Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 6, June 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0606

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Titles / Authors



Plant Water Relations and Osmotic Adjustment in Brassica Species under Salinity Stress


Pratibha Singh, Narender Singh, Kamal Dutt Sharma and Mahender Singh Kuhad

Department of Botany and Plant Physiology

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004 India

Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India.


Abstract: This investigation was carried out to compare the physiological behavior of two cultivars of Brassica grown under saline irrigations. The plants treated with saline water (ECe 15 dSm-1) resulted in a quick development of water saturation deficit at 0.08 days after salinization (DAS) followed by a sharp decline in water potential at (0.25 DAS). Subsequently, a marked increase in diffusive resistance and a greater decrease in transpiration rate were noticed at one DAS. The response of Brassica at vegetative stage under salinization proved to be biphasic process. The first phase was characterized by rapid changes in turgor potential or volume change and the second phase represented the increase in solute concentration. Using the ‘b’ value (ln OP= a+b ln RWC) for judging the osmotic adjustment, both the species maintained turgor potential under salinization and thus exhibited osmotic adjustment, however, cv. HC 2 had an edge over its counterpart for higher osmotic adjustment as well as higher cell wall elasticity (less negative) during critical early phase of salinization. On the basis above findings it was concluded that both the Brassica species showed biphasic behavior during salinization, but during critical early phase of salinization cv. HC 2 showed some characters of better adaptation than cv. Kranti. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(6):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Brassica, osmotic adjustment, relative water content, salinity, transpiration, water potential


Abbreviations: CD-critical difference; cv-cultivar; DAS-days after salinization; DR-diffusive resistance; Ψs-osmotic potential (OP); RWC- relative water content; TP-turgor potential; TR- transpiration rate; WSD-water saturation deficit.

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Collection of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. in the Interior Villages of Chamoli District in Garhwal Himalaya (Uttarakhand) and its Social Impacts


Narayan Singh1, Rakshita Pathak2, Arjun Singh Kathait3, Deepak Rautela4 and Anoop Dubey5

 1, 3 & 5. State Medicinal Plant Board/ Herbal Research & Development Institute,

Gopeshwar (Distt. Chamoli – 246401), Uttarakhand, India

2 & 4. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi – Katarmal- 263 643, Almora, Uttarakhand, India


Abstract: Cordyceps sinensis, belonging to the family Clavicipitaceae is a parasitic fungus on Lepidopteran larvae. Mainly it is found in subalpine regions from 3200 to 4000 m asl in grassy lands of Himalayas. It is very much valuable in Chinese and Tibetan medicine also. The residents of Sutol and Kanol villages (the most interior villages of Chamoli distt.) in Uttarakhand are extracting it. Every year the average collection of Cordyceps is about 140 kg from both villages. Near about 700 people were engaged in the collection of Cordyceps every year. Per head collection of C. sinensis was 200 gm per season. The collection period of this species is from May to July and the potential natural pockets are Bedini Bughyal, Homekund and Simbe. It is also track of famous religious “Nanda Devi Raj Jat’’ Yatra. Basically the main collectors are men, women, young boys and girls which belong to the age group of 15 to 65 years. There is a drastic change in the economy of villagers and at the other hand some negative social impacts are also pertaining day by day in the last 3-4 years. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):5-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Cordyceps sinensis, medicinal value, keera ghaas, interior villages, social impacts on rural economy, drastic change

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Synthesis and reaction of some new pyrimidine thiones

Abdelghani, E.; Sherif, M., H.; Assy, M., G. and Morsi, Gh., M.


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt


Abstract: The addition of cyanomethylene derivative 2 to aroyl isothiocyanate 1 afforded mercaptopyrimidine derivative 5. Mercaptopyrimidine 11 was prepared and transformed upon alkylation with chloroacetamide to thienopyrimidine 13. Oxidation of 11 using I2/AcOH yielded the disulphide 14, while oxidation using H2O2/AcOH gave pyrimidine derivative 15. Reaction of aldehydes with aminothiouracil 16 yielded 5-aroyl-2,8-di-thioxo-2,3,5,8,9,10-hexahydropyrimido[5',4':5,6]pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine derivative 19a,b. Addition of 16 to chalcone afforded pyridopyrimidine 20. Reaction of urea, α-naphthaldehyde and aminothiouracil afforded pyrimidopyrimidine 21. Reaction of 16 with NH4SCN afforded compound 22 that oxidized to bis-isothiazolopyrimidine bisulphide 23. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):10-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: mercaptopyrimidine, oxazine, thienopyrimidine, pyrimidine, pyridopyrimidine, pyrimidopyrimidine and isothiazolopyrimidine.

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Neuroanatomical, Immunocytochemical and Electrophysiological Studies on Cercal Sensory Receptors in the Female Locust


Ehab Tousson and Afaf El-Atrash

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University


ABSTRACT: Relatively little is still known about the function, types and location of cercal sensory systems. This system detects and encodes different sensory modalities: wind, touch and gustatory. It is focused on fine structure and distribution of various types of cercal sensilla in the desert locust were investigated with scanning electron microscope and neuroanatomical techniques. Two types of sensory receptors were identified and classified as mechanoreceptors (filiform sensilla) and chemoreceptors (basiconic sensilla). Also, the morphology and the organization of individual sensory receptors (mechanoreceptors or chemoreceptors) in the CNS were examined by immunocytochemical characterization of single neuron. All afferent fibres from individual filiform and basiconic sensilla project in the tenth neuromere of the terminal abdominal ganglion. Projections from single multiply innervated hair sensilla do not segregate with the exception of one afferent of contact chemosensory hairs which terminate only in its segmental neuromere, as was shown for other contact chemoreceptors of the abdomen. Another focus is on the electrophysiological response of individual mechanoreceptors or chemoreceptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation were analyzed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):16-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Sensory neurons; Cerci; terminal segments; Innervation; Immunocytochemistry; Electrophysiological recording

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Effect of H2SO4 on Seed Germination and Viability of Canna indica L. a Medicinal Plant


Sunil Chandra Joshi1* and S.C. Pant2

1 Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi-110012 India

2 Department of Horticulture, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar (Garhwal) Uttrakhand-246174 India


Abstract: Canna indica roots are used for medicinal purpose. A decoction of the root with fermented rice is used in the treatment of gonorrhea and amenorrhea. The seed of canna is extremely hard, and needs to be "scarified" before sowing. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the hardiness problem of the seed. The seed sample was collected from the IARI, New Delhi in 2008. The work consists of Physical purity, standard germination test, seed vigour test. Experimental results has shown that, seed sample recorded the purity of seed (97.55 %) and seed sample showed the maximum germination percentage 91% after three hrs. H2SO4 scarification. The maximum root length (7.51 cm), maximum shoot length (3.12 cm) and maximum seedling dry weight (0.203 gm) were observed at two hrs. H2SO4 scarification. The results indicated that H2SO4 scarification increase the germination percentage but it reduce the viability of the seed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):24-25]. ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Canna indica, Germination, Scarification, Vigour

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The impact of genetic variability and smoking habits on the prevalence of periodontitis among adults


Faten S. Bayoumi 1, Fatehya M. Metwaly2, Hind M.Rashd2 and

E.H.A. Abouel-Ezz..3

2Professor in Environmental & Occupational Medicine Department, National Research Center

2Assistant Professor in Environmental & Occupational Medicine Department, National Research Center

3Professor in genetic orodental Dep. National Research Center


Abstract: Aim : Elucidate the effect of genetic variance of inflammatory mediators expression, the influence of microbial expression, and smoking as a risk factors for periodontitis. Material & Methods: Sample of this study composed of 50 smokers & 50 non smoker volunteers (unrelated and of the same ethnic population) with 40-60 years old. Their periodontal status was estimated through periodontal examination (full mouth clinical attachment loss measurement, probing depths, plaque index scores, and bleeding on probing). Isolation and detection of certain oral pathogens; A.actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Provetella intermedia was performed. Genotype for bi-allelic IL-1A+4845, IL-lB+3954 gene polymorphisms using mouth wash was detected by PCR based methods. Results: There were a significant difference only between the two groups (smokers &non-smokers) as regards to colonization of A.actinomycetemcomitans & not among Porphyromonas gingivalis & Prevotella spp. There were no significant difference between the overall frequencies of carrying allele 2 of IL-l A, IL-1B among smoker and non-smokers. The percentage of non smokers having healthy periodontal status was much higher than smokers. On the other hand, smokers recorded much higher percentage for mild, moderate and severe periodontitis. The difference was statistically significant concerning the percentage of those with severe periodontitis. Conclusion: Environmental factors play either a direct (i.e., causative factor) or indirect (modifying factor) role as a risk factor for periodontitis. The association between genetic polymorphism of allele 2 of IL-l A, IL-1B expression & smoking habits caused a synergistic effect for progression of periodontitis. Smoking initiated A.actinomycetemcomitans growth. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):26-30]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: genetic polymorphism, periodontitis, Interleukin -1, periodontal pathogens, smoking

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Model for Computational Analysis of the Solution Temperature during Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore in Oxalic Acid Solution


Chukwuka Ikechukwu Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526 Owerri, Nigeria.


Abstract: Model for computational analysis of the solution temperature (relative to the final pH of the leaching solution) during leaching of iron oxide ore in oxalic acid solution has been derived. The model;

 T = e(14.9661/p)

is dependent depends on the value of the final pH of the leaching solution which varies with leaching time. It was observed that the validity of the model is rooted on the expression lnT = Kc/p where both sides of the equation are approximately equal to 3. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted solution temperature values from those of the experimental values were found to be insignificant hence establishing the validity and precision of the model. The correlation between mass of iron oxide ore and solution temperature as well as between final pH of leaching solution and solution temperature as obtained from experiment and derived model (0.9296 and 0.8911 as well as 0.9395 and 0.9988) respectively are quite close, indicating proximate agreement with values from actual experiment. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):31-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Model, Solution Temperature, Oxalic Acid, Iron Oxide Ore, Leaching

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Model for Computational Analysis of the Quantity of Water Lost by Evaporation during Oven-Drying of Clay


Chukwuka Ikechukwu Nwoye

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.


Abstract: Model for computational analysis of the quantity of water lost by evaporation during oven drying of clay has been derived. The model;

β = exp[(lnt)0.998 - 2.9206]

indicates that the quantity of evaporated water during the drying process is dependent on the drying time, the evaporating surface being constant. It was found that the validity of the model is rooted on the expression (Logα + lnβ)N = lnt where both sides of the expression are correspondingly almost equal. The respective deviation of the model-predicted quantity of evaporated water from the corresponding experimental value is less than 20% which is quite within the acceptable deviation range of experimental results, hence depicting the usefulness of the model. Water evaporation rate evaluated from experimental and model-predicted results are 0.0488 and 0.0530g/ min respectively, indicating proximate agreement. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):38-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Model, Water, Evaporation, Oven Drying, Clay

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Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Pisum sativum L. Growing in Fly Ash Amended Soil


Sudarshana Sharma1, *Parmanand Sharma2, Poonam Mehrotra 3

1 Department of Biochemistry, Bundelkahnd University, Jhansi, India

2 School of Environmental Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

3 Department of Botany, Bundelkahnd University, Jhansi, India;;


Abstract: Presently, the crisis of enormous amounts of fly ash has been sorted out by using it significantly in stabilization and escalating crop growth. In present study pot-culture experiment was performed to observe the influence of fly ash amendments on the growth and accretion of heavy metal in pea plants. Fly ash utilized for this study with high alkalinity and metals was poor in N, P and humus comparable to garden soil. Fly ash and soil were mixed in different ratios i.e. 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% and used to fill earthen pots (2Kg/pot). Seven days old seedlings were transplanted (3 individual/ pot) in them at glass house. 25±20C temperature and moisture at 50% of water holding capacity was maintained throughout the experiment. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in chlorophyll, carotenoids, proteins, biomass and overall growth of target plant up to 10% fly ash amendment. Whereas, phenols and ascorbic acid concentrations were maximum at 25% fly ash amendment. The heavy metals in growth media and plant were significantly augmented and found beneath the permissible limits up to 10% fly ash addition only. Pea seeds demonstrated fascinating results they were harboring the metal concentration in all amendments under permissible range and were safe to consume. Translocation factor was calculated and results illustrated that toxic heavy metals like Cd, Ni and Pb retained in the below ground while micronutrients like Cu, Zn and Fe translocated to above ground parts. Hence, it is evident that pea plants may be a good metal accumulator plant species that could use for restoration of waste land having high alkalinity and low nutrient values. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):43-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Crop yield; Heavy metals; Bioaccumulation; Translocation factor

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Evaluation of the Environmental Mitigation and Area Development (EMAD) component of the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project (BHP) in Sierra Leone


Alhaji Brima Gogra a, Jun Yao a,*, Edward Hinga Sandy a, Gyula Zaray b, Solomon Peter Gbanie a, Celeste Tjobe a, Tamba Samuel Bandagba c

a State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Studies and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, PR China.

b Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eötvös University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32, Hungary.

c Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Environmental Science, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, PR China.

 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: (J. Yao) or (A. B. Gogra)


Abstract: The most important development goal from the completion of the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project (BHP) is to accelerate economic growth, and poverty reduction, through the development of affordable power generation for domestic use in an environmentally sustainable, and efficient manner. Besides mobilizing private capital, the proposed Project will promote private sector involvement in the management of the power sector, and sustainable sector reform. The first component includes Hydroelectric and Transmission Infrastructure; and the second component is the funding of the implementation of the Dam/Reservoir, and the Transmission Line Resettlement Action Plan, with livelihood restoration and agriculture stabilization subcomponents, in addition to a comprehensive Environmental Management and Mitigation Plan (EMP). And the Technical Assistance component will fund the management and supervision of activities under the second component, and in addition, provide support to the Project Implementation Unit (PIU), the Dam Review Panel (DRP), and the Environmental and Social Advisory Panel (ESAP). This paper discusses environmental sustainability vis-à-vis regulatory compliance and environmental policy issues as related to the challenges and benefits being experienced by the Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project (BHP) in Sierra Leone. Its goal is to present strategies by applying established theoretical concepts and frameworks to the BHP case and examines some critical success factors that could be integrated into best practice management, especially in the face of future environmental and socio-economic challenges. The paper focuses on the Environmental Mitigation and Area Development (EMAD) component of the project as opposed to project contracts and technical assistance. We (the authors) believe that the EMAD component has a direct influence on the livelihood of the people, and as such, it could be used to gain further insights into BHP. If effectively implemented, the EMAD component may become one of the most important strategic management initiatives taken by BHP in complying with environmental regulations, in reaping potential benefits, and in putting the project in a better position for future financial assistance. As such, this paper's main focus is on EMAD’s activities and recommends the adoption of a competitive strategy like a focused low-cost strategy that will provide the project with a strategic advantage whilst capitalizing on the World Bank's Dam Planning/Management Action Plan (DAMAP). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):51-64]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Bumbuna Hydroelectric Project, Critical Success Factors, Environmental Sustainability, Sierra Leone, Strategies.

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Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Study of Tehri Dam Reservoir, Garhwal Himalaya, India

Ashok K. Agarwal and Govind S. Rajwar

Department of Botany, Government Post Graduate College, Rishikesh 249201, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail:


ABSTRACT: In the present study physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water of Tehri dam reservoir in the Garhwal Himalaya of India were determined during June 2003 through May 2005 when the reservoir was under construction, and was 5 km long and 40 m deep having an area of 2.2 sq km, and is located at 30º23' N latitude, 78º 29'E longitude and 635 m altitude at monthly intervals during June 2003 through May 2005 with an objective to estimate the impact of the reservoir on various physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of the water. Total solids, total suspended solids, total solids, turbidity and sulphate values were maximum on all the sites in rainy months, which may be due to the gradual disturbances in sedimentation of solids as well as dust particles deposited along with runoff rainwater. The alkalinity varied during different months. The values of pH, conductivity, hardness, calcium, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand were higher during summer months. The chloride concentration was highest in the month of January and the nitrate increased in the summer months and early monsoon due to the higher phytoplanktonic production. The maximum number of total coliform, faecal coliform and total plate count was observed during summer and rainy seasons and minimum during winter. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):65-71]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Physico-chemical characteristics, Tehri Dam, Himalaya

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Diversity, distribution and utilization of fodder species in sub-temperate, temperate and cold desert region of the Himachal Pradesh, north-western, Himalaya


Yashwant S. Rawat and Subash C.R. Vishvakarma

G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643 Uttarakhand, India;


Abstract: Agriculture with animal husbandry is prevalent profession of rural people of Indian Himalayan Region. Livestock is considered one of the main sources of livelihood and integral part of livelihood, which rely mostly on fodder extracted from forests, grasslands, agriculture and agroforestry. The diversity, distribution and utilization pattern of the fodder species is important to prioritization of fodder species along an altitudinal gradient, and conservation and management practices of fodder species in both the Kullu and Lahaul valleys. Out of 67 fodder species, 43.28% were trees, 26.87% small trees and 29.85% shrubs, respectively. In general, maximum species were lopped annually, except Olea ferruginea, Quercus floribunda, Q. leucotrichophora and Salix fragilis, which were lopped an interval of 3 years. Majority of the fodder species are used as multipurpose and contributed to the high socioeconomic values. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):72-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Diversity; agroforestry; fodder; utilization; conservation and management; north-western Himalaya

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Light Hydrocarbon Correlation of Niger Delta Crude Oils


*Mark O. Onyema and Patience N. Manilla

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, 500001, Rivers State, Nigeria

Telephone: +234 803 041 5230 email:


ABSTRACT: The light hydrocarbon content of Niger Delta crude oils were studied with a view to providing a means of evaluating the Niger Delta petroleum system independent of higher molecular weight markers. Ultra high resolution gas chromatography was used in separation and analysis of the light hydrocarbons. Heptane ratio of oils ND-A3 (12.30), ND-A6 (12.07) and ND-B7 (10.33) were close and separate from ND-E5 (4.64). Invariance ratios and plot discriminated the oils into two groups. These apparent groups remained distinctly different in their graphical representation of ring preference. Star plots of oils ND-A3, ND-A6 and ND-B7 were shown to follow similar pattern, suggesting a strong similarity between them reflecting oil generation from same source rock, but followed different pattern from oil ND-E5 suggesting a negative correlation. These results strongly are consistent with two homologous sources for oils thus complementing the interpretations of higher molecular weight biomarkers and provide a quick and cost effective tool for correlation studies in Niger Delta, Nigeria. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):82-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keyword: Niger Delta; Light Hydrocarbon; Invariance Ratio; Star Plot; Correlation

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Development of a Web Availability Analyzer Software Tool


Ali Peiravi1, Muhammad Sharaeini2

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Mashhad IRAN

Telephone number: (0098) 511-881-5100,


Abstract: In this study, results of the development of a web availability analyzer software tool that has been designed in order to measure internet availability from the end user's perspective are reported. The measured results of the availability of local and international sites along with a comparison of results indicate the successful operation of the software tool. The main objective of this paper is to present the approach used to measure the actual availability of internet sites through the development and use of a Web Availability Analyzer software Tool (WATT). [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(6):89-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Web, Internet Availability, Software package

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Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and NPK Fertilizer: Effect on soil and Plant Nutrient Status and Maize Performance



1Department of Soil and Land Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

2Department of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Email:


Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study effect of application of cocoa pod ash and its integrated application with reduced levels of NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer (NPKF) on soil and plant nutrient, growth and grain yield of maize at Ondo in the rainforest zone of south west Nigeria. There were 10 treatments involving a control, ash applied at 5 and 10 t ha-1, 100, 200, 400 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer and combined use of ash with 100 or 200 kg ha-1 fertilizer. The treatments were replicated three times on field and the residual effect (one year later) on soil and plant macro and micro nutrient concentration, growth and grain yield of maize was studied. The soil in the experimental site was deficient in organic matter (OM), 2N, K and Mg. Application of cocoa pod ash, NPK fertilizer and their combinations significantly (p<0.05) increased soil organic matter, P, K, Ca, Mg, plant N, P and K, height, stover, root and grain yield on immediate and residual basis. NPKF also significantly (p<005) increased soil and plant Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Ash also increased plant Ca and Zn. Combined application of ash with 100 or 20 kg ha-1 NPKF, and NPKF (400 kg ha-1) gave similar and highest cumulative grain yield varying between 5.4 to 5.9 t ha-1. The control, cocoa pod ash at 10 t ha-1 and NPKF at100 kg ha-1 respectively gave least cumulative grain yield of between 3.3 and 4.2 t ha-1 for two years of study. The ash alone or combined with reduced NPKF gave highest residual effect on yield with increases of between 52 to 76% relative to control. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):96-102]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: integration, immediate and residual effect, yield

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Estimate Biological Nitrogen Fixation in horse bean

Tayeb Saki Nejad
Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch;

Abstract: Research projects as split plot experiments in a randomized complete block design with four replications in field research in Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz 3 consecutive years (2006,2007,2008) implementation was the main plot assembly, four cultivar horse bean (Vicia FabaL.) plant: BARAKAT,ZOHRE,SHAMI and JAZAYERI, damascene the number of islands in the province have grown and sub-plots in the two years 2006 and 2007 three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (N1,N2 and N3 treatments, respectively 20 and 40 and 80 kg fertilizer N ha simultaneously planting) and the third year, 2008 values were doubled care. After the propagation earth, using cultivar with Rizobium bean plant (Rh. Legominosarum) inoculation and immediately cultured. Survey cultivar, BARAKAT highest percentage of mean total nitrogen plant 1.97 percent won. In sub-plots, with increasing amounts of nitrogen, accumulation of this element bean plants increased. Percent nitrogen treatments nodes N2 and N3 showed a significant difference, but the highest accumulation of nitrogen treatments N1 nodes with 1.67 percent won, thus whatever amount of fertilizer increased, the amount of biological nitrogen fixation nodes decreased. N3 treatment reduced accumulation of 40 to 50 percent nitrogen found in to other treatments. With increasing N rate, weight, number and size of the plant nodes decreased blessing average number of nodes 1250 nodes per plant among the highest number of cultivars grown offered. Number of nodes equal treatment and 1450 to increase the amount of fertilizer treatments 80 kg 998 nodes per plant decreased in all fertilizers in small amounts or how large gland enlargement process was observed. The mean largest tumor diameters in the treatment 1.98 cm were measured. Green and white non-effectiveness of enzyme Nitrogen's stated that usually the primary growth was achieved in pink and red and efficient biological nitrogen fixation, approximately 35 days after planting continued until after flowering and 10 days after flowering, gland Posts brown and black, showed the node representing aging and lack of nitrogen is established. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(6):103-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Key words: biological nitrogen fixation, horse bean

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Effect of Different Types of Oral Iron Therapy Used for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Their Effects on Some Hormones and Minerals in Anemic Rats


Ghada, Z. A. Soliman 1, Mohamed H. Mahfouz 2* and Ibrahim A. Emara2

1.Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Nutrition (NNI), Cairo, Egypt.

2. Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (NIDE), Cairo, Egypt.

*Corresponding author:


Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia related to malnutrition world wide. It represents a major problem in developing countries, especially in Egypt. The aim of this study was carried out to elucidate the effect of different types of oral iron therapy (used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia) on some hormones and minerals in anemic rats. Forty weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups (10 rats each), G1; control group as negative control G2; anemic rats as positive control., G3; anemic rats receiving iron chelating amino acids (IDA+ICAA, 40 mg Fe/kg), G4; anemic rats receiving ferrous sulphate (IDA+FeSO4, 40 mg Fe/kg). Anemia was induced through feeding iron deficient diet (3-5 mg Fe/kg). At the end of the experiment, plasma, kidney and liver were used for determination of blood indices, tT3, tT4, Cu, Ca, Fe and MDA. Induction of iron in the diet improves body weight but still significantly lower than control group. Rats fed iron deficient diet had a significant lower Hb level, Hct value, RBCs count than normal controls. tT3 and tT4 levels of anemic rats were significantly lower than normal control (-15.16 & -30.59 % respectively). Treatment with ICAA gives better result than inorganic FeSO4. tT3/tT4 ratio was significantly higher in all treated groups than normal control group. A significant inverse correlation was found between tT3/tT4 ratio and liver Fe in anemic rats. Treatment of IDA rats with ICAA improves lipid peroxidation. Cu level of IDA group was significantly higher than normal control group, treatment with ICAA or FeSO4 returning Cu level to near normal. The plasma Ca level of ICAA treated groups was significantly higher than IDA groups. Plasma level of Fe or Fe/Cu ratio of IDA is significantly lower than normal control group, it reach less than half (58.3% decrease, P < 0.0001). A significant direct correlation was found between Ca level and kidney Fe in iron deficient anemia rats treated with iron chelating amino acids therapy. In Conclusion, the high bioavailability, easily tolerated doses of ferrous iron amino acid chelate allow lower doses to be used in IDA treatment than inorganic iron salts. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):109-118]. (ISSN: 1545- 1003).



Keywords: Iron deficient anemia, iron chelating amino acids, inorganic iron

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In vitro Antimicrobial Assay and Phytochemical Analysis

of Ethanolic Extracts of Voacanga africana Seeds


Christopher M. Duru1 and Nkechi E.Onyedineke2

1,2Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B.1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

1Email:; 2Email:


Abstract: Dried and pulverized seeds of Voacanga africana were extracted with hot and cold absolute ethanol. The extracts were screened for their phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities. The results revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds; alkaloids, anthranoids, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, phenols, phlobatanins, starch and tannins. The crude extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (34.61 and 25%), Serretia marcescens (45.08 and 29.16%) and Staphylococcus aureus (42.10 and 34.21%). Others are Alternaria solani (33.33 and 25%), Aspergilus flavus (33.33 and 22%), A. niger (25 and 00%) Candida albicans (29.62 and 25.92 %) and Rhizopus stolonifer (22.58 and 19.35 %); relative to the standard antibiotics, Gentamicin and Clotrimazole; in the Agar Well. Diffusion sensitivity test. The efficacy of the hot extract was greater than the cold extracts in the test organisms, except in Pseudomonas aeruginosa where they appeared equipotent. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(6):119-122]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Voacanga africana, phytochemical, bioactive, equipotent

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In vitro antioxidative acitivity of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach Leaves by DPPH scavenging assay


Gayatri Nahak and R.K. Sahu

Department of Botany, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar751014, Orissa, India. Email:


Abstract: Medicinal plants are a major source of raw material for the traditional system like Ayurveda, Siddha & Unani. Even the modern system of medicine has more than 25 percent of drugs in use, which are either plant based or plant derived. Although several tree posses various medicinal properties, it has been ignored by indigenous & modern system of medicine. Among them Azadirachta indica & Melia azedarach belonging to family Meliaceae play a vital role in day to day usage of different indigenous communities due to its sacred and medicinal value. Recently there has been an upsurge of interest in the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as antioxidants. In the course of finding potential antioxidant from plant source, two medicinal tree species belonging to family Meliaceae has been selected. Leaves were dried and extracted with different solvent systems namely water, ethanol & methanol. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay of six extracts from two genus of the family Meliaceae is reported & a comparison of the free radical scavenging ability of the extracts is emphasized. The result of the present study showed that the extract of Melia azedarach, which contains highest amount of phenolic compounds exhibited the greatest anti-oxidant activity in comparison to Azadirachta indica Neem. The high scavenging property of may be due to hydroxyl groups existing in the phenolic compounds chemical structure that can provide the necessary components as a radical scavenger. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):123-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Antioxidant activity, Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach

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Allocation of Spinning Reserve Cost Amongst Customers in Deregulated Power Systems


Ali Peiravi1, Mehdi Hejazian2

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Mashhad IRAN

Telephone number: (0098) 511-881-5100, 2


Abstract: In a deregulated power system, DISCOs are considered to be customers who can choose their desirable reliability levels and purchase their required reserve in an ancillary service market based on this reliability level. This paper presents a new approach for determining spinning reserve requirements considering customer's desired reliability level in a pool energy and reserve market. An approach is also developed to fairly allocate the cost associated with provision of spinning reserve amongst the customers. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is examined and the results are presented using the IEEE-RTS. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):129-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: Power market, system risk, spinning reserve, required reliability level, reserve allocation

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Determination of Bauxite’s phases by the bomb digest method at Kamsar laboratory ISO 9002 (Guinea)


Ibrahima Sory Cissé, Jiwen Ge*

Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, School of Environmental Studies China University of Geosciences.

Abstract: This paper presents the results of the experimental work done to find out the extraction percentage of alumina content in ore samples of bauxite from three mines of Guinea. So the knowledge of the chemical composition of a matter or a product directs us on its origins, its possible use and especially towards the technology which it will be necessary to apply for its transformation. This chemical composition is given at the laboratory which, to have reliable results uses adequate methods of analysis for each type of element to be proportioned in the matter. Thus for the analysis of bauxite exploited by the company of bauxites to Guinea (C.B.G.) and which currently comes from the plates of Sangaredi, Bidikoum and Silidara, the chemistry laboratory of Kamsar uses mainly two categories of methods which are instrumental and wet chemical method (volumetric). This study has relied on the chemical method due that it primarily rests on the quality of the matter to analyze and the concentration of the chemical elements which make it up. To this end, the Guinean bauxite exploited by the C.B.G having a high percentage in Al2O3 and a content of SiO2 not exceeding 7%, for the determination of the various phases from this one, the section bomb digest of the laboratory at Kamsar uses a wet alkaline attack. Under high pressure and at variable temperatures according to the mineralogical phase to determine, this digestion is schematized as:Al2O3+2NaOH-2NaAlO2+H2O.Soluble aluminate. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):139-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



¶¶Key words: Bauxite’s phases, Gibbsite, Boehmite, Guinea and Bomb digests

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Clinical utility of biochemical markers in ulcerative colitis among Egyptian patients


Mie Afify1, Magda Sayed1 and Amr Elhammady2.

1 Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Egypt

2 Internal Medicine Department, Banha University.


Abstract: Biochemical markers are a non-invasive way of objectively measuring inflammation in ulcerative colitis and can play an adjunctive or primary role in the assessment of disease activity. Aim of this study was to A) evaluate serum levels of some biomarkers “leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin” in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, besides the ordinary inflammatory markers, B) to correlate the results with the disease activity, with the clinical characteristics of the disease C) and to examine the possible interaction between the estimated parameters values. Study was conducted on 56 UC patients from the Clinic of Internal Medicine Department and Endoscopy Unit of Alzahraa Hospital, Alazhar University, besides 30 healthy subjects served as control group. Results: Mean levels of ESR, CRP, TNF-α, resistin and ghrelin were significantly higher in active UC patients than the control group, while after the courses of treatment 47 patients achieved complete remission (inactive UC) mean values of these biochemical parameter deceased significantly than the original values at the active disease and the values reached nearly the normal ranges. While in patients (9 patients) who did not achieved complete remission, there were moderate decreased serum levels of these biochemical markers but still higher values than the control group and they still have manifestations of active UC. The mean level of leptin was significantly decreased in active UC patients compared to the control group, while after the course of treatment in patients achieved complete remission (inactive UC) the mean value increased significantly (with mean value 10.1 ng/ml). Conclusion: Our data indicate that, the increased plasma resistin, TNF-α and ghrelin levels correlated with activity of ulcerative colitis and so they could predict the response to therapy and possibly reflect an acute-phase response due to inflammation more than the ordinary inflammatory markers. Resistin, TNF-α and ghrelin levels could be considered as an independent predictor of disease activity in patients with UC and may represent link between inflammation and UC. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(6):146-155]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Key words: ulcerative colitis, inflammatory markers, leptin, resistin, ghrelin, Tumor Necrosis factor alpha

