene latex (0.81 µm) suspension was used as a carrier particle for anti-S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen monoclonal antibody (12D/10F) in the test. The Latex particles sensitized with MAb were used for the detection of CSA in urine and serum samples. The sensitivity of LAT assay was 90% in urine and 87.1% in sera versus 92.9% and 95.7% for ELISA. The specificity of LAT assay was 88.7% and 93.5% for urine and sera versus 87.1% and 93.6% for ELISA. The diagnostic efficacy of LAT was 89.1% and 90.2% for urine and serum samples, respectively versus 90.2% and 94.7% for ELISA. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of S. mansoni infected patients and both the intensity of LAT and OD readings of ELISA in urine (r= 0.922; p< 0.001 and r= 0.865; p< 0.001, respectively) and in serum (r=0.847; p< 0.001 and r= 0.781; p< 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, LAT is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. In the same time, more trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of LAT to allow its use on a large scale in field surveys and as diagnostic kits for multiple parasitic infections. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):19-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Schistosomiasis – Agglutination – immunodiagnostic – Human

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The Impacts of Urbanization on Kaduna River Flooding

Alayande Adegoke Waheed1, Agunwamba, Jonah Chukwuemeka2

1National Water Resources Institute, P. M. B. 2309, Kaduna. Nigeria.

2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Nigeria.,

Abstract: Population growth, urbanization and expansion of structural developments into traditional flood prone areas of urban settlements of Nigeria are challenges requiring dynamic predictions of inundation areas; development of models for the propagation of flood waves on the floodplain; and the development of a rapid response and flood warning systems. In this study the impact of urbanization on geomorphic parameters of the Kaduna River along the City of Kaduna were investigated. The results obtained indicated that increasing urbanization along the Kaduna River floodplain is responsible for the problem of flooding experienced in recent times along the river floodplain and that encroachment into the traditional flood prone areas of the Kaduna River as a result of urbanization has attained 85.31%, 68.47% and 67.54% respectively in Reach 2, Reach 3 and Reach 1 respectively over the period 1962 and 2009. Because the Kaduna River usually attained its bankfull flow capacities in all its sections along the City of Kaduna early August each year, the result further indicated that the 2yr, 5yr, 10yr, 25yr, 50yr, and 100yr floods when occur can cause maximum inundation of between 82.53% to 94.48% of the floodplain area between the Eastern Byepass bridge and the Kaduna South Waterworks with Ungwan Rimi, Kabala Doki and Kigo road extension as the most critical areas where the right banks are lower than the left banks and developments are almost to the right bank of the river. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):28-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Urbanization, River Flooding, Geomorphology, Urbanization, Floodplain Development.

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Extraction Conditions of Inulin from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers and its Effects on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats

 1A. M. Gaafar;2M. F. Serag El-Din;2E. A. Boudy and 3H. H. El-Gazar

1 Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza

2Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minufiya University

3 National Nutrition Institute, Cairo,  Egypt.

Abstract: This study aimed to analyze Jerusalem artichoke tubers to identify its contents and to optimize conventional extraction of inulin, various time extract, temperature, and solvent ratio were used. 30 male albino rats divided into 5 groups (6 rats) were used to evaluated the extricated inulin as Hypoglycemic agents. It could be concluded that, the highest yield of inulin was recovered from Jerusalem artichoke tuber by using the following condition, sample to solvent ratio was 1: 5 w/v at 80°C for 90 minutes. The crude inulin extracted from Jerusalem artichoke tubers were used for production of orange juice and chocolate and estimated by aid of 10 panelists. The reduction of glucose was observed after one week of feeding till the end of experimental period, also, high level of inulin 15% led to amore reduction of blood glucose level comparing with the low level especially in the end of experimental period. The crude inulin extracted from Jerusalem artichoke tubers were used in diet for diabetic rats on different levels of inulin (10 and 15%) had significantly lower in total cholesterol, triglyceride and total lipids in comparing to positive diabetic rats fed on control diet. Meanwhile, HDL level was increased significantly after fed on 10 and 15% inulin. On the other hand, LDL and VLDL levels were decreased significantly after fed on (10 and 15%) inulin in comparing to positive group rats fed on control diet. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):36-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke, Extraction Conditions, inulin, blood glucose and lipid profile

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Potential impact of bee pollen administration during pregnancy in rats

Eman I. AbdEl-Gawad

Radioisotopes Department-Atomic Energy Authority-Cairo – Egypt

Abstract: Although bee pollen was recommended as a supplemental diet for its nutritionally beneficial components, it is warning for its usage during pregnancy. In this study bee pollen (PB) water extract with different doses (2.5 & 5 and 10 g/kg b.w./day) was delivered to pregnant rats orally from day 1 to day 21 of gestation to address the physiological relevance of bee pollen rich in proteins and phytoestrogen during pregnancy in rats and to examine whether bee pollen administration modifies the serum steroid hormones involved in fetal outcome. The results revealed that bee pollen administration at high doses (5 &10 g/kg/day) during pregnancy has an adverse effect on mothers and fetal outcome manifested by dams death, failure in implantation processes, resorbtion of fetuses, reduction in fetal numbers, retardation in fetal and placental weights. Lipid oxidation markers such as MAD and GSH levels were changed on day 21 of gestation in bee pollen treated rats referring to incidence of imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant system. Circulating profile of estradiol (E2), testosterone and progesterone were changed at selected time intervals (7,12,17 and 21) of gestation. Bee pollen had no apparently effect on cholesterol value and decreasing effect on triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol values through gestational period, it produced hypercholestermia and hyperlipidemia on day 21 of gestation especially at high doses. On determining the concentration of total protein and albumin, it was showed a significant increase particularly, in the second half of pregnancy pertaining to the groups administered bee pollen at a dose of 5 & 10 mg/kg b.w./day. The present results revealed that supplemental of pregnant rats with bee pollen throughout gestational period had harmful effect to a great extent on mothers and fetuses life. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):44-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key Words: pollen- pregnancy - rats

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Neurobehavioral toxicity produced by sodium fluoride in drinking water of laboratory rats

 H. El-lethey1, M. Kamel1,*, I. B. Shaheed2

1Department of Animal Hygiene and Management, 2Department of Pathology,

Faculty of veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*Correspondence: E-mail:

Abstract: The effect of exposure to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (Na-F) for different durations on learning and memory tasks in rats (non-associative and associative learning) was assessed in our study. Three groups of fifteen pregnant Wistar female rats each, were administered Na-F in drinking water at one of three concentrations; 0, 50 and 100 ppm from second trimester of pregnancy till weaning of their pups at 30 days of age. Pups were then allocated into 5 groups of 20 animals each, where Na-F was administered in three different concentrations with different exposure periods throughout the study. Brain tissue specimens, representing all treatment groups, were taken for histopathological examination. The average body weight gain was significantly lower in group of rats exposed to high Na-F doses for long duration, with distinct hair loss. Open field revealed a significant influence of dose of Na-F on exploratory motor activities (EMA) and emotionality with marked impairment in habituation in rats exposed to high Na-F. Moreover, learning and memory assessed during maze test showed reduced memory retention in rats exposed to high Na-F for long periods. In novelty acquisition test, despite evidence of occurrence of habituation in all groups, a noticeable reduced degree was demonstrated in rats continued to administer high Na-F for long duration. Furthermore, histopathological evaluation revealed distinct neurodegenerative changes of nerve cells especially in hippocampus. Our results suggest that exposure of rats to Na-F in high doses for long duration has detrimental effects on the brain as reflected in diminished learning and memory. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):54-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Neurobehavioral-toxicity-sodium fluoride-drinking water - laboratory rats

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Indirect Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Compressible Flow past a Symmetric Aerofoil with Constant Element Approach
Muhammad Mushtaq* & Nawazish Ali Shah

Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan

Corresponding Author, e-mail:

Abstract: In this paper, an indirect boundary element method is applied to calculate the compressible flow past a symmetric aerofoil. The velocity distribution for the flow over the surface of the symmetric aerofoil has been calculated using constant boundary element approach. To check the accuracy of the method, the computed flow velocity is compared with the exact velocity. It is found that the computed results are in good agreement with the analytical results. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):64-71]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Indirect boundary element method, Compressible flow, Velocity distribution, Symmetric aerofoil, Constant element.

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Phytoplankton Dynamics of River Oli in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria during Dry Season.

Adesalu, Taofikat. Abosede.

 University of Lagos, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract: This paper examined the phytoplankton of River Oli (Borgu sector) of kainji Lake National Park for the first time. It recorded total of fifty five taxa, belonging to four major divisions; bacillariophyta, chlorophyta, euglenophyta and cyanophyta. The taxa were dominated qualitatively by green algae and quantitatively by euglenoids in particular Euglena acus. [The Journal of American Science. 2010;6(5):72-76]. (ISSN 1545-1003).



Keywords: River Oli, phytoplankton, Nigeria, diversity.

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Global Food Crisis and its Implications in Nigeria

 1Oparaeke, A.M. and 2Ofor, M.O., 2Ibeawuchi I.I

1Department of Crop Protection, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

2 Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri;

Abstract: The increasing world population is putting pressure on the productive lands, resulting to decline in yield and hence food to feed the ever teeming world population, thus causing food crisis globally. The food crisis has resulted in problems leading to riots in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Burma, Egypt, Morocco Ethiopia, France, Spain, Brazil, Venezuela, Kenya and most recently, Madagascar. These problems could have far reaching effect on the fertility i.e. reproductive capacity of the population. Therefore, Food crisis has become a global issue since it occurs in virtually all parts of the world. Some constraints to food production in the world include land policies, poverty, rural-urban migration, bad governance, disease (especially the AIDS scourge). Execution of Research findings from Research institutes, deliberate government policies to alleviate poverty and disease are some of the ways of tackling the crisis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):77-79]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: food crisis, constraints, world population

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A Reliable 3D Laser Triangulation-based Scanner with a New Simple but Accurate Procedure for Finding Scanner Parameters

 Ali Peiravi1, Behrai Taabbodi2

 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Mashhad IRAN

Telephone number: (0098) 511-881-5100; Fax number: (0098) 511-8763302


Abstract: In this paper, a low occlusion laser triangulation 3D scanner based on two different color lasers and one color CCD camera is proposed. By placing a laser source in each side of the camera, occlusion problems are decreased to a minimum. Finding scanner parameters is one of the critical issues in 3D scanner accuracy. A new simple procedure is proposed to accurately find scanner parameters. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):80-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key words: 3D scanner, laser triangulation, low occlusion, single camera

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Intelligence as a predictor of creativity among undergraduate students

Habibollah. Naderi1, Rohani. Abdullah2

1. Department of Educational Studies, University of Mazandaran, Street of Pasdaran, Babolsar, Iran

2. Department of Human Development & Family Studies, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang43400, Malaysia

Abstract: This research examined how intelligence predicts level of creativity and different constituent of creativity; Something about myself, Environmental sensitivity, Initiative, Intellectuality, Self-strength, Individuality and Artistry among undergraduate students. One hundred and fifty three Iranian students were selected from six Malaysian universities to participate in the research. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The total variance accounted for by the intelligence factor is 13.5% (multiple R2 = 0.135), F (7, 145) =3.222, p=.003<0/01). This implies that intelligence is important when considering the factors that influence creativity of students. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):86-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Intelligence, Creativity, Something about myself, Environmental sensitivity, Initiative, Intellectuality, Self-strength, Individuality and Artistry

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Proximate and Nutrient Analysis of the Locally Manufactured Herbal Medicines and its Raw Material

Javid Hussain 1, Ali Bahader1, Farman Ullah2, Najeeb Ur Rehman1, Abdul Latif Khan1, 4 Wasi Ullah1 and Zabta Khan Shinwari3

1Department of Chemistry, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat

2Department of Biotechnology, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat

3Department of Biotechnology, Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad

4School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Abstract: Herbal medicines have unique therapeutic properties and therefore, used in rural areas to cure different diseases. Proximate analysis and elemental composition of the locally manufactured formulations from Hypericum perforatum, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Valeriana officinalis were carried out. The heavy metals including Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, Cd, Fe, and Cr were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic standard method. Na and Ca was estimated using flame emission spectrophotometer. Z. officinalis has highest percentage of carbohydrate, fats, fiber and energy values while in herbal formulations St. John Wort has the highest. In case of micro analysis, St. John Wort Capsules has highest concentrations of Zn while Valerian has highest concentration of Cu, Co, Cd and Fe compared to others, while in medicinal plant species, the content of Cu, Zn, Co and Fe was highest in V. officinalis. The level of macronutrients (Ca and Na) was highest in St. John Wort Capsule, H. perforatum and V. officinalis. However, the concentration of these nutrients in both the medicinal plants and herbal formations were in the optimum level of WHO standards. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):91-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Proximate analysis, herbal formulations, nutrient analysis, Pakistan

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Effect of stratification on seed germination and seedling performance of wild pomegranate

 J. M. S. Rawat*, Y. K. Tomar and Vidyawati Rawat

Department of Horticulture, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), 246174, Uttarakhand, India

Abstract: The germination response of Punica granatum seeds to different stratification periods was studied. The germination of P. granatum significantly improved with increasing stratification periods. Stratification for 30 days at 50C showed highest germination percentage, longest radicle, maximum root and shoot length, number of leaves and highest survival of seedlings. The longest plumule, maximum collar diameter, highest shoot and root dry weight were recorded with 25 days of stratification. Thus the results of present investigation clearly reveal that 25 to 30 days stratification of P. granatum seeds was more suitable for uniform and faster germination as well as best growth in early stage of seedlings as compared to the control. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):97-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: wild pomegranate, Stratification, germination, survival per cent, radical and plumule length

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Application of Different Levels of Zinc and Boron on Concentration and Uptake of Zinc and Boron in the Corn Grain

 Farshid Aref

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture

Islamic Azad University of Firouz Abad, Iran

Tel: +989173383896

Abstract: For the purpose of studying the effect of Zn and B application on the concentration and total uptake of Zn and B in corn grain, a field experiment was conducted in Fars Province, Iran. Treatments including five levels of Zn (0, 15, 30 and 45 kg ha-1 and Zn foliar spray) and four levels of B (0, 4, and 8 kg ha-1 and B foliar spray) in a completely randomized block design were set up. The findings showed that the presence of Zn prevented from the increase in Zn concentration in the grain, by B application; while B applied in the presence of Zn had no effect on the amount of Zn uptake by the grain. At the level that lacked B, Zn use increased Zn concentration and uptake in the grain but at the levels where B was used, the presence of B prevented from the effect of Zn application on the Zn concentration and uptake in the grain. The minimum concentration and uptake of Zn in the grain was observed by lack of Zn and B use or the control treatment. Therefore, an antagonism between Zn and B was observed as regards concentration and uptake of Zn in the grain. At the highest Zn level, the B use caused an increase in concentration and uptake of B in the grain. Also, at the high B level, application of Zn caused an increase in the B concentration in the grain. Boron use at low levels and Zn solution spray, had no effect on the uptake of B in the grain, but at high B levels, it increased the B uptake in the grain. Therefore, the presence of a high amount of Zn or B in the soil, assisted in the effect of B or Zn on increasing concentration and uptake of B in the plant. That is, a synergism was seen between the Zn and B as effecting the concentration and uptake of B in the grain. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):100-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Interaction, Zinc, Boron, Concentration and Corngrain

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Air quality depreciation index in a coal mining area- a case study from eastern India

 Papaya Roy1, Gurdeep Singh2, Asim Kumar Pal3

 1JRF, Dept. of Environmental Sc. & Engg., Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

2Professor & Head, Dept. of Environmental Sc. & Engg., Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

3Associate Professor, Dept. of Environmental Sc. & Engg., Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Abstract: The comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standards does not always depict a true picture of the Air Quality Status of a study area. As an alternative an index that measures depreciation in Air Quality on more realistic terms has been proposed and applied to the ambient air monitoring data collected from Talcher Coalfields in India. Results have been discussed in detail to illustrate the application of the proposed index and utility in bringing out more realistic air quality assessment [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):107-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: National Ambient Air Quality Standards, value function curves, air quality depreciation index

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Enhancing the rate of ferulic acid bioconversion utilizing glucose as carbon source

Prakash Kumar Sarangi and Hara Prasad Sahoo

PG Department of Botany and Biotechnology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, India, 753003

Author for correspondence: Telephone: 00 91-674-2471284, 00 91-9437305796;

Qtr. No-2RB/115, Road No-1, Unit-9, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, 751022 

Abstract: Work has been carried out to study the effect of glucose addition into the medium during the biotransformation of ferulic acid into vanillin using Staphylococcus aureus. Study showed that microorganism consumed ferulic acid very quickly nearly 5-fold accumulation of vanillin (45.7 mg/l) on 2nd day as compared to 9.8 mg/ml of vanillin accumulation on 7th day without addition of glucose. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):115-117]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: biotransformation, ferulic acid, Staphylococcus aureus, glucose, vanillin

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Investigation Of The Influence Of Systematic Errors In Least Squares Estimation

Eltahir Mohamed Elhadi 12and Ehadi.E.Ibrahim2

1-China University of Geosciences Faculty of Resources, Wuhan, 430074, China,

2-Sudan University of Science and Technology Faculty of Engineering, Khartoum, Sudan,,

Abstract: The least squares method is widely accepted as a computational method, that covers different branches of Surveying and Photogrammetry.Basically, it is applied when the observations contain random errors only. This paper is directed towards the investigation of the effects of systematic errors on the least squares estimates. The main conclusions are: (1) The use of observations containing systematic errors beside the random ones, gives different values for the parameters and the residuals. (2)The value of the standard error of unit weight will increase in the presence of systematic errors.(3)Modeling of systematic errors will enable the evaluation of systematic errors and their effects. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):118-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: systematic errors, dimensional adjustment, parameters, residuals.

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A Situational Analysis of Waste Management in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Alhaji Brima Gogra a, Jun Yao a,*, Victor Tamba Simbay Kabba b, Edward Hinga Sandy a, Gyula Zaray c, Solomon Peter Gbanie a, Tamba Samuel Bandagba d

a State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Studies and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, PR China.

b State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources of Chinese Ministry of Education, Department of Land Resources Management, School of Management, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, PR China.

c Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eötvös University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32, Hungary.

d Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Environmental Science, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, PR China.

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: (J. Yao) or (A. B. Gogra)

Abstract: Freetown served as save haven for thousands of people from the provinces during the war and suffered a corresponding increase in the rate of generation of waste with very little waste management facility as such facilities were vandalized or completely destroyed. Solid waste management in Freetown has been under variable organizations, with each change further deteriorating the system, bringing it on the verge of collapse. Freetown Waste Management Company (FWMC) is struggling to manage the wastes, hence, the need for the intervention of potential investors/donors to ameliorate this waste management problem by helping address this problem sustainably for the betterment of the lives of all Freetown residents. Streams of waste are characterized by their sources, the types of waste produced, and the composition and generation rates; therefore, knowledge of these characteristics is required in order to design and operate appropriate waste management systems, hence, the need for the Sierra Leone Government or FWMC to set limits on certain physical characteristics and properties for waste classifications; having significant implications for the collection and disposal of various waste streams, since any material deemed hazardous must be handled with specific protocols. The total quantities and characteristics of waste streams generated are yet unknown, with uncategorized refuse, poorly collected, dumped at the two city’s insanitary landfills, hence exposing FWMC workers, scavengers, etc., to the dangers of hazardous waste. This appalling garbage situation needs efficient corrective measures or serious rehabilitation; otherwise it will adversely impact the living conditions of the people, further endangering their environment and health. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):124-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Sierra Leone, Hazardous waste, health care waste, landfills, Freetown Waste Management Company.

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Determination of oil life for crane Liebherr Model D9408 diesel engine by Oil Condition Monitoring

Hojat Ahmadi, and Payman Salami *

Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Biosystems Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran;

Abstract: The aim of this study is to choose and investigate the best oil replacement time by oil condition monitoring for crane Liebherr model D9408 diesel engine. This is achieved by investigating different oil sample analyses of crane Liebherr model D9408 diesel engine. According to the majority indices results of the oil analysis, But not for all of them, they had an acceptable function after 160 running hours. The variation percent of plumb in wear debris analysis was above 50 percent. According to the Total Base Number (TBN) analysis, the oil had an acceptable function until 150 running hours. Additive depletion results showed that the oil had an acceptable function after 150 running hours, and absolute variation percent of each additive material after 160 running hours were not more 50 percent. Pollutant materials results of this table showed that the variation percent of each pollutant material after 160 running hours was not more than 50 percent. Also the Particle Quantifier (PQ) results showed that the variation percent of PQ after 160 running hours was not more than 50 percent. Results of oils analysis for viscosity didn't give us a reliable consequence. Right now, the oil of the diesel engine is replacing every 125 hours, but overall the best time for replacing the oil for this engine has been calculated as 150 running hours. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):136-141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Oil analysis; Oil Condition Monitoring; Oil time replacement; Machine Condition Monitoring; Wear debris materials

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Cold Laser as a Complementary Drug in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis


1Samir W. Aziz; 1Bassem M. Raafat; 1Nahed S. Hasan and 2Ahmed Hanafy

1Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, Biochemistry Department, Biophysics Group, National Research Center; 2Head of Rheumatology Department, Air Force Hospital;;;

Abstract: Osteoarthritis is a common cartilage condition and a major cause of pain and disability in older adults. Osteoarthritis most often occurs at the ends of the fingers, thumbs, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. Osteoarthritis hurts people in more than their joints: their finances and lifestyles also are affected. Magnetic susceptibility, dielectric relaxation in the frequency range 100 KHz up to 10 MHz of Hb molecule of osteoarthritic patients receiving anti inflammatory drugs were compared to those received drugs and subjected to soft laser emitted from He-Ne laser with two IR diodes. In addition SOD and whole blood ATP concentration enzyme were measured. The dielectric results indicated that the molecular shape tends to deviate from the non spherical form in patients treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs, to spherical one in those receiving soft laser as an additive drug. Low power laser has significant ability to decrease the pain and suffering of arthritis as well as reducing the disease symptoms. Side effects of medications were reduced in patients received cold laser as a complementary drug. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):142-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Osteoarthritis, dielectric properties, soft laser, hemoglobin, magnetic susceptibility.

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Association of serum Leptin and Adiponectin with Atherosclerosis in obese and non-obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients


Mohga S Abdalla1, Hayat M Sharada1, Ashraf I Amin2, Nervana Samy3, Magda Sayed3, Esmat Ashour3 and Elham M Youssef-Elabd3.

1Biochemistry Dept, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt;

2Clinical Pathology Dept, National Institute of Diabetes & Endocrinology, Cairo, Egypt.

3Biochemistry Dept, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and many other chronic diseases The current study was designed to investigate the endogenous mechanism by which obesity may increase the risk of CVD by examining whether serum adiponectin, Leptin or insulin mediate the association of obesity and type2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Egyptian adult patients. Patients and Methods: This study included 82 subjects, 30 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and 52 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes together with coronary artery disease (CAD) together with another group having CAD without diabetes. They were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) into obese and non-obese groups, also 25 healthy volunteers were considered as controls. All patients were subjected to anthropometric assessment and laboratory determination of serum Adiponectin, Leptin, insulin and glucose. Insulin resistance was established by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) Differences in clinical or laboratory parameters among groups were compared by using one-way ANOVA test. Results revealed highly significant decrease in Adiponectin levels and highly significant increase in serum Leptin in non obese groups (G1 (T2D), G2 (CAD) and G3 (T2D+ CAD) as compared to controls. However, there were no statistical variations between non obese groups when compared to each others. HOMA-IR showed highly significant increase in non obese groups as compared to both controls and each other. Also, the results showed high significant decrease in Adiponectin and highly significant increase in Leptin in obese groups (G4 (T2D), G5 (CAD) and G6 (T2D+CAD) when compared to controls. However, there were no statistical variations between obese groups when compared to each others as regard Adiponectin, while Leptin showed statistical increase between (G4) and (G5) groups when compared to each others, HOMA-IR showed highly significant increase in the two obese groups only (G4 and G6) as compared to controls, while there was no significant variation in (G5) when compared to controls. Moreover, there was a significant increase in all obese groups when compared to each other. Also, there was significant correlation between serum Adiponectin and Leptin in obese DM patients. Conclusion: The coexistence of correlation between serum leptin and Adiponectin levels in addition to increase of serum leptin and decrease serum Adiponectin levels in obese DM patients in the current study; support the hypothesis of their susceptibility to atherosclerosis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):153-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Type2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, Adiponectin, Leptin, HOMA-IR

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Effects of L-carnitine on growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed basal diet or diets containing decreasing protein levels


Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed1*, Nabil F. Abdel–Hakim2, Hanan A. Abo- State3,

Khaled F. El- Kholy4, Dosoky A. Al-Azab1

1Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

3Animal Production Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

4Animal Production Research Institute, Utilization of by–Products Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: The effects of L-carnitine on growth rate, feed utilization efficiency and protein sparing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings were investigated in two consecutive experiments. In experiment 1, triplicate groups of 10 fingerlings (4.16 ±0.07) each were stocked in 85 L glass aquaria, filled with 70 L dechlorinated tap water. Five levels of L-carnitine (0, 75, 150, 300, 450 mg/kg) were separately added to the basal diet (30% crude protein and 18.74 Mj GE/kg). The fish were fed the diets, at a daily rate of 5% BW, twice a day for 70 days. The results revealed that fish growth rates, feed utilization and whole body protein and lipid levels were increased with increasing L-carnitine levels. In experiment 2, Nile tilapia fingerlings (4.3±0.1 g) were fed diets containing decreasing levels of protein (30, 25, and 20%) and supplemented with 450 mg L-carnitine/kg diet, for 84 days. Fish performance was not significantly affected with decreasing dietary protein levels up to 20%. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of L-carnitine in Nile tilapia diets may significantly reduce dietary protein requirements and may facilitate the use of fatty acids for obtaining energy and consequently, can spare dietary protein for somatic growth. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):165-172]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: L-carnitine, Nile tilapia, performance, protein sparing.

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1 Itodo U. Adams and 2 Itodo U. Happiness

 1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi,Nigeria


Abstract: Branded canned milk (B1, B2, B3 and B4) were selected in triplicate, using market basket approach. The samples were pre-treated and analysed for heavy metals. Their physicochemical variables were estimated. The metal concentration (in μgg-1,using AAS)of some toxic metals compared to those of uncanned dairy products include: 0.02±0.008 (006±0.003); 1.61±0.21 (0.01±0.01); 1.47±0.73 (0.01±0.01); 1.64±0.66 (0.05±0.03) and 1.75±0.29(1.54±1.2) for Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb found in canned and (uncanned ) milk products respectively. Further analysis revealed that Nickel contents in milk is less, compared to those of canned fish products. Unlike Cd contents, Cr and Pb concentration were above the threshold limit values (TLV) of 2.0µgg-1. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):173-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key words: Toxic metals, canned milk, Corrosion, Health

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Green Tea Extract Ameliorate Liver Toxicity and Immune System Dysfunction Induced by Cyproterone Acetate in Female Rats


Heba Barakat

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition,Women`s College, Ain Shams University,


Abstract: Green tea, consumed worldwide since ancient times, is considered beneficial to human health. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on liver damage and immune system function in female rats treated with cyproterone acetate (CPA). Forty healthy female adult albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Group (1) was fed on a standard diet as a control. Group (2) was fed on a standard diet and received an intraperitoneally injection of 25mg/Kg/day. Group (3) was fed on a standard diet supplemented with 1 g GTE% and received a daily injection. Group (4) was fed on the supplemented diet for 7 days prior to receiving the daily injection. The experimental duration lasted for 3 weeks initiated from the first injection. The results showed CPA alone led to diminish liver function, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities and elevated hepatic oxidative stress and serum IgG and IgM levels comparing with the control group of rats. However, the injection of GTE either along with or prior to the CPA treatment could significantly improve the function of liver, hepatic oxidative stress and hepatic antioxidant status and elevate the IgG and IgM levels. These data suggested that, GTE possesses a protective effect on the liver against the inducer CPA toxicity by increasing auto immunity and countering the hepatic oxidative stress. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):179-185]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Cyproterone acetate, green tea extract, liver toxicity, oxidative stress, immunity

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Screening of some Biopesticides for the control of Callosobruchus chinesis in Stored Black Beans (Vigna mungo) in Imo State.


1 Dialoke Sunday Ani

1 Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.


Abstract: The influence of some oil extracts comprising Cashew nut oil (CNO), Coconut oil (CONO), Udara nut oil (UDNO), and Neem leaf oil in controlling stored black beans weevil (Callosobruchus chinesis) was investigated. The experiment was laid down in the laboratory using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The results showed that the number of eggs and exit holes of C.chinesis were not significant at 5 % probability level before treatment with the extracts. Then after two months in storage the black beans were treated with the extracts and there was significant reduction of rate of oviposition and number of exit holes. The plots treated with coconut oil extract proved more effective than other oils and was therefore recommended for use by farmers for black beans storage under our agro-ecological zone. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):186-188]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Sceening, biopesticides, black beans, callosobruchus chinesis, extracts

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Neurobehavioural, neurochemical and neuromorphological effects of cadmium in male rats


Hussein A.Kaoud¹*, Mervat M.Kamel¹, Abeer H. Abdel-Razek¹, Gehan M. Kamel ² and Kawkb A.Ahmad ³

¹ Departments of Animal, Hygiene and Management.

² Department of Pharmacology.

³ Department of Pathology.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: AS Cadmium is a widespread toxic environmental and industrial pollutant. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on memory, exploratory motor activity (EMA) and motor balance in male rats. Forty five male Wistar rats weighing (100-120 gm) were administered CdCl2 in drinking water at one of three concentrations; 0, 5 and 50 mg/ L dissolved in water for a period of 60 days. Memory retention was evaluated through open-field habituation test (non associative learning), classic maze test (associative learning) as well as working spatial memory in a Y-maze.Moreover, exploratory motor activity and motor coordination were evaluated. Brain tissue specimens, representing all treatment groups, were taken for histopathological and biochemical examination. The average body weight significantly lower in group of rats exposed to high CdCl2 doses. Open field revealed marked impairment in habituation with noticed influence on both anxiety and fear in rats exposed to high CdCl2. Moreover, learning and memory assessed during classic maze test and Y-maze test showed reduced memory retention in cadmium exposed animals as compared to control group. In novelty acquisition test, a reduced exploratory motor activity in rats exposed to high CdCl2 was noticed. Additionally, complex motor behaviour (motor coordination) was significantly impaired due to cadmium intoxication. Furthermore,,histopathological and biochemical evaluation revealed distinct neurodegenerative changes of nerve cells especially in hippocampus, inhibition of cholinesterase activity, as well as decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activity (GST and SOD). Overall, these results suggest that intoxication with cadmium chloride has potentially deleterious effects on brain as reflected in impairment learning and memory. Also exploratory motor activity and motor coordination were reduced. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):189-202-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


 Keywords: Cadmium intoxication; learning and memory; motor activity; hippocampus, AChE; SOD;GST;Rats

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Antioxidative properties of flavonoids from Cheilanthes anceps Swartz.


Sanyukta Chowdhary a, D. L. Verma b, Rachana Pande b and Harish Kumarc*

a Department of Botany, Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus, Almora-263601, India.

b Department of Chemistry, Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus Almora-263601, India

c* Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar-249404, India



Abstract: Antioxidative guided chromatographic fractionation of BuOH fraction from aqueous-ethanolic extract of fern fronds of Cheilanthus anceps gave flavonol glycosides, Quercetin-3-0-δ–L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Kaempferol-3-O- δ-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β -D-glucopyranoside-7 O-β -D-glucopyranoside, Quercetin-3-O-β -D-glucosyl (1→2)-β -D-galactoside-7-O-β -D-glucoside, Quercetin-3-methyl ether-5-O-glucoside, Quercetin-3-O-glucoside and Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. Of these flavonol-glycosides, the glycosides of Quercetin showed prominent antioxidative activity compared to Kaempferol glycosides. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):203-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Cheilanthes anceps, Flavonol glycosides, Antioxidative activity

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Effect of Treatment with Antifibrotic Drugs in Combination with PZQ in Immunized Schistosoma mansoni Infected Murine Model


Ibrahim Rabia1, Faten Nagy2 2, Eman Aly1, Amina Mohamed3 Fayza EL-Assal3 and Azaa El-Amir3

1 Parasitiology, 2 Immunology Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, (TBRI) Giza, Egypt and 3 Faculty of Science, Cairo Univeresity.­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­


Abstract:The main problem in schistosomal hepatic morbidity is fibrosis and extensive scarring induced by living eggs. In this study, we tried to study the effect of treatment using antihelminthic drug (PZQ) and/or antifibrotic drugs (PTX and silymarin) in combination with immunization. The parasitological parameters, the dynamics of serum-specific immunoglobulins and splenic cytokines associated with changes in granuloma diameter were assessed. Naļve mice were immunized intravenously with 10 ug of SEA in three doses at 2 days intervals 6 weeks before infection. Animals were infected by tail immersion with 100 cercariae and divided into several groups. Three groups were treated with PZQ, PTX or silymarin administered alone. Another two groups were treated with PZQ combined with PTX or silymarin. All treated animals and respective controls were sacrificed 12 weeks post infection. Immunization did not affect worm reduction, but slight decrease in granuloma diameter, increase in immunoglobulins and cytokines was observed. Reduction in worm burden was associated with reduction in ova count and changes in oogram pattern which were mainly due to PZQ treatment. Increasing reduction in granuloma diameter, elevation of immunogloulins and cytokines levels were observed in the groups treated with PZQ alone or cmbined with PTX or silymarin. In conclusion, in this study, treatment with PZQ complemented with immunization resulted in significant reduction of parasitological parameters and rise of specific Igs. Addition of antifibrotic drugs PTX or silymarin to PZQ, potentiated an antipathology effect which minimized and ameliorated liver fibrosis by inhibition of HSC activation and accentuation of the effect of suppressor Treg cells. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):208-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key word: Schistosoma mansoni, Praziquantel, Pentoxifyllin, silymarin

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FMSIND: A Framework of Multi-Agent Systems Interaction during Natural Disaster


Muhammad Aslam1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2, S. Shah Muhammad2, Seemal Mushtaq1, Martinez Enriquez A. M.3

1Department of CS & E, U. E. T. Lahore, 54890, Pakistan,

2Department of CS, Virtual University, Shadman Campus, Lahore, 54600, Pakistan,

3Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN. D.F. Mexico.


