The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 33, December 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0612

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Simultaneous Removal of Iron and Manganese from Ground Water by Combined Photo-Electrochemical Method 

Hala A. Talaat 1, Montaser Y. Ghaly 1, Eman M. Kamel 2, Enas M. Ahmed 1 , Ahmed M. Awad 1 *

1 Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, 2 Photo-Chemistry Department, National Research Centre - Dokki, Cairo – Egypt, * awadx1@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Ground water is highly important source of drinking water in Egypt. Some provinces suffer from  high content of iron and manganese in ground water which threat human health. Different processes, such as electrochemical (EC), photo (UV), and combined photo-electrochemical (CPE) methods were used to attain both metals content to the level in accordance to reports of World Health Organization (WHO). A cell containing aluminium electrode as anode, graphite electrode as cathode and UV lamp were used and filled with waste water enriched with iron and manganese as an electrolytic solution. A limited quantity of sodium chloride salt was added to enhance the electric conductivity through the solution. A comparison between different methods was undertaken to evaluate the applied conditions and the efficiency of Fe and Mn removal at different times and initial concentrations. The results revealed that CPE method was the best choice for the simultaneous removal of both iron and manganese in a short time < 10 min. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Ground water; Egypt; electrochemical (EC); photo (UV); combined photo-electrochemical (CPE); World Health Organization (WHO)

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Effect of Aqueous Root-Bark Extract of Vitex Doniana Sweet on Haematological Parameters in Rats 

F. I. Abdulrahman1, J.C. Akan, O.A.Sodipo2 and P.A. Onyeyili3

1. Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2. Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069,Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

3. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069,  Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. E-mail: joechemakan@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT: Acute and sub-acute toxicities of aqueous extract of Vitex doniana was carried out in rats. The LD50 following intraperitoneal administration estimated at 95% confidence interval was 980 mg/kg. The oral administration of the extract for 21 days at 50,100 and 200mg/kg had beneficial effects on the haematological parameters. There were significant (P<0.05) increases in red blood cell count (RBC) haemoglobine (HB) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) values in treated rats. The treated animals had leucocytosis, which may be due to increase lymphocyte count observed. The i.p LD50 (980 mg/kg) indicated that the extract is moderately toxic, though the prolong oral administration of the extract under the condition of this study shows that the extract may be toxic at higher doses. Nevertheless, the extract appear to be more beneficial at lower doses and significantly (p< 0.05) improves RBC, HB and PVC values and this effect has potential application as anti-anaemic agent. This seems to provide justification for its use as anti-anaemic agent in African traditional medicine. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):8-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Vitex doniana, Red blood Cell Count, Haemoglobin Concentration, Packed Cell Volume, Anaemia, Aqueous Extract

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Evaluation of Antioxidant Effect of Nigella sativa oil on Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain 

Neveen, A. Noor* and Iman, M. Mourad

Zoology department, Faculty of science, Cairo University, Egypt; *neveen.nour5@gmail.com 

Abstract: Oxidative stress is a characteristic feature in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study evaluates the antioxidant effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) in comparison to that of vitamin C (vit.C) in the cortex and hippocampus of rats pretreated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) as an animal model of oxidative stress. The intraperitoneally injected MSG (4 mg/g body wt.) for 6 consecutive days induced significant decreases in cortical and hippocampal catalase activity and cortical glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activitity and glutathione reduced (GSH) level after 4 weeks. Oral administration of vit.C (200 mg/kg) to stressed rats restored catalase activity, increased GST activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level after 4 weeks in the cortex. Oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 4 weeks to MSG-treated rats increased cortical and hippocampal catalase activity and cortical GSH content but significantly inhibited GST activity and increased MDA level in the cortex. Combined administration of vit.C and NSO revealed nonsignificant changes in cortical and hippocampal parameters, as compared to control levels, except for a significant decrease in hippocampal GSH content. In conclusion, although there are some antioxidant effects of NSO, the pro-oxidant effect of NSO cannot be ruled out in the present MSG model of oxidative stress.  [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):13-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Oxidative stress, monosodium glutamate, vitamin C, Nigella sativa oil, cortex, hippocampus

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Modulating Effect of Carvedilol on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy and Hepatic Damage 

Safinaz S. Ibrahim*, Maged A. Barakat and  HebaTullah S. Helmy

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

* dr_safinaz_747@hotmail.com 

Abstract: Background: Doxorubicin is an anthracyclin antibiotic that is considered as one of the most effective antitumor agents. The clinical use of doxorubicin soon proved to be hampered by such serious problems as hepatotoxicity and most notably cardiomyopathy. Objectives: The current study aims at evaluating the efficiency of carvedilol as an adjuvant therapy with doxorubicin to protect against doxorubicin - induced cardiomyopathy and hepatic damage. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into normal group and doxorubicin -treated group injecting doxorubicin as a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/twice weekly/ 3 weeks. Doxorubicin - treated animals were divided into two groups, one kept without further treatment (doxorubicin group) and second group, (doxorubicin + carvedilol), received carvedilol 1mg/kg/ 7 times over a period of 4 weeks including a dose before doxorubicin 1st dose. Creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, as cardiac damage markers, and alanine aminotransferase, as indicator of hepatic damage, were measured. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, as cardiac oxidative status indices, glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S–transferase and superoxide dismutase activities, as measures for cardiac antioxidant capacity, were also investigated. Histopathological changes in cardiac and hepatic tissues of all groups were examined. Results and Conclusions: Our results revealed that doxorubicin caused oxidative stress which plays a major role in doxorubicin -induced cardiomyopathy and hepatic damage. Co-administration of carvedilol in concomitant with doxorubicin caused protection against doxorubicin–induced cardiomyopathy; however, it augmented doxorubicin -induced hepatic damage. Histopathological examination of cardiac and hepatic tissues supported the previous biochemical results. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):20-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Doxorubicin, carvedilol, cardiomyopathy, hepatic damage

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Effect of Water Stress and Ascorbic Acid on Some Morphological and Biochemical Composition of Ocimum basilicum plant. 

1Soha  E. Khalil, 2 Nahed  G. Abd El- Aziz  and  1Bedour H. Abou Leil

1Departments of Water Relation and Field Irrigation, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Ornamental and Woody Trees, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Soha_khalil2001@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Basil (Ocimum basilicum c.v. Thai Magic) is an annual herb plant belonging to the lamiaceae family that used as drug, mainly cultivated for leaves and flowering topes, the plant yield have an essential oil on steam distillation. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of water stress (30, 50 and 70% depletion of available soil moisture), different concentrations of ascorbic acid (0, 100, 150 and 200 ppm) and spraying time (at vegetative or vegetative plus flowering stages) on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of basil plant. A pot experiment was conducted in a split-split plot design with 24 treatments and three replicates in greenhouse. The results of staticall analysis showed that water stress, ascorbic acid concentrations and spraying time have significant effect on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of the first cut showed significant increase under 50% soil moisture level while further increase in water stress level showed significant decrease in previously mentioned parameters. The same tendency was observed for relative water content % as well as photosynthetic pigments concentrations (chla, chlb, total chla+b and carotenoids). While in the second cut, the previously mentioned characters showed progressive decrease with increasing water stress level (except for photosynthetic pigments which revealed the same trend as in the first cut). Reveres trend observed for oil% and proline content. The data also indicated that the application of ascorbic acid in different concentrations showed significant increase in all growth parameters, fresh and dry weights, relative water content, oil % and photosynthetic pigments compared with control treatment and revealed decrease in proline accumulation. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):33-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Water Stress; Ascorbic Acid; Biochemical Composition; Ocimum basilicum

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Isolation and Screening of a Feather-Degrading Keratinolytic Actinomycetes from Actinomyces sp 

T.Jayalakshmi 1, P. Krishnamoorthy 1,, G.Ramesh kumar 2,  P.Sivamani 3

1  Dept of Bioinformatics, Bharath University, Chennai,Tamilnadu -   600073, India.

2 Dept of Bioinformatics, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu-600044, India.

3  Microlabs, Vellore, Tamilnadu-632521, India. jayamaniraaja07@gmail.com 

ABSTRACT: The Actinomycetes comprise a ubiquitous order of bacteria which exhibits wide physiological and morphological diversity. These microorganisms are particularly abundant in alkaline soils rich in organic matter. Keratin is an insoluble structural protein of skin, and its derivatives (e.g. feather, hair, wool and horn) are known for their high stability. Actinomycetes producing keratinases are having high applications in feed, fertilizer, leather and also for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Actinomyces species newly isolated, thermo tolerant feather degrading bacterial strain was investigated for its ability to produce keratinase enzyme. Maximum keratinolytic activity was observed at 28°C and pH 7.5.  Keratin-containing materials (feather, hair, wool, etc.) are abundant in nature but have limited uses in practice since they are insoluble and resistant to degradation by the common proteolytic enzymes. Keratinous wastes represent a source of valuable proteins and amino acids and could find application as a fodder additive for animals or source of nitrogen for plants. Actinomycetes have the ability to break down many different varieties of organic compounds. The keratinase production by the thermophilic actinomycete strain Actinomyces was induced by chick feather as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the cultivation medium and characterization studies were carried out for the identification of the specific strain. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):45-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords:  Keratin, Actinomycetes, Antibacterial activity, Actinomyces

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Denaturation and Viscosity of Whey Proteins Solutions as Affected by Frozen Storage 

Soliman, T.N.*1, A.F. Farrag1; A. Shendy2 and El-Sayed, M.M.1

1Dairy Dept. National Research Centre, 2Dairy Dept. Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Tariknour.nrc@gmail.com 

Abstract: Concentrated solutions of whey proteins (WPC) were prepared from sweet whey by ultrafiltration technique, and stored at – 18°C up to three months. Denaturation degree and viscosity of WPC solutions were assessed. Denaturation degree of whey protein solutions increased significantly (P<0.05) as affected by duration of frozen storage and protein content. The highest degree of denaturation was found at pH 5.0 and 7.0 after one month of storage. Denaturation percentages of heated and thawed WPC solutions increased significantly (P<0.05) as function of storage, protein content and pH. The flow properties of unheated WPC solutions exhibited a time-independent non-Newtonian behaviour as shear-thickening (dilatants) properties with an increase in the apparent viscosity with increasing the shear rate. Heated thawed WPC solutions behaved as thixotropic fluids with a decrease in the apparent viscosity with increasing shear rate. Apparent viscosities of unheated and heated WPC solutions greatly affected by frozen storage, protein content and pH. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):49-62]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: WPC, Frozen storage, Denaturation, Viscosity

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Evolution and Development Towards 4th Generation (4G) Mobile Communication Systems 

M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, Abad Shah

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, U.E.T., Lahore-Pakistan

junaidarshad@uet.edu.pk   amjadfarooq@uet.edu.pk  abadshah@uet.edu.pk 

Abstract: It is the need of hour to get ourselves acquainted with the communication technology, its tools and its trends. Mobile communication is an important technology in this regard and mobile phone has become the most common tool of communication over the recent years. As a number of innovative improvements in the field of mobile communication technologies have been made by developing various multiple-access schemes used for wireless communication (such as TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, WCDMA, EDGE etc) but a big challenge is to select the right technology for the applications and systematically identify the factors that influence the overall performance. In this research paper, we present the detail comparison of the different generations of the mobile communication technologies in a tabular form to have a better knowledge and understanding in the advancement of mobile communication systems. The survey presented here will be helpful for designing the new strategies for the development of 4th generation mobile communication systems. This research work can steer all those learners who are trying to enhance their acquaintance in the field of mobile communication system, and also for such mentors and researchers who desire to have a foundation for further research and study in this field. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):63-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Mobile Communication, Evolution, Generations, Comparison, Wireless Technologies

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A Layered approach for Similarity Measurement between Ontologies 

Amjad Farooq, M. Junaid Arshad and Abad Shah

Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-Pakistan

amjadfarooquet@gmail.com 

Abstract: With the vision of Semantic Web, the ontology operations such as aligning, merging and mapping have gained much importance. The measuring of similarity between concepts of source ontologies is preprocessing of all these operations. Several techniques have been proposed for measuring similarity between concepts based on their lexical, taxonomic and elementary characteristics but a very little attention has been given on their non-taxonomic relations. We have observed that lexically similarity between concepts is mandatory in order to their taxonomic similarity. Furthermore, the taxonomic similarity between two concepts is pre-requisite of their non-taxonomic similarity. This motivates that if the similarity measurement process is made in layered fashion then it will become more efficient.  In this paper, a new technique is proposed that includes non-taxonomic relations of concepts along with their lexical and taxonomic characteristics while measuring their similarities. The proposed technique works in a layered fashion that enables the measuring process more efficient. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):69-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Ontology Matching, Lexical Similarity, Taxonomic Similarity, non-taxonomic similarity

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Physicochemical Parameters in Soil and Vegetable Samples from Gongulon Agricultural Site, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria 

1J. C. Akan, 1F.I. Abdulrahman,  2O.A. Sodipo,  1A. G. Lange

1. Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2. Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

E-mail: joechemakan@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of metal emission, often associated with high elevated soil and plant metal concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals and anions in soil and vegetables in the vicinity of Gungulung agricultural site were investigated. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-5 cm, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. Soil properties including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and heavy metals content were determined using standard procedures. Vegetable samples (spinach, Amaranthus caudatus; carrot, Daucus carota; lettuce, Lactuca sativa; cabbage, Brassica oleracea; tomato, Lycopersicon sculenetum; waterleaf, Talinum Triangulare and onion Allium cepa were used for this research. The plant samples were prepared for heavy metals and anions determination using standard procedures. Results show that the soil metal content, conductivity and organic carbon decreased with depth, suggesting anthropogenic sources of contamination while pH, organic matter and CEC decreased with depth. The results obtained from this analysis revealed that Zn and Mn show the highest concentrations, Ni shows the lowest levels. Similarly, the results also revealed that Fe, Zn and Cu show the highest concentrations, while Pb shows the lowest levels in the whole vegetables parts studied. The leaves contained much higher concentrations of heavy metals and anions than roots and stems. The concentrations of the above parameters in the vegetable samples were higher than the FAO, WHO/EU and FAO/WHO allowed limit. The high values might be attributed to the use of wastewater from river Ngada and application of sewage sludge by farmers for the irrigation of these vegetables. The results of this study suggest that the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Gugulung agricultural site are subjected to anthropogenic activities. Thus, the high values of these metals in the vegetable samples could put the consumers of these vegetables at health risk with time due to bioaccumulation. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):78-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Physicochemical, Parameters, Soil, Vegetables, Bioavailability, Uptake

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Data Networks’ Design and Optimization through MPLS VPNs using BGP 

Mohammad Junaid Arshad 1, Tauqir Ahmad 2, Amjad Farooq 3

1, 2, 3 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology

 Lahore, Pakistan.  junaidarshad@uet.edu.pk  

Abstract: The key strong points of the Internet have been its vast scalability and flexibility to provide accommodation to the variety of applications. In this context, MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) is the newest technology being employed today’s in the Internet core, which is continuously growing to meet the increasing demands of bandwidth and connectivity. In this research work, we provide a survey of MPLS, BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) and both layer-2 and layer-3 VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). We address the issues (such as speed, scalability and security) of traditional IP-based VPNs. Since layer-2 VPNs are efficient but not so intelligent and scalable, while layer-3 VPNs are intelligent and scalable but not so efficient. Thus, we propose a new design scheme for MPLS/BGP-VPNs in such a way that the features of layer-3 as scalability and intelligence are merged with the efficiency of layer-2 to deal with today’s evolving demands of speed, scalability and security. The proposed design of optimized data networks through MPLS/BGP-VPNs is implemented in Dynagen simulator for the better understanding the system. This research work will be helpful for adding new security features in core networks in future and provides a guideline for network engineers towards the world of network security. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):88-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: BGP-Border Gateway Protocol, MPLS-Multi Protocol Label Switching, QoS-Quality of Service and VPN-Virtual Private Network

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GRIAS: GUI-Based Real-Time Industrial Automation Software 

Mohammad Junaid Arshad 1, Amjad Farooq 2

1, 2 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology

 Lahore, Pakistan. amjadfarooq@uet.edu.pk    junaidarshad@uet.edu.pk  

Abstract: Industry has a great importance in the development of a country. These days a country cannot progress and prosper without industrial development. Industrial revolution has changed the fortune of many western countries. In the fast moving world of today, the industrial plants have become very complicated and many new technologies have been introduced in the market to overcome these complications by automating the industrial plants. This work proposes an industrial automation software called GRIAS (GUI-Based Real-Time Industrial Automation Software) that can be used for any industrial plant in which OPC (OLE (Object Linked Embedding) for Process Control) compliant hardware devices are used. This generic software has the ability to interact with an OPC server which is responsible to retrieve runtime data from the hardware device. The data provided by the server can be used by the software to monitor the running industrial plant. It can also be used in critical industrial units where it is very difficult to manually control the machinery. The industry has been looking for such software which can meet up their requirements, thus, this new industrial automation software will surely be able to realize their dreams into reality. The purpose of this automation software is not only to eliminate the perils and hazards involved in industries but also to speedup the process of manufacturing and production in such a way that it is no more error prone. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):96-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Graphical User Interface (GUI), Human Machine Interface (HMI), Design, Industrial Automation, OPC, Solution

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Arch Dam Failure Diagnosis Applying Micro-Planes Damage Based Framework 

Mojtaba Labibzadeh 1

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

Labibzadeh_m@scu.ac.ir 

Abstract: A recently new developed set of constitutive equations which simulating the mechanical behavior of plane concrete have been implemented for monitoring the probability of cracking phenomenon within an arch concrete dam . The applied constitutive model was build on the basis of combination of micro-plane theory and damage framework. This model had been verified through comparing numerical results with experimental ones. The case study is a high elevated concrete arch concrete dam entitled Liroo dam. Obtained analysis results demonstrated that under proposed earthquake excitations, dam experiences some cracks near its middle crest. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):102-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Arch dam, Micro-planes, Cracks, Constitutive relations, Concrete

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Exploring the Potential and Constraints to Implementing the International Best Practice Principles of EIA Follow-up: The Case of Pakistan 

Obaidullah Nadeem1 , Rizwan Hameed2

Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

1obaidnadeem@yahoo.com; 2d_rizwan@hotmail.com 

Abstract: Every Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out for development projects in Pakistan includes a long list of mitigation measures and an environmental management plan (EMP). The environmental approvals also contain numerous conditions including implementation of EMP during construction and operation phases of development projects. Without appropriate follow-up and compliance monitoring the entire exercise may go waste. That is why follow-up is considered essential to ensure positive outcome of EIA by protecting the environment and learning lessons for its improvement. In this regard, the International Association for Impact Assessment has suggested best practice guiding and operating principles. This paper attempts to explore the potential and constraints to implementing these principles in Pakistan. Various data sources including interviews with the officials of environmental protection agencies, project proponents, EIA consultants and representatives of some of the affected communities as well as review of EMPs have been used to provide empirical evidence for this purpose. This paper identifies some potential but overall it argues that a lot more is needed to be done to bridge the gap between the international best practice principles and the current state of EIA follow-up in Pakistan. Some imperative steps have also been suggested in this context to improve follow-up and hence strengthen the overall process for EIA. It is expected that other developing EIA regimes may also benefit from the suggestions. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):108-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: EIA follow-up; Best practice principles; Pakistan.

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Effect of Trichoderma Species on Damping off Diseases Incidence, Some Plant Enzymes Activity and Nutritional Status of Bean Plants 

Abd-El-Khair *1, H., R. Kh. M. Khalifa 2and Karima, H. E. Haggag3

1*Plant Pathology Department, 2Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, and 3Pest Rearing Department, Central agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Dokki, Giza,  Egypt. 

Abstract: Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the common causal pathogens causes the damping off disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. The antagonistic effect of four Trichoderma species, i.e. Trichoderma album, Triechoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride, was tested against F. solani and R. solani in vitro, in greenhouse and in field. In vitro tests, all Trichoderma spp. significantly reduced the mycelial growth of two pathogenic fungi. In greenhouse experiment, T. album, T. hamatum, T. harizianum and T. viride, as soil treatments, significantly reduced the pre- and post-emergence damping off disease incidence under artificial infection with F. solani and R. solani. Soil treatments with four Trichoderma species significantly reduced the incidence of damping off disease where the percentages disease incidence were in the range of 7.0 -20.0% and 2.4 – 6.5%, compared to 25.7 and 13.5% in control plants, at pre- and post-emergence stages ,respectively. The best protection to damping off disease was obtained by T. hamatum, followed by T. viride, T. album and T. harzianum, respectively. The treatments gave the highest plant survival (%) and improved the growth and yield parameters. Results showed that the levels of chitinase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities highly increased in treated bean plant compared in untreated plants. The macro- and micro-elements content in treated bean plants was affected by Trichoderma species treatments compared to elements content in untreated plants. The relationship between plant nutrient content and some plant enzymes activity was studied. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):122-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trichoderma spp., biological control, nutritional atatus

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Phase I Trial: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation in End Stage Liver Disease 

El-Ansary M, 1 Mogawer Sh, 2 Abdel-Aziz I,*3 and Abdel-Hamid S,1

Department of Clinical Pathology1, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology2 Cairo University, 3*Department of Haematology (Theodor Bilharz Research Institute), Cairo, Egypt.

*iman_khaled@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Background, End-stage liver disease and in particular human liver cirrhosis represents a worldwide health problem. Currently, liver transplant is the only effective treatment, but it is affected by many problems including relative lack of donors, operative damage, risk of rejection  and high costs. Stem cell therapy is very attractive in this setting because it has the potential to help tissue regeneration while providing minimally invasive procedures and few complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of autologous transplantation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in cirrhotic patients following chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Methods, Twelve patients with Child C liver cirrhosis, Model of End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score > 12 were included. They divided into 2 groups according to method of MSCs injection, 1st group was injected intrasplenic and 2nd group was injected through the peripheral blood.  First group patient's ages ranged from 32 to 69 years, mean value was 48.50 ±11.09, they were 4 males (67%) and 2 females (33%). Second group patient's ages ranged from 43 to 59 years, mean value was 50.83 ±6.88, they were 5 males (83%) and 1 female (17%).  Fifty ml bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac bone for separation of MSCs. Surface expression of CD271 and CD34 were analyzed using flowcytometry. Finally approximately 10 million MSCs/ 5ml saline were infused intrasplenic or peripherally in one session. There was highly statistical significant difference between CD271 before and after culture, p value was <0.01. Results, Monthly Follow up of patients for 6 months revealed partial improvement of liver function tests with decline of elevated bilirubin and liver enzymes and elevation of prothrombin concentration and serum albumin levels. There was statistically significant difference between total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, MELD score and creatinine level before and after MSCs injection in both groups, p value was <0.05. Conclusion, MSCs are the most potent component of bone marrow cells in its ability to differentiate into hepatocytes thus, MSC transplantation can be used as a potential treatment for liver cirrhosis. The dose, frequency and route of administration of this treatment are still to be defined.  [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):135-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: End-stage liver disease; liver cirrhosis; liver transplant; autologous transplantation; bone marrow;  mesenchymal; stem cell

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Role of Hepcidin in Anemia of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients 

Salwa Toima1, Abeya Saleh*1, Mona Madkour1, Olfat Hammam2 and Emad EL-Din Baioumi3

1Hematology Department, 2Pathology Department, 3Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

dr.abeyasaleh@hotmail.com 

Abstract: This study was done to clarify the role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron homeostasis and development of anemia in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients targeting the differentiation of the type of anemia. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 70 CHC patients. Iron profile and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured. Transferrin saturation and transferrin receptor ferritin (TfR-F) Index were calculated. Serum prohepcidine hormone and IL6 levels were measured (ELISA). Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of hepcidin were done. According to the iron profile patients were reclassified into iron deficiency anemia (IDA) group, anemia of chronic disease group (ACD) and combined anemia group (COMBI). Results: 64.3% of patients were of the COMBI group, 10% had ACD and 25.7% had IDA. Hepcidin was increased in Child C group (P<0.05). Hepatic expression of hepcidin showed reduced expression in Child A, B and C groups. Hepcidin level was found to be increased in ACD and COMBI group in comparison to control and IDA group. Stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that sTfR was the most predictive parameter for IDA while hepcidin was the most predictive parameter for ACD and COMBI in CHC patients. Conclusion: hepcidin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of anemia in CHC patients. The role of hepcidin in discriminating different types of anemia in CLD is comparable to that of sTfR/logFn index. An appropriate combination of both tests provides evidence for iron depletion or reflects excessive production of hepcidin which will help to establish a correct diagnosis of IDA, ACD or combined anemia in patients with CHC. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):145-154]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Hepcidin, CHC, IDA, ACD, Anemia

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Controversial Role of Two Different Local Haemostatic Agents on Bone Healing 

Ali Sawan 1 Yousry Elhawary2 Mohamed Zaghlool Amer*3 and Mohamed Abdel Rahman4

1 Professor Of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery-,2Associate professor Of Oral Biology, 3 Lecturer of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery- Faculty of Dentistry-Mansoura University, 4 B.D.S 2002- Ministry of Health, Mansoura –Egypt. *norhanmohammed910@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Controversial role of different local haemostatic agents on bone healing represented a major challenge for oral & maxillofacial surgeons. So, this study was directed to evaluate the effect of water soluble alkylene copolymer hemostat (ostene) versus bone wax on bone healing. Material & Methods: Forty five adult male rabbits weight 1kg were divided into three equal groups. A surgical bone defect was created into the anterior mandibular area. In 1st group the surgical defects were not subjected to any of local haemostatic agents. In 2nd group water soluble alkylene copolymer was applied within surgical defect and bone wax was applied within the 3rd group. Postoperatively, 3 animals were sacrificed from each group at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 weeks for histological assessment through H&E and Trichrome stain Results: Water soluble alkylene copolymer hemostat treated defects showed faster healing rate in 1st, 2nd weeks than defects left untreated. Ostene was disappeared from surgical defect at 1st week without presence of  inflammatory cells in the defect. In 3rd group, the defects showed large empty vacuoles, representing bone wax remnants with inflammatory cells infiltration that interfere bone healing. Conclusion:  Water soluble alkylene copolymer is biodegradable material that does not interfere with bone healing in contrast with bone wax which causes foreign body reaction, leading to interference of bone healing. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):155-163]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Local Haemostatic Agents- Bone wax- Ostene

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A Framework for Testing Software Product 

Amjad Farooq1, M. Junaid Arshad1 and Muhammad Abuzar Fahiem2

1, 2Computer Science and Engineering Department, UET, Lahore

2Department of Computer Science, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan

amjadfarooq@uet.edu.pk 

Abstract: There is a growing need of frameworks for automatic testing of software product because manual testing of huge software product is very time-consuming and costly. Furthermore, the manually testing of complex software becomes more difficult and a challenging activity. However this can be easily achieved through automatic testing strategies. In this paper we propose a framework for testing software automatically. Now errors and bug finding become simpler and easier. It takes less time to test the whole application rather than testing application modules separately. The proposed framework provides programmatic access to most user interface elements. The main propose of our framework is to make testing phase easier and cost efficient. We validate our framework through a case study. By analyzing the results of testing the correctness and completeness of framework is proved. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):164-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Software testing; test automation; test framework

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Effect of Mineral, Organic Nitrogen Fertilization and Some Other Treatments on vegetative growth of Picual  Olive Young Trees. 

Laila, F. Hagag1 ; H. S. A. Hassan1; M. Abou Rawash2; H. El-Wakeel2 and  A .Abdel-Galel 1

1-Pomology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2- Dept. of Hort. Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Shobra El-Khiema, Cairo, Egypt    

Abstract: This study was carried out through two successive seasons (2007& 2008) on cultivated Picual olive young trees grown at the Research Station Farm of National Research Center, El Nobarya, El Behera governorate. The investigation aimed to study the effect of applying mineral, organic fertilizers and some other treatments on growth parameters at the first two years of planting. Planting holes were prepared for control plants in the first season only. Each treatment received 100 g actual nitrogen/plant/year as recommended by M.A.R.L. (2007). The following treatments were applied: T1 : control ( mineral nitrogen + planting hole preparation), T2(100%mineral nitrogen), T3(100% organic N as cattle manure), T4(50% mineral N + 50% organic N as chicken manure), T5 (100%mineral nitrogen + humic acid as soil application), T6(100% mineral nitrogen + activated dry yeast as soil application), T7 (100%mineral nitrogen + GA3 spray) and T8 (100% mineral nitrogen + sea algae as soil application).At the end of each season, plant height, stem diameter, lateral shoot number, lateral shoot length, leave numbers per plant, Percentage of plant height increment, whole plant dry weight were determined and recorded. The obtained results revealed that as follow: plant height, shoot number, shoot length, leaves number and stem diameter were not affected by different treatments in both seasons. Meanwhile, whole plant dry weights were improved by humic acid treatment compared with control and all other treatments in Picual cv. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):174-179]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Nitrogen Fertilization; vegetative growth; Picual Olive

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Response of Picual Olive Young Trees to Mineral, Organic Nitrogen Fertilization and Some Other Treatments 

M. Abou Rawash2; H. El-Wakeel2; Laila, F. Hagag1 ; H. S. A. Hassan1 and A. Abdel-Galel1

1-Pomology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2- Dept. of Hort. Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Shobra El-Khiema, Cairo, Egypt    

Abstract: This study was carried out through two successive seasons (2007& 2008) on a cultivated Picual  olive young trees grown at the Research Station Farm of National Research Center, El Nobarya, El Behera governorate. The investigation aimed to study the effect of applying mineral, organic fertilizers and some other treatments on  leaf mineral contents at the first two years of planting. Planting holes were prepared for control plants in the first season only. Each treatment received 100 g actual nitrogen/plant/year as recommended by M.A.R.L. (2007). The following treatments were applied: T1 : control (mineral nitrogen + planting hole preparation), T2(100%mineral nitrogen), T3(100% organic N as cattle manure), T4(50% mineral N + 50% organic N as chicken manure), T5 (100%mineral nitrogen + humic acid as soil application), T6(100% mineral nitrogen + activated dry yeast as soil application), T7 (100%mineral nitrogen + GA3 spray) and T8 (100% mineral nitrogen + sea algae as soil application).At the end of each season,  leaves dry weight per plant, and leaf mineral content were determined and recorded. The obtained results revealed that as follow: Effect of treatment on Leaves dry weight (g) per plant, fifth treatment with humic acid and sixth treatment with activated dry yeast gave the highest significant values in the first season, meanwhile in the second season fourth treatment with 50% cattle manure and fifth treatment with humic acid recorded higher significant values. Leaf nitrogen content revealed that first, fifth, sixth and seventh treatments showed higher significant values respectively than those of other treatments in the first season. In the second season, the first treatment had higher significant leaf nitrogen content compared with most of other treatments. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):180-186]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Picual Olive; Organic Nitrogen; Treatments

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Effect of Bud Load on Bud Behavior, Yield, Cluster Characteristics and some Biochemical Contents of the Cane of Crimson Seedless Grapevines 

1Fawzi  M. I. F. 1Shahin M. F. M.  and 2Kandil E. A.

1Pomology Department, National Research Center. 2Horticulture Research Institute agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt 

Abstract: This study was conducted through the seasons of 2007 and 2008 to determine the optimum bud loads/ vine for Crimson seedless "grapevines. Eight years old uniform vines were chosen and pruned to six different levels of bud load, namely 75, 91, 104, 117, 130 and 143 buds/ vine. Number of buds was fixed at 13 bud/cane. The results showed that the number of bursted buds was increased significantly by increasing bud load /vine in the two seasons of the study, while the percentage of bursted buds decreased. The bud fertility and fruitfulness were decreased by increasing bud load. Data also indicated that 104 or 117 buds/ vine were more suitable for Cirimson seedless grapevines to produce good yield and fruit quality. On the other hand, 78 or 143 buds/vine was unfavorable science it produced rather compact clusters. Increasing bud load increased number of cluster/vine and yield but reduced cluster weight. Vines pruned to 117 bud/vine gave the greatest cluster weight, length, rachis weight, berry weight, berry firmness, adherence, T.S.S and total sugars. Increasing bud load on the vine significantly increased total carbohydrates and protein contents of the canes during the dormant season. In this respect, vines pruned to 143 bud/vine showed higher percent of both total carbohydrate and protein contents than the other levels of bud load. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):187-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Grapevine, winter pruning Crimson seedless, bud load, fruit quality.

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The Effect of some Slow Release Nitrogen Fertilizers on Growth, Nutrient Status and Fruiting of "Mit Ghamr" Peach Trees 

1 Kandil, E. A., 2M. I. F. Fawzi, and 2M. F. M. Shahin

1Hortcultural Research Institute, 2 National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 

Abstract: This study was conducted for comparing three slow release N fertilizers namely, urea – formaldehyde, phosphorus – coated urea and sulphur coated- urea and that fast release nitrogen namely (urea) at 500, 750 and 1000g/tree/year for vegetative growth, leaf mineral content, yield and fruit quality of "Mit Ghamr" peach tree grown in a private orchard Aga city Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt, during 2008 and 2009 seasons, were studied. Urea was added at two times at the start of spring growth and after fruit set, while slow – release N fertilizers applied once at the start of spring growth. Results showed that supplying the tree of "Mit Ghamr" peach with the three slow release N fertilizers were superior to the application of the fast one in improving shoot length, leaf area, percentage of leaf N, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Application of sulphur – coated urea (SCU), phosphorus- coated urea (PCU) and urea- formaldehyde in a descending order was very favorable. Generally, "Mit Ghamr" peach trees once with sulphur coated urea at 500-750g/trees/year was the best results on vegetative growth, yield nutritional status of trees and fruit quality. In addition saving nitrogen fertilization cost and reducing nitrate pollution. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):195-201]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: N fertilizers; urea; formaldehyde; phosphorus; sulphur

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Influence of Foliar Application of some Nutrient (Fertifol  Misr)  and Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Set, Yield, Fruit Quality and Leaf Composition of  “Anna” Apple Trees Grown in Sandy Soil 

1Shahin M. F. M. 1Fawzi M. I. F. 2Eman. A. K and 2kandil E. A.

1Pomology Department, National Research Center, 2Horticulture Research Institute agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt. 

Abstract: The effect of Fertifol Misr (N, P, K, Mg zn, Fe, Mu, Cu, Mo & B) and gibberellic acid on fruit set, drop percentage, yield, fruit quality and leaf chemical composition on “Anna” Apple trees were studied during 2007 and 2008 seasons. Results showed that, fruit set%, drop%,, yield, leaf minerals & chlorophyll contents as well as physical and chemical characters of the fruit were positively effected by single or combined application of Fertifol Misr and gibberellic acid compared to unspraying .There was a slight promotion on such characters with increasing Fertifol Misr concentration from 1.5 – 2.5 g/l. The best results with regard to yield and fruit quality were obtained due to spraying “Anna” apple trees three times with a mixture containing Fertifol Misr at 2.5 g/l and gibberellic acid at 20ppm. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):202-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Anna apple, foliar application, nutrients, gibberellic acid.

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Anti-Ulcer Effect of Cinnamon and Chamomile Aqueous Extracts in Male Rats 

Amr, A. Rezq* and Maysa, M. Elmallh

Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

*dr.amr_rezq@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Peptic ulcer disease is a problem of the gastrointestinal tract. Nowadays, drugs are expensive and have many side effects during treatment of any disorders. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate and compare antiulcer effect of cinnamon and chamomile aqueous extracts at doses of (100, 200, 300, 400mg/kg of body weight) with antiulcer drug (Zantac ™ Ranitidine). Fifty male rats weighing 160±5g were distributed into ten groups. Group I serves as a positive group. Group II serves as control group (treated with drug). Groups III, IV, V and VI were administered orally the different doses of cinnamon aqueous extract (CIAE). Groups VII, VIII, IX and X were administered orally the different doses of chamomile aqueous extract (CHAE). Values of pH and volume of gastric juice, ulcer area and curative ratio were estimated as well as histopathological examination of gastric. Results revealed that treatment with Zantac and CIAE or CHAE was associated with significant increase in the pH values compared to the respective value of the positive group. CHAE was superior to that of CIAE. Oral administration of CIAE or CHAE was associated with significant reduction in the volume of gastric juice compared to positive and control groups. Curative ratios of gastric ulcer were better in rats given CIAE or CHAE over those given Zantac. Furthermore, CHAE was superior over CIAE in its curative ratios of gastric ulcer. Histological examination showed necrosis of gastric mucosa associated with congestion of submucosal blood vessels, submucosal edema and hemorrhage in the stomachs of positive rats. The stomachs of group receiving Zantac showed necrosis of gastric mucosa associated with hemorrhage. Whereas, higher dosages of CIAE (300 and 400 mg/kg of body weight)  and CHAE dosages i.e., 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg of body weight were efficient to arrest histopathological changes in the stomachs. Conclusion: our finding concluded that water extracts of cinnamon and chamomile had potential antiulcer effect, which was superior to the respective effect observed with Zantac. Chamomile extracts were more superior to cinnamon in its protection of the stomach. The antiulcer curative ratios were dose dependent with no adverse effects.  [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):209-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Chamomile- Cinnamon-Peptic ulcer

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Botanical Studies On Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Ii- Anatomy Of Vegetative And Reproductive Organs 

1 Rania M. A.Nassar, 2 Mohamed S. Boghdady and 3 Yasser M. Ahmed

1- Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2- Department of Agricultural Botany and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt.

3- Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 

Abstract: The present study is concerned with the histological features of Kidney bean plant. The anatomical structure of different vegetative and reproductive organs was investigated fortnightly throughout the whole growing season. Studied organs included main root, main stem (represented by apical and median internodes), different types of foliage leaves developed on the main stem and on lateral shoot; including lamina and petiole, flower bud, fruit and seed. Histological features of various organs of Kidney bean plant were analyzed microscopically and photomicrographed. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):217-229]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris L., Kidney bean, Fabaceae, Anatomy, Vegetative organs, Reproductive organs

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Efficacy of Intercropping Mango, Mandarin or Egyptian Clover Plants with Date Palm on Soil Properties, Rhizospere Microflora and Quality and Quantity of Date Fruits

 *1H. F. H. Abouziena, 2Elham Z. Abd El-Motty, 3Youssef, R. A. and 4Sahab, A. F.

1Botany Department, 2Pomology Research Department, 3Soils and Water Use D Department, 4Plant Pathology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. *abouzainah@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Intercropping is claimed to be one of the most significant cropping techniques in sustainable agriculture; to its utilization a number of environmental benefits, from promoting land biodiversity to diversifying agricultural outcome. This model integrates low, medium, and tall plants, as well as plants of short, medium, and long life cycles, including trees. Therefore, a study was carried out to evaluate the impact of intercropping mango (Mangifera indica L.), Balady mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) crops with date palm on soil chemical properties and quality and quantity of date fruits, in comparison with date palm sole. Rhisosphere of palm (pure stand) had a high concentration of N compared to palms intercropped with mango or mandarin. Intercropped mandarin with palms caused a depletion of N from soil by 14.3%, relative to date palm pure stand. High levels of Zn and Mn in soil were recorded in rhisosphere of clover and palms intercropped with mandarin. The effect of intercropping on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of trees was also studied. The results indicated that the colony count of fungi and bacteria in date palm rhizosphere were fluctuated according to plantation method. Intercropping date palm with mandarin decreased the total fungal count from 21.17 cfu x 103g-1 in the non- intercropped roots to 16.00 cfu x 103g-1 ( 24.4% decrease) in date palm root intercropped with mandarin. While, intercropping date palm with mango and clover increased the total fungal count to 118.32 cfu x 103g-1 and 52.00 x103g-1 in date palm root intercropped with mango and clover, respectively. Growing mango or mandarin under date palm resulted in the highest fruit yield/palm. However, intercropping Egyptian clover with date palm caused a significant reduction in fruit diameter. Intercropping mango gave the highest net profit ($8213/ha/yr), followed by the same area intercropped with mandarin ($3992/ha/yr). Evaluation of growing mango, mandarin or Egyptian clover with date palm indicated that growing mango with date palm could be used for combating desertification in sandy soil in arid lands regions and gave the highest net return per unit area. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):230-238]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: intercropping, date palm, Egyptian clover, mango, mandarin, fruit

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Study the Effect of some Metallic Additives on the Physical Properties of the Commercial Pure Aluminum Metal 

E.M.Sakr*1, A.Nassar2, N.Tawfik2 and M.Soliman2

1 Physics Department- Faculty of Girls for Arts, Science & Education- Ain Shams University, 2 Physics Division- National Research Center (NRC), Cairo, Egypt.

*Elham.sakr@yahoo.com 

Abstract: The aim of the present work is to develop the 6201 alloy, which is the most used for conductor cables by adding different amount of Ce into Al-Mg-Si alloy namely (0.0, 0.024, 0.043, 0.054, 0.133, 0.166 and 0.194 wt% Ce) concentration. Sample alloys were homogenized by annealing at 540º C for various duration in range (½ to 5 hours), followed by water quenching. Tensile tests, hardness, electrical conductivity tests, microstructure characterization in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) have all been investigated as-cast and annealing. The results indicate that the alloys with Ce content make a more refined structure of grains and have higher tensile properties especially in range (0.043 to 0.054 wt% Ce) content and also hardly increase resistivity rather than the alloy which is free of cerium. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):239-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Tensile test, hardness, electrical conductivity, microstructure characterization

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The Role of some Natural Soil Conditioner and AM Fungi on Growth, Root Density and Distribution, Yield and Quality of Black Monukka Grapevines Grown on Calcareous Soil. 

*1Mervat, S. Rizk-Alla and 2Hager, I. Tolba

1*Hortcultural Research Institute, 2Microbiology Dep., Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. 

Abstract: The current research was carried out during two successive seasons (2007 and 2008) on ten years old Black Monukka grapevines to disclose the role of some natural soil conditioners namely, humic acid (HA), Nile fertile (NF) and AM fungi (AM) in a single application or in combined mixture growth, root density and distribution, yield and quality of Black Monukka grapevines grown under calcareous soil in a private vineyard in Nobaria at Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road; the results showed that all different soil conditioners were effective but the treatment of humic acid at 15 ml/ vine (HA1) + Nile fertile at 200 g/ vine (NF1) + AM fungi gave the best results in comparison with other treatments and control. This treatment enhanced the growth characters namely total leaf area/ vine, shoot diameter and coefficient of wood ripening, total chlorophyll, NPK% of the leaves and total carbohydrates of the canes. Also, the vines of this treatment produced the heighest fibrous root fresh weight, larger number and longest fibrous root. With respect to microbiological activity in the rhizosphere, it was noticed that the best AM infection %, no. of AM spores /g dry soil, total microbial count, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzymes activity were obtained by the same treatment. From the economic point of view, this treatment was accompanied by the highest yield and best its components namely physical and chemical characteristics of bunches and berries. Under such promising treatment the adverse effects of calcareous soil on growth and production of vines could be overcome. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):253-263]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: grapevine; humic acid (HA); Nile fertile (NF); AM fungi (AM); microbiological activity

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Microbial Bio-Fertilization Approaches to Improve Yield and Quality of Washington Navel Orange and Reducing the Survival of Nematode in the Soil 

Abdelaal Shamseldin1; Mohamed H. El-Sheikh2; H. S. A. Hassan*3 and Kabeil S.S.4

1Environmental Biotechnology Department, 2Horticulture Department at Arid lands Cultivation and Development Institute (ARADI); Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology applications, New Borg-Elarab, Alexandria, Egypt, *3 Pomolgy Department, National Research center, Cairo, Dokki-Egypt. 4Protien Research Department at Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI)

Hsasm2000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: To test the ability of microbial strains Pseudomonas flourescence strain 843 and Azospirillum brasilense strain W24 to improve Washington navel orange fruit quality and to control the persistence of nematode in the soil, strains were applied one time monthly during the period of experiment to trees at two levels 300 ml and 500 ml per tree with 10-8 cells ml-1. Bio-fertilizer inoculation with strain Pseudomonas fluorescence strain 843 growth promoting rhizobacteria was significantly improve fruit quality as well as increased fruit yield, fruit weight, fruit length, TSS and juice volumes, while inoculation with strain Azospirillum brasilence strain W24 increase but not significantly improve fruit quantity and quality of Washington navel orange. Commonly, three types of nematode were detected in the roots including Tylenchulus Spp, saprophytic nematode and Pratylenchulus while the dominant species was Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Generally there is a reduction in the number of nematode with the two examined strains while the addition of Pseudomonas f. strain 843 was successfully greater to inhibit the growth of nematode than Azospirillum b. strain W24 suggesting that this strain can be use as a bio-fertilizer for promoting citrus growth and bio-control for reducing the distribution and propagation of nematode associated with citrus. Enhancement and maintenance of soil fertility and conservation of the soil’s health through bio-fertilizer applications will be a vital role and occupy significant concern for many of researcher in the future as a unique key for sustainable agriculture in developing countries. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):264-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Citrus, Bio-fertilizers, Azospirillum brasilence, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and biological control

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Experimental Natural Prints And The Re-Calculated General Equations Of The Electrical Parameters For Buried Bare Pipe -Soil- Earth System With And Without Applying Cathodic Protection System] 

Dr. Ashraf Abdel Raouf Mohamed Fouad Ahmed

Canadian International College CIC – Egypt

Ashrafahmed9000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: The rate of discharge through the stray electrolytic capacitor between the pipe and the remote earth is to be considered as the corrosion current. The electrochemical properties of the soil, which are the soil resistivity of the soil volume, the relative permittivity of the soil layer around the pipe and the chemical properties which could be considered as the pH of the soil film layer around the pipe, are affected directly by the humidity change. When considering the room temperature and by neglecting the effect of CO2 content in the soil, these values of the electrochemical properties of any soil returns back to its initial conditions after soil dryness to its initial condition. This means that corrosion rate will also be changed during the humidity change around the pipe segment. So, when considering the fact that the pipeline will not be changed or replaced and the surrounding medium around it will not be changed or replaced by another kind of soil, then the behavior of the electrical parameters (stray electrolytic capacitance, stray potential, surface created charge) of the pipe-soil-earth system will act as a print of this combination of this pipe and this soil. This paper recalculates the general form of the equations of the electric parameters and obtains the print curves & constants at natural condition with and without applying cathodic protection system in terms of the electrochemical properties around the pipe. The average error reduced to be less than ± 5%. This will help to study both the corrosion problem and cathodic protection by an electric concept with an electric analogue circuit which is the aim of this study. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):272-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Electrical study of pipe – soil – earth system

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A Systematic Approach for Mobile Agent Design Based on UML (Class and Sequence Diagrams)  

M.  S.  Al_Kholy, A. R. Khalifa and M. G. Alsaied

Systems and Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt 

Abstract: Agent researchers are still trying to determine useful ways to represent agents and agent-based systems. So, this paper presents a proposal for a Systematic Approach for Agent Design by using a Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagram. Here we illustrate notions for the behavior of an agent using and extending UML class diagrams. Focus on representing the agent migration from take requests and between other hosts. In this case study, we explain one variant of notation that is the most suitable for given scenario, show that it is easier to design agent applications based on agent UML, by developing software for our case study generated by UML software package. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):284-290]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Mobile Agent Design, Class Diagram ,Sequence Diagram, UML, A Systematic Approach

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EFFECT OF VANADIUM TOXICITY IN CLARIAS LAZERA  

Mona S. Zaki¹; Nevin E.Sharaf² and Mostafa H. Osfor³

¹Head of Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

²Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National, Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

. ³Department of Nutrition, National, Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk 

Abstract: The effect of dietary carbohydrates and vanadium toxicity on haematalogical profile, blood chemistry and hormonal level was studied in cat fish Clarias Lazera. Fish were divided into 3 groups (n=10) and exposed to different doses of vanadium sulfated and carbohydrate. Group1 was served as control, group 2 was fed with carbohydrate and vanadium sulfate (10 mg/ Kg diet ration), group 3 was fed with carbohydrate and vanadium sulfate (15 mg/Kg diet ration). There is a significant decrease in hemoglobin and P.C.V in group (3). There is a significant increase in serum cortisol, cholestrol, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase in group (3), also there is a significant decrease in serum phosphorous, sodium and potasium in treated fish. There is a significant high level of vanadium content in kidney muscles, heart and spleen in group (3) suggesting toxic effects of vanadium on cat fish Clarious Lazara. The total viable count of bacteria identified higher in fish fed on carbohydrate vandium. Predominate bacteria were identified as Aeromonas, E. coli, Staph aureus. Pseudomonas, Fluorscences and Lacto bacilus species. We emphasize the finding that increase in carbohydrate concentration causes harmful pathological effects which reduces humoral immune responses and enhances dietary vanadium toxicity. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):291-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Clarias Lazera, Vanadium Pollution, Haematological, Biochemical, Clinicopathological, Bacterial count.

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Cubic Nonpolynomial Spline Approach to the Solution of a Second Order Two-Point Boundary Value Problem 

W.K. Zahra, F.A. Abd El-Salam, A.A. El-Sabbagh and Z.A. ZAki*

1Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt. Zahmed_2@yahoo.com* 

Abstract: Third and fourth order convergent methods based on cubic nonpolynomial spline function at midknotes are presented for the numerical solution of a second order two-point boundary value problem with Neumann conditions. Using this spline function a few consistency relations are derived for computing approximations to the solution of the problem. Convergence analysis of these methods is discussed two numerical examples are given to illustrate practical usefulness of the new methods. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):297-302]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Cubic nonpolynomial spline; two-point boundary value problem; Neumann boundary conditions

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The Numerical Solution of Linear Third Order Boundary Value Problems using Nonpolynomial Spline Technique 

F.A. Abd El-Salam, A.A. El-Sabbagh and Z.A. ZAki*

Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt. Zahmed_2@yahoo.com* 

Abstract: Second and fourth order convergent methods based on Quartic nonpolynomial spline function are presented for the numerical solution of a third order two-point boundary value problem. The proposed approach gives better approximations than existing polynomial spline and finite difference methods and has a lower computational cost. Convergence analysis of the proposed method is discussed; two numerical examples are included to illustrate the efficiency of the method.  [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):303-309]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Quartic nonpolynomial spline; third order two-point boundary value problem; convergence analysis, finite difference

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The Numerical Solution of Linear Fourth Order Boundary Value Problems using Nonpolynomial Spline Technique 

F.A. Abd El-Salam and Z.A. ZAki*

Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt. Zahmed_2@yahoo.com* 

Abstract: In this paper we develop a class of accurate methods based on quartic nonpolynomial spline function at midknots for the numerical solution of  a fourth order two point boundary value problems associated with plate deflection theory. Using this spline function a few consistency relations are derived for computing approximations to the solution of the problem. Existing second and fourth order finite difference and spline functions based methods developed at midknots become special cases of the new approach. Convergence analysis of the proposed method is discussed. Two numerical examples are included to illustrate the practical usefulness of our method. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):310-316]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Quartic nonpolynomial spline; two point boundary value problem; plate deflection theory; convergence analysis.

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Lambda, the pyrethroid insecticide as a mutagenic agent in both somatic and germ cells. 

Abdel Aziz K.B. and Abdel Rahem H.M.

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

k.badrakhan.yahoo.com

Abstract: Cytogenetic evaluations of pyrethroid insecticide cyhalothrin (lambda) were investigated in mice in vivo by recording chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and in primary spermatocytes. Cyhalothrin (lambda) insecticide was orally administrated with 2, 2.5, 5 mg/kg b.wt.  (1 ∕10, 1 ∕8, 1 ∕4 LD50 doses respectively) for repeated treatment. Cyhalothrin (lambda) was found to produce a significant structural and numerical chromosomal damage after subacute treatment in both bone marrow cells and primary spermatocytes. This effect was dose and time-dependent. For studying sperm abnormalities, mice were orally treated with the highest dose, 1 ∕4 LD50. Cyhalothrin (lambda) insecticide was found to induce a significant increase in the percentage of sperm abnormalities which was mainly in the head. The present study clearly indicates that Cyhalothrin (lambda) insecticide is genotoxic to the different kinds of cells analyzed. Accordingly, much more care should be taken during the use of these pesticides. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(12):317-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Pyrethroid insecticides; Lambda-cyhalothrin; chromosomal aberrations; Sperm abnormalities; genotoxicity

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Chlorophyll-a dynamics in relation to environmental parameters in a tropical lagoon 

1P. C. Onuoha, 2D.I. Nwankwo and   3Vyverman, W.

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria. E-mail- hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Department  of Marine Sciences  University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Ghent, Belgium 

Abstract: The chlorophyll-a dynamics and environmental factors of the Ologe lagoon, Lagos were investigated for 2 years (Feb., 2002 – Jan., 2004). The environmental indices reflected seasonal changes related to rainfall distributive pattern and tidal seawater incursion. Air temperature (27-34 0C), surface water temperature (25-32oC), transparency (24-76cm), total dissolved solids (48-294mg/l), salinity (0-0.5‰), conductivity (83-631µS/cm), pH (5.8-8.1), total alkalinity (42-162mg/l), biochemical oxygen demand (0-28mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (6-39mg/l), total hardness (62-342mg/l), cations, and heavy metals recorded increasing values in the dry season than the wet months, while dissolved oxygen (7-12.7mg/l), total suspended solids (7-378mg/l), nitrate-nitrogen (0.02-1.02mg/l), phosphate-phosphorus (0.03-1.79mg/l) and silicate (2.05-9.54mg/l) had higher values in the wet season than the dry season. Estimation of phytoplankton biomass by chlorophyll-a concentration ranged from 0.1 to 64.5ug/l with mean value of 16.99ug/l. Values for chlorophyll-a were higher in the dry than wet season for the lagoon. Analysis, using Pearson correlation co-efficient recorded positive relationship between chlorophyll-a values and air temperature, surface water temperature, salinity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, transparency, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness and cations. Analysis using ANOVA showed significant differences in the sample means of physico-chemical parameters of effluent discharge station (OL4) and the other stations within the lagoon at 5% level of probability. Recorded chlorophyll-a values placed the Ologe lagoon between the mesotrophic and eutrophic status. It is suggested that increasing tidal influence associated with reduction in rain events may have encouraged elevated salinities and created conditions for the development of more algal cells, hence higher chlorophyll a records. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):327-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Chlorophyll-a, environmental factors, mesotrophic, eutrophic, Ologe

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Effect of Mineral, Organic Nitrogen Fertilization and some other Treatments on Vegetative Growth of Kalamata Olive Young Trees. 

Hassan, H. S. A*1; Laila, F. Hagag1; H. El-Wakeel2; M. Abou Rawash2 and A.  Abdel-Galel1

1Pomology Department, National Research Center,  2 Dept. of Hort. Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Shobra El-Khiema, Cairo, Egypt   *Hsasm2000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: This study was carried out through two successive seasons (2007& 2008) on Klamata olive young trees grown at the Research Station Farm of National Research Center, El Nobarya, El Behera governorate. The investigation aimed to study the effect of applying mineral, organic fertilizers and some other treatments on growth parameters at the first two years of planting. Planting holes were prepared for control plants in the first season only. Each treatment received 100 g actual nitrogen/plant/year as recommended by M.A.R.L. (2007). The following treatments were applied: T1 : control (mineral nitrogen + planting hole preparation), T2(100%mineral nitrogen), T3(100% organic N as cattle manure), T4(50% mineral N + 50% organic N as chicken manure), T5 (100%mineral nitrogen + humic acid as soil application), T6(100% mineral nitrogen + activated dry yeast as soil application), T7 (100%mineral nitrogen + GA3 spray) and T8 (100% mineral nitrogen + sea algae as soil application).At the end of each season, plant height, stem diameter, lateral shoot number, lateral shoot length, leaves  numbers per plant, percentage of plant height increment, whole plant dry weight were determined and recorded. The obtained results revealed that plant height, shoots number, shoot length, leaves number and stem diameter were not affected by different treatments. However the fifth treatment with humic acid and seventh treatment with GA3 spray gave highest significant values of leaf numbers per plant compared with all other treatments in the first season, but in the second one, the differences among treatments lake significance. As for Whole plant dry weight, no significant differences among treatments could be noticed in both seasons. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):338-343]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Klamata olive; mineral fertilizer; organic fertilizer; growth parameter; plant

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The Proposed Electric Circuit Diagram Of The Buried Bare Pipe Segment- Soil - Earth System With And Without Applying Cathodic Protection System 

Dr. Ashraf Abdel Raouf Mohamed Fouad Ahmed

Canadian International College CIC – Egypt. Ashrafahmed9000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Based on proposed electrical concept of corrosion process, it is possible to simulate buried bare pipe segment with the surrounding soil medium by an electric circuit where the circuit electric quantities are function of the electrochemical properties of the soil as 4th degree polynomial equations. The equivalent cylindrical electrolytic capacitor between the pipe and the remote earth and the potential across it, verifies the equation that charge Q = C × V at natural condition with & without applying cathodic protection system. The created positive charges consists with an equivalent negative charge (electrons losses) a charged stray electrolytic capacitor between the pipe and the earth through thin film soil layer around the pipe as cylindrical capacitor. The amounts of these charges are depending on the electrochemical properties of the soil which are surrounding the pipe segment, the length of the pipe segment and its diameter. The rate of discharge (equivalent to capacitor self discharge) is to be considered as the corrosion current. That’s beside the facts deduced before that all electrical parameters prints & equations are function of the electrochemical properties of soil medium around the pipe at different cathodic protection levels. The error of these new equations of the electrical parameters reduced to be less than ± 5%. This will help to study both the corrosion problem and cathodic protection for a complete pipeline by an electric concept with an electric analogue circuit which is the aim of this study. This will help, in the future, in the choice of pipeline route, pipeline cathodic protection design and cathodic protection maintenance process for the pipe line along its route, however long it is. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):344-354]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Electrical study of pipe – soil – earth system

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Molecular Markers for New Promising Drought Tolerant Lines of Rice under Drought Stress via RAPD-PCR and ISSR Markers 

Youssef; M. A., Mansour A. and Solliman S. S

Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, bakr2000us@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) markers were performed to detect the genetic diversity among 6 new rice lines and 4 cultivars with different responses to drought tolerance and establish specific DNA markers associated with drought tolerance. Among 16 RAPD primers tested, only 5 produced bands polymorphic between lines with an average of 5.2 bands per primer (ranging from approximately 252 to 1232 bp) and 73.02 % were polymorphic. Among the tested ISSR primers, only five amplified polymorphic ISSR loci with an average number of 4.4 bands per primer (ranging from approximately 80 to 813 bp) and the mean percentage of ISSR polymorphism was 90.91. Based on band polymorphisms generated by RAPD-PCR and ISSR after using the primers, the highest similarity value (0.93) was found between P-5-3-b line and P-5-3-a line and the lowest value (0.44) was found between P-5-3-b line and Giza 172. The dendrogram separated all cultivars and new lines into two clusters and indicated that the cross of tolerant line (P-5-3-b ) and susceptible cultivar (Giza 172) is suggested as the most suitable cross for drought tolerance analysis studies as they have the lowest similarity value (0.44) and also grouped in distinct cluster. Since two fragments of about (315 and 505 bp) were visualized using HP15 primer in the genomic DNA of the drought tolerant lines while were absent in the sensitive cultivars, they can be considered as positive drought tolerant markers. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):355-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  

Key words: RAPD-PCR, ISSRs, rice, drought stress, dendogram

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Genetic Evaluation and Molecular Markers for Heat Tolerance in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) 

M.A. Kamel*2, S.S.Soliman1, A.E. Mandour1 and Mahassen S. S. Ahmed1 

1Genetics Department, Fac. Agric., Zagazig University, Egypt, 2 Samtrade trials station, Samtrade, Samir Fahmy Group, Egypt. *kamel_moh77@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Genetic evaluation was performed on twenty three genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under high temperature at summer season to determine the variation between them for heat tolerance. Heat tolerance related criteria, i.e., pollen viability, fruit setting, osmotic pressure and fruit yield per plant.  LSSS1, Homestead 24, Black Russian Plum, Super Marmand and Money Maker possess more tolerance of heat. In contrast, Super Stain B, Castle Rock, Cherokee Purple, Moskvich and Nicholevna Pink were more susceptible of heat. The pollen grain viability and fruit setting criteria consider as suitable morphological markers for heat tolerance than other heat tolerant related criteria as osmotic pressure. Heritability was high and moderately whereas, the genetic improvement of new strains could be done. From previous evaluation, Lsss1 as tolerant line and Super Strain B  as sensitive cultivar of heat tolerance was crossed for study of molecular markers related to heat tolerance by using bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Crossing was carried out between these two genotypes to obtain the F1 seeds which were left for selfing to obtain the F2 seeds. The two selected genotypes, their F1 and F2 plants were evaluated for their response to heat stress by recording some heat stress related traits. Bulk of the two extremely F2 plants (most tolerant and most sensitive F2 groups), the two contrasting parents and their F1, were used to develop some molecular genetic markers associated with heat tolerance in tomato by using ten RAPD and seven ISSR primers. two RAPD markers (with molecular sizes of 100 bp for primers A16 and 500 bp for primer Z13)and one ISSR marker(with molecular size of 650 bp) were considered as reliable markers for heat tolerance as well as susceptible genotypes possessed eight RAPD markers (with  molecular sizes 500 and 1500 bp for primer C02,  1750 and750 bp for primer C03, 2400 bp for primer C05, 550 bp for primer C08, 400 bp for primer C14 and 850 bp for primer C15). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):364-374]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Tomato, Heat stress, Heat related traits, Molecular markers, RAPD-PCR, ISSR-PCR. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA), Marker assisted selection (MAS)

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The Risk of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphism among Egyptians 

Hoiyda A Abdel Rasool1, Shahira Riad Nowier2, Moataz Gheith3, Ahmed T.S. Saif 4 and Somaia Ismail5

Dept. of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Fayoum University1, Dept. of Genetics, Research Institute of Ophthalmology2, Dept. Ophthalmology, Research Institute of Ophthalmology3, Dept. Ophthalmology, Fayoum University4 Dept. Medical genetics, National Research Center5, Cairo, Egypt 

Abstract: Purpose: Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is characterized by changes in the optic disc and visual field defects. The elevated intraocular pressure was considered the prime factor responsible for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy involving death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Extensive investigations into the pathophysiology of glaucoma now reveal the role of multiple factors in the development of retinal ganglion cell death.  Genetic factors and oxidative damage have been shown to have a role in the development of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).  Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that inactivate xenobiotics and endogenous end products formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. In humans, GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes are associated with a variety of pathologic processes including certain ophthalmologic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 on the risk of POAG in an Egyptian population. Methods: We compared the prevalence of GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes, which were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, in 32 patients with primary open angle glaucoma to 16 age, sex, and ethnically matched controls. Results: The GSTM1 positive genotype had an increased risk of developing POAG (p< 0.05, OR 4.681, 95% CI 1.190 – 18.412).  The risk of glaucoma also increased significantly in subjects with a combination of GSTM1 positive and GSTT1 null genotypes (p< 0.05, OR 4.700, 95% CI 0.959 – 23.033). Conclusion: The GSTM1 positive genotype or the combination of both GSTM1 positive and GSTT1 null genotypes may be associated with the increased risk of development of POAG in the Egyptian population. The overall results indicate a possible variable association between various GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes and primary open angle glaucoma. Decreased GST function might interfere with the metabolism of oxidative intermediates and exacerbate the direct or indirect damaging effects of oxidative stress on the optic nerve. It is possible that these GST polymorphisms may be risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):375-381]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Glaucoma; optic disc and visual field defects; primary open angle glaucoma (POAG); Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)

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Determination of milk urea nitrogen for the Egyptian cattle fed the summer and winter diets.

Ahlam El Shewy;  Sobhy Kholif; Tarek Morsy

Dairy Sci. Dept. National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. ahlam58aa@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) equilibrates with and is proportion to blood urea nitrogen. So, it is an excellent indicator of urea nitrogen status in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the MUN during the summer (with a temperature range of 35-40C) and winter (with a temperature range of 18-22C) seasons. Forty hetero- parity lactating cattle twenty of each cows and buffaloes, at different stages of lactation were used to collect milk samples. All animals received the diet consisting of concentrate, fodder, and rice straw as 2:1:1 on DM basis. The fodder was berseem(Trifolium alexandrium) and rayana corn(Zea mays mexicana) in the winter and summer, respectively. The dietary crude protein was 11.38 and 8.97 % and the dietary gross energy was 3.86 and 3.83 Mcal/kg DM for the winter and summer diets, respectively. The results indicated, milk protein content was 3.06 and 3.18 % and MUN was 24.57 and 28.00 mg/dl for cows, while milk protein was 3.96 and 2.67 % and MUN was 19.60 and 28.03 mg/dl for buffaloes during the winter and summer seasons, respectively .This study revealed that the heat- summer significantly (P<.05) increased MUN of lactating buffaloes and this phenomenon needs further studies. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):382-384]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: dietary protein, cow, buffaloes, milk urea nitrogen

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In Vitro Propagation of Tylophora indica-Influence of Explanting Season, Growth Regulator Synergy, Culture Passage and Planting Substrate 

Sulekha Rani, J S Rana*

Department of Bio & Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University Of Science & Technology

Hisar, Haryana (India) -125001, jogenderrana@yahoo.co.uk                                            

Abstract: An efficient protocol for rapid clonal propagation of an endangered medicinal plant, Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill through in vitro culture is described. High frequency bud break (85%) and multiple shoot formation were induced from nodal segments explanted between September through November and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0mg/l BAP. Although callus- free multiple shoot formation was a function of cytokinin activity alone, faster bud break coupled with enhanced frequency of shoot development (95%) and internode elongation were dependent on the synergistic effect of GA3(0.2mg/l). By repeated sub culturing of nodal segments harvested from the newly formed axenic shoots, prolific shoot cultures, free of proximal callusing, showing a high frequency multiplication rate were established within three months. The percentage shoot multiplication as well as the number of shoots per node attained the highest values (100%, 7 shoots/node) during the first two culture passages; beyond this there was a gradual decline in shoot bud differentiation. Rooting of the excised shoots from secondary or subsequent cultures was best induced on ½ strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l IBA. Vermi-compost was the most suitable planting substrate for hardening and its use ensured high frequency survival (96%) of regenerated plantlets prior to outdoor transfer. Regenerated plants get established in pots containing garden soil followed by their transfer to natural soil under full sun. The in vitro regenerated plants were uniform and identical in growth characteristics and morphology to the donor plants. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):385-392]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords:Tylophora indica, medicinal plant, micropropagation, culture media, explants, growth regulators

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Kinetic and Electrolytic Conductivity of C.I. Acid Orange 15 and C.I. Acid Red 97 dyes in Different Media 

A.M. Gamal 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt 

Abstract: The electrolytic conductivities for Acid Orange 15 and C.I. Red 97 have been studied. The electrolytic conductivities have been analyzed by Deby HUckel-Onsager theory, The degree of ionization, a, Van’t Hoffs factor, i, and thickness of ionic atmosphere, X–1. were calculated. Each value diminishes with increasing dye concentration. The dye anion transport number, t, mobility’s, m were also computed at infinite dilution. The results provide evidence for the presence of interionic attraction and association. Furthermore the kinetics of two acid dyes has been studied using spectrophotometric and conductimetric methods. The former study was carried out at 28°C at different percentage of solvents. The results revealed that the reaction rate was govemed by a pseudo-first order. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):393-399]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords : C.I. Acid Orange 15, C.I. Acid Red 97, solvents, electrolytic conductivity, spectrophotometry, kinetics

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Adsorption of Cadmium (II) and Mercury (II) onto Natural Adsorbent Rice Husk Ash (RHA) from Aqueous Solutions: Study in Single and Binary System 

A.G. El-Said, N.A. Badawy, and S.E. Garamon

Chemistry Department. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt 

Abstract: The present study deals with the competitive adsorption of cadmium (Cd(II)) and mercury (Hg(II)) ions onto rice husk ash (RHA) from single component and binary systems. Equilibrium adsorption is affected by the initial pH (pH0) of the solution. The pH0 ≈ 6.0 is found to be the optimum for the individual removal of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions by RHA. The pH of the system, however, increases during the initial sorption process for about 60 min and, thereafter, it remains constant. The equilibrium adsorption data were obtained at different initial concentrations (C0 = 10–100 mg/l), 6 h contact time, 25 °C temperature, RHA dosage of 10 g/l at pH0 6. The single ion equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to the non-competitive Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Freundlich models represent the equilibrium data better than the Langmuir model in the studied initial metal concentration range (10–100 mg/l). The adsorption capacity of Cd(II) is higher than that for Hg(II) for the binary metal solutions and is in agreement with the single-component adsorption data. The equilibrium metal removal decreases with increasing concentrations of the other metal ion and the combined action of Hg(II) and Cd(II) ions on RHA is generally found to be antagonistic. Equilibrium isotherms for the binary adsorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions onto RHA have been analyzed by using Langmuir and Freundlich models.. Desorption with various solvents showed that the nitric acid is the best solvent; the maximum elution being about 28.41 % for Cd(II) and about 31.53 for Hg(II). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):400-409]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Mercury (II); Cadmium(II);  Binary adsorption; Rice husk ash (RHA); Simultaneous metal removal; Adsorption isotherms

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Impact of Gibberellic Acid Enhancing Treatments on Shortening Time to Budding of Citrus Nursery Stocks 

HODA, M.MOHAMED; ABD EL-RAHMAN, G.F. and ABD EL-RAHEEM, M.E.

Horticultural institute, Agricultural Research Center, GIza, Egypt. 

Abstract: Screen house experiment was conducted to study the application of gibberellic acid (GA3) at different concentrations on budding shortening time of Volkamer lemon (C.Volkameriana Ten & Pasq) and Sour orange (C.aurantium L.) rootstocks in two seasons (2008-2009). Shortening the period to reach suitable diameter for budding seedling would benefit nurserymen by reducing various production inputs and their costs. The results indicated that, the highest success rate of suitable seedlings for budding was in mid-July. This time led to shortening the period for budding about 8 months, whereas, resulting seedlings could be budded because their stem diameter reached of a pencil size (5.4 mm) or larger. Also, this study revealed that, Volkamer lemon rootstock was superior as compared to sour orange rootstock in terms of vegetative growth, root distribution, leaf mineral content and percent of suitable seedlings for budding, while leaves of sour orange contained higher chlorophyll and total carbohydrate. It could be recommended to use T5 (Soaked seeds and seedling treated with GA3 at 200 ppm) for giving the best vegetative growth and suitable seedlings for budding in mid July. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):410-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Screen house; gibberellic acid (GA3); lemon; vegetative growth

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Prognostic Impact of Elevated Serum Hyulronic Acid, Ferritin and Interleukin-6 in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia 

Nabila Abd El Maksoud,1 Halla M. Ragab1, Maha M. Abd El Latif2 and Sh. Abdalla3

1Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, 2Department of research and applications of supplementary medicine, National Research Centre, and 3Department of Clinical Pathology, El-Sahel Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt .

hmragab@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disease of hematopoiesis with poor clinical outcome despite recent improvements in chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation regimens. It is the most common acute leukemia in adults. Hyaluronic acid, ferritin and Interleukin-6 are involved in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia , but their prognostic significance in these diseases is unknown. In the current study, the authors assessed the serum levels of these parameters in different stages of the disease to predict their prognostic value, which might therefore represent interesting target for immunotherapy in patients with different hematological malignancies. Methods: Serum levels of. hyaluronic acid, ferritin and Interleukin-6 were measured using a commercially available sandwich Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) kit in patients with AML who were attending for treatment at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University from September 2006 through January 2009. Results: Newly diagnosed and relapsed patients with AML had significantly higher serum levels of hyaluronic acid, ferritin and Interleukin-6 compared with both control group and leukemic patients in remission stage. Serum levels of hyaluronic acid, ferritin and interleukin–6 in patients with AML (at diagnosis and at relapse) correlated inversely with the hemoglobin concentration. While their serum levels correlated positively with both total leukocyte count and with the % of blast cells in bone marrow in patients with AML. Conclusions: It could be concluded that serum levels of hyaluronic acid, ferritin and Interleukin-6 can be used as prognostic markers at diagnosis of adult AML and it could be used as follow up parameters for early detection of relapse. Furthermore, they might represent interesting target for immunotherapy in patients with different hematological malignancies. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):423-432]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Hyaluronic acid (HA), Ferritin (Fe), Interleukin–6 (IL-6).

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The Effect of Green, Roasted and Decaffeinated Coffee on Serum Glucose, Insulin and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Experimental Animals

Eman A.Sadeek*1 , Hala, A. Abd El;-Rahman2  and Waffa, Sh. Ali3

1Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition -Women's College –Ain –Shams University. 2 Food Tech. Res. Ins. Agric. Res. Center.  3College of Home Economics, Helwan University. Cairo, Egypt

*dr_emansadeek@yahoo.com    

Abstract: Aim of the work: Assessing the Effect of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee on serum glucose, insulin and serum lipid profile in diabetic rat models. Methods: Design of the Study: Thirty female wistar rats weighing 124.5 ±5.41g (mean ±S.D) were divided into 5 groups. The first group served as a control and consumed a standard diet according to (AIN – 93).  The other 4 groups were injected intraperitoneally with 105 mg / kg body weight of alloxan . One group was kept without further treatment and served as a positive diabetic control. Groups 3, 4, 5 consumed 5% green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee in drinking water, respectively. The feeding trial continued for four weeks. At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the liver, kidney, spleen and heart were separated, washed, dried and weighed. Laboratory investigations Consisted of serum glucose, insulin, calcium, phosphorus and complete lipid profile was determined to test  the magnitude of antioxidant potential green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee. Results: The present study show a significant difference  (p >  0.05) in body weight gain and food intake between all  treatment groups , with non significant difference in water intake , relative weight of organs including liver , kidney , spleen and heart . the study also shows significant elevation (p >  0.05) in serum glucose and insulin in diabetic control group as compared to normal control group. This indicates uncontrolled hyperglycemia in alloxan diabetic rats. While consumption of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee resulted in a decrease in serum glucose and insulin  (p >  0.05) .There is a significant decrease (p >  0.05)  in serum calcium and serum phosphorus in groups 3,4 and 5 fed green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee respectively indicating an association between coffee consumption and bone health. our results also shows that alloxan injection produced a significant increase(p >  0.05) in serum total- cholesterol(TC); triacylglycerol (TAG); LDL-C ; VLDL-C and in LDL\ HDL ratio and TC \ HDL ratio however  a significant decrease (p >  0.05) in serum  HDL-C is observed ;  In diabetic rats compared to normal control .green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee resulted in a significant decrease (p >  0.05) in triacylglycerol (TAG); LDL-C ; VLDL-C and in LDL\ HDL ratio and TC \ HDL ratio .on the other hand  a significant increase (p >  0.05) in serum  HDL-C is observed  in green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee groups compared to diabetic rats compared to  normal control with the highest value for green coffee .Non significant effect on serum total- cholesterol(TC) reported in this study. Conclusion: The observed improvement in glucose, insulin profile, triacylglycerol and HDL-C confirm the potent biological action of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee and suggest that chlorogenic acid (a component in coffee) might have an antagonistic effect on glucose transport. Suggesting a novel function of coffee on lowering the risk factors of diabetes and delaying the progress of diabetes complications as well.

[Eman A.Sadeek, Hala, A. Abd El;-Rahman and Waffa, Sh. Ali. The Effect of Green, Roasted and Decaffeinated Coffee on Serum Glucose, Insulin and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Experimental Animals. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):433-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  

Keywords: Green, roasted, decaffeinated coffee, glucose, insulin and lipid profile

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Combined at-admission estimation of plasma gelsolin and injury severity score could predict the outcome of multiple trauma patients 

Adel F. Al-Kholy 1, Mosad M Odah 1, Jehan Sabry 2, Ehab El-Shahat 3, Ehab Said 3

1 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

3 Department of Anesthesia & ICU, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

adeladel59@yahoo.com 

Abstract: To estimate plasma gelsolin levels in multiple trauma patients and its predictability for their outcome in relation to clinical data. The study included 70 multiple trauma patients and 20 healthy adult controls for blood donation as control group for the plasma level of gelsolin. All patients underwent history taking, time elapsed since trauma inflection and amount of external bleeding if present. Clinical evaluation included both Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Injury Severity Scores (ISS). Patients were evaluated daily throughout their ICU or hospital stay for the development of secondary morbidities and/or mortality. Venous blood samples were obtained at 12 hours after ICU admission for ELISA estimation of plasma gelsolin level. During hospital stay, 20 patients (28.6%) developed secondary morbidities and 8 patients (11.4%) died. Mean plasma gelsolin levels were significantly lower in patients compared to control levels with significantly lower levels in non-survivors compared to controls and survivors. Development of secondary morbidities showed a positive significant correlation with at admission ISS score and a negative significant correlation with plasma gelsolin. Survival rate showed positive significant correlation with plasma gelsolin level and negative significant correlation with both time since trauma inflection and ISS score. ROC curve analysis, defined prolonged time since trauma inflection as the significant sensitive predictor for both morbidity and mortality, while plasma gelsolin level was significant specific predictor for development of secondary morbidity and combined with ISS score were significant specific predictors for mortality. Conclusion: At admission plasma gelsolin level is a specific independent marker for prediction of the development of secondary morbidities that may progress to endanger patients' life and time since trauma inflection was found to be significant sensitive parameter for the patients' survival irrespective of development of these morbidities. 

[Adel F. Al-Kholy, Mosad M Odah, Jehan Sabry, Ehab El-Shahat, Ehab Said. Combined at-admission estimation of plasma gelsolin and injury severity score could predict the outcome of multiple trauma patients. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):442-447]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Gelsolin, Trauma, Sepsis, Morbidity, Mortality

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Serum levels of placental growth factor and retinol-binding protein-4 in pregnancy-induced hypertensive women 

Adel F. Al-Kholy 1, Mamdouh Z. Abadier 1, Ebrahem M. Rageh 2, Hany El-Kallaf 3

1 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

3 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

adeladel59@yahoo.com 

Abstract: To investigate the relationship between clinical parameters of pre-eclampsia (PE) and serum levels of Retinol binding protein4 (RBP4) and Placental growth factor (PlGF). Patients and Methods: The study included 90 pregnant women categorized as Group I: Control group (n= 20), included pregnant women who continued their pregnancy without development of PE manifestations, Group II: included patients had Mild PE (n=56) and group III included patients had Severe PE (n=14). After clinical evaluation and ultrasonographic examination, samples of maternal peripheral blood were obtained either at time of diagnosis of PE in groups II and III or at time of delivery in control group for ELISA estimation of serum RBP4 and PlGF. Results: PE patients had significantly lower serum PlGF, but significantly higher serum RBP4 levels when compared to the corresponding levels of the control group. Serum levels of PlGF showed negative correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) and extent of proteinuria, but showed positive significant correlation with birth weight, while serum levels of RBP4 showed positive significant correlation with DBP, extent of proteinuria and patients' body weight measures. Conclusions: RBP4 and PlGF were associated with the development and severity of PE. 

[Adel F. Al-Kholy, Mamdouh Z. Abadier, Ebrahem M. Rageh, Hany El-Kallaf. Serum levels of placental growth factor and retinol-binding protein-4 in pregnancy-induced hypertensive women. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):448-455]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Pre-eclampsia, Placental growth factor, Retinol-binding protein

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Soil Plant Nutrients and Maize Performance as Influenced by Oilpalm Bunch Ash plus NPK Fertilizer 

Ojeniyi, S. O.1, Awanlemhen, B. E.2 and Adejoro, S. A.1*

1.Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology,

PMB 704 Akure, Nigeria.

2.Nigeria Institute for Oilpalm Research, Benin City, Nigeria.

solomonadejoro@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT: The work investigated the effects of combined application of oilpalm bunch ash (OPBA) with NPK fertilizer (NPK) on soil and plant nutrient content and maize performance at two sites in southern Nigeria.  Six treatments: control, OPBA at 4 t/ha, NPK (15-15-15) at 300 kg/ha, 75% NPK + 25% OPBA, 50% NPK + 50% OPBA, 25% NPK + 75% OPBA were applied to maize at Nigeria Institute for Oilpalm Research (NIFOR) Benin and Ekiadolor in rainforest zone of Nigeria.  Relative to control, other treatments increased soil organic matter (OM), N, P, K, Ca, Mg and pH, and plant nutrients content, growth and cob yield.  The effects were generally significant except in case of OPBA alone.  The NPK, 75% NPK + 25% OPBA and 50% NPK + 50% OPBA gave significantly high and similar values of the parameters.  The treatments increased cob yield by 20 – 22%, OPBA most increased soil pH and K.

[Ojeniyi, S. O, Awanlemhen, B. E, Adejoro, S. A. Soil Plant Nutrients and Maize Performance as Influenced by  Oilpalm Bunch Ash plus NPK Fertilizer. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):456-460]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  

Key words: oilpalm bunch ash; nutrient; maize

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The Protective Effect of White Ginseng against Biochemical and Pathological Changes Induced by Aflatoxins in Rats 

Abdel- Fattah, Sh. M.*1; Sanad, M.I2.; Safaa,M.A2 and Ragaa F. F.Ghanem

1Department of Food Toxins and Contaminants, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

shaabanmostafa@yahoo.com*  

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to explore modification in toxico-pathological responses of rats toward aflatoxins (AF) in the presence of white ginseng. The dietary supplementation with white ginseng (WG) at levels of of 0.0, 1 and 2 % (W/W) of the composition of daily rations, on the performance and toxicity of female Albino rats received aflatoxins-contaminated diets (1.011 mg/kg ration, of dry matter basis), were successively examined for six weeks, as attempt to prevent or minimize the negative probabilities due to ingesting aflatoxin(s) contaminated food. Thirty native apparently healthy female Albino rats with average weight of 100± 3.4 gm., were put under observation for two weeks, then they were divided into five equal groups of six rats each according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. An exposure study extended for two different stages was conducted using female Albino rats. The 1st stage (pre-treatment) was suggested to compare the performance of animal groupings under the normal conditions before receiving any treatment, either level of contamination(s) or dosage(s) of additive, such stage extended for 2 weeks. The 2nd stage (treatment), the animals received different levels of aflatoxin(s) and the food additive (white ginseng), such stage extended for 4 weeks. Rats treated with AF-contaminated diet alone showed depression, decrease in feed intake, body weight and loose feces. The activities of serum ALT, AST enzymes, which are reflecting liver function, were obviously affected during exposure to aflatoxins, but such levels came back to normal as the level of the WG in the ration increased. Serum urea and creatinine concentrations had also severed and such severe effects came back to moderate when receiving the proposed additive. Livers exhibited fatty change, necrosis and newly formed bile ducts. Lesions in kidney included tubular necrosis and pink homogeneous tubular casts. Rats fed white ginseng only had no significant differences compared to the negative control group (fed on a sole diet without any additives). A concurrent treatment of AF with white ginseng indicated a potentiation of the animal performance reflected by decreased severity of clinical signs and inccreased body weight gains. The studied food additive minimized and reduced significantly the deterioratsion of such performance which obviously observed in animal grouping received AF-contaminated diet. Female rats were responding to contaminated diets and to the food additive as well. Thus, our data strongly suggested that deleterious effects of AF could be overcome or, at least, significantly were diminished by WG. Moreover, this plant by itself did not show any toxic effects.

[Abdel- Fattah, Sh. M.; Sanad, M.I; Safaa,M.A and Ragaa F. F.Ghanem. The Protective Effect of White Ginseng against Biochemical and Pathological Changes Induced by Aflatoxins in Rats. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):461-472]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Ginseng; Aflatoxins; Histopathological changes; Food additives

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Akhond Khorasani’s Viewpoints towards the Modern Concepts of Freedom and Justice

Alireza Soroush1 , Sarvinder Kaur Sandhu2 , Hamed Alaei3

1 Department of Government and Civilization Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia,43300 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, Email: soroush_alireza@yahoo.ca

2 Department of Government and Civilization Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia,43300 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, Email: sarvinder@putra.upm.edu.my

3Graduate School of Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia,43300 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, Email: hamedala@yahoo.com 

Abstract: This article seeks to understand the mentality of Akhond Khorasani, the leader of the Iranian constitutional revolution (1905-1911) regarding the political and social concepts such as freedom and justice. In the Iranian society, concepts such as freedom and justice were always affected by various kinds of understanding and comprehension. These concepts were never interpreted based on their original and true meanings which are essentially the principles of democracy. In other words, the Iranian society was faced some problems and difficulties in absorbing these concepts and it seems even nowadays these concepts do not possess their true meaning in the political social culture of Iran and everybody explain them based on their own personal assumptions and subjectivity. It is for this reason that Iran has not had much of a practical experience from the existence of these concepts and achieving such and experience needs more time. Understanding the opinions of Akhond Khorasani (the revolution’s leader) vis-à-vis these concepts can be an indication of the formation of democracy’s pillar in Iran and also an indication of how the clergy faced these concepts, understand them and what practical ways they used to realize them. The theoretical framework of this article is based on the modernity theory. In essence, modernity comprises the theoretical aspects of the entire social, political, economical and cultural issues and guide human societies through the passageway of tradition to the modern world. The methodology used in this study is the unobtrusive research methodology, since this is a qualitative and historical research. The content analysis method which is one of the methods used in qualitative and historical researchers has also been implemented in this research.

[Alireza Soroush, Sarvinder Kaur Sandhu, Hamed Alaei. Akhond Khorasani’s Viewpoints Towards Modern Concepts such as Freedom and Justice. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):473-479]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Iran; politics; modernity; freedom; justice; democracy

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Chemical Composition and Potential Application of Spirulina platensis Biomass 

ٍAly, M. S*1 and Amber. S., Gad2 

1Agriculture microbiology Dept, 2Chemistry of Natural and Microbial products Dept., NRC, Cairo, Egypt.

*mohamed_saad_1@hotmail.com

Abstract: Submerged batch cultures, Semi -pilot scale cultivations and Outdoor biomass production were performed to increase Spirulina platensis biomass which is naturally grown in El Khadra lake water body. Comparing Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis showed higher protein contents of Spirulina as it reached 64 % ( w/w) so, it may be used in agriculture as a nitrogen biofertilizer and as an animal and fish growth promoter. Bio-chemical analysis of Spirulina biomass showed presence of 17 amino acids, 10% (w/w) carbohydrates, 8 %( w/w) fibers and 8 %( w/w) lipids. The biomass of Spirulina contained 0.04 ppm Mg, 0.3 ppm Ca, 0.16 ppm Mn, .0.8 ppm Fe, 0.16 ppm Zn, 11.3 ppm Na, 0.003 ppm Se and 5.6 ppm K. It also contained 1 ppm Cu, 0.04 ppm Hg, 0.03 ppm Ni, 0.9 ppm Cr, 0.1 ppm Cd, and 0.6 ppm Co.

[Aly, M. S and Amber. S., Gad. Chemical Composition and Potential Application of Spirulina platensis Biomass. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):480-488]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Key words: Spirulina platensi,, El Khadra lake, biofertilizer

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Microbial load as Pollution Indicator in Water of El-Khadra Lake at Wadi El-Natroun, Egypt 

Ali, M. S. 1and Osman, G. A. 2

1Agriculture Microbiology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. 2Bacteriology Lab., Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

*mohamed_saad_1@hotmail.com   gamalosmanali2005@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Occurrence and survival of some classical bacterial indicators, (salmonellae group, total staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp.) in water samples at surface and one meter depth of El-Khadra lake have been studied as well as, cyanobacteria and fish lagoons were included for comparison. The results showed that, fecal streptococci and Pseudomonas spp. are not present in surface and deep lake water samples respectively, while other bacteria tested are presented. Similarly, salmonellae group and fecal coliform were absent in all water samples from the fish lagoon and the deep lake samples. In addition, the high and low log average counts of total viable bacteria incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours were 7.5 and 3.4 /100m in cyanobacteria lagoon and surface lake water samples respectively. On the other hand, the high log average counts of total viable bacterial incubated at 22 ºC for 48 hours was 7.3 /100m in cyanobacteria lagoon, while the low recorded 3.67 /100m in surface water samples. The statistical analysis (log average) showed that, some factors such as human activity, sun ray and sedimentation as well as biological activity play role on the bacterial distribution in all water samples tested.

[Ali, M. S. and Osman, G. A. Microbial load as Pollution Indicator in Water of El-Khadra Lake at Wadi El-Natroun, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):489-496]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Key words: Lake water, Classical bacterial indicators, Salmonellae group, Total staphylococci and Pseudomonas spp

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Effect of Different Rates of Cobalt on some Macro-Micronutrients and Heavy Metals Contents in Lettuce under Different Types of Recently Reclamation Soils

Abdel Fattah. M. S and Khaled. S.M.

Plant Nutrition Dept. National Research centre-Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: The main objective of this research work is to assess the influence of cobalt element addition on the uptake of some macronutrients (N, P and K) and some heavy metals (Cd, Ni and pb) in two different reclaimed soils. The first soil was sandy from (Abu- Rwash) region, the second soil was calcareous from (El Noboria) region. Cobalt was added with different rates (10, 15 and 20) ppm after plantation stage. Nitrogen was added by rate 100 ppm N at form amonium nitrate NH4NO3. Moreover, Dihydrogen potassium phosphate H2KPO4 at rate 200 ppm as source of phosphours and potassium was added at the same time. Lettuce plant of class (lactuca sativa var capitata). The obtained results can be summarized as follows: In sandy soil a positive connection between rates of cobalt and (N,P,K) contents, negative contact  was found between cobalt concentrations and heavy metals contents (Cd, Ni, pb). Dry weight gave a positive contact with cobalt treatments, all differences were significantly to each of chlorophyll concentration and all trace elements contents except Mn were a positive relationship with cobalt treatments. All differences between treatments were significantly. In calcareous soil negative contact was found between rates of cobalt and nitrogen, while potassium a positive contact was found with phosphorus, concerning the heavy metals (Cd, Ni, pb) contents, positive contact was found with rates of cobalt. All this connections were significantly. Dry weight gave a negative connection with cobalt treatments but not significantly. Chlorophyll concentration and trace elements contents were in a positive relationship with cobalt treatments. All differences between treatments were significantly. Dry weight gave a negative connection with cobalt treatments but notsignificantly. Chlorophyll concentration and trace elements contents were in a positive relationship with cobalt treatments. All differences between treatments were significantly.  

[Abdel Fattah. M. S and Khaled.S.M. Effect of Different Rates of Cobalt on some Macro-Micronutrients and Heavy Metals Contents in Lettuce under Different Types of Recently Reclamation Soils. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):497-502]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Cobalt – lettuce plant – Sandy- Calcareous soil- Macronutrients – Heavy metals – Trace elements - Chlorophyll- Dry weight

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Phenotypic Stability Analysis, Heritability and Protein Patterns of snake Cucumber Genotypes. 

AbdEl-Salam,M.M.M1.; I.S. El-Demardash*2, and A.H.Hussein1

1Dep. of  vegetable – Hort. Res. Inst., Agric.Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.      2National Research Center, Genetic Section, Giza, Egypt. *lola_El-Demardash@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Stability analysis was carried out for six traits in snakecucumber by growing 5 genotypes (1,2,3,4,5) collected from different regions of Egypt (Assiut,Ismialia, El-kalyoubia, Domiat and Fayoom) respectively, in 3 years at El-kassaseen region, Ismailia. Genotypes × environment interaction was significant for all studied traits; the linear component of genotype × environment interaction was significant for number of fruits plant, yield / Fadden and fruit shape index. Environments (linear) were significant for yield / plant, yield / Fadden, fruit diameter and fruit shape index . The linear regression on environmental means (bi) close to unite with significant for genotypes ( 2,3,5, ) for number of fruits / plant and (3,4,5, ) for fruit diameter . Broad sense heritability was high for number of fruits / plant, yield / plant, fruit length and fruit shape index, but it was moderate for yield / Fadden and fruit diameter. The figure genotypes showed different patterns in presence of bands, the maximum number of band (6) in genotype (2) and the minimum number (3) was present in genotype (6), there are non resemblance between any genotypes, each genotype was characterized by a unique Finger print, except genotype (2) was monomorphic .

[AbdEl-Salam,M.M.M; I.S. El-Demardash, and A.H.Hussein. Phenotypic Stability Analysis, Heritability and Protein Patterns of snake Cucumber Genotypes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):503-507]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Phenotypic Stability; Analysis; Heritability; Protein; snake; Cucumber; Genotype

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Bio-removal of nitrogen from wastewaters-A review 

Gaber Z. Breisha1, Josef Winter2

1. Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia, Egypt

2. Institut für Ingenieurbiologie und Biotechnologie des Abwasser, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany

gaberbresha@yahoo.com, Josef.Winter@iba.uka.de 

Abstract: If the present large volumes of nitrogen-containing wastewater of domestic and industrial origin are discharged into the environment without proper treatment, they lead to extensive soil and water pollution. Proper elimination of pollutants from these effluents is essential in industrialized countries and is becoming increasingly important from an environmental and human health point of view in developing and emerging countries. Beside the conventional nitrogen removal process (lithoautotrophic nitrification and denitrification), novel and cost-effective biological nitrogen elimination processes have been developed, including simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), and its combined system (completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite, Canon). This review summarizes the recent studies dealing with agricultural, domestic and industrial wastewaters regarding their nitrogen content. Traditional and novel biological nitrogen elimination technologies are reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies dealing with temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentration, salinity, pH or the free ammonia concentration as factors affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency have also been incorporated.

[Gaber Z. Breisha, Josef Winter. Bio-removal of nitrogen from wastewaters-A review. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):508-528]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: wastewaters; nitrogen removal; salinity; free ammonia; temperature; dissolved oxygen

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Comparison of Electrostatic and Spinning-discs Spray Nozzles on Wheat Weeds Control 

Ali Esehaghbeygi1, Ali Tadayyon2, Shahin Besharati2

1Department of Agricultural Engineering, 2Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding

College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, 115

esehaghbeygi@cc.iut.ac.ir 

Abstract: Electrostatic spraying is the method that is noted for improving the spraying efficiency and droplet deposition. The efficacy of electrostatic charge and spinning-discs spraying were assessed for the application of 2, 4-D to control weeds in irrigated wheat. Sprayer nozzle performance was evaluated in terms of wheat grain yield (Ghods variety), weed shoot biomass, and wheat residual (straw) at the research farm of Shahrekord University in 2007 and 2008. The results indicated that electrostatic spraying gave better weed control. Spray penetration through dense weeds enhanced with electrostatic charging. The spinning disc nozzle decreased water use and so was cheaper to operate, but it did not significantly improve herbicide efficacy, especially in dense canopies compared with the electrostatic charge.

[Ali Esehaghbeygi, Ali Tadayyon, Shahin Besharati. Comparison of Electrostatic and Spinning-discs Spray Nozzles on Wheat Weeds Control. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):529-533]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org 

Keywords: electrostatic, spinning disc, wheat, weed

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The Effect of work support and family support on Work- Family Conflict (W-FC) Among Married Female Nurses in Shiraz-Iran

           Hajar Namayandeh, Siti Nor Yaacob, Rumaya Juhari

Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia.      h_nemayandeh@yahoo.com 

Abstract: The present study highlights the significance of work support (supervisor and coworker support) on work- family conflict. Furthermore, this paper also examines the effects of family support (husband and family members/relatives support) on work-family conflict. This study consists of 198 married female nurses in Shiraz-Iran. The findings revealed that reducing support from husband, family members/relatives and supervisor might increase perceived conflict between work and family. Unlike previous studies, the finding also indicates that there is no significant relationship between the respondents’ support from co-worker with work- family conflict, which may be explained by the specific cultural context in Iran. Implications are discussed and recommendations are made regarding future researches in this area.

[Hajar Namayandeh, Siti Nor Yaacob, Rumaya Juhari. The Effect of work support and family support on Work- Family Conflict (W-FC) Among Married Female Nurses in Shiraz-Iran. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):534-540]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Work- family conflict, Work support, Family support

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Effect of using pectin on lead toxicity  

Dalia, M. El-Nahal

Special Food and Nutrition Dep., Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

daliaelnahal@hotmail.com  

ABSTRACT: Lead has many undesired effects on humans and animals, including neurological, behavioral, respiratory, visual, growth retardation, hematological immunological, renal, hepatic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations in biochemical parameters in serum and blood due to lead retention in blood, organs and estimating the role of low and high esterified  pectin in alleviating the negative effects of lead.  Material and Methods: Sixty male albino rats which were divided into ten groups (6 rats for each). The first group (was fed on basal diet ;normal control).  Groups 1,2 and 3 [ which were fed on basal diet and administrated lead acetate (LA) daily once a time for 30 days by gavages at three different concentrations  61.94, 30.97 and 15.49  mg /Kg bw (1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 of lead acetate LD50;positive control]. Groups 4,5 and 6 [were fed on basal diet containing 10% low esterified pectin (LEP, DE 31%) and administered the same LA doses]. Groups 7,8 and 9 [were fed on basal diet containing 10% high esterified pectin (HEP, DE 73.5%) with the administration of the same LA doses]. Results obtained showed that LA significantly induced a decrease in body weight, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, total billirubin, direct billirubin, indirect billirubin, RBCs and WBCs counts, blood haemoglobin (Hb), heamatocrite values (PVC), serum triidothyronine (T3)and thyroxin (T4) levels. In the contrary, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), gamma glutamyl transferase (g-GT) activities, serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly increased in positive control rat groups. Additionally, treatment of rats with LA led to a considerable increase in accumulation of the metal in the blood, liver, kidney, brain, heart and bones compared with the normal group. LEP and HLP significantly decreased the effect of LA on the tested parameters and level of lead in different organs. Histopathological examination clearly indicated that LEP or HEP eliminated from the harmful effect of LA on liver, kidney and brain tissues. In conclusion, LEP and HLP have beneficial effects which could be able to antagonize lead toxicity. Moreover, LEP was contributed to fast elimination of the lead acetate to blood, organs and bones, whereas HEP removed lesser amount of lead. It could be recommended that LEP has a good effect to bind material of lead and should be incorporated into human food to reduce the hazards toxicity of lead pollution of food and water.

[Dalia, M. El-Nahal. Effect of using pectin on lead toxicity. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):541-554]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: Lead toxicity, esterified pectin, Histopathological examination

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Chemopreventive effect of celecoxib and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, Casapase-3 and AGNOR on chemically- induced rat submandibular salivary gland neoplasm.  

Mohamed Zayed

Lecturer, Oral Biology, Oral Histopathology Department, Misr International University (MIU).

dr_zayed2@yahoo.com 

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX)-2 inhibitor (Celecoxib) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and over-expression of COX-2 protein and mRNA has been reported in various cancer tissues. Therefore, it has been suggested that COX-2 is related to carcinogenesis. METHODS: Twenty five albino rats were used .They were divided into 3 groups; group I (normal control) and group II and III which was delivered 4-NQ in the drinking water .Meanwhile group III was given 1500 ppm celecoxib. Submandibular salivary glands were obtained after 32 weeks. Immuno-histochemical staining for COX-2 was performed to determine the COX-2 level and Caspase-3 immuno-expression was done for detection of apoptosis and silver nitrate staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) was done for estimating the proliferating cells. The data were analyzed using Student's independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The group II and III showed pathological evidence of cancer. COX-2 immuno-staining was stronger in group II than in Group III. Caspase-3 immuno-reaction was statistically highly significant in group III (p<0.05) .Meanwhile proliferation estimated by AgNOR nuclear count was statistically highly significant group II (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The COX-2 expression was increased in group II (untreated group) than group III. Administration of celecoxib demonstrated the chemo-preventive potential against the carcinogenesis through induction of apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth and proliferation.

[Mohamed Zayed. Chemopreventive effect of celecoxib and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, Casapase-3 and AGNOR on chemically- induced rat submandibular salivary gland neoplasm. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):555-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: Oral cancer, Cyclooxygenase-2, submandibular salivary gland

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The Outcomes of Concomitant Radiation Therapy plus Capecitabine for Refractory Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Pre-Treated with Anthracycline Based Regimens 

Fatma Zakaria Hussen; Hanan Shawky Gamal El-Deen*; Amr Abd- El Aziz Ghanam; Samar Galal U

 and Omnia Abd –El-Fatah G.

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egypt

hannshawky@yahoo.com*  

Abstract: Purpose: Anthracycline based chemotherapy is the first line treatment for most of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). However, some patients fail to respond to these regimens and no established second line treatment. Effective treatments options for patients with LABC resistant to anthracyclins based regimens are limited. We have conducted a phase II trial of capecitabine concomitant with radiation therapy to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of this regimen as a second line for down staging those inoperable patients with LABC. Patients and methods: Between February 2008 and September 2009, 27 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, locally advanced breast cancer , who were refractory to first line anthracycline based regimens were planed to receive radiation therapy (50Gy/25f) and concomitant capecitabine (850 mg/m2) twice daily for 14 days every 3 weeks, at Clinical Oncology Department , Faculty Of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital. All patients were assessed for objective response rate (ORR), progression –free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety and tolerability. Results: Eighty five percent of patients (23 out of 27) became operable.  The remaining four patients didn't undergo surgery because of progressive disease. Objective response rates (ORR) including those with complete clinical response 0.0% and partial clinical response in 10 (37%) patients. A complete pathological response for primary tumor and axillary lymph nodes was seen in 1 patient (3.7%). Pathologically negative axillary lymph nodes were seen in 5 patients (18.5%). The median follow up period was 16 months (range 6-26 months), the median PFS for all patients was 10 months (range 2-22 months), the one –year PFS was 29%. The median OS was not reached, the mean OS was 20.8 months (95% CI 17.78 - 23.84) and the two-year OS rate was 69.5%. Positive  significant correlations were observed for PFS in patients with age 45 years  , postmenopausal , +ve  estrogen receptors (ER), +ve progesterone receptors (PR), -ve human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER-2), non triple negative patients, patients with ER/PR positive tumors, non inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients and those with axillary lymph node ratio (ALNR) <50%. There were no grade 3 or 4 adverse events with study protocol. Conclusion: The results of this phase II trial prove that concomitant capecitabine and radiation therapy is safe and effective in down staging of inoperable locally advanced breast cancer patients resistant to primary anthracycline based regimens. We are ongoing trial to use capecitabine as a maintenance monotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer.

[Fatma Zakaria Hussen; Hanan Shawky Gamal El-Deen; Amr Abd- El Aziz Ghanam; Samar Galal U and Omnia Abd –El-Fatah G. The Outcomes of Concomitant Radiation Therapy plus Capecitabine for Refractory Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Pre-Treated with Anthracycline Based Regimens. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):564-574]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key Words: Locally advanced breast cancer, radiosensitizing agents, neoadjuvant treatment, capecitabine

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Modulation of ochratoxin-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and spermatotoxic alterations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in male Albino mice

Farag, I.M. a; Abdel-Aziz, K.B.a; Nada, S.A.c; Tawfek, N.S.b; Farouk, T.b and Darwish, H.R.a

a Cell Biology Dept., National Research Centre, , Cairo , Egypt.

, b Zoology Dept.,  faculty of Science, Al-Mania Uni., Egypt.

c Pharmacology Dept. National Research Centre, , Cairo , Egypt

Abstract: The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread contaminant in human food and animal feed. It is a carcinogenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatonephrotoxic agent. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the possible protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) against OTA-induced toxicity in mice. Four groups of 30 mice each were used: control group, LGG-treated group (1 × 1010 CFU), OTA-treated group (1.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group of mice given LGG two hours before OTA gavage. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in of liver and kidney. Bone marrow micronucleus test and chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes, as well as mitotic and meiotic activities were performed to assess the genotoxicity; besides sperm parameters were evaluated. Results showed that OTA significantly decreased the body weight. OTA significantly elevated the tissue levels of MDA, whereas the levels of GSH as well as SOD activity were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney. OTA increased statistically the frequencies of MNPCEs in bone marrow and structural and numerical aberrations in spermatocytes. In addition, mitotic and meiotic activities of somatic and germ cells were declined significantly. Also, OTA caused a high significant reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility and increased sperm abnormalities, as compared to control. In mice received LGG before OTA gavage, a significant amelioration in LPO in liver and kidney, by increasing the contents of GSH and SOD activity, have been occurred. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that LGG administration before OTA gavage significantly reduced frequencies of MNPCEs in bone marrow and chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes, and recovered mitotic and meiotic activities as well. Moreover, gavage LGG before OTA intoxication caused significant recovery in all sperm parameters studied. In conclusion, LGG was found to be safe and successful agent counteracting the oxidative stress and protected against the genotoxicity induced by OTA, in addition to reduction in spermatotoxic alterations.

[Farag, I.M.; Abdel-Aziz, K.B.; Nada, S.A.; Tawfek, N.S.; Farouk, T. and Darwish, H.R. Modulation of ochratoxin-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and spermatotoxic alterations by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in male Albino mice. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):575-587]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: ochratoxin A, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, oxidative stress, micronucleus, spermatocytes, sperm

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Study of Risk Factors Involved in the Progression of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Patients 

Elsayed A. Wasfy1, Nadia M. Elwan*1, Shreif L. Bayomi2, Thanaa F. El- Sheikh3, Sahar A. El-yamani1 and Boshra E. Talha1

Tropical Medicine1, Bathology2and Biochemistry3 Departments, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

 

Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and cirrhosis .NAFLD has also the potential to progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver failure. NAFLD is linked to obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia and genetic factors. Our objective was to study the risk factors that involved in the progression of non alcoholic fatty liver disease. Subjects and methods: Thirty-three patients and ten healthy controls were included in our study. Patients were classified into 3 groups. Group I included12 patients with simple liver steatosis. Group II included 11 patients with NASH. Group III included 10 patients with cirrhosis most probably a late sequel of NASH. Results: BMI, fasting blood glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in patients with fatty liver, NASH and cirrhosis, also, NASH patients showed a significant high serum triglycerides and ALT. All previous parameters were significantly increased with the increased severity of histopathological score in patients with fatty liver and NASH. Serum AST levels and AST / ALT ratio were significantly increased in NASH and cirrhotic patients as compared to patients with steatosis alone and controls. Mitochondrial ATP levels in patients with fatty liver and NASH showed a statistically significant decrease. Also patients with NASH showed a statistically significant decrease when compared to patients with fatty liver. Finally, patients with fatty liver and NASH showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP with increased BMI and histopathological score. Conclusion: Increased BMI, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, insulin resistance and depletion of mitochondrial ATP in hepatocytes can be considered risk factors involved in the development and progression of fatty liver to NASH and cirrhosis.

[Elsayed A. Wasfy, Nadia M. Elwan, Shreif L. Bayomi, Thanaa F. El- Sheikh, Sahar A. El-yamani and Boshra E. Talha. Study of Risk Factors Involved in the Progression of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Egyptian Patients. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):588-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: BMI, insulin resistance, mitochondrial ATP, NAFLD

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Optimization of Cadmium, Zinc and Copper biosorption in an aqueous solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

1Salem M. Hamza 2*Hanan F. Ahmed 3 Ehab A. M. 2Mohammad F. M.

1 Faculty of Science-Chemistry Department. El-Menoufia University, El-Menoufia, Egypt

2 Food Technology Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

3 Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture. Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Optimization of Cd (II), Zn (II) and Cu (II) biosorption from contaminated water were performed as function of parameters (pH, contact time, initial metal ions concentration and yeast dose). The experimental results showed that the highest equilibrium adsorption capacity at the optimum pH were 8.5 for Cd (II) and 6 for Zn (II) and 6 for Cu (II). Optimum pH values were carried out to evaluate other parameters. Results demonstrate that removal efficiency increased with increased contact time for the three metal ions. Results indicated that removal efficiency increased with increased yeast dose up to 2 g/ 100ml, and removal efficiency decreased with increased yeast dose from 2.2 g/100ml to 4 g/100ml. The results also showed that increasing removal efficiency from 1 to 20 mg/L concentration for the three metal ions and the removal efficiency decreasing with increasing initial concentration from 25 to 50 mg/L. It is evident that the highest removal efficiency for Cd (II) ion compared to Zn (II) and Cu (II). This study revealed that use of baker’s yeast is suitable for removal of these ions from contaminated water in order Cd > Zn > Cu at these conditions. The negative values of the standard free energy change (∆G) indicate spontaneous nature of the process. Competitive biosorption of (Zn and Cu) ions was investigated in terms of sorption quantity. The amount of Cu metal ion adsorbed onto unit weight of biosorbent (qe) decreased with increasing the competing metal ion (Zn), in contrast, the amount of Zn ion adsorbed onto unit weight of yeast has been increased with increasing the competing metal ion (Cu). The binding capacity for Zn (II) is more than for Cu (II). Ion exchange is probably one of the main mechanism during adsorptive process.

[Salem M. Hamza, Hanan F. Ahmed Ehab A. M., Mohammad F. M. Optimization of Cadmium, Zinc and Copper biosorption in an aqueous solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):597-604]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Optimization; Cadmium; Zinc; Copper; biosorption; Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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Neuro Fuzzy Modeling Scheme for the Prediction of Air Pollution 

Tharwat E. Alhanafy*1, Fareed Zaghlool1, and  Abdou Saad  El Din Moustafa 3

1Computer and System Engineering Department, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

  2Director General, Arab Co. for Engineering & Systems Consultations (AEC) Certified Lead Auditor.

dr. s_ewiss@yahoo.com       inf@aecegypt.org 

Abstract: The techniques of artificial intelligence based in fuzzy logic and neural networks are frequently applied together. The reasons to combine these two paradigms come out of the difficulties and inherent limitations of each isolated paradigm. Hybrid of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) have attracted the growing interest of researchers in various scientific and engineering areas due to the growing need of adaptive intelligent systems to solve the real world problems. ANN learns from scratch by adjusting the interconnections between layers. FIS is a popular computing framework based on the concept of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy if-then rules, and fuzzy reasoning. The structure of the model is based on three-layered neural fuzzy architecture with back propagation learning algorithm. The main objective of this paper is two folds. The first objective is to develop Fuzzy controller, scheme for the prediction of the changing for the NO2 or SO2, over urban zones based on the measurement of NO2 or SO2 over defined industrial sources.  The second objective is to develop a neural net, NN; scheme for the prediction of O3 based on NO2 and SO2 measurements.

[Tharwat E. Alhanafy, Fareed Zaghlool, and  Abdou Saad  El Din Moustafa. Neuro Fuzzy Modeling Scheme for the Prediction of Air Pollution. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):605-616]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Neuro Fuzzy Modeling Scheme for the Prediction of Air Pollution

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Ester Phosphate of Discarded Palm Oil from Potato Chip Factories as Fat-Liquoring Agent  

M. G. Megahed1 and El-Shahat H. A. Nashy2*

1Department of Fats and Oils, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Department of Chemistry of Tanning Materials and Leather Technology, National

Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*nashy_eha@yahoo.com     dr_mgmegahed@hotmail.com 

Abstract: In Egypt most potato chip factories used palm oil for frying. The quantity of palm oil resulting from frying processes as discarded represents more than half of the total other oils used in the Egyptian food factories. Discarded palm oil resulting from frying processes was preliminary treated by purification and bleaching as well as characterized via its physico-chemical properties and fatty acids composition. Therefore, this work was devoted to explore the application of the discarded palm oil in leather industry as fat-liquoring agent. Fat-liquors help to prevent the loosening of leather grain and ugly appearance of chrome tanned leather after drying. In addition, fat-liquoring process improves leather characters such as soft handle, full, flexibility, and pliability as well as enhancement its mechanical properties. The study involved preparation of discarded palm fat-liquor via phosphoration process. The importance of the prepared fat-liquor is due to their environmentally friendly nature, relatively safe utilization by human being, in addition to their economical feasibility.  The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in the mechanical properties of the leather e.g. tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength.  In addition a great enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by discarded palm fat-liquor as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

[M. G. Megahed and El-Shahat H. A. Nashy. Ester Phosphate of Discarded Palm Oil from Potato Chip Factories as Fat-Liquoring Agent. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):617-626]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Discarded Palm Oil, Fatty Acids, Fat-liquor, Phosphoration, Chrome Tanned Leather, FT-IR, HLB, Strength Properties, Scanning Electron Microscope, Frying wastes

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Reuse of Industrial Materials in Buildings to Activate their Application in Egypt 

Nermin Mokhtar Mohamed

Civil and Architectural Department ,Engineering division, National research centre, Egypt

Nermin_farag@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Increasingly stringent rules and regulations on construction and demolition waste, diminishing landfill space and depletion of natural resources are all reasons for the push for industrial byproduct materials recovery. In Egypt, Industrial byproduct materials are generated in large volumes every day that are potentially usable materials, and must be disposed of. The main goal of this paper is to change the way Egyptians' think about waste—to see the value of a used material as a product or commodity, not as a waste, and encourage the use and recycling of these rich, largely untapped resources. Positive economic rewards and environmental results are moving our partners toward more waste reduction and materials management. This paper summarizes the proposed Egyptian industrial materials waste management guidelines to reuse in building, which cover: (1) Identify the parties involved and the distribution of responsibilities; (2) Complementarily of roles of parties(owner, engineer, designer, and contractor) involved in the process of re-use to remove the causes that hinder the management of such material in Egypt; and (3) Participation of the Parties to the proposed project to achieve sustainable development fields at the actual application of the project.

[Nermin Mokhtar Mohamed. Reuse of Industrial Materials in Buildings to Activate their Application in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):627-639]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

KEYWORD: reuse –industrial byproduct materials, waste management, sustainability, Egypt

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Mitochonderial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (cox 1) Gene Sequence of the Hymenolepis Species. 

Omnia M. Kandil*, Mona S. Mahmoud, Nesreen A.T. Allam, Amira H. El Namaky

Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, kandil_om@yahoo.com*  

Abstract: In the current study, Mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase gene especially codons within subunit 1 (cox1) of H. diminuta and H. nana Egyptian isolates from two stages (adult worms and eggs) and hosts origin (human and rat) were amplified, sequenced and aligned. PCR products were approximately 700 bp, 702 bp and 715 bp of  H. nana rat isolates, H. diminuta rat isolates, and H. nana human isolates, respectively. Moreover, despite their host susceptibility differences they all gathered in one cluster with three genbank  published isolates of H. nana; AB033412.1,  AB494472.1 and AY121842.1), forming one clade with 100% similarity, which was non significantly decreased on internal nodes. In addition, clearly far away from H. diminuta published sequence AB033412.1 who's assumed to be genetically closely related to Egyptian H. diminuta than all other H. nana isolates. Both Egyptian murine isolates of Hymenolipidid; H. diminuta and H. nana, were closer to each other than being to H. nana of human origin. The annotated sequences of Egyptian isolates were deposited in GenBank under the following accession numbers; H. diminuta (GU433102), H. nana rat isolate (GU433103), and H. nana human isolate (GU433104). Finally, the development of effective control strategies will only be possible if complete understanding of the epidemiology of infection is elucidated.

[Omnia M. Kandil, Mona S. Mahmoud, Nesreen A.T. Allam, Amira H. El Namaky. Mitochonderial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (cox 1) Gene Sequence of the Hymenolepis Species. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):640-647]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Hymenolepidid, Phylogeny, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), Sequencing

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Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Acrylamide - co - Acrylic acid) Hydrogel Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Applications 

Fatma S. Aggor 1 ; Enas M. Ahmed1*, A.T. El-Aref 2 and M. A. Asem3 

1 Department of Chemical Engineering & Pilot Plant 2 Department of Pre-treatments and Finishing.

3 Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*elarefenas123@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Acrylamide was copolymerized with acrylic acid at different ratios using potassium persulphate initiation system in presence of a crosslinking agent and different doses of silver nitrate to yield hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles upon post treatment with sodium hydroxide. Swelling capacity and kinetics of swelling of these hydrogels were studied. Size and distribution of the nanoparticles and their dependence on acrylamide / acrylic acid ratios as well as on the dose of silver nitrate were also studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the hydrogels in correlation with TEM results were reported. Hydrogels samples having relatively large number of Ag nanoparticles and widely distributed smaller particle size inhibit bacterial and fungal growth.

[Fatma S. Aggor; Enas M. Ahmed, A.T. El-Aref and M. A. Asem. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Acrylamide - co - Acrylic acid) Hydrogel Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Applications. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):648-656]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: hydrogel; silver nanoparticles; kinetic study; antimicrobial activity

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Novel Switching H2/H Control: Combination of Dwell Time Switching Signal and Multiple Lyapunov Function 

Fatemeh Jamshidi 1, Mohammad Taghi Hamidi Beheshti 1

1 Communication and Control Lab, School of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Fjamshidi59@yahoo.com, mbehesht@modares.ac.ir  

Abstract: In this paper, a switching strategy is employed to solve the H2/H multi objective controller design. Two controllers are designed to meet the H2 and H performance specifications. Linear matrix inequalities are used in the controller design process. New switching signal is defined which is the combination of dwell time switching signal and multiple Lyapunov function such that stability of closed loop system is guaranteed as well as desired performance. Simulation results show that proposed switching strategy improves the performance of the controller and reduces the conservation in comparison with the common H2/H controller.

[Fatemeh Jamshidi, Mohammad Taghi Hamidi Beheshti. Novel Switching H2/H Control: Combination of Dwell Time Switching Signal and Multiple Lyapunov Function. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):657-663]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Asymptotical Stability, Dwell time, H2/H control, Multiple Lyapunov function, Switching signal

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Investigation of Groundwater quality for Domestic and Irrigation purposes around Gubrunde and Environs, northeastern Nigeria 

1Arabi, Suleiman  Abdullahi; 1Funtua,  Idris Isa; 1Dewu, Bala .Muhammad; 2Zabosrki, Peter; and 2Alagbe, Solomon .A

1Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

2Department of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria

Email: arabisuleiman@gmail.com

 Abstract: Fourteen groundwater samples were collected from boreholes, springs and hand dug wells in and around Gubrunde in Borno State north-eastern Nigeria to investigate its quality for domestic and irrigation uses. The area investigated falls within longitude 11° 35’ - 12° 05’ and latitude 10° 10’ - 10° 31’. The samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS), multi-analyte photometer and Flame photometer while interpretation of the results was carried out with RockWare Aq•QA software, a spreadsheet for water analysis. Six of the samples investigated are of NaCl water type while fourteen were CaCl water types. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) values recorded ranges from 0.80 – 2.84, Exchangeable Sodium Ratio (ESR) 0.33 – 1.78, Magnesium hazard (MH) 5.19 – 47.9, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) 0.00, Hardness 0.65 – 221.48 and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges from 130 – 407308mg/l. Twelve of the samples analyzed had medium Salinity Hazard (SH), and one each for high and low Salinity Hazard (SH). For water with high salinity hazard, adverse effect is expected on crops, medium salinity hazard has detrimental effects only on crop that are sensitive to salinity while waters with low salinity hazard is suitable for all crops. The variation in chemical composition of groundwater in the study area may be due to leaching of terrestrial salts, extensive use of chemical fertilizers and ion exchange between water and the host rock. The result of samples analyzed indicates that all the samples are undersaturated in calcite and aragonite, while most of the major anion and cations falls within World Health Organization and Nigeria Industrial Standard for Drinking water Values. Nine samples had NO3 values ranging from 53 – 106mg/l exceeding the 50mg/l standards. NO3 values exceeding 50mg/l has the tendency of causing asphyxia to infants less than three months old. A plot of SO4, HCO3 and Cl indicates that the groundwater samples are from intermediate water category (neither fresh nor old). Generally, the groundwater quality is fairly suitable for agricultural uses and suitable for domestic utilization.

[Arabi, Suleiman  Abdullahi; Funtua,  Idris Isa; Dewu, Bala .Muhammad; Zabosrki, Peter; and Alagbe, Solomon .A. Investigation of Groundwater quality for Domestic and Irrigation purposes around Gubrunde and Environs, northeastern Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):664-672]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Adverse effects; Sodium Adsorption Ratio; Exchangeable Sodium Ratio, asphyxia

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Effect of the Type of Aggregate on the Properties of Alumina Refractory Concrete 

S.A. Ghonaim1, H.B.G. Ghazal2, and M.F. Abadir*3

1 Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality, 2The High Institute of Engineering, Shorouk

3Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

*magdi.abadir@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Low cement refractory concrete samples were prepared by mixing cement (containing 50% alumina) in percentages ranging from 10 to 20% with some aggregates and the necessary amount of water. Two types of refractory aggregate were used: Bauxite containing 81% alumina and grog containing 52% alumina. Four particle sizes of each aggregate were used. The cast samples were left in their moulds for 24 hours in a 100% relative humidity cabinet. The de–molded specimens were left in an open air until their moisture content reaches 3–6%, then kept in a drying oven at (110 ± 5) ºC until reaching constant weight. They were then tested for phase constitution, water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity and cold crushing strength (after 28 days curing). It was found that bauxite based samples gave better results than those prepared with grog. It was also found using statistical analysis that the percent cement used affects all properties much more than does the particle size of aggregate.

[S.A. Ghonaim, H.B.G. Ghazal, and M.F. Abadir. Effect of the Type of Aggregate on the Properties of Alumina Refractory Concrete. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):673-684]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Key Words: Refractory concrete – Alumina – Grog – Sodium citrate – Bauxite

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Osteoporosis in Diabetic Children 

Enas R. Abdel Hameed*1, Hisham W. Badr1, Azza A.Abdallah 1, Wagdi M. Hanna1and Nehal Salah2

1Child Health Department and 2Clinical Pathology department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

*enas_raafat@hotmail.com  

Abstract: Background:  Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone structure that causes bone fragility and increases the risk of fracture.  . Children and adolescents with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM) show several impairment of bone metabolism and structure, resulting in a higher risk of decreased bone mass and its related complications later in life. Objective: to analyze whether bone mineral density (BMD) with bone status are influenced in children with T1DM and evaluate their relationships with clinical status, age and duration. Patients and Methods: Forty cases (age 7.5 + 3.4 and duration of disease 3.7 + 2.5 years) were studied. BMD expressed as Z-score was measured at neck of femur and Lumbar spines (L2 – L4) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for 15 cases. Urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) was measured by radio immunoassay and was corrected by creatinine (Cr). Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegrin, procollagen and rankle – markers of bone formation and resorption were measured. They were matched by age and sex for another 40 normal children as control. Results: there was a significant decrease in serum level of osteocalcin in 12 of our patients,all cases showed significant increase in serum rankle with significant difference P < 0.05 compared to control. Mean values of procollagen showed no significant difference compared to controls. As regard DPD mean values of cases showed a significant increase compared to control. BMD – expressed as Z-score-by DEXA revealed 10 cases with mild degree osteopenia, while the other 5 cases showed moderate degree. Conclusion:  pediatric patients with T1DM appear to constitute a population at risk of developing osteopenia. Age-optimizing of metabolic control in growing diabetic children may prevent osteoporosis in later life.

[Enas R. Abdel Hameed, Hisham W. Badr, Azza A.Abdallah, Wagdi M. Hanna and Nehal Salah. Osteoporosis in Diabetic Children. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):685-690]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Osteoporosis- Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Bone Mass density – Osteopenia

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Studies on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficiency of Some Essential Oils in Minced Beef 

Amany, M. Salem*, Reham, A. Amin and Gehan, S. A. Afifi

Food Control Department, Fac. Vet. Med., Benha University, Benha, Egypt

 

Abstract: In this study, the antioxidant and antibacterial effect of garlic (G), thyme (T) and lemon grass (L) oils were investigated in refrigerated minced beef. It is noticed that, all essential oils used had considerable effectiveness in decreasing aerobic plate count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae count, Coliform count and Staphylococci count, as well as chemical indices as pH, total volatile nitrogen (TVN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). Sensory analysis indicated significant advantages in using lemon grass and thyme oils in refrigerated minced beef. In addition, a highly significant differences (P<0.05) between the different oils were noticed. Also, results indicated that the bacterial counts, pH, TVN and TBA values decrease as the concentration of the oil increases since the concentration (1.5%) gives the best effectiveness. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the added essential oils followed the order lemon grass oil > thyme oil > garlic oil. The treated minced beef samples extend the shelf life of the treated samples more than the control samples by 6 days. In conclusion, lemon grass, thyme and garlic oils can play an important role as antioxidant and antibacterial agents in refrigerated minced beef, but lemon grass oil is the best one.

[Amany, M. Salem, Reham, A. Amin and Gehan, S. A. Afifi. Studies on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficiency of Some Essential Oils in Minced Beef. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):691-700]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Efficiency; Oil; Beef

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Recent Techniques used for Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococcus Aureus from Mastitic Cows. 

1El-Seedy,F.R 2 El-Shabrawy, M; 2Hakim, A. S; 2*Dorgham,S.M. 2Ata, S. Nagwa; 2Bakry, M.A and  2Osman, N.M.N.

1Bact. Mycol. and Immuno. Dept. Vet. Med. Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

2Micro. and Immuno. Dept. National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Sohad_dorgham@yahoo.com 

Abstract: A total of 152 cows was examined in this study for Staphylococcus species, it was found that 44.3% of cows and were clinically mastitic whereas 14.5% were subclinically mastitic respectively. The identification of Staphylococcus species revealed that S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius and S. hyicus for cows were (17.2%, 7.5%, 3.9% and 1.6%) respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed after biochemical identification by API test. The study of virulence factors of total S. aureus isolates from mastitic cows revealed that lipase, fibrinolysin, DNase and protein A production were presented as percentage 67.3, 74.0, 85.6 and 84.6 respectively. The antibiotic sensitivity for S. aureus revealed that 96.2% of cow isolates were methicillin sensitive which considered the drug of choice for these isolates. The study also included the identification of S. aureus enterotoxins using set-RPLA and multiplex PCR. The incidence of enterotoxins C,A,B and D by set-RPLA were 36.5%, 14.4%, 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Meanwhile the results of multiplex PCR were 7 isolates as enterotoxin C,4 isolates as enterotoxin E and one  isolate for each A,B, and D respectively. The identification of MRSA of cow's isolates using PCR revealed that 3 isolates out of 5 isolates were positive.

[El-Seedy,F.R, El-Shabrawy, M; Hakim, A. S; Dorgham,S.M.m Ata, S. Nagwa; Bakry, M.A and  Osman,N.M.N. Recent Techniques used for Isolation and Characterization of Staphylococcus Aureus from Mastitic Cows. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):701-708]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: Staphylococcus aureus; mastitis; methicillin sensitive; set- RPLA, multiplex PCR

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Biosynthesis and Characterization of Aspergillus Niger AUMC 4301 Tannase. 

M. Z. El-Fouly1; Z. El-Awamry2; Azza A.M. Shahin1; Heba A. El-Bialy1; E. Naeem2 and

Ghadeer E. El-Saeed1*

1 National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Radiation Microbiology Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. 2 Faculty of Science, Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. 

Abstract: A study on biosynthesis and characterization of an extracellular tannase from Aspergillus niger AUMC 4301 was carried out. A. niger AUMC 4301 was selected out of one hundred and thirty fungal isolates have the ability to grow in the presence of tannic acid. Maximum enzyme synthesis under solid state fermentation was attained in the presence of 3% tannic acid and 0.2% ammonium nitrate after five days incubation at 30°C. Effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on tannase formation was also investigated. Crude tannase had maximum activity at   pH 4.8, 60°C and 20 min as a function of reaction time. The catalytic action of biosynthesized tannase was directly proportional to the amount of enzyme in the reaction mixture. Using tannic acid as substrate, the Km value for tannase was 2.50 mM. Gallic acid was shown to be a competitive inhibitor to tannase and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 1.35 mM. Effect of EDTA and some metal salts on enzyme activity was also studied.    

[M. Z. El-Fouly; Z. El-Awamry; Azza A.M. Shahin; Heba A. El-Bialy; E. Naeem and Ghadeer E. El-Saeed. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Aspergillus Niger AUMC 4301 Tannase. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):709-721]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords:  Aspergillus niger, tannase, tannins, gallic acid, solid state fermentation

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Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper Plants (Capsicum annuum L.) as Affected by Potassium Fertilization 

El-Bassiony, A.M*.; Z.F. Fawzy; E.H. Abd El-Samad and A.A.Ghoname

Vegetables Crop Research Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*mohsin2eg@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted during the two successive summer seasons of 2009 and 2010 at the Experimental Farm of the National Research Centre in Nobaria region, Behira Governorate, to investigate the response of sweet pepper plants cv. California wonder to different rates of potassium fertilization (50, 100 and 200 kg/fed.) as potassium sulfate in addition to foliar application by potassium oxide (2 and 4 cm/L) and potassium humate (4 gm/L) as a stimulative dose. Potassium foliar applications were made 3 times in a 15 days interval with the same doses during the growing period (30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting). The highest potassium fertilization rate (200 kg/fed.) gave the tallest sweet pepper plants, the highest number of leaves and branches per plants and the highest fresh and dry weights of leaves as well as the highest total yield. Also, the obtained results reported that the fruit measurements expressed as fruit length, average fruit weight and vitamin C content, as well as leaves chemical composition (N, P, K and total chlorophyll) were increased with increasing potassium fertilization rate. On the other hand, spraying sweet pepper plants with potassium humate at rate of 4 gm/L markedly increased vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality and chemical composition. The favorable effects of the potassium on the growth, total yield and fruit parameters were obtained when sweet pepper plants fertilized with 200 kg/fed. potassium sulfate plus foliar application of potassium humate 4 gm/L followed statistically by 200 Kg/fed. potassium sulfate with foliar application of either 2 or 4 gm/L potassium oxide with no significant differenced between them but both of them were significantly higher than control. 

[El-Bassiony, A.M.; Z.F. Fawzy; E.H. Abd El-Samad and A.A.Ghoname. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper Plants (Capsicum annuum L.) as Affected by Potassium Fertilization. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):722-729]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords:  Potassium stimulative dose, Potassium humate, Potassium oxide, Foliar spraying, Vegetative growth, Total yield, Fruit quality, Chemical composition.

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How Do University Students Spend Their Time On Facebook? An Exploratory Study 

Alimohammad Aghazamani

Faculty of Technology and Science, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden' Aghazamani99@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Despite major productive uses of Internet technology in today’s digital world, users prefer to spend much more time on social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook. The objective of this study is to determine student motives for using Facebook. A close-ended questionnaire was administered to 595 University students who were recognized as users of the site at Karlstad University in Sweden. Male users spend more time on the site than female users during both weekdays (p-value=0.9238) and weekends (p-value=0.9953). The survey showed that undergraduate students login more times per day than graduate students (p-value=0.2138). In addition, friendship was named the most favorite activity among male users (p-value=0.8883) and also among undergraduate students comparing with graduate students (p-value=0.2045). If users were asked to pay a membership fee to use the site, the results showed that male users (p-value=0.9991) and undergraduate students (p-value=0.9884) were more likely to pay the charge than other groups (females and graduate students). It is apparent that using Facebook can be seen as an  important  part of daily life among University students and its phenomenon spread out inevitably.

[Alimohammad Aghazamani. How Do University Students Spend Their Time On Facebook? An Exploratory Study. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):730-735]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Internet; Facebook; Global village; Social networking

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Succession Planning In Iranian Governmental Agencies 

Masoud Porkiani1, Malikeh Beheshtifar2, Mahmood Nekoie-Moghadam3

1. Assistant Professor, Management Department, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman, Iran

2. Member of scientific board, Management Department, Islamic AZAD University, Rafsanjan Branch, Rafsanjan, Iran

3. Associate Professor, Management Department,   Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

m.beheshtifar@yahoo.com 

Abstract: It is becoming increasingly challenging for organizations to obtain qualified and talented staff. Succession planning is often introduced as a way to attract and employ such staff. Succession planning is a process of recruitment and development of employees for vital roles within the organization. Implementation of succession planning is central to certain organizational requirements. This research surveyed organizational requirements in Iranian governmental agencies and their relation to the implementation of succession planning. This study used descriptive methods with correlation. The statistical population consisted of two groups, experts and managers of Iranian governmental agencies, and data was collected using three questionnaires. The findings of this study demonstrated a meaningful relationship between organizational requirements such as managers’ commitment, organizational culture, organizational readiness, and managers’ competencies with the implementation of succession planning. By considering these organizational requirements in their management practices, managers are more likely to be successful in recruiting, evaluating, training and developing talent as dimensions of the implementation of succession planning.

[Masoud Porkiani, Malikeh Beheshtifar, Mahmood Nekoie-Moghadam. Succession Planning In Iranian Governmental Agencies. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):736-741]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

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Identification Of Fungi Prevalent On Environmental Labour Ward Of General Hospital Umuguma And Umezuruike Hospital Labourward 

Ijioma B. C. Ph.D2, Nwachukwu C. U. Ph.D2, Akobundu, C.1

Department of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria2.

Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria1

nwachukwucu2005@yahoo.co.uk  

Abstract: There has been an increase in the frequency of fungal infections over the past decade. Nosocomial transmission of fungal pathogens and the recognition of resistance to antifungal agents pose a significant problem. This study identified the fungi species prevalent in the labour ward of the general hospital Umuguma and Umezuruike Hospital, Owerri Imo State Nigeria. Fungi are eukaryotic cells and therefore more complex than bacteria. The data available shows that Mucor Species and Rhizopus Species are the predominate species found in both hospitals in decreasing order. Fungal infection are often severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to diagnose or treat, therefore a thorough appreciation and understanding of fungi infections, including diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are needed among clinicians and microbiologists to provide a better patient care.

[Ijioma B. C. Ph.D, Nwachukwu C. U. Ph.D, Akobundu, C. Identification Of Fungi Prevalent On Environmental Labour Ward Of General Hospital Umuguma And Umezuruike Hospital Labourward. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):742-746]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key Words: Nosocomial infections, fungi, Mucor, Rhizopus, Penicillin, Hospital

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A modified Algorithm to Model Highly Nonlinear System 

Tharwat O. S. Hanafy

Al_Azhar University,Faculty of Engineering, Systems and Computers Department

s_ewiss@yahoo.com  

Abstract: In this paper, the Fusion of neural and fuzzy Systems will be investigated. Membership Function Generation and its mapping to Neural Network are introduced. An adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is introduced, and Multiple Inputs /Outputs Systems (Extended ANFIS Algorithm) is implemented. A Modification algorithm of ANFIS, Coupling of ANFIS called coactive neuro fuzzy system (CANFIS), is introduced and implemented using Matlab. The software of the modified algorithm of MIMO model identification is built. To test the validity of the modified algorithm ANFIS (CANFIS algorithm), an example is simulated from the numerical equation. The result of modified algorithm (CANFIS) showed a conformance with the simulated example and the root mean square (RMSE) is very small.    

[Tharwat O. S. Hanafy. A modified Algorithm to Model Highly Nonlinear System. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):747-759]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: A modified Algorithm to Model Highly Nonlinear System

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In vitro and in vivo Activity of some Antibiotics against Staphylococcal Biofilm and Planktonic Cells Isolated from Diabetic Foot Infections. 

A. Abd El-Aziz1, T. El-Banna1, A. Abo-Kamar1, A. Ghazal2, and R. AboZahra*3

1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Microbiology Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

3Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt

*rania_abozahra@yahoo.com

Abstract: The diabetic foot syndrome is clearly one of the most important complications of diabetes and is the most common cause of hospitalization among diabetic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is found to be the commonest pathogen present in diabetic foot infections. The aim of the present study is to determine activities of three kinds of antibiotics against Staphylococcal biofilm and planktonic cultures in vitro, and to indicate the difference in wound healing between staphylococcal planktonic and biofilm stage of colonization in vivo by using diabetic rat models. Biofilm forming staphylococci were identified by using the modified microtiter plate method. And the effect of different concentrations of several antibiotics (including ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) on eight isolates was determined. The result showed that out of 86 Staphylococcal isolates, eight strains were found to be strong biofilm forming. It was found that the preformed biofilm was very difficult to remove with most isolates even with multiples of the MIC and that the biofilm MBC reached 46 times the planktonic MBC in some isolates. This was also noticed in case of the diabetic foot infection of the rat model, as the treatment was more efficient when it started immediately after infection, before the formation of the biofilm, as the bacterial infection was eliminated within 3-4 days, while it could not be completely eliminated when treatment started after the biofilm formation. This was also observed from the rate of healing and confirmed by histological examination.

[A. Abd El-Aziz, T. El-Banna, A. Abo-Kamar, A. Ghazal, and R. AboZahra. In vitro and in vivo Activity of some Antibiotics against Staphylococcal Biofilm and Planktonic Cells Isolated from Diabetic Foot Infections. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):760-770]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: In vitro- in vivo- diabetic foot- staphylococcus- biofilm

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Women Participation in Agro-allied Small and Medium Scale Enterprise and Its Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Oyo State Nigeria 

Fajimi F.O and Omonona B.T

Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

ffovivid@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study examined the impact of women participation in agro-allied small and medium scale enterprises (SME) on poverty alleviation. Data were collected using the multistage sampling technique from 119 respondents in the study area made up of 59 participants and 60 non-participants. Data generated were analysed using descriptive statistics, FGT – weighted poverty measures and Probit regression analysis. Results from the study showed that the non-participants have the highest poverty level (51%), while the participants have poverty level of (17%) and the non-participants contribute greatly to whole group poverty.  The estimated probit regression analysis showed that  marital status, household size and women status in the family are poverty enhancing while educational status participation in Small and Medium Enterprises, income and monogamous family type are poverty reducing. Hence participation in agro-allied Small and Medium Enterprises is antidote to reducing poverty among women.

[Fajimi F.O, Omonona B.T. Women Participation in Agro-allied Small and Medium Scale Enterprise and Its Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Oyo State Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):771-780]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Poverty, SMEs, Agro-allied, Women, Participation

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Coag-flocculation studies of Moringa olifera coagulant (MOC) in brewery effluent; Nephelometric approach. 

*Menkiti Matthew .C. and Onukwuli Okechukwu .D.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author

Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

E-mail: cmenkiti@yahoo.com; Telephone: +234 8037441882 

ABSTRACT: The coag-flocculation behavior of MOC in respect of pH variation in brewery effluent has been investigated at room temperature using various dosages of unblended MOC. Coag-flocculation parameters such as order of reaction α, rate constants (K and Ks), coagulation period τ1/2 e.t.c were determined. Turbidity measurement was carried out using the single angle (90°) nephelometric standard jar test while MOC processing was based on work reported by Ghebremichael. Microsoft excel package was employed in the evaluation of simulated parameter Ks. The maximum MOC performance are recorded at K of 6.6667 x 10-4m3/kg.s, dosage of 0.4kg/m3, pH of 4 and τ1/2 of 289.2614s while the minimum are recorded at K of 1.3333 x 10-4m3/kg.s, dosage of 0.5kg/m3, pH of 2 and τ1/2of 1446.6419s. The least value of E (%) recorded after 30 minutes is > 78%, thus confirming MOC as effective coag-flocculant. In general, the parameter obtained lie within the range of previous works, confirming that the theory of perikinetics holds for coag-flocculation of brewery effluent using MOC at the conditions of the experiment.

[Menkiti Matthew. C. and Onukwuli Okechukwu. D. Coag-flocculation studies of Moringa olifera coagulant (MOC) in brewery effluent; Nephelometric approach. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):788-806]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Moringa olifera; coag-flocculation; coal effluent; kinetics; coagulation

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Association between inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular disorders in atherogenic male rats: Role of virgin and refined olive oil

Azza M. EL Wakf*1; Hamdy A. Ebraheem1; Hanaa A. Serag1; Hanaa A. Hassan1; Hussein S. Gumaih2

1Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt,

2Faculty of Education, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen

*dr_azzaelwakf@yahoo.com

 Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine changes in inflammatory markers, lipid profile and vascular wall integrity, (monitored as nitric oxide levels) in the male rats with experimental atherosclerosis. Also, to evaluate the role of two olive oils (virgin and refined) in these changes. Experimental atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rats normolipidemic diet (NLD) supplemented with (4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% thiouracil, w/w) for three months. Feeding atherogenic diet (AD) exhibited marked elevation in serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and triglycerides (TG), along with decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Besides, an elevation in serum level of the two inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and fibrinogen was demonstrated with a lowered nitric oxide (NO) levels in both aorta and cardiac tissues, indicating impaired vessel wall integrity and development of cardiovascular disorders in response to hyperlipidemia and enhanced inflammation. Subsequently, marked elevations in total leucocytes and other inflammatory mediators, including monocytes and lymphocytes have been recorded in the atherogenic diet fed rats. In addition, a significant reduction in erythrocytes count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and other hematologic indices was demonstrated, indicating further signs of inflammation. However, administration of olive oil (OO) [(in particular virgin olive oil (VOO)] to atherogenic rats exhibited improved inflammatory status, lipid profile and NO levels. Therefore, VOO might be a good candidate to replace other fats in the functional food for retarding atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular disorders.

[Azza M. EL Wakf; Hamdy A. Ebraheem; Hanaa A. Serag; Hanaa A. Hassan; Hussein S. Gumaih. Association between inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular disorders in atherogenic male rats: Role of virgin and refined olive oil. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):807-817]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: Atherogenic diet, inflammatory markers, nitric oxide, vascular wall injury

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Response of Wheat to Magnesium and Copper Foliar Feeding under Sandy Soil Condition

EL-Metwally, A.E.1; F.E. Abdalla2; A.M. El-Saady2; S.A. Safina1 and Sara S. EI-Sawy2

1. Agronomy Dept., Fac. of Agric., Cairo University, Cairo Egypt

2. Fertilization Technology Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki – Cairo Egypt  

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 at Ismailia Experimental Station, Agriculture Research Center, Ismailia Governorate, to study the influence of foliar feeding with magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu) either as single nutrient or in combination on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Sakha 94. Nine treatments were applied: two levels of Mg, two levels of Cu and four combined treatment (Mg + Cu), in addition to control treatment. Results showed that the highest positive significant effect on flag leaf area, chlorophyll contents and dry matter/m2 were achieved by spraying the highest Mg level + the highest Cu level (6.72 kg Mg + 1.68 kg Cu/fed.) Results also, showed that most of both macro and micronutrients content increased markedly due to the same previous treatment.

[EL-Metwally, A.E.; F.E. Abdalla; A.M. El-Saady; S.A. Safina and Sara S. EI-Sawy. Response of Wheat to Magnesium and Copper Foliar Feeding under Sandy Soil Condition. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):818-823]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., Magnesium, Copper and Sandy soil

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Effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on reduction of aflatoxicosis, enhancement of growth performance and expression of neural and gonadal genes in Japanese quail 

Mariam G. Eshak1, Wagdy K.B. Khalil1, Eman M. Hegazy2, Ibrahim M. Farag1, M.  Fadel3 and Farid K.R. Stino4

1Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

4Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

mgergis@yahoo.com

Abstract: The present investigation was designed to evaluate the role of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in the reduction of aflatoxicosis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Japanese quail. Sixty male quail were used and distributed into six groups. The first group received basal diet. The other five groups received the basal diet plus 0.5 mg AFB1/kg diet. Four of them received increasing levels of SC (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 gm/kg diet, respectively). All groups received their prospective diets for 35 days. The birds were weighed weekly to determine body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG). The results showed that addition of the SC to AFB1-containing diet significantly reduced the adverse affect of AFB1 on quail BW and BWG. The concentrations of AFB1 had been lowered in the breast muscle and liver samples of quail fed diet containing AFB1 plus SC than those found in such quail organs of AFB1 group. The expression levels of neural and gonad genes were significantly up-regulated in quail fed diet containing AFB1 plus high levels of SC compared to those of AFB1 group. It could be concluded that SC supplementation to quail diets suppressed the aflatoxicosis in quail tissues leading to improvement of growth performances and enhancement of expression levels of neural and gonadal genes. Thus, the use of HPLC and gene expression analysis might contribute in detecting aflatoxin contamination in the poultry industry in Egypt.

[Mariam G. Eshak, Wagdy K.B. Khalil, Eman M. Hegazy, Ibrahim M. Farag, M.  Fadel  and Farid K.R. Stino. Effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on reduction of aflatoxicosis, enhancement of growth performance and expression of neural and gonadal genes in Japanese quail. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):824-838]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key words: Quail; body weight; growth rate; yeast; aflatoxin B1; sqRT-PCR; gene expression

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Perceived Family-Supportive Work Culture, Affective Commitment and Turnover Intention of Employees 

Aminah Ahmad, Zoharah Omar

Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, Faculty of f Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. aminah@ace.upm.edu.my 

Abstract: The objective of this research is to examine the role of perceived family-supportive work culture in reducing turnover intention of employees and the mediating role of affective commitment in the relationship between perceived family-supportive work culture and turnover intention. The subjects in this study constituted 693 employees from 20 private service organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that perceived family-supportive work culture is positively related to turnover intention of employees and employees’ affective commitment mediate the relationship between perceived family-supportive work culture and turnover intention. The results imply the need for employers to understand how employees view the family-friendly programs in terms of the support provided and the values they place on the programs as captured in perceived family-supportive work culture. Positive perceptions would help reduce turnover intention as well the affective commitment of employees.

[Aminah Ahmad, Zoharah Omar. Perceived Family-Supportive Work Culture, Affective Commitment and Turnover Intention of Employees. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):839-846]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Perceived family-supportive work culture; turnover intention; affective commitment

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Synbiotic Tarhana as a functional food 

*Shreef G N Gabrial, ** Ahmed H Zaghloul, ***Abd El-Rahman M Khalaf-Allah, ***Nagwa M El-Shimi, *Rasha S Mohamed and *Gamal N Gabrial

* Food Science and Nutrition Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

**Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

***Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

snoub_2000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: In the present study formulated synbiotic tarhana (Turkish fermented cereal food) was produced as a functional food from the fermentation of wheat flour, some spices [salt, pepper, dill and sweet marjoram (Organum majorana)], some vegetables [tomato (Lycoprsicum esculentum), pepper (Capsicum annum) and onion (Allium cepa)], and synbiotic yoghurt which prepared with prebiotic (inulin and lactose each 3%) and different concentrations of the probiotic culture (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5% DVS-ABT2 containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum). After fermentation (3 days), tarhana dough was dried in the sun. The effect of the fermentation (0, 1, 2 and 3 days) and the probiotic culture concentration on the chemical composition and the probiotic population of the wet tarhana were evaluated. The effect of the probiotic culture concentration on the chemical composition, the probiotic population and the sensory attribute of dried tarhana were evaluated.  Also the effect of dried tarhana (prepared from yoghurt which was fermented by 4.5% probiotic culture) on the plasma lipid profile of human subjects was studied. The results showed that the pH value decreased while the acidity increased, acetaldehyde and diacetyl values increased during the fermentation period and by increasing the probiotic culture concentration of the wet and the dried tarhana. Neither the fermentation nor the concentration of the probiotic culture of wet and dried tarhana affected the crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, and ash values. The numbers of probiotic bacteria increased until the second day of fermentation. However, in the following day, with an increase of the acid content their number decreased. Generally the increasing of the probiotic culture concentration increased the numbers of probiotic bacteria of the wet and dried tarhana. Also the concentration of the probiotic culture didn't affect the sensory attributes of dried tarhana. Subjects supplemented with dried tarhana showed significant reduction in total plasma cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL-C) and triglycerides, while high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) increased.

[Shreef G N Gabrial, Ahmed H Zaghloul, Abd El-Rahman M Khalaf-Allah, Nagwa M El-Shimi, Rasha S Mohamed and Gamal N Gabrial. Synbiotic Tarhana as a functional food. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):847-857]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: Tarhana, functional food, fermented food, probiotic, synbiotic yoghurt, serum lipids

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Response of Wheat to Different Rates and Ratios of Organic Residues on Yield and Chemical Composition under Two Types of Soil 

Yassen, A.A*; Khaled, S.M and Sahar, M. Zaghloul and Habib, A.M.

Plant nutrition Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. *azimyassen@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) at Atta, Giza –Governorate and Nubaria region to study the effect of different rates and ratios of organic residues (Farmyard manure and filter mud)  on yield and chemical composition of wheat under two types of soils (sandy and Calcareous soil). Results showed that, application of farmyard manure and filter mud residue gave a significant increase in grain and straw weight, total yield, crop index, harvest index, curd protein, N, P and K compared to the control treatment.  Data also, indicated that significant increase grain, straw and total yield in sandy soil compared with calcareous soil under study in all treatments. On the other hand, the addition of organic materials (Farmyard manure and filter mud) were effective either individual or mixed with other. The pronounced increase in grain and straw weight, N, P and K content and uptake was noticed when farmyard manure was combined with filter mud at the rate of 2% compared with 1% of organic residues.

[Yassen, A.A; Khaled, S.M and Sahar, M. Zaghloul and Habib, A.M. Response of Wheat to Different Rates and Ratios of Organic Residues on Yield and Chemical Composition under Two Types of Soil. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):858-864]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key words: wheat plant - organic residues –yield –N, P, K

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Radioprotective activity of L- Carnitine and α -Lipoic acid against whole body g- irradiation in rats 

 

Sally S. Alam1*, Aziza M. Hassan1, Nermin El-Halawany1, Dalia E. El-Nashar2, Mona G. Abd El-Azeem2

 

1Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Health Radiation Research, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT). Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

 dr_Sallyalam@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, L - carnitine (LC) and α -Lipoic acid (LA) on radiation-induced bone marrow and liver damages in a rat model. The cellular changes were estimated by evaluation the expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), genes using RT-PCR and DNA damage in bone marrow and liver cells. The histopathological and ultra structural changes were also determined. To evaluate the effects of the above antioxidants, adult rats were treated with LC (300 mg/kg b wt) and LA (150 mg/kg b wt) after exposure to whole-body γ-rays (6 Gy) for 10 days, or treated with LC & LA for 7 consecutive days and one hour after the last administration, animals irradiated a single dose of whole-body γ-rays (6 Gy) and received again LC & LA in same dose for 10 days. The obtained data revealed that γ –irradiation significantly decreases the expression of SOD and GPx genes and increases DNA fragmentation in liver cells as well as the incident of micronuclei in bone marrow cells. In addition, different histological and ultra structural alterations in the liver of irradiated animals were recorded. These alterations were varied from hemorrhage, congestion in blood vessels, pyknosis and necrosis as well as complete degenerated area in the liver electron micrographs recorded swollen mitochondria, fragmented endoplasmic reticulum, distorted nuclei and cell membrane. Treatment with LC & LA post-exposure to radiation attenuated most of these changes. Whereas pre- and post- treatment with LC & LA to g-irradiation normalized the expression of the antioxidant genes enzymes, decreased the DNA fragmentation and micronuclei formation with a normal restoration of histopathologial and ultra structure liver architecture. Thus, our results suggested that pre-treatment with LC & LA offers protection against g-irradiation induced cellular damage.

[Sally S. Alam, Aziza M. Hassan, Nermin El-Halawany, Dalia E. El-Nashar, Mona  G. Abd El-Azeem. Radioprotective activity of L- Carnitine and α -Lipoic acid against whole body g- irradiation in rats. Journal of American Science 2010; 6(12):865-879]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: L-Carnitine, α-Lipoic acid, g-irradiation, DNA fragmentation, Antioxidant gene expression, Ultra structure, Histopathology

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Fresh Water (The Nile And Its Branches) As One Of The Ways For The Development Of Fish Protein Sources In Egypt

 Saber Mostafa Mohamed, Mahmoud Khalifa Ahmed and l. A. E l Karyony

 National Institute of Oceangraphic & fishries (NIoF) Alexandria. saber_mostafa0@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study aimed to identify the freshwater fisheries in Egypt in terms of its evolution of fish production, the economic significance of the geographical distribution of the fish with identifying the seasonal productivity and measuring the impact of effort done on the fish production with emphasis on ways of development of those fisheries. The study had been adopted to achieve its goals on both economic analysis and descriptive statistical. The most important results were as follows: The fish production increased from river Nile fisheries from 57.8 thousand tons in 1995 to 79.7 thousand tons in 2008, after interest in the development of this source to provide fry tilapia and carp used in the development of water bodies.The study has been identified on the most important species and their relative importance, which represents about 72.3% of the average fish production during the study period, estimated at approximately 87500 tons. The tilapia, catfish, carp, and bayad are the most important varieties of high production are estimated the relative importance of 32.5%, 17.8%, 12.7%, and 9.8% respectively. While, the order comes after that in the arrangement, Nile perch, Shelan, (unicornfish) Albesaria, Nile lebeo, Eel, and barbal with an estimated relative importance of 3.9%, 3.6%, 3.3%, 2.1%, and 0.8%, respectively. The 96% of the annual variability production is due to changes in the productivity of varieties perch, catfish and tilapia. The middel Delta region (Desouk, Kafr El-Zayat, Menouf, Qanatier, and Benha) of the most important productive areas for fish in the River Nile, where a production of about 39.1%, followed by the region of the Nile Valley, which includes (Cairo, Giza, Fayoum, Beni Suef, Minya, and Assiut) represents 26.1%, while the production of Aswan region, represent 16.3%, which include (Sohag, Qena, Aswan).With regard to the employment and fishing boats, has decreased from 16400 boats in 1990 to about 11800 boats in 2008. While, the employment of fishing has decreased at high rates, which dropped from 51.5 thousand fishermen in 1990 to about 7.9 thousand fishermen in 2008, mostly working through the primitive ways, which have lacked in the safety manner. Furthermore, the number of boats licensed reflects the non reality where, the manual boat needed two or more person to complete the various operations on the boat, which indicates an increase in employment of fishing, non-licensed in those fisheries. The average production of the boat has increased with an average annual increase of productivity of 0.28 kg, while the average annual increase of productivity of a fisherman about 0.72 kg per year. However, the number and the productivity of boats are affected by 98% due to the annual changes of the production. Regarding, the examining of seasonal productivity and using seasonality index after excluding the effect of the general trend shows that, production is more than the overall average in the months of May, June, August and December. Whilst, the production is lower than of the overall average in the rest of the year months. Now there are a lot of efforts for the development of freshwater fisheries, through a variety of development programs (i.e. protect fisheries from pollution, fishery Seed supply, determine the appropriate fishing effort, and re-evaluate the characteristics and working methods of fishing). The targeted development plans to increase fish production through the overall development and coordination between the various parties to prevent the pollution of water resources and expansion in the construction and clearing waterways of plants, and re-stocking, especially carp fish, the Nile fish varieties, which became extinct with the quiet water stream, and made use of fish production.

[Saber Mostafa Mohamed, Mahmoud Khalifa Ahmed and l. A. E l Karyony. Fresh Water (The Nile And Its Branches) As One Of The Ways For The Development Of Fish Protein Sources In Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):880-888]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Fresh water; Fish protein; tilapia, catfish, carp

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Role of lactic acid bacteria as a biopreservative agent of Talbina 

Amal S. Hathout*, Soher E. Aly

Toxicology & Food Contaminant Dept., Food Industries & Nutrition Division, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt. amal_hathout@hotmail.com 

Abstract: Talbina is a mixture of barley flour and milk. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of probiotic bacteria (L. gasseri, L. reuteri) compared to yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and L. delbreukii sub sp. bulgaricus) as a biopreservative agent of Talbina samples. Shelf life of refrigerated Talbina processed by lower count (ratio 1:3 LAB : Talbina) of L. gasseri or L. reuteri increased and reached over 21 days at 6±2°C, compared to yoghurt starter bacteria which ranged between 6 and 14 days depending on the type of milk used. Storage temperatures are considered the main factors for biopreservation action of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Increasing storage temperature to 12±2°C increased total fungal count and greatly changed fungal profile. It could be concluded that the potential of LAB to inhibit the growth of common food spoiling fungi opens up new perspectives for the bio-preservation of food products.

[Amal S. Hathout, Soher E. Aly. Role of lactic acid bacteria as a biopreservative agent of Talbina. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):889-898]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; Talbina; barley flour; fungi; bio-preservation

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Immunohistochemical Study of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Psoriasis Vulgaris 

Amina Gamal el Din1*, Hanan M Saleh2,   Nermeen Abdel Fattah2 and  Abdel Maksoud A3

1.Pathology Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre,Dokki, Cairo-12622 (Egypt)*

2.Dermatology & Venereology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbasia, Cairo-12622 (Egypt).

3Dermatology and Venereology Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo-12622 (Egypt).

hassaneinamina@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Psoriasis, a common skin disease in Egypt, has drawn much attention to study the potential  role of immunity  in  its pathogenesis.. Exposure of skin to microbial antigens and other stressful stimuli can induce heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression. HSPs comprise a large number of antigens against which immune responses are directed, owing to their cytokine-like effects and immunomodulatory properties. The potential role of HSP70 in pathogenesis of psoriasis is under investigation. We aimed at evaluating the  differential immunohistochemical expression of HSP 70   in psoriatic skin and correlating the results with disease severity ; to elucidate its potential role  in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Skin biopsies were taken from 20 patients with different severity of untreated chronic plaque-type psoriasis and from 20 healthy volunteers. Antibodies to HSP70 were analyzed immunohistochemically. Immunoreactivity intensity distribution index (IRIDI) scores including the proportion of immunoreactive cells and their staining intensity were calculated in the basal, suprabasal, superficial as well as the whole epidermal layers of patients and controls. Differential and total IRIDI scores for HSP70 expression showed highly significant higher values in psoriatic patients compared to controls. Statistical differences were found between the different groups of patients; according to their disease severity and controls. Positive correlations also existed between IRIDI scores of patients and disease severity. Based on the findings of the present study, HSP70 is suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and to correlate with disease severity. Further studies on immunotherapeutic intervention are recommended, aiming at inhibiting events in an ongoing immune response which may provide new therapeutic and perhaps preventive approaches for psoriasis.

[Amina Gamal el Din, Hanan M Saleh, Nermeen Abdel Fattah and  Abdel Maksoud A. Immunohistochemical Study of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Psoriasis Vulgaris. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):899-908]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: psoriasis, heat shock protein 70, immunohistochemistry

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[Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):904-909]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 6

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Assessment Removal of Heavy Metals Ions from Wastewater by Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) 

Taha, A. Waly1; A. M. Dakroury2; G. O. El-Sayed3 and S. A. El-Salam1

1Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant (FMPP), 2Hot Lab. Center and Waste Management, Atomic Energy. Authority, