Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 9, Cumulated No. 30, September 25, 2010

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0609

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Comparative Analysis of ATC Probabilistic Methods

 

Mojgan Hojabri 1, Hashim Hizam1, Norman Mariun1, Senan Mahmood Abdullah 1

 

1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia mojgan.hojabri@gmail.com

 

Abstract - The price of power transfer between two areas is a key issue between buyers and sellers in the power market which is directly related to the ATC deal and security. ATC deal is computed by Deterministic methods and ATC security presented by probabilistic methods. Since the ATC is used for operation or planning of power system, ATC can be determined by Deterministic or Probabilistic methods. In this paper, existing probabilistic methods which could predict ATC for power system planning are reviewed and compared. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.01

Keywords: Available transfer capability (ATC), Transmission capability margins, Power market, Power system planning

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2

Using Some Growth Retardants for Inhibition of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV)

 

Mohamed, E.F.

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University

 

Abstract: The current study was carried out to evaluate the effect of some growth retardants such as alar, ethrel, cycocel and paclobutrazol with different concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm.) on maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, growth retardants reduced the occurrence of mosaic symptoms on maize plants. These percentages were reduced to 40%. Paclobutrazol was the most effective treatment giving mosaic symptoms percentages reached to 48, 44, 44 and 40 % when used with concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm respectively. On a statistical basis, Paclobutrazol caused a significant reduction in the mosaic symptoms percentages when used with a concentration of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm. While cycocel caused a significant reduction in the mosaic symptoms percentages, only, when used with a concentration of 200 ppm. So, Paclobutrazol and cycocel was more effective in reducing the mosaic symptoms produced by MDMV on maize plants than other treatments. In pre-inoculation experiment, all tested growth retardants reduced the mosaic symptoms percentages. These percentages were reduced to 32%. Paclobutrazol was the most effective treatment giving mosaic symptoms percentages reached to 40, 36, 36 and 32 % when used with concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm respectively. On a statistical basis, Paclobutrazol and cycocel caused a significant reduction in the mosaic symptoms percentages when used with a concentration of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm. While ethrel caused a significant reduction in the mosaic symptoms percentages, only, when used with a concentration of 200 ppm. In post-inoculation experiment, all tested growth retardants reduced the mosaic symptoms percentages (infectivity of MDMV). These percentages were reduced to 40%. Paclobutrazol was the most effective treatment giving mosaic symptoms percentages reached to 56, 52, 52 and 40 % when used with concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm respectively. On a statistical basis, Paclobutrazol caused a significant reduction in the mosaic symptoms percentages, only, when used with a concentration of 200 ppm. Pre-inoculation treatment was more effective in reducing virus infectivity than post-inoculation treatment. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):5-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.02

 Key words: Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), potyviruses, alar, ethrel, cycocel, paclobutrazol and growth retardants

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3

Response of Wheat to Foliar Spray with Urea and Micronutrients

 

Yassen, A.*1.; Abou El-Nour, E.A.A.2.; and Shedeed. S.1

 

Plant Nutrition Department 1, Technology fertilization Dep. 2 National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 *azimyassen@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Wheat (Triticm aestivum L.) plants were cultivated during two successive seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009). The experiments were conducting at Qualubia Governorate, Egypt. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of foliar spraying urea (1%) and different treatment of micronutrients (Fe, Zn ,Mn ) on growth and chemical constituents of wheat yield . Results showed that additional nitrogen foliar spray (1% urea) gave significant increase in 1000-grain weight, nitrogen concentration and uptake in both grain and straw and protein yield as compared with the control. Results also revealed that Spraying wheat plant with (1% urea) showed marked increment in micronutrients concentration and uptake. Concerning the effect of spraying micronutrients foliar spray and the interaction, results showed positive marked effects on all the aforementioned parameters in addition to the significant increment of grain and straw yields. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):14-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.03

Key Words: Wheat plant – foliar urea – micronutrients – yield – content - uptake

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4

Digital Geopedological Mapping of Some Study Areas in Western Desert, Egypt

 

M. A. Rasheed 1, M. A. Wahab 2 and R. A. Youssef 3

Soils & Water Use Dept. National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., 12311, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Updated soil surveys are considered quite helpful for planning, developing monitoring and for the sustainable management of the limited agricultural soils available. Information about soil properties and behavior over tracts of land is vital for making decisions on proper land use and management, environmental protection, and land use planning. This has been the motivation for systematic soil surveys, soil survey interpretations, and maps of soil properties required by empirical or process models. Egypt has directed major efforts to explore the natural resources in the Western Desert Oases. Thus, storing data files in a digital geographically correlated format is considered of prime importance for the successful management of the natural resources in the study area of Bahariya oasis and for a better land use planning. Some previous studies were done on it, but they have not been integrated or applied by the decision makers. One of the main aims of this study is to identify, characterize and map the major soils in the study area(s) following a geopedologic approach. Therefore, all mapping units were digitized in vector mode, and then those digitized maps were loaded into ArcView GIS system for the followed geo-reference spatial analysis. In this research, based on US Soil Taxonomy and the manifested information about morphological features together with the relevant soil properties, soils of the studied areas fit into two main orders: Entisols and Aridisols and nine taxonomic units (at sub group level) were identified. Nevertheless, the relation between the different soils taxonomic and the physiographic mapping units for each area is obviously occurred. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):23-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.04

Keywords: physiographic maps, GIS, geomorphologic approach, geopedologic approach

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5

RAPD and Protein Markers for Resistance to PVY in Potato Cultivars

 

Jamal Sabir

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. jsabir@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Nine potato cultivars were cultivated over three successive seasons and were systemically infected with potato virus y (PVY). DAS-ELISA detected the presence of the virus in the nine inoculated cultivars infected plants were categorized according to their degree of infection. SDS-PAGE protein analysis was performed to characterize the resistant cultivars and to detect the markers linked to PVY resistance. Consequently, three markers for PVY resistance were detected in Baraka, Pecasso, Provento, Ditta and Gygant. RAPD analysis of five cultivars showed a total of 55 amplified fragments ranging in size from 99 to 1320 bp using four random primers, B-01, B-07, B-09 and C-20 whereas 36 fragments were polymorphic and the other amplified fragments were commonly detected. The four primers showed mean polymorphic percentage with 65%, whereas the polymorphic percentage of primer B-01 recorded the highest percentage (77%) and primer 2 displayed the lowest percentage (55%). Among the 36 polymorphic bands, 17 were specific markers to the resistance of PVY with a total average of 31%. The five potato cultivars were varied considerably in their PVY-resistant markers, whereas Gygant and Mondial revealed the highest number with six markers, followed by Baraka and Pecasso with five markers, while Slaney revealed four markers. The results confirmed that protein and RAPD analyses could be used as marker assisted selection (MAS) in potato breeding programs to predict for the most resistant cultivars which can be used in breeding programs. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):30-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.05

Keywords: Potato cultivars, PVY, SDS-PAGE and RAPD-markers

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6

Genetic Effects of Interferon and Ribavirin in Albino Mice

 

*Hanaa M. Roshdy and Ekram S. Ahmed

Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

*Hana-amr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The resent study was conducted to investigate the effects of interferon alfa-2a or -2b separately and in combination with ribavirin in albino mice. Adult male mice were divided into nine groups, the 1st and 2nd groups were administered subcutaneously with interferon alfa-2a (0.03 and 0.05 IU/kg/week, respectively), the 3rd and 4th groups were administered subcutaneously with interferon alfa-2b (0.03 and 0.05 IU /kg/week, respectively), the 5th and 6lh groups were administered subcutaneously with interferon alfa-2a (0.03 and 0.05 IU/kg/week, respectively) plus administered orally with ribavirin (0.35 mg/kg/day), the 7th and 8th groups were administered subcutaneously with interferon alfa-2b (0.03and 0.05 IU/kg/week, respectively) plus ribavirin (0.35 mg/kg/day) and the 9th group was considered as a control group. The treated males with interferons for three months were mated with untreated females. On day 18 of gestation, the pregnant females and treated males were sacrificed and examined for sperm abnormalities, chromosomal aberrations and embryonic malformations. It was found that the separately treatments with interferon alfa-2a and -2b increased significantly the sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations as well as the embryo-toxic effect; that was evident by total number of implantations, dead and live embryos; comparing with the control group. While in the combined treatments with interferon alfa-2a or -2b plus ribavirin, there was a highly significant increase in the sperm abnormalities, chromosomal aberrations, number of implantation, dead and live embryos when compared with the control. From this finding, it was shown that interferon alfa-2a and -2b have significant effects in treated mice and their fetuses. Also, the results of this work indicated that the combination between interferon alfa-2a or -2b plus ribavirin had a highly significant increase in sperm abnormalities, chromosomal aberrations and embryo toxic effects in treated mice and their embryos. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):43-51]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.06

Key words: Interferon alfa-2a and -2b, ribavirin, sperm abnormality, mice, embryos

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7

SUPPLY RESPONSE OF RUBBER FARMERS IN NIGERIA: AN APPLICATION OF VECTOR ERROR CORRECTION MODEL

 

1C.S. Mesike, 2R.N. Okoh, and 2O.E. Inoni

1Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB 1049, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria

sammesike@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: The supply response of rubber farmers to prices and other factors in Nigeria was analyze using co-integration and vector error correction technique. The analysis was carried out on time series data collected from 1970 to 2008. The data where however tested for their time series characteristics using ADF tests. Preliminary analysis suggested that estimations based on their levels might be spurious as the results indicated that all the variables in the model were not stationary at their levels. Further results indicated that producers prices and the structural break significantly affected the supply of rubber. Response of rubber farmers to price were low with an estimated elasticity of 0.373 in the short-run and 0.204 in the long-run due to price sustainability and the emergence of other supply determinants indicating significant production adjustments based on expected prices. Policy efforts in promoting sustainable marketing outlets and promoting high value and high quality products for export were suggested in understanding farmers’ responses to incentive changes. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):52-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.07

Key words: supply response, vector error correction, rubber, price elasticities, Nigeria

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8

The Prevalence of Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Outbreaks in Some Chicken Farms. I. Spotlight on the Status of IB Outbraks in Some Chicken Flocks.

 

*Mahgoub, K.M.; **A.A. Bassiouni; **Manal A.Afify and **Nagwa Rabie, S.

*National Research Center, ** Fac. of Vet. Medicine, Cairo University

 

Abstract: Twenty five isolates of IBV were isolated from 36 broiler, layer and breeder chicken farms collected from 13 governorates during 2 years started from January 2003. Sixteen farms were vaccinated against IB, and nine farms were not vaccinated. The cardinal signs of the disease in layers were drop in egg production, with watery albumen, inferior (pale-misshape shell) eggs, un-noticed respiratory distress and pectoral myopathy, and those in broilers were respiratory distress, renal urate deposition and death beyond four weeks of age (late mortality). The viruses were isolated and identified by chicken embryo, and CEK cell culture inoculation. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):57-70]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.08

Keywords: Infectious Bronchitis (IB); Chicken; Farms; Flocks

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The Prevalence of Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Outbreaks in Some Chicken Farms. II. Molecular Characterisation of Field Isolates IB Virus.

 

*Mahgoub, K.M.; **Khaphagy, A ***A.A. Bassiouni; **Manal A.Afify and **Nagwa Rabie, S.

*National Res. Center, ** Animal Research Institute*** Fac. of Vet. Med., Cairo Univ.

 

Abstract: Twenty five isolates of IBV were isolated from 36 broiler, layer and breeder chicken farms collected from 13 governorates during 2 years started from January 2003. The viruses were isolated and identified previously by chicken embryo, CEK cell culture inoculation and now by RT-PCR applied on RNA of IBVs.. Four variants isolates of IBV were choised from the previous field isolates from three broiler farms and one from layer farm. All the examined farms were vaccinated using the commercial live IB-H120 vaccine in addition to the IB-inactivated vaccine in the layer farm. Typing of the present isolates based on sequensing of a part of the S1 gene, revealed four IBVs could be aligned and matched with homology to Asia, Europe, USA and Middle East strains. Four groups of one-day-old SPF chicks were inoculated with the four variants IBV isolates at 1 day old to test the virulence of those isolates. The results at 2 weeks pi revealed that all isolates were able to induce serological resposne postinfection, respiratory distress and depression commenced at 24 hours postinfection. 20% and 100% mortality was recorded with isolates 4 and 23; respectively. Assessment of pathogenicity index and pathotyping (at the end of observation period “2wk-pi”), categorized to tested 4 isoaltes (4, 16,18, 23) into three isoaltes of high virulent (4, 18 and 23), and one isolate of intermediate virulent (16). About 50% reduction in body weight as recorded with the four IBV isolates 2 wk postinfection. Kidney lesions were grossly, nephritis-nephrosis with urate deposition in ureters, while microscopic lesions were increased the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Tracheal lesions were grossly increased amount of mucin, while microscopic lesions were edema of mucosa and inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):71-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.09

Keywords: Infectious Bronchitis (IB); Outbreaks; Chicken Farms; Molecular Characterisation; Field Isolates

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The Prevalence of Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Outbreaks in Some Chicken Farms. III. Cross Protection of Vaccinated Chickens Versus Field IB Virus.

 

*Mahgoub, K.M.; ***A.A. Bassiouni; **Manal A.Afify and **Rabie, S. Nagwa

*National Res. Center, *** Fac. of Vet. Med., Cairo Univ.

 

Abstract: Four groups of one-day-old SPF chicks were inoculated with the four variants IBV (previously isolated) isolates at 1 day old to study the virulence of these isolates. The results at 2 weeks pi revealed that all isolates were able to induce serological resposne postinfection, respiratory distress and depression commenced at 24 hours postinfection. 20% and 100% mortality was recorded with isolates 4 and 23; respectively. Assessment of pathogenicity index and pathotyping (at the end of observation period “2wk-pi”), categorized the 4 tested isoaltes (4, 16,18, 23) into three isoaltes of high virulence (4, 18 and 23), and one isolate of intermediate virulence (16). About 50% reduction in body weight was recorded with the four IBV isolates 2 wk postinfection. Kidney lesions were nephritis-nephrosis with urate deposition in ureters, while microscopic lesions were associated with increase in the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Tracheal lesions recorded as increase the amount of mucin, while microscopic lesions were edema of mucosa and inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. The regime of administering the infectious bronchitis (IB) live commercial H120 vaccine (Massachusetts serotype) at 1 day old SPF chicks, and the heterologous challenge with four variants (serotypes) at 4 weeks of age, was found to be poorly effective in protecting the respiratory tract of SPF chickens with protection percentages of 8.1%, 55%, 10.5% and 12.6% corresponding to field isolates of IBV 4, 16, 18 and 23; respectively. Protection was measured by assessing ciliary activity of the tracheal epithelium following challenge. It is suggested that the use of the live IB-H120 vaccine will not always broaden the protection against challenge with IB multiple serotypes isolated from Egypt. Therefore it is necessary to develop a new IB vaccines, either locally prepared or imported to overcome any new IB serotype that were emerged, through modifying vaccination strategies to make them appropriate to the field situation. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):94-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.10

Keywords: Prevalence; Infectious Bronchitis (IB); Chicken; Farms; Vaccinate; IB Virus

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Modified Rotation Joint Connection Unite Versus Double Aker Clasp used for Bracing of Maxillary unilateral Free End Removable Partial Dentures (In Vitro Analysis of Stresses on Principle Abutments and Edentulous Ridge)

 

Emiel A. M. Hanna*1 and Salah A. F. Hegazy2

1Prosthodontic Department, 6 October University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Prosthodontic Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

*Hanayousef_egypt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the stresses transmitted to the principal abutment teeth and residual ridge. In maxillary class II Kennedy classification removable partial denture (RPD) using two different bracing designs on the tooth supported side used in conjunction with extracoronal attachment on the tooth tissue supported side. Material and methods: Twenty duplicates of educational casts of maxillary class B Kennedy classification RPD were constructed. According to the bracing design used, the casts were classified into two equal groups, each group consists often casts. Group I design with extra coronal attachment toward the tissue side ad double Akers clasp on the tooth supported side. Group II with extra coronal attachment toward the tooth tissue side and modified rotation joint in the intact side. Strain gauges were used to record the micro stresses when a load of 60 N applied for both groups. Results; The results showed that there was statistically highly significant differences for the recorded micro stresses far group II than group I on the principle abutments and the residual ridge from the buccopalatal and mesiodistal directions. Conclusion: Modified rotation joint connection unite is a promising bracing approach in the management of unmodified unilateral free end saddles. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):109-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.11

Keywords: Joint Connection; Unite Versus Double Aker Clasp; Maxillary; Dentures

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Effect of Joint Surface Contours on the Transverse and Impact Strength of Denture Base Resin Repaired by Various Methods. An In Vitro Study.

 

Emiel A. Hanna*; Farhan Khalid Shah.2 and Ashraf A. Gebreel2

1Prosthodontic Department, 6 October University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Prosthodontics Department. College of Dentistry, King Khalid University Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

*Hanayousef_egypt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the study: This study investigated the transverse strength and estimate the impact resistance of repaired acrylic resin with different joints form reinforced with glass fibers and cured with different methods. Material and Method: Standard heat cure acrylic resin specimens were fabricated according to ADA specification No. 12 and were repaired with different methods. Repair was carried out by heat polymerization, auto polymerizing resin using pressure pot and auto polymerizing resin with glass fibers (with and without treatment by silane coupling agent). Samples were given different joint surface contour namely butt and 450 bevel. A total of 108 samples were prepared for this study. Transverse and impact strength were tested using Instron universal testing machine and Izod impact tester. Results: Irrespective of the method of repair, the transverse and impact strength of the test specimens decreased after repair except for the Group reinforced with glass fiber after treatment with silane coupling agent, having 450 bevel joint, tested for Impact strength which showed higher strength than the control. Conclusion: The transverse and impact strength values after repair were highest with auto polymerizing resin with glass fibers after treatment with silane coupling agent, having 450 bevel joint. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):115-125]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.12

Keywords: Joint Surface; Impact Strength; Denture Base Resin; Vitro Study

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Effects of Chemical Reaction and Heat Radiation on the MHD Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid Through a Porous Medium Over a Horizontal Stretching Flat Plate

 

Nabil T. M. Eldabe a, A. G. Elsaka b, A. E. Radwan b and Magdy A. M. Eltaweel b

a Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt.

b Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: This paper presents a study of the Magnetohydrodynamic flow of non-Newtonian incompressible fluid obeying (Walters' liquid) model with mass and heat transfer over an infinite porous horizontal stretching sheet under radiation, heat generation (absorption) and chemical reaction. The governing differential equations which describe the motion of the problem are converted into dimensionless formulas by using a similarity transformation method and solved analytically by using The Kummer’s function. The parameters of viscoelastic dissipation, internal heat generation /absorption, constant magnetic field, radiation, chemical reaction and permeability of the porous medium are included and discussed numerically in the governing equations of momentum, energy and concentration. The effects of the elasticity, porosity, heat, radiation, reaction effect and magnetic interaction parameters with Eckert, Prandtl and Schmidt numbers on the velocity, temperature (in the two cases PST and PHF) and concentration distributions have been discussed and illustrated graphically. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):126-136]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.13

Keywords: Chemical Reaction; Heat Radiation; Viscoelastic Fluid; Flat Plate

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Characterization of Nano/Micro Size Copper Powder

Bi-Product of Electropolishing process

 

A.M. Awad 1*, Aref M. E. Abd-El – Rahman 2 and M. Abdel Rafea 2

1Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. 2 Advanced Technology and New Materials Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt

* e-mail: awadx1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: Ultra fine copper particles were produced as a bi-product during electropolishing of copper surface. It was formed as a result of anodic oxidation of copper surface, where copper was fixed as anode and lead as cathode. It was carried out by using an electrolytic cell containing phosphoric acid 55% as the electrolytic solution. Both electrodes were connected to DC power supply to allow an electric current to pass through the solution. Anodic dissolution of copper electrode was occurred according to the applied electric potential, then Cu ions was attracted and neutralized at the surface of cathode where it was deposited in the bottom of the cell. The size of copper particles was measured by different angles SDP intensity analysis, and they were characterized by EDX and SEM analysis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):137-143]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.14

Key words: Electropolishing, Ultra fine copper, Surface leveling, Roughness, Smoothness

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An Evaluation of waste management in Botswana: Achievements and Challenges

 

Ednah Kgosiesele 1, Luo Zhaohui 1

1. School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) Lumo Road 388, Wuhan City, 430074 Hubei Province, P.R. China.

gookiz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper examines some of the developments in waste management that are taking place in Botswana based on government documentation and other relevant work on the subject. It explores the main achievements the country has made and highlights on some of the challenges of waste management in the country. Botswana has experienced increased waste generation due to increased population that outweighs the country’s capacity to deal with increased volumes of waste and the situation has been worsened by lack of adequate financial, technical, technological, and human resources to deal with the problem. There have been a number of recent developments that show that waste disposal is headed in the right direction and that there is the will to bring about a well regulated, well operated waste management industry in Botswana. The current achievements could serve as a model of what can be achieved by a developing country that sets out to improve the quality of life of its citizens by controlling and adequately disposing of its waste. It is suggested that environmental education be prioritized, national database on the volumes of wastes generated in the country be built and environmental legislation be strengthened. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):144-150]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.15

Keywords: Botswana, waste management, achievement, challenges, population, legislation, education

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The Allelopathic Effect of Mango Leaves on the Growth and Propagative Capacity of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.)

 

*El-Rokiek, Kowthar G; Rafat. R. El-Masry; Nadia K. Messiha and Salah A. Ahmed

Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*ahmed_ezat2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two Pot experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of National Research Center; Egypt during two successive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of mango leaves on growth and propagative capacity of purple nutsedge. Two experiments were carried out include soil treatments with mango leaf extract (weekly for one month) at concentrations, 0 5; 10, 15 and 25%. The second experiment included soil treatments with mango leaf powder at the rate of, 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100g/kg soil. Mango leaf extract as well as the powder exhibited different degree of inhibition in purple nutsedge growth after 30 and 75 days from sowing according to the concentration of the aqueous extract and the rate of mango leaf powder. The results indicated significant reduction in number of mother shoot; number of daughter shoots as well as dry weight of underground organs. Maximum inhibition was recorded by 25% leaf extract. Moreover; soil treatment with mango leaf powder showed significant reduction in dry weight of foliage and underground organs. The highest inhibitions were observed by using 80 and 100 g/kg soil of mango leaf powder. In general, non significant differences were found between inhibitions caused by 80 and 100g/kg soil. The total phenols in foliage and underground organs of purple nutsedge revealed that the inhibitory effects were concomitant with the accumulation of total phenols compared to controls. A high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that caffeic acid, ferulic acid; coumaric acid, benzoic acid; vanelic, chlorogenic; gallic; hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid were present in mango leaf extract. In general; mango leaves could be used as a safety tool to suppress purple nutsedge growth. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):151-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.16

Keywords: Cyperus rotundus; Phenolic acids; Allelopathy; Mango leaves

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Energy Intake, Diet Composition among Low Social Class Overweight and Obese Egyptian Adolescents

 

Mai M. Youssef*, Manal A. Mohsen*, Neveen H. Abou El-Soud**, Yuser A. Kazem***

*Child Health Department, Medical Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt

**Complementary Medicine Department, Medical Division, National Research

Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt

***Clinical Nutrition, Medical Division, National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt. manalmohsen@hotmail.co.uk

 

Abstract: Obesity has become a leading global public health problem. Better understanding of dietary habits and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. This study aims to compare dietary intakes and physical activity in normal weight, overweight and obese Egyptian adolescent females of low social class. It entails a case-control cross-sectional study that included 129 girls (39 obese, 30 over weights, and 60 normal weights). Their food and energy intake was analyzed. Exercise activity and sedentary behaviors were recorded. Results revealed that overweight and obese daily consumed more grams of macronutrients (carbohydrates, fat and protein) with high fat percentage. Vitamin C and calcium intake was low (P<0.05). Despite a high incidence of skipping breakfast, they had more than three meals per day (P<0.05). They used to eat junk food at least once daily, fast food more than 2 times per week and their daily food intake does not regularly include fresh vegetables and fruits (P<0.05). They used to spend long time watching TV or playing computer games (P<0.05). This piece of work recommends inviting health professionals and parents to encourage Egyptian adolescents to eat balanced regular meals and to get use to active lifestyle. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):160-168]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.17

Keywords: Obesity, overweight, adolescence, diet, macronutrients, micronutrients, physical lifestyle, television watching, playing computer games

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Enhancement of the Chitinolytic Properties of Azospirillum Strain against Plant Pathogens via Transformation.

 

El-Hamshary, O.I.M.1, Gebally, O. El-Gebally 1; Abou-El-Khier, Z.A.2 ; Arafa, R. A2 and Mousa, Sh. A.1

1 Microbial Genetics Department, National Research Centre, El Behoth St., 12311-Doki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty. Of Science, AL- Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt. olaelhamshary@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Antagonistic rhizobacteria were identified using biochemical profiling as Pseudomonas aeroginosa (D), Azospirillum sp. in our previous study. In this study, three Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (D) strains were described for their plasmid content. Different plasmid profiles were found. Plasmid numbers were ranged from one to five per tested strains. Five plasmids have been found in P. aeruginosa (D) strain, four plasmids were found in A. lipoferum (N) strain and one plasmid with the same size was found in each of A. brasilense (B) and (T) isolates. Plasmid curing was performed to locate the antagonistic properties on plasmids or bacterial chromosomes. The results of antagonistic test against Fusarium solani indicated that seven cured colonies of A. brasilense (T) strain were still showing antagonistic activity as the original strain, only one cured colony showed greater antagonistic activity. The A. lipoferum (N) colonies lacking plasmid showed a stronger antagonistic activity against tested pathogen than the original ones. Bacterial transformation technique was performed to transfer the chi -gene responsible for chitinase enzyme activity from Bacillus cereus Bc Nv-29 to Azospirillum lipoferum (N) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (D). Transformants harboring chitinase gene were produced by about 2% of treated bacterial cells in both cases. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):169-176]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.18

Keywords: Plasmid profile, plasmid curing, antagonism test and transformation

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Oxidative Stress as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Obese Egyptian Adolescents

 

1Nayera El-morsi Hassan, 2*Amany El Wakkad, 3Lobna Sherif, 3Azza Abd ElShaheed, 2Salwa El Zayat, and 2Heba Sebii.

1Anthrobology Dept., 2Medical Physiology Dept., 3Child Health Dept., National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. *amany.elwakkd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prevalence and magnitude of obesity in children and adolescent has increased dramatically over the last 20-30 years in developing countries. Oxidative stress was believed to be a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disorders that associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adiposity on established Oxidative stress as a cardiovascular risk factors in Egyptian adolescent. Body mass index and waist circumference were taken as markers for obesity. According to lipid profile, obese adolescents were divided into group I &group II with abnormal and normal lipid profile respectively. The oxidative stress in the first group (group I) was evaluated by measuring oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox LDL), the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). There were a high significant increase in ox-LDL, SOD (P<0.01) which was positively correlated (P<0.01) with the high significant increase of total cholesterol (TC) (P<0.001), Triglyceride (TG) (P<0.001) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P<0.001) in comparison with the second group (group II). There were a positive correlation (P<0.01) between oxLDL, SOD, GPx with the body mass index and waist circumference. There was a negative correlation of HDL and all studied parameters (P<0.05) in the first group. As a conclusion, this study worn us that the obese children are candidate for future cardiovascular diseases and measurement for reducing their weight is very important target. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):177-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.19

Key words: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, adolescents

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Protein Bands Homologies and the Evolution of Ploidy in Some Species of Genus Panicum L. Poaceae

 

Soliman A. Haroun

Department of Botany, college of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

Email: solimanharoun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Total of 15 protein bands were identified in 23 accessions belongs to 11 species of genus Panicum investigated belonging three ploidy levels. The bands vary in number and positions between accessions even within the same species. Diploids have at least number of bands up to 4. Similarity matrix and dendrograme analysis observe isolation of South African and European diploid accessions indicate the difference in their evolutionary pathway. Tetraploid accessions have the highest mean number of bands up to 6 reflect their alloploid origin. The mean number of bands of tetraploids is 1.5 times of diploids and low coefficient of variation insure the hypothesis suggest the alloploid genome structure of tetraploids which can be represented as AABB rather than AAAA. On the other hand hexaploids have mean number of bands up to 4, less than tetraploids. Low coefficient of variation might suggest the autoallohexaploid origin (AAAABB or AABBBB). This suggests that AABB tetraploids have backcrossed to diploid parental genome to give the above proposed genome, and the hexaploids have this sourt of origin rather than alloploid AABBCC or autoploid AAAAAAA. Most accessions of the same species lies in the same group of similarity with few exceptions, which might be due to ecological factors. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):184-192]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.20

Keywords: Panicum, protein electrophoresis, evolution, poaceae, polyploidy

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Cytogenetic Studies on Some Species of Genus Pennisetum L. (Rich) Poaceae

 

Soliman A. Haroun

Department of Botany, College of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

Email : solimanharoun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Six species of genus Pennisetum (poaceae) were subjected to mitotic and meiotic investigation in the present study. Diploid species (P. glaucum and P. macrourum) show 14 chromosomes almost lies in 7 pairs of metacentric type and 6 pairs and one pair of submetacentric chromosomes for the two species respectively. Regular meiosis, high chiasma frequency and pollen fertility were observed in tetraploids P. divesum and P. orientale show 36 mitotic chromosomes based on 9 as bsic number. Karyotype formula of the former shows 32m + 4sm where the later posses structure of 28m + 4sm + 4st . Meiotic behavior of the two species to some extend support mitotic finding as the former is of autoploid origin where the later shows alloploid nature. The two hexaploid species P. polystachion and P. macrourum show 54 chromosomes based on 9 as common basic number. Karyotype structure have 22 pair of metacentric, and 5 pairs of submetacentic type for the former and 19 pairs of metacentic, 7 pairs of sm and one pair of subtelocentic types for the later. Low values of chiasma frequency and pollen fertility recorded with degree of similarity suggest the autoallohexaploid nature of p. polystachion species. On the other hand irregular meiotic analysis and karyotype asymilarity suggest the allohexaploid nature of P. macrourum. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):193-200]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.21

Key words: Pennisetum, mitosis,meiosis, chromosome association, chiasma, poaceae

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The Agricultural Investments of Some Shale Deposits in Egypt

 

*Wahab M.A., G. W. Ageeb and F. Labib

Soils and Water Use Dept. National Research Centre, El Buhouth St., 12311,Giza,Egypt

* mohamedwahab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The investigation deals with shale deposits, cover a considerable area in Egypt, in order to clarify their capability and suitability for agricultural purposes. Twenty-four soil profiles representing nine types of the most dominant shale deposits in Egypt, named: Qasr El Sagha, Wadi Rayan, Maadi, Mokattam groups( Maghagha, Qarara, Beni Suef Formations), Dakhla, Quseir, Esna, Wadi Abbad and Lower Esna Formations( pale grey and dark grey shale members).Automated Land Evaluation System “ALES”( Rossiter and Van Wambeke, 1995) have been used in order to identify the suitability of this shale derived soils for agriculture investment. The following eight parameters are comprised, using a new model proposed with the code SHALE-EGYPT build in the model of ALES: slope, plant- available soil water, Thermic and/ or Hyperthermic conditions, soil depth, chemical properties, salinity, alkalinity and the dominant clay type. The obtained results showed that : the highly suitable areas for agricultural purposes covered about 1192 Km2, 488 km2 are moderately suitable areas, 8653 km2 are low to very low suitable and 9648 km2 are not suitable for agricultural purposes since investment of industrial use and/ or urbanization are recommended in this areas. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):201-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.22

Keywords: shale deposits, soil evaluation, Egypt

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Cytogenetic Studies on Some Species of Genus Pennisetum L. (Rich) Poaceae

 

Soliman A. Haroun

Department of Botany, College of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

Email: solimanharoun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Six species of genus Pennisetum (poaceae) were subjected to mitotic and meiotic investigation in the present study. Diploid species (P. glaucum and P. macrourum) show 14 chromosomes almost lies in 7 pairs of metacentric type and 6 pairs and one pair of submetacentric chromosomes for the two species respectively. Regular meiosis, high chiasma frequency and pollen fertility were observed in tetraploids P. divesum and P. orientale show 36 mitotic chromosomes based on 9 as bsic number. Karyotype formula of the former shows 32m + 4sm where the later posses structure of 28m + 4sm + 4st . Meiotic behavior of the two species to some extend support mitotic finding as the former is of autoploid origin where the later shows alloploid nature. The two hexaploid species P. polystachion and P. macrourum show 54 chromosomes based on 9 as common basic number. Karyotype structure have 22 pair of metacentric, and 5 pairs of submetacentic type for the former and 19 pairs of metacentic, 7 pairs of sm and one pair of subtelocentic types for the later. Low values of chiasma frequency and pollen fertility recorded with degree of similarity suggest the autoallohexaploid nature of p. polystachion species. On the other hand irregular meiotic analysis and karyotype asymilarity suggest the allohexaploid nature of P. macrourum. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):208-215]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.23

Key words: Pennisetum, mitosis,meiosis, chromosome association, chiasma, poaceae

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Protein Bands Homologies and the Evolution of Ploidy in Some Species of Genus Panicum L. Poaceae

 

Soliman A. Haroun

Department of Botany, college of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt.

Email: solimanharoun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Total of 15 protein bands were identified in 23 accessions belongs to 11 species of genus Panicum investigated belonging three ploidy levels. The bands vary in number and positions between accessions even within the same species. Diploids have at least number of bands up to 4. Similarity matrix and dendrograme analysis observe isolation of South African and European diploid accessions indicate the difference in their evolutionary pathway. Tetraploid accessions have the highest mean number of bands up to 6 reflect their alloploid origin. The mean number of bands of tetraploids is 1.5 times of diploids and low coefficient of variation insure the hypothesis suggest the alloploid genome structure of tetraploids which can be represented as AABB rather than AAAA. On the other hand hexaploids have mean number of bands up to 4, less than tetraploids. Low coefficient of variation might suggest the autoallohexaploid origin (AAAABB or AABBBB). This suggests that AABB tetraploids have backcrossed to diploid parental genome to give the above proposed genome, and the hexaploids have this sourt of origin rather than alloploid AABBCC or autoploid AAAAAAA. Most accessions of the same species lies in the same group of similarity with few exceptions, which might be due to ecological factors. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):216-224]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.24

Keywords: Panicum, protein electrophoresis, evolution, poaceae, polyploidy

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Oxidative Stress as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Obese Egyptian Adolescents

 

Nayera El-morsi Hassan, Amany El Wakkad, Lobna Sherif, Azza Abd ElShaheed, Salwa El Zayat, and Heba Sebii.

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The prevalence and magnitude of obesity in children and adolescent has increased dramatically over the last 20-30 years in developing countries. Oxidative stress was believed to be a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disorders that associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adiposity on established Oxidative stress as a cardiovascular risk factors in Egyptian adolescent. Body mass index and waist circumference were taken as markers for obesity. According to lipid profile, obese adolescents were divided into group I &group II with abnormal and normal lipid profile respectively. The oxidative stress in the first group (group I) was evaluated by measuring oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox LDL), the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). There were a high significant increase in ox-LDL, SOD (P<0.01) which was positively correlated (P<0.01) with the high significant increase of total cholesterol (TC) (P<0.001), Triglyceride (TG) (P<0.001) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P<0.001) in comparison with the second group (group II). There were a positive correlation (P<0.01) between oxLDL, SOD, GPx with the body mass index and waist circumference. There was a negative correlation of HDL and all studied parameters (P<0.05) in the first group. As a conclusion, this study worn us that the obese children are candidate for future cardiovascular diseases and measurement for reducing their weight is very important target. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):225-230]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.25

Key words: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, adolescents

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Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Sonchus eruca and Sonchus asper

 

Javid Hussain1*, Zia Muhammad1, Riaz Ullah1, Farman Ullah Khan1, Ihsan Ullah Khan1

 Naeem Khan1, Javed Ali1 and Saleem Jan2.

1Department of Chemistry, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat,

Kohat -26000, N.W.F.P, Pakistan

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Science & Technology Bannu, Bannu 28100 Pakistan.

afridiriaz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sonchus eruca and Sonchus asper were analyzed for their chemical evaluation, vitamins and bioactive secondary metabolite. The results revealed the presence of bioactive constituents comprising alkaloids (1.24 to 1.34 mg/100 g), saponins (1.46 to 1.72 mg/100 g), flavonoids (1.61 to 1.34mg/100 g), phenols (1.32 to1.44 mg/100g), saponins (0.12 to 0.41mg/100 g) and tannins (0.02 to 0.61 mg/100g). The medicinal plants contained ascorbic acid (33.21 to 20.12 mg/100 g), riboflavin (0.24 to 0.72 mg/100 g), thiamine (0.31 to 0.15 mg/100g), and niacin (0.03 to 0.05 mg/100 g). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):231-235]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.26

Key words: Sonchus eruca and Sonchus asper, bioactive compounds

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Heavy Metals Contamination in Relation to Microbial Counts in Soils of Automobile Mechanic Workshops, Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers States, Nigeria.

 

Osu Charles .I1, Okereke, Victor. C. 2

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Choba,

Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Telephone: +234 803 7783246 email: charsike@yahoo.com

2Department of Crop and soil science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Choba,

Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: Soil samples from six different locations in the Port-Harcourt Metropolis were analyzed in a study of the relationship between heavy metals contamination and soil microbes with respect to soil depths from automobile mechanics workshops. The concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and V ranged from 12.760 ± 0. 031 – 0.701 ± 0.028 mg/kg, 50. 030 ± 0. 261–0.022 ± 0.003 mg/kg, 0.920 ± 0.017 – < 0.001mg/kg and < 0.001mg/kg respectively. The presence of these heavy metals was due to waste from automobile workshop activities. Four species of fungi were identified, fusarium sp, Trichoderma sp, Aspergillus sp and Rhizoctonia sp while the bacteria were mainly Bacillus sp. These species except Rhizoctonia sp responded to the presence of heavy metals in the soil and may thus serve as microbial indicator species for metal pollution levels and used in bioremediation of polluted soils in the Niger Delta areas, though these species are of economic importance in agriculture [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):236-241]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.27

Keyword: Heavy metals, Soil Microbes, microbial indicator, Soil Contamination

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Contamination of Soils in Automobile Mechanic Workshops in Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 

Osu Charles .I1, Asuoha, Adaku N. 2

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,

Rivers State, Nigeria.

Telephone: +234 803 7783246; charsike@yahoo.com

2Safety Health and Environmental Department, Mobil Producing Nigeria

 

Abstract: Soil samples from automobile mechanic workshops in Port-Harcourt metropolis of Rivers State, Nigeria were examined for contamination with PAHs and BTEX. The concentration of the contaminants ranged from 0.601 ± 0.001 – 3.678 ± 0.036 mg/kg and < 0.001 – 0.013 ± 0.003 for total PAHs and BTEX respectively. Soil sample D1 had the highest concentration of PAHs (3.678 ± 0.036 mg/kg) and BTEX (0.013 ± 0.003 mg/kg). The depth of the soil had no significant effect on the concentration of the contaminants. The concentration of BTEX was very small due to volatilization, dissolution, and degradation by microorganisms. All the samples were found to be contaminated with PAHs and BTEX. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):242-246]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.28

Keywords: Soil, PAHs, BTEX, and Automobile mechanic activities

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Controlling Contaminated Fluid from Polluting Groundwater using Porous Media.

 

1O.I. Popoola ,1J.A. Adegoke, 2 O.O. Alabi, 3*F.O. Akinluyi, and 2K.A. Fayemiwo

1Deparment of Physics, University of Ibadan, 211001, Nigeria.

2College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University, Osogbo, 230001, Nigeria.

3Physics Department, Adeyemi College of Education, 351001, Nigeria.

Akinluyi18370@alumni.itc.nl, iopopoola@yahoo.com, adegokeja@yahoo.com, geosciencealabi@yahoo.com, akinluyi18370@alumni.itc.nl, kfayemiwo@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: The study of movement of underground water helps to predict the flow of contaminated fluid from a solid waste landfill into a portable water supply. Sand samples from river bed were used as stratified porous media and a laboratory experiment was set up to look at the deflection pattern in term of volume of liquid flowing across a unit cross-sectional area per unit time at different angles. Water was made to flow through the inlet and outlet pipes filled with sands of different porosities and the volume of water discharge was determined by volumetric method. A graph of cosine of angle of deflection against porosity ratio gives a relation cos  = 1.98ln  + 1.13. With this established equation, a stratified porous media of known porosity ratio can be used to control the direction of contaminated fluid in sub-surface layer. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):247-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.29

Key words: porosity, inclination angle, volume flux, deflection, outlet angle

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Experimental study on reuse of wastewater effluent for agricultural consumptions

 

Alireza Masjedi1, N.Jafarzadeh Haghighi 2, Mohsen Poya3

 

1. Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University Ahwaz Branch, Ahwaz, Iran

2. Assoc. Prof. of Enviromental Health. Dept., Jondi Shapor University, Ahwaz, Iran

3. Khouzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Email:Drmasjedi.2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: According to the problem of water shortage in countries, water provision has great importance presently. In such a situation, reuse of purified sewage can be considered as a way to overcome water shortage. Therefore, a research performed on the wastewater of sewage filtration plant in the Susangerd city in Iran, which is anaerobic and optional pool, during six months.In this study, qualitative criterions of output wastewater of sewage filtration plant like BOD5, COD, TSS and general Choliform were studied and evaluated weekly and monthly. The average of performed tests and analysis on the output sewage indicates that the amount of parameters BOD5, COD, TSS and general Choliform had been 73.5, 173, 72.5 milligram in litre and 7.8×105 in each 100 millilitre and the quality of purified sewage in comparison with the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) in order to reuse in agricultural consumptions is in agreement with all paramenters except for MPN. Thus, in the case of reusing the wastewater for watering green and agriculture, the reduction of microbial pollution should be considered according to the standards of Iran environment organization and recommendation of World Health Organization (WHO) and quality of this effluent is classified as acceptable for irrigation. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):256-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.30

Key words: Sewage filtraction; reuse of wastewater; Susangerd city; agricultural consumptions

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Nutrients and Phytoplankton Production Dynamics of a Tropical Harbor in Relation to Water Quality Indices

 

Balogun Kayode James and Ladigbolu Ismail

Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Lagos, Nigeria

E-mail: kayjaybal@yahoo.com; ladadejare@yahoo.com Mobile Phone: +2348035608195

 

Abstract: Six months (July – November, 2009) study was carried out to investigate the Phytoplankton spectrum, nutrients status and associated Water Chemistry of three selected stations in the Lagos Harbour, Nigeria. The results revealed a generally low species composition and diversity. A total of 39 species of Phytoplankton spectrums were recorded from three taxonomic groups namely Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta and Dinophyta. The dominant taxonomic groups were Bacillariophyta(Diatoms) with 31 taxa and 86.35% of the total Phytoplankton. The concentrations of Nutrients (NO32-, PO43-, and SIO) determined were relatively lower to FEPA limit. Some physical-chemical parameters were measured in the water column to assess the water quality such as Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Turbidity, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Total Alkalinity and Total Dissolved Solids(TDS). The surface water of the harbor were characterized by alkaline pH (> 8.0mg/l), low BOD205(< 2.16), total dissolved solids(<15.20) and moderate dissolved oxygen(<5.12) which fell below FEPA limit of 10mg/l. Salinity values in all the stations typify a brackish condition (<15.06‰). With the exception of pH, dissolved oxygen and Nitrate, all other parameters measured differed significantly (P< 0.05) among the study stations. The correlation between phytoplankton abundance and parameters measured except Air and Water temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, BOD, and Nutrients determined in this study were positive. The information and observation of this research will be very useful in formulating policies and regulatory framework for sustainable management of Lagos Harbour. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):261-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.31

Keywords: Harbour, Nutrients, Pollution, Phytoplankton, Water quality

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Effect of Sulfidic Material as a Source of Sulfur Fertilizer for the Growth and Yield of Rice in Two Sulfur Deficient Soils in Bangladesh.

 

Farook Ahmed 1 and Md. Harunor Rashid Khan 2

 

1. Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

2. Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

farookahmed12@yahoo.com, duharun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effectiveness of sulfidic materials(SM) and gypsum (G) application on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. Var: BR-26 Sraboni) cultivated in two sulfur deficient soils of Sirajgonj (Kamarkhond series) and Gazipur (Kalma series) were studied in the premises of the Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh in greenhouse condition. The best growth and yield performance were recorded by SM45 treatment in both the Sirajgonj and Gazipur Soils followed by the SM30>SM15>G45 treatments. The application of gypsum at the highest rate of G45 was not as effective as even the lowest dose of SM15 in both the soils. Almost similar and significant (p≤0.05) effects were observed for the panicle length, number of tillers, plant height, 1000 grain weight, and harvest index of rice grown in both the soils. The applied SM increased the average Organic matter and available sulfur contents in the soils by 46 to 78% and 194 to 208% IOC respectively, while the increments were 5 to 19% and 132 to 145 % for gypsum treatments, indicating that the SM is potentially more effective than gypsum as a source of sulfur fertilizer and can also enrich the fertility and productivity of the soils. Moreover, the use of SM treatment did not show any harmful effect on the growth and yield parameters of rice. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):276-282]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.32

Keywords: effectiveness of sulfidic materials, growth-yield, gypsum, sulfur deficient soils

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Recharge of the Quaternary Aquifer of Lake Chad Basin Estimated from Oxygen-18 (18O) and Tritium (3H) Isotopes

 

1Massing Oursingbé, 1Tang Zhonghua

1 Department of Hydrogeology and Water Resources, School of Environment Studies,

China University of Geosciences, 430074-Wuhan, Lumo Road 388, Hubei, People’s Republic of China

massing.2@hotmail.com / massing_ii@yahoo.fr

Abstract: Water resource management in the arid to semi-arid areas requires not only exploration and assessment of the available reserves, but also determination of groundwater recharge in order to evaluate the sustainable yield of the resource. This study highlights the groundwater recharge on the Quaternary aquifer of Lake Chad Basin using oxygen (18O) and Tritium (3H) isotopes interpolation method. Tritium contents (3H) show a median annual renewal rate of 0.09% of which approximately 3mm/year of recharge, for a rainfall varying between 250 with 550mm. Although weak, these values are compatible with the contents of 18O and 2H of the Quaternary aquifer, which highlights the mixture of water infiltrated during the wet period (old water) and of water infiltrated under a dry climate (recent water). Indirect recharge to groundwater body is by seepage through the beds of Lake Chad, Rivers Logone-Chari, local ponds and non permanent rivers (Komadugu Yobe). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):283-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.33

Key words: Lake Chad Basin, Isotopes, Groundwater renewal, water resource management

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KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF THE OXIDATION OF HYDRAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE BY AQUEOUS IODINE

Mshelia Mohammed Sani1, Iyun Femi2 Uzairu Adamu2, Idris Suleiman2

1Department of Applied Science, College of Science and Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Ahmad Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaMS OF THE OXIDATION OF [FeEDTA]

sanishafa@yahoo.com

Abstract: The kinetics of the redox reaction of iodine with hydrazinium ion (N2H5+) has been studied in aqueous hydrochloric acid at 31.0 ± 1.0oC and ionic strength, I = 0.6 mol dm-3 (KCl) and a plausible mechanism proposed. The stoichiometry of the reaction is 1:2 (oxidant/reductant) and follows the rate law: -d[I2]/dt = (b + c [H+]-1)[I2][N2H5+]. The rate of the reaction is inversely dependent on the acid concentration of the reaction medium. Spectroscopic evidence indicates the absence of a pre-electron transfer reaction intermediate. On the basis of the effect of added ions on the rate of reaction and complemented by the nature of the Michaelis-Menten plot, the outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism is proposed for this reaction. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):293-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.34

Key words: hydrazinium ion, stoichiometry, electron transfer, iodine, kinetics, mechanism

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A checklist of phytoplankton species of Ologe lagoon, Lagos south-western Nigeria

1P.C. Onuoha, 2D.I. Nwankwo, 3Vyverman, W.

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria. E-mail- hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Department of Marine Sciences University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Ghent, Belgium

Abstract: The phytoplankton diversity of the Ologe lagoon, Lagos was investigated from February, 2002 to January, 2004. Five main algal groups were recorded namely: Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta, Pyrrhophyta and Chlorophyta. A total of 119 species belonging to 49 genera were observed. Diatoms formed the most abundant group making up 48 species from 18 genera. This was followed by green algae, with thirty-two species from fourteen genera, Cyanobacteria, with twenty-three species from eleven genera, euglenoids with seventeen species from five genera, while the dinoflagelates had one species. There were more prevalence of pennate diatoms and green algae during the wet season than the dry season, while the euglenoids were more prevalent during the dry season. Comparatively, a higher number of species was recorded in the dry than in the wet season. Nine phytoplankton species were reported to be potentially harmful/toxic bloom species. 57 bio-indicator species were recorded during the period of study. With regard to existing checklist of phytoplankton species, 10 new species are the first reports for Lagos lagoon complex, south-western Nigeria. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):297-302]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.35

 

Key Words: Lagoon, checklist, algae, phytoplankton, diatoms, Ologe lagoon

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Design Of An Advanced Three-Point Hitch Dynamometer

M.A.Ghazavi, M.Beigi,B.Hosseinzadeh

bahram_hs@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Measuring the powers produced in the tractor's arms as a result of tension of the agricultural equipments is important and necessary. These quantities can be used in agricultural machineries test, selection of a suitable tractor and as likes. The tool used for measuring these powers is called dynamometer. In this project, an advanced three-point hitch dynamometer was designed for 'John Deere 3140 tractor'. Installing some transducers on the upper and lower arms, the pressing, tensional and vertical forces were measured in this dynamometer. The sensitive parts of these transducers are the square section pins, upon which some strain gauges are installed to measure the power. An optical encoder was also considered to measure the angle of tractor's arms, so that the components of power in different directions could be obtained. The measurement accuracy was considered as an angle of 0.5 degree. Other angles of arms are determined by this angle and the geometry of tractor-equipments. The instantaneous speed of the tractor is determined by a speedometer installed on the front wheel of the tractor to specify the consuming power of the equipments. An appropriate data logger was chosen to record data continuously. Data access speed in this dynamometer is 20Hz. The error of speed measurement in this dynamometer is less than 2.5%. This dynamometer does not have the errors usually faced in other dynamometers such as reciprocal sensitivity and hitch point changes. Also its manufacturing cost is less than other similar dynamometers. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):303-311]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.36

Key Words: Three-point hitch dynamometer, Data Logger, Speedometer, Advanced

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Validity of the Distance between Mitral Leaflets Coaptation Point and Annular Plane in Differentiation between Ischemic and Dilated Cardiomyopathy

 

Khalid M. Abd El-Salam, *Maha H. El Sebaie, Manar El- Zaky, and Ashraf El Saeed.

Cardiology Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Meko51@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Identification of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) from those with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is important therapeutically and prognostically. Objective: To assess the validity of the distance between the mitral leaflets coaptation point and the mitral annular plane (CPMA) at low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) for differentiation between ICM and DCM. Patients and Methods: Echocardiographic indices and CPMA were measured at baseline and during dobutamine infusion for 50 patients who were presenting with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (EF). Patients were divided into two groups depending on coronary angiographic findings, group I (ICM with significant coronary artery disease) and group II (DCM with normal coronary arteries). Results. Compared with baseline values, the CPMA at low dose DSE decreased significantly in ICM patients (11.8± 2.2 vs 8±1.2 mm. P<0.01) while it showed non significant change in patients with DCM (11.66±2.3 vs 11.99±2.22 mm, P>0.05). In ICM group, at low dose DSE there was a high statistically significant negative correlation between CPMA and EF, viability index and significant positive correlation with WMSI (r=-0.56, p<0.01, r=0.83, p<0.01, r=-0.79, p<0.01 respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) CPMA cut off value ≤ 9 mm at low dose DSE, had sensitivity of 76.92%, specificity of 85.71% in detecting patients with ICM. Conclusion: Measurement of CPMA at low dose DSE might help in identifying patients with ICM from those with DCM. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):312-317]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.37

Keywords: patient; ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM); dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); coaptation point and the mitral annular plane (CPMA); dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE)

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Detection of CXCL12 Gene Polymorphism and CXCR4 Expression in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

 

Abd El-Rahman, Aisha 1; Abdel-Hamid, Samah* 2; Makhlouf, Manal 1; El-Desouky, Nermine 1; Al-Feky, Mohamed2 and Yousri, Sherif 1

1Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kasr El-Aini hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*samah_cpath@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: CXC ligand 12 (CXCL12), a chemokine abundantly produced by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) have crucial roles in malignant cell trafficking. In the present study CXCR4 expression was investigated by flowcytometry and CXCL12 G801A gene polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay in 42 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as 35 normal subjects as a control group. The CXCR4 positive expression was found exclusively in AML patients (in 55% of patients). The frequency of the CXCL12 genotypes among AML patients were 55% had a GG alleles genotype while 45% had an A allele genotype while among the control group 83% had a GG alleles genotype and 17% had heterozygous A/G genotype. There was a highly statistical significant relationship between the CXCL12 A allele and extramedullary tissue infiltration (p value= 0.01). Also there was a highly statistical significant relationship between each of CXCL12 genotypes and CXCR4 expression and treatment outcome (p value= 0.002 & 0.006 respectively). In conclusion CXCR4 expression predicts poor prognosis in AML and CXCL12 G801A polymorphism is a genetic determinant involved in the clinical presentation of leukemia. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):318-330]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.38

Keywords: PCR-RFLP, CXCR4, Flowcytometry, AML

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Determination of DL Methionine in Soybean Natural Extract and Pharmaceutical Preparation by New HPLC Method and Detection of its Antioxidant Activity

Amira Mabrok El-Kosasy, Lobna Abd Alaziz Hussein, and *Mona Hamdy Abd Al Rahman

Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

monahamdyph@yahoo.com*

 

Abstract: The superoxide scavenging activity of DL methionine has been studied in vitro using PMS-NADH (phenazine methosulfate- NADH) system, to test the direct superoxide scavenging effect of DL methionine itself without converting it to any antioxidant molecule. Another method for detecting the antioxidant activity of DL methionine is iron thiocyanate method, it has been applied to detect whether DL methionine itself can prevent oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ ions induced by peroxides, also a new HPLC–UV method was developed for the analysis of DL methionine in pure form, in multi ingredient dosage form with paracetamol and in Soybean extract , An excellent linearity ( r20.9986), good intra-day precision (0.296) and inter-day reproducibility (0.485) were obtained. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):331-339]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.39

Keywords: superoxide; methionine; iron thiocyanate; reproducibility

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Effect of explant types and different basal nutrient media on in vitro growth of bitter almond cuttings during establishment and proliferation stages

 

Kassim, N. E.; S. M. Abou Rayya and E. A. M. Ali

Horticultural crops technology department, Agricultural division, National Research Center, Cairo Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out in plant tissue culture Laboratory, Agriculture development Systems project (ADS) at Giza, Egypt during the period from 1999-2003. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different sources of explant and basal nutrient media on in vitro growth of bitter almond cuttings during establishment and proliferation stages. From the results of the study the following conclusions were derived: One node cuttings surpassed shoot-tip in in vitro growth (Survival percentage (96.67 and 63.33), No. of leaves / explant (11.0 and 6.33) and shoot length (cm.) / explant) (2.83 and 1.33) of bitter almond respectively. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) (Liquid or solid) was superior in in vitro growth of explant establishment in (No. of shoots / explant, No. of leaves / explant and shoot length / explant cm.) of bitter almond nodal cuttings. DKW medium was the poorest medium for almond, while WP medium came in between of all measured parameters for explant establishment. Higher effect of solid MS basal nutrient medium on enhancing the activity of bitter almond established nodal cuttings for the production of shoots and leaves and also for stimulating the elongation of bitter almond proliferated shoots. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):340-343]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.40

Keywords: basal nutrient; establishment; proliferation stages

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Internal Tandem Duplication of FLT3 Gene in Egyptian Adult

Acute Myeloid and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

 

Nahla M. El Sharkawy*1 and Thoraya M. Abdel Hamid2

1Departments of Clinical Pathology, 2Departments of Medical Oncology NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*n_sharkawy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: FLT3 plays an important role in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The most common mutation in the FLT3 gene is internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD). Several studies have demonstrated that FLT3 mutations are a strong detrimental prognostic factor in AML and ALL. Aim: Our study was designed to evaluate the relative frequency of FLT3/ITD status in adult AML and ALL patients and its possible impact on response to treatment and overall survival. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out on 110 newly diagnosed adult acute leukemia cases including 61 AML and 49 ALL. Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples were collected from patients at diagnosis. All samples were analyzed for mutation in exon 11 of the FLT3 gene using genomic PCR method. FLT3/ITD appears as an extra PCR band (mutant band) in addition to the 133-bp wild band. ALL cases were treated according to the risk adapted chemotherapy protocol while mature B phenotype cases were excluded from the study. AML cases received induction with 3&7 regimen combing Daunorubicin, 45m/m2 IV day 1-3 and cytosine arabinoside100 mg /m2 by continuous infusion from day 1 to 7 as an induction regimen. Evaluation of response was carried out at the end of induction. Results: FLT3/ITD mutant band was found in 21.3 % (13 / 61) of AML cases. The highest frequency of FLT3/ITD was associated with M3 (40%) followed by M5 (37.5%) and M4 (33.3%), less frequent in M2 (13.6%), M1 (13.3%) and none in M0 and M7. In ALL cases FLT3/ITD was detected in (5/44) 10.2%. The highest frequency was associated with precursor B phenotype (11.4%) and less in T- ALL patients (7.1%). No association was detected between the FLT3/ITD on one side and age, gender, high leucocytic count, BM blasts, DNA index or CD34 expression on the other side in either AML or ALL. We could not find statistically significant difference in response to treatment between FLT3/ITD positive and negative cases in either AML or ALL patients. Conclusion: FLT3/ITD in our AML patients was 21.3 % which is comparable to the literature. However in adult ALL it was much higher than that reported in literature. In contrast to the literature we failed to demonstrate a detrimental effect of FLT3/ITD on treatment outcome in adult AML patients. Further study on a large scale is recommended to identify the prognostic impact of FLT3/ITD in adult ALL. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):344-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.41

Key Words: Prognostic factors – Adult AML and ALL – FLT3

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Utility Biosensors for applications in Agriculture – A Review

 

J.S Rana*, Jyoti Jindal, Vikas Beniwal, Vinod Chhokar

Department of Bio & Nanotechnology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana 125001, India. jogenderrana@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The quality of food is fundamentally based on biochemical composition of food. Therefore, this review summarizes recent advances in the fabrication of different types of Biosensors that have been designed for the measurement of various components in the horticultural samples. We review various biosensors ranging from electrochemical, calorimetric, optical, immunosensors to screen-printed three electrode systems. Numerous examples are provided in several key areas including glucose, fructose, malic acid, pyruvic acid, ascorbic acid, glycerol, glutamate etc. We also explore important coenzymes involved in the development of biosensors. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):353-375]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.42

Keywords: Biosensors, Fruits, organic acids, Coenzymes, NADPH

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Functional Properties and Proximate Composition of Asparagus Bean (Vigna Sesquipedalis) as Influenced by Malting

 

Nwosu J.N.*, Ogueke C.C., Owuamanam C.I., Iwouno J.O.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

ifytina19972003@yahoo.com, oguekejuly10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Whole Asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) was subjected to soaking in tap water for 12 hours and 24 hours. Each portion was malted for 48, 60 and 72 hours and then dehulled, dried and milled into flour. The proximate composition and the functional properties were determined for each of the samples and the result showed that protein content was highest in samples soaked for 24 hours and malted sample (MS) for 72 hours (23.90%). The sample soaked for 12 hours and malted for 72 hours had 22.95% while the unmalted samples had 22.26% protein content. Ash, fibre and moisture contents of the samples soaked for 12 hours and malted for 72 hours ranged from 2.42%, 1.97% and 16.00%, respectively and that for sample soaked for 24 hours and malted for 72 hours ranged from 2.20%, 1.82% and 17.70%, respectively while the unmalted sample gave 2.98%, 2.24% and 8.26%, respectively. Malting increased foam capacity from 16.00 to 18.05%, water absorption capacity from 1.35% to 1.98% emulsion capacities from 29.20 to 29.98% and bulk densities were (0.75 to 0.98%). The nutritive and functional properties of raw beans were slightly improved by malting. As a result of this improvement in both the proximate and functional properties of the flour, it could be incorporated in various foods to improve their nutritional value. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):376-382]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.43

Key words: functional properties, proximate composition, malting

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Osmotic Dehydration of Banana Rings and Tomato Halves

 

Hatem S. Ali, Hesham A. Moharram; Mostafa T. Ramadan and Gamal H. Ragab

Food Technology Dept. National Research centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. hatemali888@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Osmotic treatment process was carried out as a means of pre-drying treatment to improve the quality of the final product. This pretreatment was carried out on banana and tomato rings; to study osmotic dehydration kinetics, colour attributes and organoletpic evaluations. The data indicated highest weight reduction when using 100% sucrose as an osmotic agent in banana. The tomato showed their maximum values when 30% NaCl and sucrose: salt (1: 1.5) were used. The data during tomato osmotic dehydration indicated lower chroma (C*) and redness values (a*) during progress in osmotic dehydration times. An overall acceptability in these two materials were noticed. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):383-390]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.44

Keywords: Osmotic dehydration – Banana rings – Tomato halves – hypertonic solutions

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Pathological and Biochemical Studies in Tilapia Zilli Infected with Saprolegnia parasitica and Treated with Potassium Permanganate

 

*1Mona S. Zaki, 2Olfat M. Fawzi 2Suzan Omar Mostafa and 3Nadia Taha

 

1Department of Aquaculture, 2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Centre, 3Departmet of physiology, veterinary medicine, Cairo Univ. Giza, Egypt.

*dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The present study was planned to investigate the effect of Saprolegnia parasitica infection in the hematological, serum biochemical and pathological alterations of Tilapia Zilli. Forty five fish were divided into three equal groups. Fish of first group served as a control. Fish of group (2&3) were infected by Saprolegnia parasitica. Fish of group (3) were treated after 7 days of post-infection using potassium permanganate for 10 days. Sampling was done after 1 and 7 days of post-infection (gps 1 & 2) and 10 days of post-treatment (gps 1& 3). The results revealed a non significant changes in the hematological and the biochemical parameters after 1 day of infection, but after 7 days of post-infection and 10 days of post-treatment, a significant decrease in RBCs, Hb, PCV and significant increase in AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, cortisol, insulin and glucose were seen. Iron showed a significant decrease at the same period of sampling. The pathological examination revealed a massive fungal growth resembling a tuft of cotton wool threads was seen in eyes, grills, fins and in localized areas of the skin. Microscopically, the fungal hyphae and spores appeared on eyes, gills, skin and underlying muscles with marked degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory reactions. These reactions were evident, after 7 days of post-infection and the severity of the lesions were markedly decreased after 10 days of post-treatment. It could be concluded that, saprolegnia parasitica infections induced marked tissue alterations as well as some hematological and serum biochemical changes. Although potassium permanganate treated the infected cases and allowed the regenerative processes but it does not progress the hematological and serum biochemical parameters. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):391-394]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.45

Key words: Tilapia Zilli. Saprolegina parasitica. Biochemical changes

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Pathological and Biochemical Studies in Tilapia Zilli Infected with Saprolegnia parasitica and Treated with Potassium Permanganate

 

*1Mona S. Zaki, 2Olfat M. Fawzi 2Suzan Omar Mostafa and 3Nadia Taha

1Department of Aquaculture, 2Department of Biochemistry, National Research Centre, 3Departmet of physiology, veterinary medicine, Cairo Univ. Giza, Egypt. *dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The present study was planned to investigate the effect of Saprolegnia parasitica infection in the hematological, serum biochemical and pathological alterations of Tilapia Zilli. Forty five fish were divided into three equal groups. Fish of first group served as a control. Fish of group (2&3) were infected by Saprolegnia parasitica. Fish of group (3) were treated after 7 days of post-infection using potassium permanganate for 10 days. Sampling was done after 1 and 7 days of post-infection (gps 1 & 2) and 10 days of post-treatment (gps 1& 3). The results revealed a non significant changes in the hematological and the biochemical parameters after 1 day of infection, but after 7 days of post-infection and 10 days of post-treatment, a significant decrease in RBCs, Hb, PCV and significant increase in AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, cortisol, insulin and glucose were seen. Iron showed a significant decrease at the same period of sampling. The pathological examination revealed a massive fungal growth resembling a tuft of cotton wool threads was seen in eyes, grills, fins and in localized areas of the skin. Microscopically, the fungal hyphae and spores appeared on eyes, gills, skin and underlying muscles with marked degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory reactions. These reactions were evident, after 7 days of post-infection and the severity of the lesions were markedly decreased after 10 days of post-treatment. It could be concluded that, saprolegnia parasitica infections induced marked tissue alterations as well as some hematological and serum biochemical changes. Although potassium permanganate treated the infected cases and allowed the regenerative processes but it does not progress the hematological and serum biochemical parameters. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):395-398]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.46

Key words: Tilapia Zilli; Saprolegina parasitica; Biochemical changes

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Response of Balady Guava Trees Cultivated in Sandy Calcareous Soil to Biofertilization with Phosphate Dissolving Bacteria and / or VAM Fungi

 

H. I. M. Ibrahim1; M. M.A. Zaglol2 and A. M. M. Hammad3

1Dept. of Horticulture, Fac. Agric., 2Dept. of Food Sci., Fac. Agric., 3Dept. of Microbiology , Fac. Agric., Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Phosphate dissolving bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and /or vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus mosseae, G. fasciculatum and G. aggregatum), were used as biofertilizers for Balady guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, grown in newly reclaimed sandy calcareous soil, during two successive seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009). Obtained results showed that, fertilization of guava trees with either VAM, B. megaterium or the dual fertilizer (i.e. VAM plus B. megaterium), significantly increased growth of the trees, leaf area, leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium contents, compared to the un-fertilized (control). The highest values of these measurements were recorded for trees fertilized with the dual fertilizer, followed by the trees fertilized with VAM, then those which received Bacillus megaterium. In both seasons, fertilization of guava trees with VAM fungi and/or B. megaterium, significantly increased fruit weight, fruit number/tree and consequently higher yields (kg./tree) were achieved, compared to the control. The recorded values of the total soluble solids %, L ascorbic acid and pectin in fruits of the inoculated trees were significantly higher than the control. The highest values of these measurements were recorded for trees which received dual fertilizer (VAM plus B. megaterium). Titratable acidity was found to be significantly higher in the fruits of the control than the inoculated ones. In both seasons the lowest values of titratable acidity were recorded for the fruits of the trees inoculated with VAM plus B. megaterium. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):399-404]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.47

Key words: Psidium guajava, biofertilization, Bacillus megaterium, mycorrhizal, fungi, VAM

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Effect of Caraway, Coriander and Fennel on the structure of Kidney and Islets of Langerhan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: Histological and Histochemical Study.

 

Nermeen M. Shaffie, Fatma A. Morsy, Amina G. Ali, Hafiza A. Sharaf

Pathology Department, Medical researches Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

nermshaf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Caraway, coriander and fennel are known hypoglycemic agents, which are used in folklori medicine for improving blood glucose level and preventing long term complications in diabetes mellitus. So, this study was designed to clarify their role on the histological and histochemical changes in kidney and islets of Langerhan in diabetic rats. 80 rats were divided into 5 groups. The first group was control. For the second group diabetes mellitus was induced in 40 rats, using alloxan. 30 rats of diabetic rats were divided into 3 subgroups: subgroup 1: was given caraway for 2 weeks. Subgroup 2: was given coriander for 2 weeks. Subgroup 3: was dosed orally by fennel for 2 weeks. Each of the remaining 3 groups was given Caraway, coriander and fennel respectively only for 2 weeks. Histopathological effects in kidney were massive inflammatory infiltrate in interstitial tissue, vacuolar degeneration in tubular epithelial cells, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and some glomerular degeneration. The islets of Langerhan showed severe necrotic changes of pancreatic islets, especially in the center. Karyolysis, dilatation, congestion of large vessels and marked increase in connective tissue component at the expense of functioning tissue leading to relative reduction in the size of islets were also seen. DNA analysis showed hypoploidy in kidney and pancreas of rats treated with alloxan only. Alloxan caused decrease of protein and mucopolysaccharide content. Conclusion: the treatment of diabetic rats with caraway, coriander and fennel resulted in amelioration of histopathological and histochemical changes in kidney and islets of Langerhans. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):405-418]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.48

Key words: aloxan- kidney- pancreas- diabetes- caraway- coriander-fennel

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Quantifying the Solute Transport Water in a MSW Fill in Varied Saturated Conditions with Different Tracers

 

Olayiwola A. G. Oni12 PhD and Richard. P. Beaven3 PhD

1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

2 Proworks Ltd., 13 Newman St, SO16 4FL, UK

3 Richard Beaven Associates, Maldon, UK.

onilayi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The fractional volume of the water involved in the transport of solute in a municipal solid waste (MSW) fill was estimated from the flux concentration of multiple tracers - Lithium, Sodium Chloride, Bromide and Brilliant Blue. The tests were undertaken in saturated and oversaturated conditions of the waste and the solute transport was driven entirely by gravitational forces. Mechanical mixing and transport of the solutes in preferential pathways was confirmed with the observation of relatively early modal concentration of solutes in the waste fill. The fitting of the lifetime probability density function (pdf) of the travel time of solutes to the normalised flow concentration suggests that the test result is not significantly influenced by experimental scale. The percentage of the water involved in the transport of solutes through the waste fill is estimated to be approximately 98%, of which approximately 80% appears to be involved in fast “advective” flow. Unlike soil grains, the waste constituent elements appear to act as dynamic stores and permeable media, which significantly improve solute and water mobility within the configuration of the emplaced waste. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):419-430]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.49

Keywords: breakthrough curve, modelling, municipal solid waste, preferential flow, solute transport, tracer

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Model for the Calculation of Heat Absorbed by Oxalic Acid Solution during Leach-Enhanced Dissolution of Iron from Iron

Oxide Ore

 

Chukwuka I. Nwoye1 and Ihuoma E. Mbuka2

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University P.M.B 5025 Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The model for the calculation of the quantity of heat absorbed by oxalic acid solution as a result of the dissolution of iron during leaching of iron oxide ore has been derived. The triple exponential model; Q=Exp[exp(1.12eγ + 0.8342)] was found to predict the quantity of heat absorbed by the oxalic acid solution as a result of dissolution of iron depending on the mass-input of iron oxide ore during the leaching process (providing that eγ ≥ 1). The validity of the model is believed to be rooted on the expression eγ = N ln[LogQ] where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal to 1. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted quantity of absorbed heat from the corresponding experimental values is less than 4% which is quite within the acceptable range of deviation limit of experimental results. The positive values of heat absorbed as obtained from experiment and model indicate and agree that the leaching process is endothermic in nature. The quantities of absorbed heat per unit mass-input of iron oxide ore as obtained from experiment and derived model were evaluated as7.315 J/g and 6.84 J/g respectively. Similarly, the quantities of absorbed heat per unit percent rise in the concentration of dissolved iron as obtained from experiment and derived model were evaluated as 10837.04 J/% and 10133.33 J/% respectively, indicating proximate agreement. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):431-437]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.50

Keywords: Model, Heat Absorbed Iron Dissolution, Oxalic Acid, Iron Oxide Ore, Leaching

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The Relationship between P Wave Dispersion and Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Significant and Insignificant Coronary Artery Disease

Randa A. Soliman., MD, Ahmed A. Battah., MD, Ayman Hekaal., MD Mohamed Ashraf., MD, Ashraf Wadei., MD.

Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: We investigated the relationship between P wave dispersion, which is easily measured on the surface electrocardiogram and left ventricular end diastolic pressure and echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: We studied 50 patients with CAD: 8 patients with non significant CAD (16%) and 42 patients with significant CAD (84%). P wave dispersions were calculated by measuring minimum and maximum P wave duration values on the surface electrocardiogram. The relationships between P wave dispersion and the left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), Left atrial volume (LAV), left atrial diameter (LAD) and echocardiographic measurements of diastolic dysfunction were investigated. Results: P wave dispersion was 65.7 ± 18.8 ms. The magnitude of P wave dispersion was higher in group of LVEDP > 15 than those who had their LVEDP < 15 mmHg, (70.6 ± 15.2 vs. 60 ± 20.4 respectively and p value 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between the values of p wave dispersion and LVEDP, LAD and LAV as the correlation factor was (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, respectively and the p values were significant) . Also P wave dispersion was found to be higher in the group of significant CAD than insignificant CAD (68.7 ± 18.5 vs. 50 ± 10.35 respectively and p value 0.008). When patients with LVDD were staged, PD was 49 ± 9 ms in stage 1(9 pts.), 55 ± 10 ms in stage 2 (26 pts), and 58 ± 7 ms in stage 3 (15 pts.). As the severity of diastolic dysfunction increased, P wave dispersion increased but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P 0.07). Conclusion: We conclude that P wave dispersion is a non invasive marker for LVEDP and highly correlated to LA volume. P wave dispersion is another alternative for assessment of LV diastolic Dysfunction in CAD. P wave dispersion did not show a significant change in the 3 stages of diastolic dysfunction in our small studied groups so larger studies might be of help to elucidate that difference. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):438-445]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.51

Keywords: Wave Dispersion, Diastolic Dysfunction, Coronary Artery Disease

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Patient's Needs from Quality Health Care Dimensions as Ranked by Nurses and Patients

 

Dalal T. Akel, Samah F. Fakhry and Mona M. Shazly

 

Lecturers of Nursing Administration- Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

Abstract: Quality can vary markedly between organizations, It is important that health care organizations define precisely what quality care means to patients as well as health team This paper aimed to compare the ranking of patients' needs for quality health care dimensions by nurses and patients. Each subject of the 150 patients was interviewed and asked to rank each of these needs, also the nurses (n=45) were requested to rank these needs not according to their own priorities, but as they thought the patients would do, by separately answering a questionnaire developed by the researchers based on (Götherström et al., 1995, Farrell, 1991). the results revealed that the patients gives high first priority of care as regard continuity, accessibility, and security (74.0, 70.8, 67.3 ) while nurses give the priority to security, accessibility, and continuity (86.7, 73.8, 53.3 ) respectively It is noteworthy that all patients and nurses gives low priority of care as regard integrity (13.3). Overall, no statistically significant difference was found between the ranking of nurses and patients related to the overall quality care dimensions p=0.861., It was recommended that hospital administrators and clinicians must identify particular patient' needs as an indicator of patient's satisfactions, and develop interventions to meet those needs and priorities, Further studies are recommended to identify the effect of social determinates of patients on their ranking of needs, the difference between patients needs in critical care settings, and the effect of providing care based on patients' needs on the care cost- effectiveness. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):446-455]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.52

Keywords: quality of care, patients' needs priority

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Study on the effect of N-level fertilization on constituents of grape leaves and fruit quality using FT-IR spectroscopy

 

M. S. Abou Rayya; M. A. Moharram and W. A. El hotaby

 

Horticultural Crops Technology Department, Agricultural Division and Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division National Research Center, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2005 and 2006 in a private orchard locates at 62 km. of the Cairo – Alexandria desert road.Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used in the present work to study the effect of N-fertilization levels on the concentrations of chlorophyll, A , B and caretenoids in grape leaves and fruit quality of grapes . Ammonium nitrate (N-fertilizer) was applied after the beginning of vegetation growth to supply 33.3%, 66.6%, 100%, 133.3%, 166.6% of the recommended N-fertilizer level. (The recommended N-fertilizer level according to the ministry of Agriculture is 50 units N and this consider as the level of 100% for comparing during N application). Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B and total Carotenoieds were determined by using visible spectroscopic techniques at wave lengths 470nm, 645nm, and 662nm respectively. It was found that for the leaves of the first three samples the concentrations of Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B and Total Carotenoieds increase with increasing of N-level. For the forth sample the rate of increasing of the concentration of pigment is characterized by a first sharp increase up to 100% followed by slow increase up to 166%. As the fifth and sixth sample the increases in the pigment concentrations with increasing N-level assumes the maximum values at 100% N-level then decrease with increasing N-level. This results obtained by using visible spectroscopic techniques is in good agreement with the results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy. The determined values of ash content of leaves indicated that the fraction of ash content increases with the increase of the N-level from 33% to 100% and then slightly decreases with increasing the N-level to 133% and 166%. This means that the ash content of the leaves is influenced by the N-level.The fruiting data give strong evidence that the length of the clusters increases with increasing N-level until reaching the maximum in 100% treatment (the recommended level), also the T.S.S (Total Soluble Solid) and T.S.S/ Acidity ratio recorded the highest values at 100% treatment which reflect the degree of maturity and the quality of the grape production. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):456-464]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.53

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

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Effect of different cytokinins concentrations and carbon sources on shoot proliferation of bitter almond nodal cuttings

 

Abou Rayya M.S.; N.E.Kassim and E. A. M. Ali

 

Horticultural Crops Technology Department, Agricultural Division and Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division National Research Center, Egypt

 

Abstract: The present work was carried out in plant tissue culture Laboratory, Agriculture Development Systems project (ADS) at Giza, Egypt during the period from 1999-2003. It aimed to study the effect of various cytokinins at different concentrations ( 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L) and effect of carbon source (Sucrose, Glucose and fructose) and their concentrations on shoot number and shoot length /explant and fresh weight (g/explant0 on bitter almond nodal cuttings. The most effective cytokinine for enhancing in vitro growth was BA followed by kinitine and zeatin respectively. Lower concentration of BA and kinitine at (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) gave healthier plants than 2.0 or 4.0 mg/L. However, using 4.0 mg/ L BA in shoot proliferation medium increased in vitro growth (No.of shoots /explant, fresh weight) of bitter almond nodal cuttings. Glucose was the most effective carbon source for stimulating the production of shoots, fresh weight and shoot length on the new developed shoots. It was followed by sucrose and fructose. On the other hand, sucrose gave healthier plant than glucose or fructose. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):465-469]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.54

 

Keywords: cytokinins, carbon sources, shoot proliferation, nodal

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A Study the Phase Transformations in Amorphous Diphenyl Carbazide (C13H14N4O)

 

F. El-Kabbany, S. Taha* and M. Hafez

 

Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

* Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Fayoum University.

profdrsthassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thermal and electrical properties of amorphous diphenyl carbazide (DPC) are studied between room temperature and its melting point ≈ 435 K. The study includes a set of measurements DTA, DSC, dielectric constant (ε), electrical resistance (R), the pyroelectric current (I) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained are strongly supported each other and indicate that the amorphous DPC samples undergo four different phase transitions at 323 K, 363 K, 395 K and 415 K respectively. It is found that each phase transition belongs to a certain definite crystal structure. These crystal structure variations are found to be amorphous, monoclinic, tetragonal, orthorhombic and amorphous within the temperature range of this study. Thermal analysis revealed that the thermal energies for these four different phase transitions are 10.92 J/g, 7.63 J/g, 79.3 J/g and 31.77 J/g respectively. The electrical measurements showed that the conduction in these phases is activated by energies of 0.22, 0.3, 0.16 and 0.47 eV respectively. The first phase transition is attributed to the variation in hydrogen bonding N-H to the carbonyl group C=O, which is leading to a twisted intermolecular charge transfer (TICT) in the temperature region of this phase transition. The second phase transition is mainly due to the weaking of the N-H hydrogen bonding with increasing temperature. Beside that, it may be due to the reorientational molecular motion to another equivalent position. The third phase transition is attributed to a changing in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding with –CO as well as –N-H groups. These changes can greatly affect the charge distribution and in turn affect the transition process (populated locally excited states). The fourth phase transition is due to the weaking of the hydrogen bond of N-H group. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):470-476]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.55

 

Keywords: Diphenyl carbazide; Polymorphism, thermal and electrical properties

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IR Study of the Low Temperature phase Transition in Amorphous Diphenyl Carbazide C13H14N4O

 

F. El-Kabbany, S. Taha* and M. Hafez

 

Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

* Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Fayoum University.

profdrsthassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The low temperature dependence of IR spectra of amorphous diphenyl carbazide C13H14N4O has been investigated below zero temperature. The data is reported here between room temperature and down to -70oC and the IR spectra are recorded in the frequency range 400-4000 cm-1. This study is an extension of a recent one, which detected the presence of polymorphic character of this complex compound by IR, DSC and DTA at 50oC, 90 oC, 120 oC and 140 oC. It includes measurements and interpretation of the IR spectral band shape, frequencies of modes and band shifts as a function of temperature. Eleven different fundamental modes have been investigated explicitly. Special attention is paid to the most sensitive modes which reflect the low temperature phase transition process in detail. These modes are 3328 cm-1, 1677 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1251 cm-1, 750 cm-1 and 494 cm-1 in which the variations strongly support the low temperature phase transition in DPC at -47oC. This phase transition does not show structural change but just a transformation from amorphous state to amorphous state as detected by x-ray analysis. The phase transition here is suggested to be of displacive type. A low temperature phase transition has been detected here for the first time in diphenyl carbazide at - 47oC. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):477-485]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.56

Keywords: Low temperature IR spectra; Diphenyl carbazide

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Effect of Trichoderma species on damping off diseases incidence, some plant enzymes activity and nutritional status of bean plants

 

Abd-El-Khair 1, H., R. Kh. M. Khalifa 2 and Karima, H. E. Haggag3

 

1- Plant Pathology Department , 2- Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, and 3) Pest Rearing Department, Central agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

 

ABSTRACTS: Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the common causal pathogens causes the damping off disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. The antagonistic effect of four Trichoderma species, i.e. Trichoderma album, Triechoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride, was tested against F. solani and R. solani in vitro, in greenhouse and in field. In vitro tests, all Trichoderma spp. significantly reduced the mycelial growth of two pathogenic fungi. In greenhouse experiment, T. album, T. hamatum, T. harizianum and T. viride, as soil treatments, significantly reduced the pre- and post-emergence damping off disease incidence under artificial infection with F. solani and R. solani. Soil treatments with four Trichoderma species significantly reduced the incidence of damping off disease where the percentages disease incidence were in the range of 7.0 -20.0% and 2.4 – 6.5%, compared to 25.7 and 13.5% in control plants, at pre- and post-emergence stages ,respectively. The best protection to damping off disease was obtained by T. hamatum, followed by T. viride, T. album and T. harzianum, respectively. The treatments gave the highest plant survival (%) and improved the growth and yield parameters. Results showed that the levels of chitinase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities highly increased in treated bean plant compared in untreated plants. The macro- and micro-elements content in treated bean plants was affected by Trichoderma species treatments compared to elements content in untreated plants. The relationship between plant nutrient content and some plant enzymes activity was studied. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):486-497]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.57

 

Key words: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trichoderma spp., biological control, nutritional atatus

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Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Egyptian Rhizobial strains for abiotic stresses performance

 

M. S. Abdel-Salam1*, S. A. Ibrahim2, M. M. Abd-El-Halim1, F. M. Badawy2 and S.E.M. Abo-Aba1

1: Microbial Genetics Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Div., National Research Centre, Egypt.

2: Genetics Department, Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Egypt.

*Corresponding Author: msam-one@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty one Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii strains and seven Rhizobium meliloti strains were characterized for their nodulation efficiencies and their growth performance against salinity, drought and heavy metals. About 67% of R. l. bv. trifolii strains and all R. meliloti strains were halotolerants. R. l. bv. trifolii strains were more drought-tolerant than R. meliloti strains. About 86% of R. l. bv. trifolii were multiple-metal resistant, iron resistance was the most abundant (~ 95%) followed by nickel resistant (~ 86%). Six R. meliloti strains were multiple-metal resistant, nickel resistance was the most apparent (~ 71%). The salt-and drought-tolerant Rhizobium strains are excellent models to study the resistance mechanism(s), and to elucidate the role of genetics of NaCl and drought tolerance. The characterized rhizobia had different applications. The salt tolerant, drought tolerant, and heavy metals resistance patterns found among the indigenous rhizobial strains are reflecting the environmental stresses pressure predominant in their locations and are very good examples of the importance of using efficient – indigenous rhizbial strain for plant successful inoculation. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(9):498-503]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.58

Key words: Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii, Rhizobium meliloti, nodulation, salinity, drought and heavy metals

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The Effects of Dietary Supplementations with Barley Seeds and Hay on Ochratoxin A- Toxicity using Lactating Egyptian Goats.

 Abdel- Fattah, Sh. M.*1; Yehia .H. A1; EL-Maaz2, A.A. and El-Nemr, S. A.2

1 Department of food toxins and contaminants National research centre, 2 Biochemistry department, Giza provincial laboratory, Animal health research institute, Cairo, Egypt.

*shaabanmostafa@yahoo.com

Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation with barley and hay at levels of 45% of the composition of daily rations, on the performance and toxicity of Egyptian lactating gaots received ochratoxin A (10mg/kg ration, of dry matter basis), were successively examined for four weeks. Sixteen native apparently healthy female goats with average weight of 47.6 ± 1.26 kg., were put under observation for two weeks, then they were divided into four equal groups according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. The 1st., group used as a negative control which fed ochratoxin A-free diets consisting of 70% concentrates and 30% hay (dry matter basis, energy to supply 1.1 times the requirement for maintenance), the 2nd., group used as a positive control which fed ochratoxin A-contaminated diets (70% concentrates and 30% hay), the 3rd., group fed the same diet used for the 2nd., group except the hay level which elevated to 45%, and the 4th., group which fed the same diet used for the 3rd., group except the hay portion which supplemented with 45% barley seeds. Dry matter intake (DM), apparent nutrient digestibilities, nutritive values, serum chemistry profiles and ochratoxin A (OA) concentrationa in feed intake, orts, serum, feces, urine and milk; were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that goats fed ochratoxin A-contaminated diets without barley or hay supplementation, showed reduction in feed intake, nutritive value, body weight gain, and immunoglobulin production as well as in some serum constituents. After 1,.2,.3, and 4 weeks of the trial, significant concentrations of ochratoxin A were detected in serum, feces and urine samples of all treated animals. Ochratoxin A was found in significant concentrations, because of escaping from the gastrointestinal tract. Addition of barley or hay can in part, able to counteract the toxic effects of ochratoxin A as well as the immunoglobulin dysfunction. The antitoxic effects of hay were generally better than barley seeds to minimize or to avoid the immunosuppressive effect of OA, the mycotoxin status of goats diet must be controlled if good goat performance is to be targeted. The current experiment demonstrates that OA hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract of Egyptian goats is substantially less than previously described, especially if OA is ingested in combination with concentrate-rich diets. The results suggest that OA is hydrolyzed much faster in the rumen of goats fed hay than in goats fed grains, presumably because of the different ruminal microbial population, which in turn influenced the rate of hydrolysis of OA. This experiment established that very good conversion of OA to ochratoxin alpha (Oα) occurs systematically; 3.5 to 5.15% of the OA was recovered as unaltered OA in the urine. Most of the great amount of Oα recovered was also in the urine. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):504-514]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.59

Key Words: Ochratoxins, Ruminants, Diets, Hydrolysis, Bioavailability

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Assessment of the Role of Serum and Urine Eosinophil Cationic Protein in Diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti Infection

 Salwa Fayez *1, Mayssa M. Zaki2, Aisha A. Elawady2 and Naglaa S.M. El-Gebaly2

 Medical Biochemistry Department1 and Parasitology Department2, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*Salwafayez@yahoo.com

Abstract: Eosinophils participate in the complex regulatory system that mediates inflammatory responses and parasitic infections. when activated eosinophils degranulate, they release Four highly basic proteins which include Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a major constitutent of secondary eosinophilic granules . In this study, the ECP levels were measured in both serum and urine of patients with lymphatic filariasis (LF) with different presentations and compared to their levels in normal individuals living in endemic areas (endemic normals), asthmatic patients as an example of allergic condition and normal individuals living in non-endemic areas (non-endemic controls). Serum ECP was found to be significantly elevated in all filarial cases with marked elevation in acute cases reflecting the ongoing pathological process. The asthmatic patients and to a lesser extent the endemic normals showed an elevated mean serum ECP. In addition, urinary levels of ECP were significantly elevated in the chyluria cases reflecting the pathological condition affecting the urinary tract. In conclusion: Measurement of serum and urine ECP can help in the diagnosis of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti and can also be used in the follow-up of pathological changes in lymphatic filariasis as its levels reflect the hidden tissue eosinophilic inflammatory reaction associated with this disease. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):515-523]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.60

Key Words: Wuchereria bancrofti , Lymphatic filariasis, Eosinophil cationic protein, Serum, Urine

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Ultrasonography vs computed tomography in imaging of zygomatic complex fractures

 Maha Sallam 1, Ghada Khalifa 2, Fatma Ibrahim 2 and Mohamed Taha 3

1 Associate Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Research Institute of Ophthalmology.

2Lecturer of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Azhar University, Girl Branch.

3Associate Professor of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Azhar University, Girl Branch.

 sallam_maha@hotmail.com

Abstract: The zygoma is the principal buttress between the cranium and maxilla. The zygomatic fractures can lead to significant cosmetic and functional disorders such as enophthalmos, depression of malar eminence and parathesia due to injury of infraorbital nerve. Computed tomography (CT) was the first technology capable of allowing visualization of both hard and soft tissues of the face by image processing enhancement. It was reported that CT can achieve more accurate values in diagnosis of midface fractures. Another alternative technique is ultrasonographic examination. Ultrasonography is easy and quick to be performed; it is noninvasive and free of any risks. The possibility of ultrasonographic fracture visualization in the midface has already been described by many researchers. Objectives: the aim of this study was to compare between the ultrasonographic and the computed tomographic findings, in the diagnosis and repair of the zygomatic complex fractures. Patients and methods: Between November 2008 and December 2009, 10 consecutive patients (5 males and 5 females) who were referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Department of AL-Azhar University (Girls branch), for treatment of zygomatic complex fractures, were included in this prospective study. The mean age was 34.5 (range 16-60years). The clinical criteria for patient selection included; the presence of periorbital ecchymosis, scleral hematoma, infraorbital nerve parathesia, diplopia and/or limitation of ocular movements, as well as enophthalmos and flattening of the face. Patients who had diplopia or ocular abnormalities were examined by an ophthalmologist. With each patient an axial and coronal thin-layer CT with 3D reconstruction was done (Multislice CT). Subsequently each patient was sonographically evaluated by an experienced examiner with a linear transducer. All patients were treated under general anaesthesia via closed or open reduction according to the planned surgery. Immediately after patients’ recovery, CT and ultrasound images were taken for all patients to evaluate accuracy of the reduction. Results: The ultrasonographic findings showed clear differences in the ability to obtain a correct estimation of the selected anatomic landmarks. The zygomatic arch, the lateral wall of the orbit and the infraorbital margin can be visualized by ultrasonography very easily. The assessment of the orbital floor and the medial wall proved to be rather difficult. The ultrasound images were always concordant with the CT findings. Open reduction through extraoral and transoral accesses, was performed in 8 patients, and 2 patients were treated conservatively. The alignment of the fractured segments could be easily identified by ultrasonography in all patients. All fractured segments were adequately reduced into their normal anatomical position. The postoperative CT confirmed these results. Conclusion: CT has been recommended for preoperative evaluation of zygomatic trauma as a standard diagnostic method, especially in complicated cases with intracranial injuries or when there is a need for optic nerve evaluation, because they cannot be adequately seen by ultrasonography. While ultrasonography has proved to be a valuable tool in detecting uncomplicated fractures at the zygomaticofrontal process, the zygomatic arch and the infra orbital margin but its results for orbital floor and medial wall remain unsatisfactory. Also, ultrasound is more reliable in postoperative follow up, resulting in decreased cost and radiation exposure. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):524-533]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.61

Keywords: Ultrasonography; computed tomography; zygomatic; cranium, maxilla

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Horizontal Gene Transfer Events among Different Species of Bacteria

 Amina, A. Hassan and M.K. Amin*

Department of Genetics, Fac. Agric. Zagazig Univ. Egypt.

 *osammour@hotmail.Com

Abstract: Horizontal gene transfer may play a key role in the evolution of bacterial populations and the adaptation of microbial communities to environment. The genetic exchange of antibiotic resistant determinants between organisms of the same or different species is believed to play a role in resistance among bacteria with a variety of antibiotic. In this study an assessment of a horizontal gene transfer among different species of bacteria by two mechanisms of gene transfer, conjugation and transduction has been investigated. The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages to propagate on different bacterial genera has also been addressed. The results of this study showed that the three P. aeruginosa bacteriophages, F116, AMSE2000 and Ř111 propagated successfully on different species of Staphylococcus and Rhizobium beside their original host (P. aeruginosa). The plaque forming units (PFU/ml) of phage F116 on P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 was 2×109 and ranged from 5.4×107 up to 6.9×108 on tested strains. Moreover horizontal gene transfer by conjugation can occur either as inter or intra species gene transfer, where it was occurred among different strains of P. aeruginosa using chloramphenecole (chlr) and ampcillin (ampr) resistance genes. Conjugation frequencies ranged from 1.02×10-3 to 8.8×10-4 for chlr and 9.9×10-4 to 8.9×10-4 for ampr. Furthermore conjugation was occurred between Staphylococcus and Pseudomonanas bacterial species. The three P. aeruginosa bacteriophages that propagated on different genera have been tested to asses their ability in horizontal gene transfer by transduction into different strains of the same species. Transduction frequency ranged from 3.2×10-5 to 2.6×10-3. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):534-544]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.62

Key words: Horizontal gene transfer, conjugation, transduction, antibiotic resistance, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Rhizobium, bacteriophage, lysogen, induction

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Studies on Curcuma longa, Chicorium intybus and Petroselinum sativum Water Extracts against Cisplatin-Induced Toxicity in Rats

 

Nermien Z Ahmed, Kamal M El-Deib and Mahgoub M Ahmed

Molecular Drug Evaluation Department, National Organization for Drug Control & Research (NODCAR), Giza 12553, Egypt.

dr_mahgoub1@yahoo.com; nermienteleb@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRAC: This study aimed to investigate the prophylactic effect of three water extracts; Curcuma longa (CL), Chicorium intybus (CI), and Petroselinum sativum (PS) alone or in combination with silymarin (SN) as standard antioxidant compound on cisplatin induced acute toxicity. Group 3, 4 and 5 received a daily dose of each extract (250mg/kg b.w.) by oral administration. Groups 7, 8 and 9 were received each extract by the same dose and SN by the dose of (70mg/kg b.w.). All groups except control (treated with tween 80, p.o.) received a single dose of cisplatin (CPN) by dose of (7.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) on the fifth day. After 7 days, all animals were decapitated; blood was collected and analyzed for the biochemical parameters; GSH content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total protein, ALT, AST and MDA levels. SOD, CAT, MDA, TP and DNA concentrations were determined in liver and kidney. Also, histophathological examinations were done in liver. The results revealed that the body and organs weight affected by CPN and plant extracts. The level of MDA, AST and ALT were increased by CPN and it appeared to be improved by the plant extract either alone or in combination with SN. Also, total protein level, the total antioxidant capacity and GSH contents appeared to be improved by the plant extracts against CPN-induced toxicity. CPN treatment caused a significant decrease in the level of CAT & SOD in rat liver and kidney as compared to control, while the level was increased after plant extract treatments in both liver and kidney by different values. DNA damage was occurred as compared to control after CPN treatment, it was ameliorated after each plant extract treatments alone or in mixture with SN at the present of cisplatin by different percentage values. Histopathological examination exerted a severe damage in the liver under the effect of CPN. The liver morphology was characterized by severe activation of Kupffer cells, degenerated hepatocytes and moderate enlargement of sinusoids. Plant extract administrations exerted an ameliorative effect by decreasing pathological lesions as inflammatory cell aggregates and fibrosis areas. The results support significant antioxidant effect of each plant extract by different values and it may involve prevention of lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in liver and kidney. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):545-558]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.63

 

Keywords: Curcuma longa, Chicorium intybus, Petroselinum sativum, silymarin, cisplatin, MDA, SOD, CAT, DNA and GSH

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Studies of Transition Metal Complexes and Their Antibacterial Activities

 

Ritu Sharma, Prabhat*, Randhir Singh, Swati Pawar# and Avnish Chauhan+

Department of Chemistry, *Department of Botany and Microbiology

Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (UA) 249404.

#Department of Chemistry, Vivekanand College, Chandpur, Bijnor, UP-246752. + Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad-244001

ritusharmachem@gmail.com, prabhat_micro@yahoo.co.in, avnishchauhan_phd@aol.in

 

Abstract: Tetraaza Macrocyclic complexes of transition metals of Ni (II), Cu(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), Mn(II) were synthesized in methanolic media by template method. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, Infrared spectroscopy. In vitro antibacterial activity of macrocyclic complexes against five bacteria i.e. Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae were tested to assess their inhibiting the activities and compared with standard with ampicilline. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):559-564]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.64

 

Keywords: Tetraaza macrocyclic complexes, template synthesis, antibacterial activity

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Ambient Air Quality Status in Uttarakhand (India): A Case Study of Haridwar And Dehradun Using Air Quality Index

 

Avnish Chauhan*, Mayank Pawar*, Rajeev Kumar and P. C. Joshi#

*Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities,

College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India-244001.

Department of Computer Science,

College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India-244001.

#Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences,

Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India.-249404

*Corresponding author-avnishchauhan_in@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This paper examines the significant differences in seasonal variations of air pollutants concentrations at urban, industrial, commercial and agricultural areas of Uttarakhand. PM10 (RSPM), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were collected over four sites in Haridwar and Dehradun Valley, Uttarakhand. The first one, Shivalik Nagar, Haridwar is an urban area. The second site SIDCUL, which is one of the most industrial areas of Haridwar. The third site is famous Clock Tower of Dehradun Valley, one of the busiest commercial centres. The fourth site was an agricultural area where pollution level was very low, considered as a control site. The present study deals with the effect of industrialization, urbanization and automobile emission on ambient air quality in Haridwar and Dehradun City. Meteorological parameters like temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were also recorded simultaneously during the sampling period. Monthly and seasonal variation of these pollutants have been observed and recorded. The annual average and range values have also been calculated. It has been observed that the concentrations of the pollutants are high in winter in comparison to the summer or the monsoon seasons. In the present study, it was noticed that the SPM and PM10 levels at all selected sites (excluding Roshnabad) exceeds the prescribed limits as stipulated by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) New Delhi, India. Apart from this the SO2 and NOx levels in residential, industrial and commercial areas remain under prescribed limits of CPCB. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):565-574]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.65

 

Keywords: PM10 particles, Urban air pollution, Traffic pollution, Industrial pollution

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Studies on Acceleration of Ras Cheese Ripening by Aminopeptidase Enzyme from Buffaloes' Pancreas. II- Utilization of Buffaloes' pancreas aminopeptidase in acceleration of Ras cheese ripening

 

M. A. El-Hofi; Azza A. Ismail; Fawzia H. R. Abd Rabo*; Samia M. El-Dieb* and O. A. Ibrahim

* Dairy Science Department; Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Dairy Department; National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

mahmoudhofi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aminopeptidases are an exopeptidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acid residues from the N-terminus of peptide or protein substrates, these are believed to act in concert to completely degrade the products of proteolysis into amino acids. The presence of free amino acids in Cheddar cheese and their contribution to aged flavor clearly and debittering effect in cheese indicates the importance of aminopeptidases in the ripening process. Fresh mixture of buffaloes’ and cows’ milk (1:1) was divided into five portions. The first portion was left without treatment and served as a control (C). The aminopeptidase was added at levels of 0.03 (T1), 0.06 (T2), 0.09 (T3) and 0.15 (T4) units / kg milk. All five milk samples were manufactured into ras cheese. Ras cheese samples were taken periodically when fresh and after 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days of storage at 14 ± 1°C for analysis. After 60 days of ripening, sample T2 was more superior as it had an acceptable acidity and pH value and the difference between it and control was significant. The moisture and total nitrogen contents of sample T2 were 36.65 and 4.643% and there is no significant difference between T2 and control. The level of soluble nitrogen in the control cheese was lower than those of treated cheeses and the difference between sample T2 and control was significant. The use of buffaloes’ pancreas aminopeptidase increased soluble tyrosine and tryptophan contents in the resultant cheeses as compared with the control. Specific assessment of proteolysis by measuring decrease in the intensity of protein bands by urea-PAGE showed considerable decreases in intact αs1 and β-casein in sample T2 compared to the control. Organolyptically treatment 2 had the highest total score among treatments followed by sample T1 then T3, T4 and finally control cheese. Therefore addition of 0.06 units of buffaloes’ pancreas aminopeptidase / kg milk would accelerate the ripening process of Ras cheese through 60 days without any defects in its properties. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):575-581]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.66

 

Keywords: Buffaloes’ pancreas, Aminopeptidase, Ras cheese, Cheese ripening

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Studies on proventriculitis in Broilers with molecular characterization to its viral causes

 

M. A. Kutkat1; Hoda M. Ahmed1; S. A. Khalil2; M. Abd El-Fatah 1 and H. A. Torky2

1 Poultry Diseases Departement, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

2 Departement of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University

kutkat55@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Infectious proventriculitis syndrome is at times a serious and ongoing problem causing significant financial losses. From the obtained results in the present study, it could be concluded that proventriculitis can be transmitted by oral inoculation of homogenates produced from proventriculi of birds with proventriculitis. Experimentally inoculated broilers were seroconverted to ARV, IBV and IBDV. I-FAT against ARV, IBV and IBDV detected intra-cytoplasmic staining in the proventricular glandular epithelial cells of experimentally inoculated broilers. ARV, IBV and IBDV were identified in proventricular homogenate inoculated broilers by RT-PCR. S1 sequence analysis of examined ARV isolates revealed a higher degree of similarity with published Egyptian isolates than that obtained when compared with international strains. S1 sequence analysis of examined IBV isolates revealed their close relatedness to Mass serotype. Nested PCR followed by RFLP and sequence analysis of HVR of VP2 gene revealed that the examined IBDV isolates related to vvIBDV. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):582-592]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.67

 

Keywords: Proventriculitis, Infectious bursal Diseases Virus, Infectious bronchitis virus, PCR

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The Effects of Dietary Supplementations with Barley Seeds and Hay on Ochratoxin A- Toxicity using Lactating Egyptian Goats.

 

Abdel- Fattah, Sh. M.*1; Yehia .H. A1; EL-Maaz2, A.A. and El-Nemr, S. A.2

1 Department of food toxins and contaminants National research centre, 2 Biochemistry department, Giza provincial laboratory, Animal health research institute, Cairo, Egypt.

*shaabanmostafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of dietary supplementation with barley and hay at levels of 45% of the composition of daily rations, on the performance and toxicity of Egyptian lactating gaots received ochratoxin A (10mg/kg ration, of dry matter basis), were successively examined for four weeks. Sixteen native apparently healthy female goats with average weight of 47.6 ± 1.26 kg., were put under observation for two weeks, then they were divided into four equal groups according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. The 1st., group used as a negative control which fed ochratoxin A-free diets consisting of 70% concentrates and 30% hay (dry matter basis, energy to supply 1.1 times the requirement for maintenance), the 2nd., group used as a positive control which fed ochratoxin A-contaminated diets (70% concentrates and 30% hay), the 3rd., group fed the same diet used for the 2nd., group except the hay level which elevated to 45%, and the 4th., group which fed the same diet used for the 3rd., group except the hay portion which supplemented with 45% barley seeds. Dry matter intake (DM), apparent nutrient digestibilities, nutritive values, serum chemistry profiles and ochratoxin A (OA) concentrationa in feed intake, orts, serum, feces, urine and milk; were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that goats fed ochratoxin A-contaminated diets without barley or hay supplementation, showed reduction in feed intake, nutritive value, body weight gain, and immunoglobulin production as well as in some serum constituents. After 1,.2,.3, and 4 weeks of the trial, significant concentrations of ochratoxin A were detected in serum, feces and urine samples of all treated animals. Ochratoxin A was found in significant concentrations, because of escaping from the gastrointestinal tract. Addition of barley or hay can in part, able to counteract the toxic effects of ochratoxin A as well as the immunoglobulin dysfunction. The antitoxic effects of hay were generally better than barley seeds to minimize or to avoid the immunosuppressive effect of OA, the mycotoxin status of goats diet must be controlled if good goat performance is to be targeted. The current experiment demonstrates that OA hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract of Egyptian goats is substantially less than previously described, especially if OA is ingested in combination with concentrate-rich diets. The results suggest that OA is hydrolyzed much faster in the rumen of goats fed hay than in goats fed grains, presumably because of the different ruminal microbial population, which in turn influenced the rate of hydrolysis of OA. This experiment established that very good conversion of OA to ochratoxin alpha (Oα) occurs systematically; 3.5 to 5.15% of the OA was recovered as unaltered OA in the urine. Most of the great amount of Oα recovered was also in the urine. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):593-603]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.68

 

Key Words: Ochratoxins, Ruminants, Diets, Hydrolysis, Bioavailability

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Insulin resistance is triggered by oxidative stress in mildly obese men

Salwa fayez *Abd El Aziz GH .M** Mohamed Rehan***

*Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

**Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University

*** Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

salwafayez@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recent reports indicate that obesity may induce systemic oxidative stress that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Cumulative evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress may lead to insulin resistance in vivo or in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate the possible relationship of oxidative stress with mild obesity and insulin resistance in men. The serum levels malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity were measured in 31 mildly obese and 26 nonobese men and their relationship was evaluated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index and waist circumference. Obese men had significantly higher serum concentrations of malondialdehyde and lower levels of total antioxidant capacity than nonobese men (P < 0.001). The serum levels of malondialdehyde were significantly positive correlated with HOMA-IR, body mass index (r = 0.78; 0.69; P < 0.001 respectively), while total antioxidant capacity was significantly negative correlated with HOMA-IR, body mass index (r = - 0.50; - 0.64 P < 0.001) in all (obese and nonobese) men. Also HOMA-IR values were found to be significantly positive correlated with body mass index and waist circumferance in all (obese and nonobese) men. The results of this study suggest that, increased oxidative stress together with the decreased antioxidative defence seems to contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity and related to adiposity and insulin resistance in men, and may be hypothesized to favor the development of insulin resistance in mildly obese men. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):604-611]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.69

 

Keywords: Insulin resistance, Oxidative stress, Obesity, Total antioxidant capacity, Malondialdehyde

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Natural State Changes of Cows' and Buffaloes' Milk Proteins Induced by Microbial Transglutaminase

 

F.H.R. Abd-Rabo, S. M. El-Dieb, A.M. Abd-El-Fattah and S.S. Sakr

Dairy science Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Incorporation of some amino acids in milk protein as a result of cross-linking by Microbial Transglutaminase (MTGase) was investigated. Effect of MTGase on electrophoretic patterns, microstructure, micellar hydration and sedimentable solids of milk proteins as well as the viscosity of whole and skim cows and buffaloes milk was also studied. Incubation of milk with MTGase at 40O C for 1h prior to thermal inactivation (at 80OC/2min) resulted in a complete incorporation of glutamine and argynine in skim cows milk protein and glysine and valine in skim buffaloes milk protein. That treatment also induced reductions in levels of monomeric caseins (αs1-, β-, and κ-caseins) and an increase in the fractions of relatively low electrophoretic mobility. The effect of MTGase on the microstructure of treated samples was quite clear; the enzyme was capable of forming covalent linkages between protein molecules. The micellar hydration and viscosity of treated skim milk samples were markedly improved and were the highest between the samples makes it possible to produce different types of dairy products with low fat contents or a reduced content of non-fat solids. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):612-620]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.70

Keywords: Microbial Transglutaminase; electrophoretic pattern, microstructure, micellular hydration

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Analytical study for the relationship of population and cultivated area in Egypt

 

Ezzat, A. Z.1; Mahmoud, A. M1; Naira, Y. S1. and Gamal, A. M.2

1Agricultural Economics Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Economic Research Unit, Fayoum, Egypt

 

Abstract: The study aims to identify the rates of growth in both population and agricultural land in Egypt during the period 1979-2008. In addition to the extent of the discrepancy between population and the average area cultivated and examine the impact of the improving area planted on the cultivated areas, total production of food crops and its relationship to population growth. Hence, the impact on imports and exports of wheat, cotton, rice, and also the impact on total production of livestock. Moreover the outcome of this effect in the study of the food gap between production and consumption. The study was achieved by some statistical analysis methods of general trend and some descriptive statistical methods. Finally, analysis of variance between the variables studied during the study periods (1979 - 1993) and (1994-2008). The study adopted in the compilation of data on all the bulletins from the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics and Ministry of Agriculture. The most important findings of the study compared with the general trend during the two study increased some of the variables during the initial period compared to the second period, including the acreage, the area of wheat, wheat production, productivity, imports of wheat, meat, red meat consumption, per capita red meat consumption, the gap of the dairy, poultry consumption, the per capita consumption of poultry, the gap of poultry. Also reflect an increasing number of variables during the second period, including a number of the population, the crop area, the area of rice exports of cotton, the average per capita production of wheat, the gap of red meat, dairy production, milk consumption, per capita milk consumption, per capita consumption of milk and, finally, poultry production compared to the first period. In addition, show some of the variables decreased during the first period compared to the second period, including the area of cotton, cotton production, the average per capita production of cotton. Finally, show declining average per capita cultivated area at a steady rate in both periods. As it was the most important findings of the study to compare the averages of some economic variables and the rates of growth and change them between the two study a rise in the rate of growth and rate of change between the averages of some variables such as population, cultivated area, the area of wheat, rice cultivation area, the productivity of wheat, rice productivity, exports of cotton, rice exports, the average per capita production of wheat, the average per capita rice production, production of red meat, red meat consumption, per capita consumption of red meat, milk production, milk consumption. Also show a reduction in both growth rate and the rate of change between the averages of some variables, including the crop area, the area of cotton, cotton production, imports of wheat, the average per capita cultivated area, the average per capita crop area, the average per capita share of cotton production, and the gap red meat. The study found the gap between population and cultivated area and land area in Egypt increased the gap resulting from the continued increase in population during the years of the study it was found that the number of people equivalent to about 7.11, 10.7 and 9.024 of total land area. And then was the most important recommendations of the study are: 1 - Work to reduce and decrease the number of population through family planning programs, or developing new laws to limit the number of children, two kids/ family and who wants a third child or more depending on the economic, the viability of expenses the full education, treatment, and care, and so on. 2 - follow the ways and means of modern technology that lead to greater land area cultivated (horizontal extension) through the cultivation and reclamation of land, as well as developing and enacting laws that contribute to the reduction of construction and the attack on the agricultural land for other purposes. 3 - The application of genetic engineering to increase the output unit of cultivated area to improve seeds and seedlings, devising new types of high-yield and short staying and resistance to adverse conditions and some others, and also use some of the methods of modern agriculture with the use of fertilizer extension courses, and others. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):621-630]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.71

 

Keywords: rate of growth; population; agricultural land; livestock

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Green Microalgae Water Extract and Micronutrients Foliar Treatments as Promoters to Nutrient Balance and Growth of Wheat Plants

 

Mahmoud M. Shaaban, Abdel Karim M. El-Saady, Abo El-Khair B. El-Sayed

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Pot experiment was conducted in the experimental station of the Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt with wheat plants to study the effect of foliar fertilization with algal extract or micronutrients fertilizer or their combinations on the dry matter accumulation in the plant shoots. Nutrient concentrations, uptake and balance were also under investigation. Results showed that the best concentrations of macronutrients were achieved by the algal extract treatments or the higher dose of the micronutrient fertilizer. However, the best uptake, nutrient balance and dry matter accumulation was recorded with combined algal extract and micronutrient fertilizer treatment. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):631-636]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.72

 

Key words: Wheat, Micronutrients, Algae Extract, Dry Weight, Nutrient Balance

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Immobilized-microalga Scenedesmus sp. for Biological Desalination of Red Sea Water: II. Effect on Macronutrients Removal

 

El-Sayed, A. B

National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

bokhair@msn.ccom

 

Abstract: To assess the ability of the freshwater green alga Scenedesmus sp. to recover nutrients from saline water. The saline water from Red Sea, Ismailia Governorate (about 45g.l-1) was used. Alga was hetero-trophically grown in 10L rough polyethylene bottles. Fresh-saline water ratio ranged from 0.0 to 100%. Physico-chemical analysis of growth media was daily determined. All of nitrogen and phosphorous content either from original growth medium and saline water was absorbed by the first batch due to their low concentration and high importance. Potassium, calcium and sodium represented their maximum by the first batch, however absorption extended by the following batches due to their higher concentrations. Magnesium represented the lower concentration by the third batch due to complete consumption of this element. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):637-643]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.73

 

Key word: Scenedesmus; saline water; nutrient uptake

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Patterns of relationship and daily interactions between parents and adolescents

 

Amal Gamal Shehata, Fatma Hussein Ramadan

Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of nursing,

University of Alexandria

 

Abstract: The adolescent period is one which has perplexed parents, psychologists and adolescents themselves for many years. Adolescents experience a decline in the desire for companionship with their parents, experience an increase in conflict and distance in relationships with their parents. The magnitude of this disturbance is still under some debate within the body of research that examines the relationship between adolescents and their parents. The aim of this study is to assess the patterns of relationship and daily interactions between parents and adolescents. Total samples of 100 adolescents aged from 11 to 16 years were randomly selected from general population in Alexandria, representing adolescents who were available at net café and different social clubs. Two tools were used to collect the necessary data: one questionnaire sheet to obtain demographic data including gender, age, and family structure. Second tool was Parent- Adolescent Relationship Survey Questionnaire (PARQ). It consists of 32 questions that explore the dimensions of parent –adolescent relationship from adolescent's perspective. These dimensions are time spent with parents, frequency of interactions, quality of interactions and parental affect during the interactions, to predict the overall patterns of relationships between adolescents and parents. The results showed how adolescents react to parental affect and how much it determines the patterns of interactions .Also parental affect and the frequency of interactions were particularly meaningful in the maintenance of positive parent - adolescent relationship. This study aimed at: Identifying the patterns of parent- adolescent relationship and the effect of adolescent sex on these patterns. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):644-655]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.74

 

Keywords: daily interactions; adolescents; conflict

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Ectoparasitic Trichodinians Infecting catfish Clarias gariepinus inhabiting Nile Delta Water of the River Nile, Dakahlia Province, Egypt

 

El-Tantawy S.A.M and El-Sherbiny H.A.E.

Zoology Department - Faculty of Science – Mansoura University - Egypt

 

Abstract: This work was done to identify the ectoparasitic trichodinians infecting the freshwater catfish clarias gariepinus inhabiting the Nile Delta water near Mansoura city in Egypt. The fish specimens were collected monthly. During this study some ectoparasitic protozoan were identified as: Trichodina matsu, T. magna, T. maritinkae and T. sangwala. The aim of this work is for morphological, taxonomical and anatomical studies of the protozoan parasities infesting the gills and skin. Morphometric data were also given for each species and interspecific variations were discussed. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):656-668]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.75

Keywords: Trichodinid, catfish, ectoparasites ciliophora – River Nile – Egypt

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Isolation and Characterization of Nephropathogenic Strain of Infectious Bronchitis Virus in EGYPT

 

Susan, S, El-Mahdy1; El-Hady, M.M.2 and Soliman, Y.A*1

1 Central Lab. for Evaluation of Vet . Biologics, Absassia , Cairo, Egypt

2Vet. Collage, Cairo University. Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Three strains of infectious bronchitis virus with sever Nephropathological characteristics were isolated from Mansoura, Gharbia and Giza governorates early 2010. Egg propagation revealed the ability of the isolates to make mortalities of the SPF embryos by the 3rd passage after 72 h post inoculation. The embryos showed stunted growth with sever renal damage and deposition of ureates within the ureters and urinary bladder. PCR amplification of the 976bp of S1 gene gave appositive amplicon with 10-2 – 10-5 diluted infected allanotic fluid. phylogenetic analysis revealed that these strains are related to the IS/1494/06 nephropathic IBV strain. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):669-675]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.76

 

Keywords: infectious bronchitis; Nephropathological; Egg; nephropathic IBV strain

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Some Protozoan Parasites Infecting Catfish Clarias gariepinus Inhabiting Nile Delta Water of the River Nile, Dakahlia Province, Egypt

 

El-Tantawy S.A.M and El-Sherbiny H.A.E.

Zoology Department - Faculty of Science – Mansoura University - Egypt

 

Abstract: The present study was restricted to the freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus inhabiting the Nile Delta water near Mansoura City in Egypt. The specimens of the catfish were collected monthly during this study some parasitic protozoa were identified as: Trypanosoma alhussaini, Amphileptus sp., Chilodonella hexasticha, Vorticella sp. and Tetrahymena sp. The aim of this work is for taxonomical, anatomical and morphological studies of the protozoan parasites infesting gill filaments, skin and blood of the catfish Clarias gariepinus. Morphometric data were also given for each species and interspecific variations were discussed. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):676-696]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.77

Keywords: TrypanosomaAmphileptusChilodonella vorticellaClarias gariepinus – River Nile – Egypt

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Contribution of mesophilic starter and adjunct lactobacilli to proteolysis and sensory properties of semi hard cheese

 

El-Sayed El-Tanboly, Mahmoud El-Hofi , N. S. Abd-Rabou and *Wahed El-Desoki

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*Dairy Science Department, Al-Azhar univ., Agriculture Faculty, Assuet Branch

tanboly1951@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cheese products enriched with probiotic bacteria are one of optimized functional foods. The objective of the present study was to influence of modified mesophilic starter and probiotic Lactobacillus, as adjunct culture, on product quality, in particular the proteolytic pattern of the cheeses. The composition and the pH value were almost identical between cheese. The rate of proteolysis of cheese with probiotic bacteria was slightly higher than that in control cheese, probably as a consequence of their different proteolytic activity. Levels of water soluble nitrogen (WSN/TN), non protein nitrogen (NPN/TN) and levels of phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen (PTA/TN) increased significantly with ripening period. Organoleptic evaluation showed that probiotic cheese had higher sensory evaluation than control cheese, without probiotic strain. The population of Lactobacillus survived to numbers > 107 cfu/g, which is necessary for positive effects on health. These results showed that the contribution of mesophilic starter and probiotic strain as adjunct culture can be successfully used in production of semi hard cheese. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):697-703]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.78

 

Keywords: Physically heat shock mesophilic starter , probiotic bacteria, semi hard cheese, cheese proteolysis

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FRAME WORK FOR CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL (Textual Based) SYSTEM

 

Jalil Abbas1, Salman Qadri2, Muhammad Idress3, Sarfraz Awan2, Naeem Akhtar Khan1

1Department of CS University of Centeral Punjab, Lahore, 54600, Pakistan.

2Department of CS Virtual University Lahore, Pakistan.

3Department of Mathematics, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore, 54770, Pakistan. Sjshah786@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Another method of image processing content based image is said to be possibility of recovery content based information retrieval (CBIR), posing question by image content (QBIC) and (CBIR). This is an application of computer vision meant to explain image retrieval problem. In large databases we have to find the required image by applying some query on the basis of content based shapes, textures colors etc.we find the required data or image. If the ability to estimate or examine the image Content does not exist, in that case search must depend upon metadata like caption or keywords. If the query doesn’t match the required contents then it is implemented on some other feature of images to retrieve from the database. This research focus on the Content Based image retrieval with specific domain of Text Based image retrieval (TBIR) system. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):704-707]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.79

 

Key Words: Content based Image Retrieval; Text based Image Retrieval, Textual, Human Perception

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Effect of Spacing on the Performance of Extra Early Yellow Maize (Zea mays L.) Variety TZESR - Y in Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria

 

*Futuless, Kaki Ngodi1; Kwaga, Yohanna Mamman1 and Aberakwa, Simon Ali.2

 

1. Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture Adamawa State University, P.M.B 25, Mubi Nigeria
2. Ministry of Agriculture Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria
* Corresponding Author
E-Mail:
Futulesskaki@yahoo.com
GSM: 08034798172

 

Abstract: The study examined the effect of spacing on extra early yellow maize variety TZESR —Y in Mubi Adamawa state with the objective of finding the most appropriate spacing for optimum yield. The effect of four spacing viz: 75cm x 25cm, 75cm x 20cm, 75cm x 15cm and 75cm x 10cm respectively were evaluated. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Data were taken on nine parameters viz: plant height, plant leaves, length of cob, diameter of cob, stem girth, 1000 seed weight, days to 50% tasseling, days to physiological maturity and yield per plot. Results were obtained after subjecting the data to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results shows that spacing has great significance on the performance of maize. S1 (75cm x 25cm) gave the highest number of days to 50% tasseling (48), length of cob (12.13), diameter of cob (13.27), stem girth (13.02), 1000 seed weight (1000 g) and yield per plot (1900 kg/ha) respectively. It was observed also that these values were significantly (p=0.05) different with other means. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):708-712]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.80

 

Key Words: Zea mays,spacing,performance,variety,physiological maturity

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Elastic impedance inversion from robust regression method

 

Charles Prisca Samba 1, Liu Jiangping 1

1Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics,China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei,

PR China

*Corresponding author: Email: sambadebima@hotmail.com

Abstract: As in two terms AVO inversion, the linear fit of set of logarithm elastic impedance versus the sinus square of incidence angle have been used to extract elastic parameters .This way based on minimum least square sense, though very efficient ,gives optimal results when staying in Gaussian context. Unfortunately, the Gaussian distribution proves sometimes to be inexact on real data often affected by noises that create outliers and thus distort inversion results. In this paper, we introduce the one popular robust technique; the so-called M-estimators to deal with outliers. On synthetic elastic impedance (EI) data in which fours outliers have been added to far angles, the Andrews estimator gives the best results than Hubert estimator. From this observation, the Andrew estimator has been used to real seismic data and the inversion results are very stable. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):713-718]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.81

Keywords: elastic impedance; inversion; regression linear; robust regression

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The Protective Effect of Morus Alba and Calendula Officinalis Plant Extracts on Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Hepatotoxicity in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

 

Manal, Sh. Hussein*1, Osama, S. El-Tawil2 Nour El-Hoda Yassin1and Khalid, A. Abdou1

 

1Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University

2 Departments of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

*manamol_mhmd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work was planned to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of morus alba and calendula officinalis extracts against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) in isolated primary rat hepatocytes.Hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase perfusion two steps technique. Cytotoxicity was determined by assessing cell viability and leakage of cytosolic enzymes, such as (LDH, ALT and AST).. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining reduced (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. Exposure of isolated rat hepatocytes to CCl4 caused cytotoxicity and oxidative injury, manifested by loss of cell viability and significant increase in LDH ,ALTand AST leakages. As well as, CCl4 caused progressive depletion of intracellular GSH content and significant enhancement of TBARS accumulation. Pre- incubation of hepatocytes with either morus alba and calendula officinalis extracts ameliorated the hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CCl4, as indicated by significant improvement in cell viability and enzymes leakages (ALT, AST and LDH). Also, significant improvement of GSH content and significant decrease in TBARS formation as compared to CCl4 treated cells. The present study indicate that morus alba and calendula officinalis extracts possess a highly promising hepatoprotective effects against CCl4 - induced hepatotoxicity. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):719-734]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.82

Keywords: Egyptian medicinal plants, heptotoxicity, isolated hepatocytes

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Hepato Ameliorative Effect of Azadirachta indica Leaves Extract against Mercuric Chloride Environmental Pollution.

 

Eman Taha Mohamed*1; Hisham Abdo Mahran 2; and Marwa Salah Mahmoud3

 

1 Department of Biochemistry; 2 Department of Hygiene, Management and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. 3Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences. Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef , Egypt

hosamabdo_t2010@yahoo.com*

 

Abstract: Mercury is a highly toxic metal which induces oxidative stress in the body. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract (NLE) as an antioxidant to protect against mercury-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Fourty male albino Sprague Dawley rats were classified into four groups, Control group received distilled water. Mercury-treated group was administrated 2 mg/ Kg b.wt., mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Mercury and NLE-treated group was treated with 200 mg/Kg b.wt of NLE simultaneously with the same dose of HgCl2. NLE-treated group was given NLE only with the same dose. The daily treatments were administered orally for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin concentrations, serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase; (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes and decreased hepatic content of reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, vitamin E and serum albumin concentration. Moreover, the histopathological changes revealed destruction of the normal hepatic architecture and severe pathological alterations post HgCl2 treatment. Carbohydrates, DNA and proteins contents were decreased in the liver tissue. The ultrastructural alterations were represented by degenerative features which covered all the hepatic cells and their cytoplasm contained extensive necrotic areas. Many lipid droplets dispersed within the hepatic cells in addition to the disintegration of most cellular contents. On the other hand, treatment of rats with NLE reversed all these biochemical indices, histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural alterations. The levels of various serum and tissue parameters for organ toxicity after neem treatment at the dose of 200 mg/kg.b.wt. remained more or less close to the normal values suggesting no significant adverse effects of NLE. The present results implicate that mercury-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues was improved by neem leaves extract, with its antioxidant effects. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):735-751]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.83

 

Keywords: Liver function, Mercuric chloride, Neem, Oxidative stress, Rat, Liver Ultrastructure

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Chicken Infectious Anemia Virus (CIAV) in Broilers and Laying Hens in Sharkia Province, Egypt

 

A. M. Hegazy1, F. M. Abdallah2, L. K. Abd-El Samie3, and A. A. Nazim4

 

1 Avian & Rabbit Med. Dept., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

2 Virology Dept., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

3f Avian & Rabbit Dis., Vet. Hospital, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

4M. V. Sc., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

a_hegazy52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : CIAV was identified in three broiler flocks from different localities of Sharkia province, Egypt using PCR assay, where DNA extraction from liver, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus of examined chicken yielded positive reaction against primers. The flocks showed clinical signs and lesions suggestive to CIAV infection. The examined birds showed generalized weakness, depression, droopy appearance, pale comb and wattles, stunting, growth retardation, high mortalities, and markedly reduced packed cell volumes (average PCV was 17% - 22%). The necropsy findings were yellow fatty bone marrow, generalized lymphoid atrophy, and enlarged liver and spleen. Hypoplastic bone marrow and lymphocytic depletion were the most consistent histopathological findings. A serologic survey in unvaccinated commercial layer and broiler flocks from different localities of Sharkia province, Egypt was also performed using ELISA assay. Out of 180 tested serum samples of commercial layer flocks, 147 were positive (with percentage of 81.67% & ELISA titers ranging from 1582.74 to 2320.88) and 158 out of 180 tested serum samples of commercial broiler flocks, were positive (with percentage of 87.78% and ELISA titers ranging from 1821.04 to 2803.30). The present serological finding showed that CIAV was widely distributed in Sharkia province, Egypt. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):752-761]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.84

 

Key words: CIAV, PCR assay, PCV, Histopathology, ELISA

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The Immunosuppressive Effect of E. coli in Chickens Vaccinated with Infectious Bronchitis (IB) or Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) Vaccines

A. M. Hegazy*1, L. K. Abd-El Samie 2 and E. M. El Sayed 3

1 Avian & Rabbit Med. Dept., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt

2 Avian & Rabbit Dis., Vet. Hospital, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt

3 General Committee of Veterinary Service, Sharkia Governorate, Zagazig, Egypt

*a_hegazy52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Escherichia coli O78 infection 4 days before vaccination has adverse effect on immune response of chickens post vaccination with Mass type Infectious Bronchitis vaccine at 14 day old. The ELISA values of infected vaccinated group (B) were (0.366, 0.307) at serum dilution (1:100, 1:200), (0.412, 0.388, 0.307) at (1:100, 1:200, 1: 400) and (0.484, 0.406, 0.362, 0.308) at (1:100, 1:200, 1:400, 1:800) while only vaccinated group (D) the titer increased (0.408, 0.386, 0.322) at (1:100, 1:200, 1: 4 00), (0.522, 0.436, 0.362, 0.304) at (1:100, 1:200, 1:400, 1:800) and (0.625, 0.586, 0.508, 0.467, 0.351) at (1:100, 1:200, 1:400, 1:800, 1:1600) post vaccination with 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. Also phagocytic index in vaccinated non infected group was (2.08, 1.67, and 1.47) while in infected vaccinated group was (1.03, 0.98, and 0.86), respectively. Infection with E. coli post IB vaccination showed no differences in antibody titer and phagocytic index in both infected and non infected groups. Also E. coli infection 3 days before Infectious Bursal Disease vaccinations and before revaccination caused high decrease in ELISA antibody titer and also decrease in the protection percent 70% mean while it was 90% in vaccinated non infected. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):762-767]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.85

 

Key words: E coli O78, Immunosuppression, Vaccination, ELISA, Phagocytic index, Protection

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An Analytical Economic study Of Egyptian fisheries

 

Saber Mostafa Mohamed 1, Mahmoud Khalifa Ahmed 1, Kamal ibrahim Ahmed Aly 2

 

1 National Institute of Oceangraphic & fishries (NIoF) Alexandria

2 Agricultural Research Center ــ Agricultural Economics research institute

kamalibrahim46@yahoo.com

Abstract: To identify the comparative importance and evolution of economic fish resources in all fisheries and production worthiness during year 1990 – 2007 were main objective of this study. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were applied. The results showed the following orders: 1) Natural fisheries contribute 13%, Lakes contribute about 14.3%, fresh water fisheries contribute 10% and finally fish farms contribute 62.5% of fish production in Egypt. 2) Auto- fishing ships constitute about 8.2% working totally in marine fisheries. The rest of ships 91.8% which work manually are located in Lakes and fresh water fisheries. 3) Labor force in fishing business is characterized by having poor skills and relatively big ages. These production techniques are mostly traditional and inefficient. Number of fishermen is gradually declining because of domestic and beyond border immigration. Future plans concentrated on developing hatching techniques and export promotion as well. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):768-772]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.86

 

Keywords: fresh water fisheries; Natural fisheries; marine fisheries; immigration

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Molecular Genetic Approach by using the RAPD-PCR Technique for Detection of Genetic Variability in Non- Human Isolates of Fasciola

Nashwa I. Ramadan1, Lobna M. Saber2, Maha M. Abd El Latif3, Nabila A. Abdalla4, and Halla M. Ragab4

 

1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, 3Department of research and applications of supplementary medicine, 4Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, ,National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. hmragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of the Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications for epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. The aim of the present work was to study the molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica isolates collected from cows and sheep, using the random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments-polymerase chain reaction (RAPDs-PCR) technique. Methods: F. gigantica and F. hepatica of bovine and ovine origin were collected from the biliary tracts and gall bladders of condemned bovine and ovine livers from Cairo Governmental slaughter house.. By using (RAPDs-PCR) technique, optimal standardization of conditions of amplification and thermocyclation was made, using genetic markers. The methodology used compared the genetic pattern between the two species (inter-species) and inside each species (intra-species) between cow and sheep and the amplification fragments were between 135 and 741 base pairs of marker. Results: The results showed genetic variations (polymorphisms) of Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica with amplification fragment based on a 500 – 400 base pair (bp). Inside each species, there were genetic variations in bovine and ovine strains and the amplification fragments were between 600 and 400 base pairs (bp). Conclusion: This assay is useful for both individual diagnosis and epidemiological surveys in endemic regions. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):773-780]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.87

 

Keywords: Fasciola hepatica; Fasciola gigantica and (RAPDs-PCR) technique

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Correlation between the phenotypic patterns and Genotype patterns of aminoglycoside Resistance in Gram negative bacilli

 

Wassef MA , *El sherif RH , El Shenoufy AE and Ghaith DM

 

Department of clinical microbiology and urology, Cairo University, Egypt.

*Whiterose_eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients.Testing is required not only for therapy but also to monitor the spread of resistant organisms or resistant genes throughout the hospital and community. Objectives: The purpose of our study is to correlate between the phenotypic and genotypic patterns of amino glycosides resistance in the gram negative bacilli that isolated from Cairo University. The phenotypic pattern is determined by using disc diffusion test to (kanamycin, Tobramycin, Amikacin and Netilmycin) and for genotypic pattern is determined by using molecular techniques Study design: prospective study. Methods: From total 1559 isolate, 396 isolate were gram negative bacilli collected over a 4 -month period from a Kasr El-Aini hospital as detected by routine conventional biochemical method of identification and the most common isolate was E. coli (157) followed by Klebsiella(153) .Two 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA and rmtB, were detected by PCR-based assays. b-Lactamase characteristics were determined by phenotypic methods. Results: Of the 45 amikacin resistance isolates arm A gene was detected in seven isolates including one E.coli and six K. pneumoniae and rmt B was detected in five isolates including two E.coli and three K. pneumonia. Almost all the aminoglycoside resistant isolates showed resistance to fluoroquinolones (44) isolates and also the ESBLs production was in (42) isolates. Conclusions: The spread of the multidrug-resistant isolates producing both ESBLs and 16S rRNA methylases may become a clinical problem. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):781-786]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.88

 

Keywords: resistance genes, multidrug resistance, armA, rmtB, extended-spectrum b-lactamases

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Effect of entrance shape on the performance of constructed wetland

 

M.M. Kamel1, M.A. El-Khateeb1, R.A. Megahed2 and E. Abdel-Shafy2

 

1. National Research Center, Water Pollution Control Department, Dokki, Cairo Egypt

2. Cairo University, Faculty od Engineering, Public Works Departarment, Cairo Egypt

El-Khateebcairo@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of entrance shape on the performance of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands treating wastewater, four pilot-scale units were constructed and operated continuously in parallel experiments. For this study the treatment scheme consisting of filtration unit followed by constructed wetland unit (FWS or SSF). Two different shapes of entrance were examined (rectangle and triangle). The results indicated that the triangle shape entrance enhances the performance of constructed wetland in the term of COD, BOD, TSS, bacteriological indicators such as fecal coliform (FC), fecal streptococci (FS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PS) and Salmonellae (Sal.). The performance of FWS with triangle entrance for removal of COD, BOD and TSS was more than 73, 83 and 81%, respectively. FC, FS and PS were removed by 104, 103 and 102 MPN/100 ml, respectively. While Salmonellae was removed completely. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):787-795]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.89

 

Keywords: Constructed wetland, bacteriological indicators, entrance shape

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Involvement of Granulosa Cells in Realization of Prolactin Effects on the Developmental Competence of Bovine Oocytes Matured in vitro

 

 

B. Heleil 1, T. Kuzmina 2, H . Alm3, O. Scotti 2, A. Tuchscherer 3 and H. Torner3*

 

1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr El Sheikh University, 33516, Kafr El Sheikh, Egypt

2All-Russian Research Institute for Farm Animal Genetics & Breeding, St. Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia

3Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany

*torner@fbn-dummerstorf.de

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of granulosa cells (GC) and bovine prolactin (bPRL) on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of bovine oocytes and their developmental competence in vitro. The level of apoptosis in GC, the mitochondrial activity and the concentration of intracellular stored calcium ([Ca2+]is) in the matured oocytes, as well as morphology and the chromatin status of produced embryos after IVF were analyzed. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were incubated in TCM 199 containing 10% FCS (control group). Oocytes of experimental groups were culture in control medium added by 106 GC or 50 ng/ml bPRL or 50 ng/ml bPRL with 106 GC (experimental groups). The highest percentage of normal embryos at morulae and blastocyst stages was obtained from oocytes matured in the presence of bPRL and GC (47.9%). The fluorescence intensity of metabolically active mitochondria measured by intensity per oocyte (Em 570) after MitoTracker CMTM Ros Orange labeling was significantly increased in oocytes matured in the presence of 50 ng/ml bPRL and/ or GC (254,3 ± 20,2 μA vs. 119.9 ± 20.4 μA; P<0.05). In parallel, the concentration of [Ca2+]is in oocytes matured in bPRL and/or GC , determined by using the fluorophore chlortetracycline, was significantly lower (0,67 ± 0,06 A.U. vs. 1,0 ± 0,07 A.U., P <0.05). In addition, it was shown that bPRL decreased the level of apoptosis and the percentage of cells with pycnotic nuclei in GC. In conclusion, it was found that granulosa cells are involved in the realization of prolactin’s action on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):796-805]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.90

Keywords: Granulosa cells -Oocytes - In vitro maturation - Prolactin

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MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF Artemisia vulgaris L. (ASTERACEAE)

I. Morphological characteristics

 

K.F.El-Sahhar, Rania M. Nassar and Hend M. Farag

Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Hanoda_22_9@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mugwort has a long history of use in herbal medicine especially in matters connected to the digestive system. However, it is ill-defined especially under local conditions. This is the first part in a two-part study concerning with the botanical attributes of mugwort. In this paper a detailed morphological study of the plant is carried out. Herbaceous stem cuttings of Artemisia vulgaris L. were procured from the Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University where the field work was carried out. Plant identification and authentication procedures were carried out at CAIM. Cultivation was carried out on October 20th, 2006. Plants were followed up through 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 seasons. Eight plants, two of each of the four replicates (replicate 3×4 m, 5 ridges 60 cm apart and plants 50 cm distance in between) were fixed to follow up the vegetative growth at monthly intervals. In addition, 40 fixed plants, 10 per replicate were followed up at seven-day intervals for reproductive growth. Mugwort is a perennial herb locally reproduced by rhizomes which give the transplants (10-15 cm long). Rhizomes develop adventitious roots at the nodes to fix the plant in soil. Some 75% of rhizome buds produce shoots. The main stem is mainly responsible of the plant height. The maximum plant height was 105.8 cm (September 2007) in the first season and 121.8 cm. (November 2008) in the second season; reddish-purple in color and the upper ⅓ of stem is typically branched. At the end of the growing season, number of branches reached a maximum of 17.1 and 19.0 in the two growing seasons. Number of internodes of the main stem reached 57.6 and 81.3 in the two seasons. Both of main stem length and its internode number increased parallel to each other. Fresh and dry weights of both of the leafless shoot and leaves were followed up at the consecutive ages of the two growing seasons. Flowering stage continued from September to December in the two seasons. The maximum inflorescences production and start of seed formation occurred at mid November. Flower heads formed in spike-like clusters at the terminal Ľ to ⅓ of the main stem and lateral branches. Number of inflorescences was about 10-20 per branch. Each inflorescence developed 15-30 only tubular flowers on the central part of the receptacle. Ray flowers are absent. Flowering behavior was followed up by recording the cumulative number of inflorescences developing flower buds, inflorescences in blooming and the total number of developed inflorescences at seven day intervals. Mugwort plant developed a maximum number of 307 inflorescences per plant. Mugwort fruit is a cylindrical achene encloses the seed without a pappus. Seed is ridged, brown, oblong (1-2 mm long) with a narrow base and have minute bristles at the apex. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):806-814]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.91

 

Keywords: Artemisia vulgaris; Mugwort; herbal medicine; Morphological characteristics

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Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) Varieties in Northern Guinea Savanna

 

Futuless, Kaki Ngodi and Bake, Ibrahim Dauda

 

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi. P. M. B. 25, Adamawa State, Nigeria

E – Mail: futulesskaki@yahoo.com; GSM: 08034798172

 

Abstract: Five cowpea varieties were evaluated in 2009 to determine their grain yield attributes. The experiment was conducted at the Research and Teaching Farm of Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University Mubi laid in randomized complete block design in three replicates. Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, number of days to flowering, pod filling period, days to physiological maturity, pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pods, number of seeds per plant, 1000 seed weight and yield per hectare. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Most of the yield and yield determining attributes recorded significant (P = 0.05) difference due to treatment effects. These varieties flowered between 38.02 days to 50.12 days after planting and the maturity period did not exceed 71 days. Average grain yield ranged between 14,000.3kg/ha to 20, 000.20kg/ha. V2 (Brown Kananado) recorded the highest yield of 20,000.20kg/ha with V5 (Ife - Brown) giving the least yield of 14,000.30kg/ha. The need to develop varieties with different attributes and resistance to major biotic and abiotic constraints to suite the needs of different agro – ecological zones can not be over emphasized. This is because varietal requirements in terms of plant type, seed type, maturity, yield for cowpea varies from one agro – ecological region to another. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):815-818]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.92

 

Key Words: Cowpea, Genotypes, Optimum, Evaluation, Yield Components

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 Chemical Composition and Potential Application of Spirulina platensis Biomass

ٍAly, M. S1 and Amber. S., Gad2

1Agriculture microbiology Dept, 2Chemistry of Natural and Microbial products Dept., NRC, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: Bio- chemical analysis of Spirulina platensis isolate naturally grown in El Khadra lake water body medium showed presence of 17 amino acids. Among the non-essential amino acids, glutamic acid was the most common followed by aspartic acid . Also, iso-luecine and the sulfur containing amino acids e.g. methionine and cystine of the algae were comparatively low. Spirulina is considered nontoxic to humans at usual levels of consumption, it permit the manufacturing of Spirulina capsules resembling those present in the markets. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):819-826]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.93

 Keywords: analysis; Spirulina platensis; El Khadra; amino acids

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Two Iterative Algorithms for Transfer Point Location Problem

Mohammad Mahmudian 1, Ali Keivani 2, Hamid Davoudpour 1, Amir Ardestani Jaafari 1

1. Industrial Engineering department at Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2. Industrial Engineering at Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Mazandaran, Iran.

Alikeivani2010@gmail.com

Abstract: In this paper, we develop two heuristic algorithms for transfer point location problem. The first algorithm is based on determining clusters of demand points and the latter determine location of TP in first step. Computational results show stability of these algorithms. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):827-830]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):827-830]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.94

 

Keywords: Transfer point location; Minimax; Heuristics

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Antimutagenic and Cancer Chemoprevention Potentialities of Sweet Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) Hot Water Crude Extract

 

Naglaa M Ebeed1, Halima S Abdou2, Hoda F. Booles 2, Sherifa H Salah2, Ekram S Ahmed2 and Kh. Fahmy1*

1. Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agric., Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Department of Cell Biology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

* Corresponding author: fahmy71@hotmail.com

 

Abstrac: The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice that makes studies of their mutagenicity and/or antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic very essential. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, one of the most common use in Egyptian kitchen as a spice and beverage as well as in traditional medicine for its estrogenic, lactagouge, diuretic, antioxidant, immune booster and its usefulness in dyspepsia. It contains many phytochemicals such as thymol, carvacrol, terpinenes, P-thymene and thymol methyl ether, phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, phytosterols-triterp and saponins. Therefore, the potential antimutagenic and cancer chemoprevention effects of the hot water crude extract of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds were evaluated in well known genetic model organisms mice and Drosophila: using mutagenicity, molecular and biochemical assays. In mice, Mitomycin C (MMC) was administered to mice as a positive control alone before and after treatment with 5 or 0.5 mg/Kg body weight or in combination with Fennel crude extract as acute (24h) and sub acute (5 consecutive days) doses, respectively. Chromosomal aberration assay in mice bone marrow cells revealed slight insignificant effect of fennel extract on aberrant mitosis rate, while it gave remarkable significant reduction of the MMC induced chromosomal aberrations. This effect was found to be dose-dependent. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD) showed clear variation between different classes of treated and non treated animals against MMC treatment, which reflected DNA protective effect of fennel extract. Biochemical studies showed slight effects on liver and kidney functions. Nucleic acids system (RNA, DNA, RNAase, DNAase and total soluble protein of liver), also the serum uric acid, urea and creatinine (kidneys function) and liver function (GOT and GPT activities) were slightly affected by MMC, which were improved by the ingestion of Fennel extract, whereas fennel extract alleviated MMC toxic effects. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):831-842]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.95

Keywords: Sweet Fennel, Aneuploidy test, Chromosomal aberration, RAPD, Genotoxicity

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Gene expression and histopathology alterations during rat mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and the protective role of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

Saleha Y. M. alakilli

Department of Biology, Faculty of science, King Abdelaziz University,

Saudi Arabia

salakilli@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The present study was investigated to evaluate the protective role of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced expression alterations of the Bcl-2, CK8, CK19, p53, p21, p27 and PCNA genes and histopathological lesions in the mammary tissues of female rats. Eighty Swiss albino female rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 supplemented with corn oil as control. Group 2 females received DMBA. Groups 3, 4 and 5 females received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ENLE alternate to the DMBA application from the beginning of the experimental period, respectively. Groups 6, 7, and 8 females treated similar to groups 3, 4 and 5 plus DMBA. All the animals were sacrificed after an experimental period of 12 weeks. The expression of Bcl-2, CK8, CK19, p53, p21, p27 and PCNA genes was investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, histopathology analysis of the mammary tissues was confirmed. The results revealed that DMBA treatment induced expression alterations of genes related to cancer. Also histopathological lesions were found in mammary tissues of female rats. These alterations of the gene expression as well as the histopathological lesions were markedly suppressed when female rats were treated with ENLE combined with DMBA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ENLE exerts its anticancer properties by inhibiting alterations in the gene expression and the histopathological lesions in the mammary tissues of female rats exposed to DMBA. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):843-859]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.96

Keywords: Bcl-2, CK8, CK19, p53, p21, p27, PCNA genes; RT-PCR; Rat mammary carcinogenesis; Neem leaf, Histopathology

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Anti-mutagenic Effect of some Nutrients against the Mutagenecity of Colchicine after Induced Tetraploid Plants of Nicotiana alata

Elham A. A. Abd El-Hady1*, Nagwa R. Abd El-Hamid1, Atef A. A.Haiba1, El-Morsy Sh. I.2

and Ahmed Y. Mohamed2

1Department of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 2Department of Botany, Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

*elhamabdelhady@hotmail.com

Abstract: The present study aimed to induce tetraploid plants of Nicotiana alata by treating seeds in an aqueous solution of colchicine and identify the ploidy level by counting the chromosomes number. After that, the mutagenic potentialities of colchicine on the meiotic cells of tetraploid plants were determined and investigate the repair effects of the three applied nutrients (N, P and K) against colchicine at cytological level. Also examine the pollen grains viability at pre and post treatments with the nutrients. Cytological analysis revealed highly significant increase in the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities induced by different concentrations of colchicine in which the percentage of abnormalities increased as the colchicine concentrations increased. Different types of chromosomal abnormalities were observed, such as stickiness, bridges laggards, micronucleus and ring chromosome. Nutrient treatments of tetraploid plants resulted in a remarkable reduction in the percentages of chromosomal abnormalities and revealed their repair effect against mutagenicity of colchicine at cytological level. The frequency of non viable pollen grains was increased as the concentration of colchicine increased but its percentages were reduced after treatment the tetraploid plants with the applied nutrients. It was concluded that, chromosome doubling has been used to obtain new ornamental characteristics of Nicotiana alata plants and the applied nutrients act against mutagenicity of colchicine and increase the pollen fertility in colchitetraploid plants. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):860-869]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.97

 

Key words: Nicotiana alata, Colchicine, Chromosomal abnormalities, Nutrients

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Circulation of Quaron Lake Wastes I- Solidification of Magnesium Salts

 

El-Sayed, A.B

Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki-Cairo, Egypt

bokhair@msn.com

 

Abstract: Magnesium rich waste was used to partially extract and solidified the initial soluble content of Mg ions from HCO3, CO3, Cl and SO4 salts. Solidification was performed by nitrification the oily reddish wastes at high pH value. After extraction the remainder water rich in mineral content was used to grow the green alga Scenedesmus sp. The obtained Mg yielded about 153 g.l-1 on the form of ammonium magnesium chloride hexa hydrate (NH4MgCl2. 6H2O). Less than 0.005% of impurities were confirmed by X-Ray analysis of such salt. Processes of extraction not fully purified the used wastewater, thus it was used for algal growth at 0.0, 25, 50, 75 and 100ml.l-1 to meet the bio-extraction. The complementary nutrition was done by nitrogen as nitric acid and phosphorous on phosphoric acid form. Dry weight, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids were the measured parameters. Data showed that growth rate (on the average and maximum) was highly affected by the levels of remained water supplied and 50ml.l-1 of the remained water could serve as the most appropriated treatment to gain the maximum biomass, while higher remained water supply increase the rate of carotenoids accumulation. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):870-875]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.98

 

Key words: Quaron Lake; Mg Wastes; Scenedemus; X-Ray crystallography, Growth Profile

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Utilization of Buttermilk Concentrate in the Manufacture of Functional Processed Cheese Spread

 

M.M. El.Sayed*1, A.A. Askar2, L. F. Hamzawi2, Fatma, A. Fathy1, Mohamed. A. G1 , Samah, M. El Sayed1 and Hamed, I. M. 3

 

1 Dairy Science Dept. National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Food Science Dept. Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ.

3 Food Science and Nutrition Dept., National Research centre, Cairo, Egypt.

*magdy_el_sayed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to utilize of buttermilk concentrate (BMC) rich in phospholipids in preparing of processed cheese spread to improve its organoleptic, rheological and functional properties . The BMC was added to base blend at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The prepared samples were analyzed for chemical, physical and sensory properties. The resulting processed cheese spreads (PCSs) were stored at 5±2şC for 3 months. The fat % was significantly higher in PCSs incorporation of BMC, also fat / dry matter % was significantly increased in cheese spread containing 20 and 30% BMC when compared with control PCSs . Furthermore, the total phospholipids level were significantly higher in cheese spread containing 20% and 30% of BMC. No significant change was observed in the nitrogen fraction of PCSs made with and without incorporation of BMC. The firmness of PCSs increased when the concentration of BMC was increased, and along the storage period. The meltability of processed cheese was slightly decreased as the concentration of BMC was increased and it was decreased as the storage period advanced. In general, organoleptic grade of the PCSs made with 30 and 20 % of BMC were better among the other treatments. using of BMC in processed cheese spreads makes this dairy product useful as a functional food. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):876-882]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.99

 

Keywords: Buttermilk concentrate, phospholipids, organoleptic properties, processed cheese spreads

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Preservation of Sugarcane Juice by Canning: 1. Effect of Thermal and Chemical Pre-treatments on the Enzymatic Browning of Sugarcane Juice

 

*Hesham A. Eissa, A. Nadir Shehata, Mostafa T. Ramadan and Hatem S. Ali.

Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, 12622 Cairo, Egypt.

*hamin_essa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The enzymatic browning changes in fresh sugarcane juice stored at room temperature 25 oC and at refrigerator 4 oC were studied by determining juice colour as a capacity of browning and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activity. Results showed that thermal and chemical pretreatments of stems before squeezing effectively prevented degreening and/or browning, and reduced activities of PPO of fresh sugarcane juice. Added citric acid and SO2 prevented degreening and/or browning with reduced PPO enzyme activity in fresh sugarcane juice during storage at room temperature or at refrigerator. Addition of SO2 seemed to be more effective than other chemical and thermal pretreatments of sugarcane stems, and was able to maintain the quality of fresh sugarcane juice for up to 15 weeks at 4 oC. Deterioration of fresh sugarcane juice was demonstrated as a rapid increase of polyphenoloxidase enzyme activity and with an obvious browning. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):883-888]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.100

 

Keywords: Sugarcane; Juice; steam; autoclave; citric acid, sodium metabisulphite, colour, PPO, browning

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Reactions of 3-Hydrazino-5-Hydroxy-4-Phenyl-Azopyrazole with Different Reagents

 

Atef, M. Amer1*, Enaiat, K. Mohamed1, Samy Raslan2, and Hend El-Tahawe1

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

2Plant Protection Research Institute, (Sharkia branch), Agricultural Research Center, Sharkia-Egypt.

*amer_leg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The resection of 3-hydrazinopyrazole derivative 1 with acetylacetone, malononitrile, diethylmalonate and ethyl acetoacetate gave N-pyrazolyl pyrazole derivatives 3a-e. Heating 1 with benzil gave pyrazolotriazine 6. Reaction of 1 with diethyloxolate gave pyrazolotriazine-3,4-dione 7. Condensation of 1 with p-nitrobenzaldehyde gave pyrazolo[5,1-c]triazole 8. The reaction of 1 with phenyl isothiocyanate afforded the corresponding thiocarbamoyl hydrazine 9. Subsequent ring closure in basic medium yielded pyrazolo[5,1-c]triazole derivative 10. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):889-892]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.101

 

Keywords: Cycloadditions, Hydrazones, Pyrazoles, Triazines, Triazoles

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The Phtoloysis of 3-diazo-4- phenylazopyrazole Derivatives in Different Solvents

 

Atef M. Amer1*, Enaiat K. Mohamed­1, Samy Raslan2, Hend El-Tahawe1

 

1. Chemistry Department, Faculty of science, Zagazig University Zagazig, Egypt

2. Plant Protection Research Institute, (Sharkia branch Agricultural Research Center, Sharkia – Egypt

*amer_1eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Photochemistry of 3-diazo-4-Phenylazopyrazoles (1a-c) has been investigated. The Photolysis of the title compound in the presence of different reagents (namely formic acid, acetic acid, Propanoic acid, Pyridine and nitrobenzene) at room temperature with a high pressure mercury lamp (300w, λ ≥ 320nm) through a pyrex filter under argon gave 3-substituted pyrazole derivatives (3a-l) via carbene intermediate. The structures assigned to the new compounds that were supported by microanalysis, infrared, 1H-NMR, and mass spectral data. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):893-896]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.102

 

Keywords: Photochemistry, Amine, Carbene, pyrazole, substitution

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Morphological, Rheological and Ultrasonic Characterizations of ECO-Friendly Microemulsion Latics Based on Acrylate Monomers.

 

H. E. Nasr1*, M.S. Gaafar2, O. Abdel-Kareem3 and F. Abd El-Aziz4

 

1Department of Polymers and Pigments National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Ultrasonic Department National Institute for Standards El Harem, Giza, Egypt

3Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology,Cairo University

4 Engineering and Surface Metrlogy Department, National Institute for Standards El Harem, Giza, Egypt

*hanaa_nasr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this work microemulsion copolymers having different composition ratios of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were prepared using ultrasonic initiation system in presence of sodium luaryl sulphate (SLS) as an emulsifier. The obtained copolymers were characterized using FTIR, morphological and particle size analysis using atomic force microscope (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC), X-ray analysis and rheological properties. The results showed that the prepared microemulsion lattices having nano-sized diameter ranged between 40-115 nm. Increasing HEMA content in the feed comonomer composition (0-25%) was accompanied by increasing particle size diameter and solution viscosities while, the glass transition temperature was decreased. Ultrasonic wave propagation has been studied using pulse-echo method at a frequency of 2 MHz. The ultrasonic velocities (longitudinal & transverse) and density have been used to calculate the elastic moduli at different concentrations. The ultrasonic absorption coefficient has been also measured. Various ultrasonic parameters have been computed from the experimental values. The variations of ultrasonic absorption coefficient, adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance and free length show that these parameters affected with monomer feed compositions but the variation is slightly non-linear. Ultrasonic viscosity values of the prepared microemulsion latex have been determined and the obtained data was compared with that obtained using coaxial-cylinder method. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):897-910]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.103

 

Key words: Micremulsion; AFM, rheological, DSC, ultrasonic velocities; ultrasonic attenuation coefficient; ultrasonic viscosity

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Evaluation of Traffic Gaseous Pollutants in Damietta City-Egypt

 

M. I. El-Gammal1, Alia A. Shakour*2, M. S. Ibrahim1, Khaled H. El-Ezaby1and Reham Sh. El-Henawy1.

 

1Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta Branch, Mansoura University, Egypt.

2Air pollution Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Air pollution caused by vehicular traffic has long been identified as a community problem. Urban air pollution on the street level depends largely on traffic density. Therefore, this study assesses and discusses the current and future contribution of road traffic to main precursors such as NO2, SO2, NH3 and O3. In the present study, road traffic emissions were investigated for seven sites in Damietta City, Egypt which was considered to have different traffic flows. Gaseous pollutants; SO2, NO2, O3, and NH3 were monitored for urban locations at two heights; street-level (A) and 6m±2 high rooftop (B). The maximum annual mean concentration at street level of SO2 (77.29 mg/m3) and of O3; (705.53 mg/m3) exceeded the Egyptian Ambient Air Quality Standard (EEAA: 60 and 120 μg/ m3), respectively, but were lower than for NO2 (84.39mg/m3) and NH3 (29.41 mg/m3) (US: 100 μg/m3 and air quality standard in Poland: 45 µg/m3, respectively). [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):911-923]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.104

 

Keywords: Traffic pollution; Damietta; Gases; SO2, NO2, O3, and NH3

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Relation between Thyroid Function and Serum Interleukins-6 and -10 in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

Heba Sayed Assal, Ashraf Elsherbiny, Mohamed Mahmoud, Hanaa Amer*

 

The Department of Internal Medicine, National Research Center

The Department of Clinical Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University*

 

Abstract: Alterations in the circulating thyroid hormone concentrations constituting the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) is frequently associated with systemic non-thyroidal diseases such as a systemic connective tissue disease (SCTD). Aim: to elucidate the possible relation between interleukins (IL6 and IL-10) and any changes in thyroid hormone level in patients with SCTD. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and thirty rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in addition to 30 healthy age- and sex- matched controls were recruited from the Internal Medicine Department of Ain Shams University Hospital. Serum level of IL-6 and IL-10, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, including T3 and T4, antithyroglobulin antibodies (ATGAb), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), ESR, RF, ANA, and CRP were determined. Results: A significant reduction in the circulating T3 levels compared to the healthy controls (0.938±0.477 vs 1.345±0.44 nmol/L and p=0.001) with a significant reduction in the circulating total T4 level (47.9±28.41 vs 108±19.49 nmol/L and p=5.546E-06) with a serum TSH level within the normal reference value. IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations rose to a high significant level compared to the controls. By subgroup analysis, we have noticed a high significant reduction in T3 and T4 concentration among the two subgroups of patients and their controls (p=3.294E-05 and =9.816E-05 respectively), they differ significantly as well, in both IL-6 and IL-10 elevations (p=5.864E-34 and = 2.110E-18 respectively). Conclusions: the proportion of patients with subnormal serum T3, total T4 and TSH levels was highest in SLE patients, and they displayed the highest mean IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations (192.5±45.1 ng/L &122.95±46.1 ng/L, respectively) compared with the RA patient subgroup (82.95±28.9 ng/L & 69.05±44.0 ng/L, respectively). [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):924-931]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.105

Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus- Rheumatoid Arthritis- serum cytokines-thyroid functions

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A Laboratory Study on the Extraction of Oil from Canola Seeds by Using Supercritical Carbon dioxide

 

Soroush Zarinabadi1*, Riyaz Kharrat2, Ali Vaziri Yazdi3

 

1, 3-Islamic Azad University- Science & Research Branch – Tehran, Iran

2-Petroleum University of Technology - Tehran, Iran

1-zarinabadi@yahoo.com , 2- kharrat@put.ac.ir, 3-avy@behta.com

 

Abstract: In the present study a laboratory Pilot Plant for supercritical fluid extraction was used to make oil out of Canola seeds. This Pilot Plant was designed to function in the operational pressure up to 5000 Psi, and the operational temperature up to 100 degrees centigrade. More than 50 laboratory points concerning the extraction of oil essence out of Canola seeds have been studied and evaluated by the use of supercritical CO2 in different operational conditions. The required data was obtained by carrying out a series of related experiments. The analysis of data showed that the increase of pressure up to 2250 Psi and the temperature up to 55 degrees centigrade brings about the increase in the viscosity of the extracted oil in supercritical phase, and thereafter, the increase in pressure and temperature was not perceptible in the exit phase. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):932-935]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.106

Keywords: Supercritical fluid, Extraction, Canola Seeds, Essential Oil, SCFE

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Biochemical and Cytogenetical Studies of the Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in male mice

Amira A.Raouf, Thana M. T. Shoman, Adel E.

Department of Cell Biology NRC, Egypt; amiraabdelraoof@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Cytogenetic and biochemical effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) vioxx (rofecoxib) on mice. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study was 35 adult Swiss albino male mice . Cytogenetic and biochemical analysis were performed . Cytogenetic analysis was conducted upon 15 adult mice ;which were divided into three groups ( 5 male mice in each). First group served as control. The two other groups treated orally with two different doses of vioxx drug (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg.bwt) for two weeks. Biochemical analysis was conducted upon 21 adult male mice which formed three groups of adult male mice (7 male mice in each) ;control (untreated) and two treated groups; 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg. b.wt vioxx dose groups. Results: revealed that there was difference between treated groups with vioxx drug by examination of chromosomal aberrations of bone marrow cells of sacrificed animals when compared to untreated groups, as well as, in chromosomes of germ cells. Biochemical studies showed that there were changes on level of total content of DNA and RNA in mouse tissues (brain, Liver, Kidney and testis) treated with vioxx drug when compared to untreated animals, as will as, urea and creatinine level (kidney function in blood) after two weeks treatment with voxx drug). Also glucose and cholesterol as similar as in cholein esterase level. In addition there was elevation in level of SGOT (ALT) and SGPT (AST) (Liver enzyme) in serum of exposed animals to vioxx drug compared to the control. On the other hand, the testosterone level hormone and haemoglobin were decreased in serum of animal was observed in treated animals.

[Amira A.Raouf, Thana M. T. Shoman, Adel E. Biochemical and Cytogenetical Studies of the Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in male mice. Journal of American Science 2010;6(9):936-942]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas060910.107

 Key words: Vioxx drug - Chromosomal aberration – Liver enzyme – Kidney function – Enzymes

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The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 9, Cumulated No. 30

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0609

The above manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 23, 2010. 
 
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