Abstract: Multi-agent systems have a potential to collaborate with each other using their language but the challenge is to make them work intelligently during the situation of catastrophic disaster. In such situations, it is extremely viable to diagnose and dispose resources like ambulances, volunteers, etc. timely, in order to help out people and reduce casualties. We studied the existing frameworks and methodologies in this area but none of them satisfy the requirements on the whole. If one lacks the coordination between agents then other has deficiency of decision support system. This was a motivation for us to propose a framework that covers all aspects of the problem. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to find out the plans of other collaborative agents for coordination and a complete architecture of the framework. The decision support system has been incorporated in the framework for taking optimized decisions. We take a scenario as a case study to verify and validate the proposed framework. We also show the implementation of interaction among the agents. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):217-224]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Agents, Multi-agent Systems, JADE, Decision Support Systems

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Postpartum Performance Of Buffaloes Treated With Gnrh To Overcome The Impact Of Placenta Retention


El-Malky, O. M.; Youssef *, M. M.; Abdel-Aziz, N. A. and Abd El-Salaam, A. M.

Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: This study aimed to investigate impacts of GnRh treatment on post-partum productive and reproductive performance of buffaloes subjected to placenta retention. A number of 30 female buffaloes were used in the study among them 20 buffaloes were detected with retained placenta (RP), while 10 buffaloes were normally calved (NRP). Buffaloes with RP were divided into two groups (10 buffaloes each) where group (RPT) were injected with 10 ml GnRH at the 7th day postpartum and group (RPC) served as control group. Blood samples were collected twice weekly from each buffalo cow during late pregnancy and postpartum period for determination of progesterone (P4), estradiol 17β (EST) as well as some blood metabolites. Placental tissue samples were taken from four animals with normal and retained placenta for histological examination. Postpartum loss in live body weight was greater (P <0.01) in NRP buffaloes than animals with RP. Differences between groups in calf birth weight (CBW) were insignificant while differences between newborn males and females were highly significant (P < 0.01). Volume of fetal fluids was greater in NRP group comparing with the other groups (P < 0.01) whereas no significant differences were detected in weight of fetal membranes between groups. Time elapsed for placenta expulsion in was 4.23, 17.26 and 18.7 hr. in NRP, RPT and RPC groups, respectively. Sex of newly born calf had only a significant effect (P < 0.01) on CBW and CBW/DAM. The normal group of buffaloes (NRP) achieved the least (P < 0.01) calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) as compared with buffalo groups with RP. However, GnRH treatment had significantly (P < 0.05) reduced CI and DO for group RPT than that for group RPC by 10.41% and 28.33%, respectively. No. of services per conception declined in response to GnRH treatment (2.6) when compared with RPC group (3.5). Differences between the studied groups in milk traits (total milk yield, days in milk and daily milk yield) were highly significant (P < 0.01) not only in the current milking season but also in the previous and next milking season. Buffaloes treated with GnRH (RPT group) achieved greater milk productivity (13.27%) than RPC group. Post partum concentrations of P4 were significantly (P <0.05) greater in NRP animals than that in buffaloes with RP throughout the experimental months. GnRH treatment increased significantly (P < 0.05) postpartum EST concentrations during 5th to 8th week as compared with non-treated animals. Concentrations of all studied metabolic parameters were relatively lees in RP groups than that in non retained group (NRP). GnRH treatment had relatively ameliorated the metabolic function in treated buffaloes via increasing concentrations of blood total protein, glucose, creatine, creatinine, clacium and inorganic phosphorus. The histological sections revealed dismaturation of the RP denoted by limited number of trophblastic giant cells, decomposition and fragmentation of the placental tissue and chorionic villi concomitant with hyperplasia in the chorionic epithelial cell of the villi. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):225-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Buffaloes, retained placenta, GnRH, productive and reproductive traits

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[Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):234-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


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New Synthesis of Furochromenyl Imidazo [2a-1b] Thiazole Derivatives, Studies on Their Antitumor Activities.


Asmaa A. Magd-El-Din1*, Amira S. Abd-El-All1, Hanaa M. F. Roaiah1 and Mashalla M.S. El-Baroudy1

1Chemistry of Natural Products and Microbial Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: 4, 9-Dimethoxy-5-oxo-5H-furo [3, 2-g] benzopyran-6-carboxaldehyde 1 was condensed with 2-thiox-4-imidazolinone 2 to form 3. Treatment of 3 with α-chloroacetyl chloride gave 4. Cyclization of 4 with acetic anhydride took place by heating to give 5. Condensation of 5 with aromatic aldehydes gave the arylidene derivatives 6a-c. Coupling of 5 with diazonium salts gave azo derivatives 7a-c. The work was further extended to investigate the behavior of 3 with 1, 2-dichloroethane to give (4Z)-2-(2-chloroethylthio)-4-((4, 9-dimethoxy-5-oxo-5H-furo [3, 2-g] chromen-6-yl) methylene)-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one 8. Then 8 was cyclized with acetic anhydride to give (6Z)-2, 3-dihydro-6-[(4, 9-dimethoxy-5-oxo-5H-furo-[3, 2-g] chromen-6-yl) methylene] imidazo [2, 1-b] thiazol-5-(6H)-one 9. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):251-256]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key words: Furochromon; arylidene derivatives; azo; antitumor activity

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The effect of Botrytis Cinerea and Rhizopus Stolonifer on pre-harvest energy losses of strawberry production in Iran


Payman Salami *1 Hojat Ahmadi1, Alireza Keyhani1, and Assadollah Akram1

1. Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran.


Abstract: It is well accepted that agricultural production must be increased considerably in the foreseeable future to meet the food and feed demands of a rising human population and increasing livestock production. Crop protection plays a key role in safeguarding crop productivity against competition from weeds, animal pests, pathogens and viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of energy losses caused by pre-harvest strawberry losses in the Kurdistan province of Iran. These losses were caused by Botrytis cinerea (Gray Mold) and Rhizopus stolonifer. The average pre-harvest losses of strawberry production were found to be 6% in this study, thus the average losses were found to be about 544.3 kg ha-1. The total energy losses of strawberry production in the study area are estimated to be 2.585 TJ. This amount of losses is equal to 422.5 BOE (Barrel of Oil Equivalent), also the total pre-harvest strawberry losses are equal to 1,673,412.3 $. Tools and techniques are needed to assist in developing strategies that can lead to higher food production, prevent crop production losses, and ensure minimal greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining soil fertility. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):257-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Botrytis; energy losses; Kurdistan; Iran; Rhizopus; strawberry

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Acid Washing Of “Zeolite A”: Performance Assessment And Optimization


Heba A. Hani(1), Shadia R. Tewfik(1), Mohamed H. Sorour(1), Nabil Abdel Monem(2)

(1)Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

(2)Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt


Abstract Zeolite A has been developed, characterized and tested for the removal of chromium (III) from solutions. To facilitate the industrial manufacture of zeolite A, numerous experimental trials and testing procedures have been undertaken to develop prediction methodology for the synthesis of zeolite A with specified characteristics. However, conditioning of the prepared zeolite to the required pH and purity necessitated extensive washing cycles and time. In this paper an approach has been developed, through modeling and optimization techniques, to predict the range of operating parameters governing the washing of zeolite A using oxalic acid and elucidate the mechanism governing the acid washing process in a batch stirred tank reactor. Several washing parameters have been addressed comprising acid gram equivalent, liquid to solid ratios, temperature and stirring speed. It is thus possible through this prediction methodology to define the conditions required for minimum washing costs and high chromium (III) uptake. Determination of the effectiveness factor indicates that the chemical reaction controls the washing rate. The results of this paper indicate that the amount of water required for washing decreased from 310 m3 to 20 m3 per ton zeolite A using oxalic acid, consequently the washing cost decreased by about 22%. The results of optimization indicate that the acid washed zeolite A was able to adsorb 179 mg Cr3+/g as compared to 184 mg Cr3+/g for the conventionally washed zeolite A. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):261-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: zeolite A, washing, prediction, optimization, chromium

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Effect of Spearmint Essential Oil on Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of White Cheese


Mervat I. Foda2*; M.A. El-Sayed2; Amal A. Hassan2; Nagwa M. Rasmy2 and Marwa M. El-Moghazy1

1*Dairy Dept., National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Food Science Dept., Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

* Corresponding author:,


Abstract: Spearmint (Mentha spicata) the most common herb in the Mediterranean region, widely used as a source of essential oil for flavoring, spearmint essential oil contains about 24 constituents representing 98.45 % of the total essential oil; the main compounds are carvone (68.58%) and limonene (16.42 %). Two lipid model systems (DPPH scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching test) were used to determine the antioxidant activity of spearmint essential oil. White cheeses with different concentrations of spearmint essential oil (0.5 to 2.5 ml/kg retentate) were prepared and stored at (7 0C ± 2) for 5 weeks. The chemical composition and ripening index of spearmint white cheese were determined. Obtained results showed that lower concentrations of spearmint essential oil increased titratable acidity values significantly, while ripening index was increased significantly by increasing the concentration of essential oil. Prolonging the cold storage period for five weeks increased these values significantly. Panel study showed that lower concentration of essential oil got the highest total acceptability scores. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):272-279]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key words: white cheese, spearmint, essential oil, sensory evaluation, antioxidant activity, ripening index

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Alginate/ Polyvinyl Alcohol - Kaolin Composite for Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution in a Batch Stirred Tank Reactor


M.M. Abd El-Latif1, M.F. El-Kady1, Amal M. Ibrahim2 Mona.E.Ossman3


Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Institute of New Materials& advanced technologies, Fabrication Technology Department, Alexandria, Egypt.1

Surface Chemistry and Catalysis Laboratory, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.2

Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Informatics Research Institute, IRI, Alexandria, Egypt.3


Abstract: The investigation of possible use of Alginate/ polyvinyl alcohol -kaolin composite instead of free kaolin in the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions was studied. Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the process variables, which include contact time, beads diameter, beads swelling, organic-kaolin composite dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, agitation speed and solution temperature on the adsorption process. In the batch kinetic study of methylene blue, the order of the reaction, the half-life and the rate constant were determined. Numerical correlations using regression analysis for maximum percentage removal of dye with operating condition of the process were presented. The result showed that the adsorption attained to equilibrium in 360 min and the kinetics followed first order in nature. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(5):280-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Adsorption, Cationic dye, Isotherms, Kaolin composite, binding polymers

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Assessment Of Cell Kinetics In The Tissues Of Brownbanded Bamboosharks (Chiloscyllium Punctatum) By Using Bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) And Anti-Brdu Monoclonal Antibody


Konomi Ito1, Sawsan Ghattas2*, Makio Yanagisawa3, Senzo Uchida3, Hiroki Sakai1 and Tokuma Yanai1

1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan

2Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr El Sheikh University, Egypt

3Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium, Motobu Town, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan


Abstract: The 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling method has been used to assess the quantity of proliferative potential in organs and tissues in various mammals. For application of this method in fish, it was necessary to determine conditions that optimize the detection of the BrdU epitope. In the present investigation, we investigated the localization of proliferative cells as well as various conditions for detection of S-phase cells in the tissues of adult brownbanded bamboosharks by means of the BrdU immunohistochemical method. Our results demonstrated that BrdU-positive cells were satisfactorily demonstrated in the tissues of brownbanded bamboosharks treated with BrdU at a dose of 6 mg/kg or higher. However, there was no difference in BrdU reactivity between routes of administration, including intravenous, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injections. BrdU-incorporated cells were detected both in formalin-fixed and 70% ethanol-fixed tissues with enzymatic treatment and acid hydrolysis in the shark tissues, while formalin-and ethanol-fixed brownbanded bambooshark tissues that did not undergo the enzymatic procedure showed no BrdU reactive cells. Importantly, samples were quickly fixed in heated formalin solution and treated with 5N HCL and 0.01% Nagarase at 37 C for 30 seconds to one minute. In conclusion, the BrdU labeling method was useful in a cell kinetic study detecting S-shaped cells in sharks, as in other mammals. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(5):293-299]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: BrdU, IHC, Labeling method, Brownbanded bambooshark (Chiloscyllium punctatum)

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