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Degradation Hazard Assessment of Some Soils North Nile Delta, Egypt


M. A. Wahab1, M. A. Rasheed2 and R. A. Youssef3

Soils and Water Use Dept. National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., 12311, Giza, Egypt

1Prof Dr. Mohamed Ahmed Wahab, Email: mohamedwahab@

2Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abas Rasheed, Email:

3Prof. Dr. Refaat Abd El Kawey Youssef, Head of soils and water use Dept., Email:


Abstract: This study aimed to identify and quantitatively evaluate land degradation processes in the northern Nile Delta region. Aerial photographs were used to follow the geo-indicators of different degradation processes. GIS is used to build up a database model including required parameters for obtaining inputs to the model implemented by FAO/UNEP for global assessment of land degradation. The obtained results reveal that the high risk of physical (i.e. soil compaction and water logging) and chemical vulnerability (i.e. salinization and alkalinization) cover an area of 18487 hectare and 11008 hectare, respectively. The human induced land degradation hazards due to soil compaction is slight to high, however moderate to high for water logging. The degree of salinization and alkalinization is slight to high. [Nature and Science 2010;6(6):156-161]. (ISSN: 1545-0740).



Keywords: soils degradation, remote sensing, GIS, North Nile Delta

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Calculation of Creeping Flow Past a Sphere Using Direct Boundary Element Method


Ghulam Muhammad*, Nawazish Ali Shah

Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan. Corresponding Author, e-mail:


Abstract: In this paper, a steady, incompressible creeping flow past a sphere is calculated using direct boundary element method (DBEM). The surface of the sphere is discretized into quadrilateral elements over which the velocity distribution is calculated. The computed results are compared with analytical results. It is found that both these results are in good agreement. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):162-165], (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Boundary element method, Creeping flow past a sphere

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Replacement Value of Urea Treated Corn with Cobs for Concentrate Feed Mixture in Pregnant Ewes Rations


Hamad M.R; Safaa Nadi Abed-Elazeem; A.M. Aiad; S. A. Mohamed; and N. A. M. Soliman.

Animal Production Research Institute. Agriculture Research Center Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki,Giza,Egypt.


Abstract: Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding urea treated corn with cobs (UCC) as 50% (T2) or total replacement (T3) of pelleted concentrate feed mixture (CFM) compared to the conventional diets (CFM) on its production and reproduction performance. Rice straw was offered separately from the concentrate. Evaluation criteria included DM intake and utilization, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk yield, birth, weaning and marketing weight and feed efficiency. In the first trial, 27 Ossimi, ewes beginning 45 days before expected day of lambing were assigned to the control, T2 and T3 diets. The milk was measured on day 14 post partum and once every week up to the 12th week. The growth experimental periods were 137 day in duration using 15 weaned lambs. The selected lambs were allocated to the same three. In digestibility trial, 9 adult rams were allocated to three tested diets. In vivo digestibility, nutrients digestibility were different among diets. Feeding values (TDN) was greater for T3 followed by control diet whereas the highest DCP was recorded for T2. Feeding UCC had no effect on ruminal parameter in terms of pH, NH3 and total FVA`s across the sampling time except for NH3-N. The replacement of CFM by UCC resulted in insignificant higher (p≤0.05) lambs birth weight T3 (3.44 kg) but lower milk yield T3 (436 g /day). The lower birth weight lambs control group (p ≤ 0.05) tended to grow faster and perform higher weaning as compared to the treated group. In growth trail, feeding UCC diets reduced ADG approximately 10% compared to control. The results indicated that DM, TDN and DCP needed produce 1 kg gain almost 5 to 10% better than the corresponding items from T2 and T3. Replacement of CFM in pregnant and growing lamps rations with UCC would be cost effective as cost UCC is only at 60% less than cost of CFM. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):166-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keyword: Sheep, feed, urea treated Corn-cobs, digestibility, nutritive value, growth, milk yield, performance

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Application of multi-factorial experimental designs for optimization of biotin Production by a Rhizopus nigricans strain


Heba A. El-Refai1, Ehab R.El-Helow2, Magdy A. Amin3, Lotfy A. Sallam1, Hebat-Allah A. Salem1

1 Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egyp 2 Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt; 3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: The main objective of the present work is to demonstrate the efficiency of multi-factorial experimental designs to elucidate factors affecting the microbial production of biotin and to predict their optimum settings. A local Rhizopus nigricans strain was selected as a remarkable wild type biotin (vitamin H) producer. A preliminary medium formulation experiment suggested sucrose and peptone as appropriate donors of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur. An incomplete two level factorial experiment showed that concentrations of sucrose and peptone, as well as fungal growth stage are the most effective independent variables. A three level response surface methodology was then applied to accomplish a polynomial model which correlates the three key variables to biotin accumulation. When compared to the basal culture, the optimum condition predicted according to this model achieved about 10.4, 13.9, 5.7, 7.6 and 4.2-fold increases in production, product yield coefficient, specific product yield coefficient, productivity and specific productivity, respectively. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):179-187]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Biotin, vitamin H, Rhizopus nigricans, experimental designs, response surface methodology

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Some Physiological Factors Affecting Rapamycin Production by Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 29253


Sallama, L.A.R.; El-Refaia, A.F.; Osmanb, M.E.; Hamdya, A.A.; Ahmeda, E.M. and Mohameda, M.A.

a Natural and Microbial Products Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

b Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: The production of rapamycin, a potent antifungal, immunosuppressant and antitumor, by Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 29253 has been studied in eight culture media. Rapamycin titer varied considerably in the tested media. The medium composed of soy meal, glucose, ammonium sulphate and KH2PO4 was the optimal for rapamycin production and so selected for further optimization. Studies for formulating the best carbon and nitrogen nutrition for rapamycin biosynthesis revealed that replacing glucose by D (+) mannose and excluding ammonium sulphate with decreasing soy meal concentration to 20 g/l led to four fold increase in rapamycin titer. Also, the effect of KH2PO4 concentration and medium initial pH were elucidated and the best requirements have been specified as 5 g/l KH2PO4 and pH 6. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):188-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Rapamycin, Streptomyces hygroscopicus, Physiological studies

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The Substance of the Universe A Philosophical Concept about the Origin of the Universethe Great Magnetic Mass and Velocity


Sami Al Taher

Department of Agriculture, Cairo University, 13 Mohamed Tawfiq El Bakry, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt

Tel. 202-26242045;


Abstract: The subject of atom and its components of electrons, and protons, have always occupied my mind since my scholar days studying agriculture at Cairo University -1952. Scientists suggested that the atom components are just particles. Although they could measure these particles, they didn’t exactly define their nature. This paper depicts a philosophic concept of the nature. It is an invitation to reconsider the nature and the origin of the universe from a new perspective which might cause bewilderment to the reader. I realize that I don’t need to run naked in the street, like what Archimedes did before and I certainly realize that it might take time before scientists would consider or accept my perspective. This article describes The Substance of the UniverseA Philosophical Concept about the Origin of the UniverseThe Great Magnetic Mass and Velocity [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):195-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Atoms, Big Bang, Electricity, Energy, Heat, Magnetic Mass, Matter Measurements, Mother Magnet, Photons, Quantum, Universe, Velocity

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A trial for Induction of saprolegniosis in Mugel cephalus with special reference to biological control


Hussien, A.M. Osman; Ahmed, I.E. Noor El Deen; Waled, S.E. Solman

Hydrobiology Department, National Research Center Dokki,Egypt.


Abstract: A method was developed to experimentally induce saprolegniasis in Mugel cephalus fish exposed to physical stress, experimental descaling and descaling with wounding in addition of sudden and graduall drop of water temperature. Fish which descaled and wounded were mostly affected with saprolegniasis than the other group. Thus combination of descaling with wounding and sudden drop of water temperature were more effective in inducing saprolegniasis in Mugel cephalus Present study also investigate biological treatment of Mugel cephalus natural infected with saprolegniasis using intestinal non pathogenic aeromonas strain for control saprolegniasis in vitro (plate) and in vivo (treatment tank) as a bath of aeromonas suspension 2 times for 3 days. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):203-209]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Saprolgniasis; Mugel cephalus; temperature; biological treatment

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Effect of Annealing on DC Charge transport in Copper-Clay Cermets


O.A. Babalola*, A.B. Alabi and T. Akomolafe.

Physics Department, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.


Abstract: The influence of the annealing schedule on direct current charge transport of Copper-Clay based cermets is reported here. The cermets are cylindrical rods of constant 3.0mm diameter and varying lengths ranging between 5.0 mm and 25 mm. The cermets were fabricated by employing a compaction method that uses a mould at a constant pressure of 6.9´10 8 N/m2 on various Cu-Clay compositions ranging between 70 and 95 vol.% Cu. The cermets were subjected to varying peak annealing temperatures ranging between 100 and 1000 0C and for annealing time tf ranging from 30 minutes to 180 minutes before being furnace-cooled to room temperature. Results showed that the annealing schedule greatly affects the resistivity, size-effect and Temperature coefficient of Resistance (TCR). The electrical properties showed that sintering is complete irrespective of the annealing temperature between 300 and 1000 oC when the annealing time tf exceeds 120 minutes. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):210-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Cermet; Annealing; Composite; Clay; Size Effect

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Genetic Analysis between and within Three Egyptian Water Buffalo Populations Using RAPD-PCR


Sekena H.Abdel-Aziem; Lamiaa M Salem.; Mohamed S Hassanane.; Karima F. Mahrous

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.



Abstract: The water buffalo represents an important part of animal production in Egypt It is economically a very important farm animal, genetic improvement of these animals is of economic importance, especially in reproductive performance and quantity of meat and milk. Genetic similarity and polymorphisms among the three Egyptian water buffalo populations (El-Delta, Upper and Lower Egypt) were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Out of fifteen primers screened using DNA samples of the three populations, thirteen primers generated reproducible and distinct to amplify DNA fragments in these three populations. RAPD patterns with a level of polymorphism were detected among populations. The results showed that a total of 126 loci were amplified and 106 polymorphic bands (84.13%) were produced. The genetic diversity had the highest value (0.2654) in El-Delta and the lowest value (0.2590) in Upper Egypt. This result confirms the closer between the three Egyptian population buffaloes. The dendrogram of genetic relationship based on overall RAPD primers confirmed the movement of Egyptian buffaloes between El-Delta and Upper, Lower Egypt. The results confirms that the Egyptian buffaloes are belongs to one breed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):217-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: water buffalo, RAPD-PCR, genetic diversity, Egypt

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Women Physical Aggression (A Review)


Ali Edalati 1, Ma’rof Redzuan2


1. Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail:; Tel :+60122793206

2. Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail:; Tel: +603-89467064



Abstract: Female aggression is a serious problem in most societies and is increasing these days in families. Female aggression has a negative effect on women as offender, their partners, children, and society in general. This paper aims to review the articles based on research that have been done on females’ physical aggression. It attempts to show that females are also physically aggressive as males. According to the existing literatures, the rate of females’ physical aggression is equal to those of males, and in some studies it is found to be higher than males. Based on these findings, it is concluded the rate of females’ physical aggression is either equal to or higher than males, but not necessarily less than males. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):227-235]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Wives Aggression, Female Aggression, Physical Aggression, Theories of Aggression

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Bioavailability of Orbifloxacin in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and its efficacy in control of induced Edwardsiellosis


M. D. Ibrahem1† A. H. Atta2; and M. A. Shalaby3

1Department of Fish Disease and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faulty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt


Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the Pharmacokinetics of Orbifloxacin in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and its efficacy in control of induced Edwardsiellosis caused by Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda), and to estimate its tissue distribution. Safety test, in vitro determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of orbifloxacin against E. tarda isolate; in addition to; the in vivo efficacy of orbifloxacin in treating Edwardsiellosis at 2 stages; the early stage 7 days and late stage 15 days post infection. The results showed that orbifloxacin is safe for Catfish at concentrations up to 50 mg/L in water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of orbifloxacin against E. tarda isolate was 0.016 mg/L with MIC50 and MIC90 equal to 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L respectively. Almost 100% of the infected fish recovered after treatment with Orbifloxacin for 72 hours in early stage of the disease with complete disappearance of clinical signs. No Edwardsiella could be isolated from second group 96 hours post treatment; although the treated fish showed unhealed skin lesions, results of liver dysfunction and tissue alterations were recorded. Orbifloxacin residues in Catfish muscles decreased gradually after cessation of treatment and disappear by day 10 post-treatment in the first group. In conclusion orbifloxacin can be awaited as effective antibacterial agent for control of edwardsiellosis caused by E. tarda. The treatment is much more successful when initiated at the earliest time of infection. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):236-244]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Bioavailability, Edwardsiella tarda, African sharptooth catfish, Liver function tests, histopathology

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Optimization of microbial biomass production as biocontrol agent against root knot nematode on faba plants


Zeinat, Kamel M., 1; Nagwa, M. Atef1; El-Sayed, S.A.2 and Abd El-Wahab G.S.3

1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza – Egypt

2 Soils, Water, Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt

3 National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Egypt


Abstract: Our objective was to optimize nutritional and environmental conditions of the isolated Serratia marcescens Ba-2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Ba-11 for biomass production and to evaluate the bio-control agents against the root knot disease caused by Meloidogyne incognita on Faba bean plants under greenhouse conditions. Glycerol at 10.2 g/L and peptone as a nitrogen source were the most suitable for biomass and antagonistic efficiency of S. marcescens or P. fluorescens against Meloidogyne sp. Cultures of S. marcescens and P. fluorescens supplemented with 10 g/L peptone, reduced larvae to 91% and 95% respectively. Optimum biomass and antagonistic activity of either bacteria against larvae was at pH 7.6, and incubation temperature at 30oC. 100% reduction of larval density was achieved when S. marcescens or P. fluorescens cultures were shaken at 120 and 160 rpm respectively. S. marcescens and P. fluorescens were very effective as biocontrol agaents to reduce the root – knot nematodes. Our data also indicate a marked effect of the biocontrol agents and Rhizobia on the growth response of faba plants. The obtained results showed that both bacterial treatments significantly increased the growth parameters as well as shoot and root dry weights and number of pods. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(6):245-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Biological control, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, root-knot nematode, rhizobia

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Resistin and Obesity- Associated Insulin Resistance in Children


Abdelghaffar S1, Hafez MH1, Shaaban FA2, Abou Esmail LA3, Salama SI4; Rashed RG 2

1 Pediatric Dept. Cairo University; 2Child health Dept. National Research Center; 3 Clinical and Chemical Pathology Dept, National Research Center; 4Community Medicine Dept, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: Obesity, defined as excess body fat, is frequently accompanied by insulin resistance. It was hypothesized that resistin links obesity with insulin resistance and diabetes, however, debate exists about its possible role. The aim of this study was to measure serum resistin level in obese non diabetic children as well as to evaluate insulin resistance in them. It also aimed at exploring the possible correlation between serum resistin level, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory parameters in obese children. This study is a cross sectional study that comprised 45 children and adolescents with simple exogenous obesity and 30 apparently healthy non-obese age and sex matched children as control group. For each subject the following was performed: history taking, anthropometric measurements including body weight, height, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist hip ratio, skin folds thickness measurements (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) and calculation of body fat. Clinical examination and pubertal assessment were performed. Laboratory investigations including fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin and resistin using ELISA technique. Insulin resistance was estimated by using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Serum resistin levels did not significantly differ between cases (6.7 ng/ml ±3.44) and (6.6 ng/ml ±2.47), (p>0.05). Fasting insulin and HOMA were significantly higher in obese children than controls, (p < 0.001 for both). About 78% of obese children had insulin resistance (high HOMA), 66.7% had high fasting insulin, 13.3% high resistin, 31.1 % had acanthosis nigricans and 8.9% had hypertension. A significant positive correlation was found between serum resistin levels and each of fasting insulin and HOMA, (p<0.001 for both). No significant correlation was found between serum resistin, HOMA and each of BMI, body fat percentage & waist circumference, (p>0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and each of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, (p< 0.001 & < 0.05 respectively). The present study confirm the link between resistin level and insulin resistance in obese children, however it couldn’t prove whether high or low resistin level is more related to insulin resistance. A significant positive correlation was found between serum resistin levels and each of fasting insulin and HOMA. No significant correlation was found between serum resistin, HOMA and each of BMI, body fat percentage & waist circumference. HOMA was found to be a significant marker for early detection of insulin resistance in obese and overweight children. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):256-266]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Resistin- insulin- insulin resistance- HOMA- obesity- children- acanthosis nigricans

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Adsorption Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using biopolymer oak sawdust composite

M.M. Abd El-Latif1, Amal M. Ibrahim2, M.F. El-Kady1


1. Fabrication Technology Department, Institute of advanced technology and New Materials, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt

2. Surface Chemistry and Catalysis Laboratory, Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract: Oak sawdust (OSD), furniture industrial waste was chemically treated with 0.1N NaOH to give hydrolyzed oak sawdust (HOSD) which was immobilized on alginate biopolymer. Hydrolyzed oak sawdust composite (HOSDC) was utilized as low-cost adsorbent to remove basic dye (methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution. HOSD and HOSDC were characterized by using Scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectrometer analysis (FTIR). The adsorption of (MB), whose isotherms are modeled according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin, were studied at a variety of physical and chemical conditions. The data fitted very well with Freundlich isotherm. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion mechanism, showed that kinetic data follow closely pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG◦), standard enthalpy (ΔH◦), standard entropy (ΔS◦), and the activation energy (Ea) were calculated. The adsorption process of MB dye onto HOSDC was found to be spontaneous and endothermic process. Furthermore, a single-stage batch adsorber was designed for the removal of methylene blue by HOSDC based on the equilibrium data obtained. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(6):267-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).



Keywords: Methylene blue; Sorption isotherms; Kinetics; thermodynamics; Sawdust; Binding polymers

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The manuscripts of this issue online first for peer-review started from April 10, 2010. 
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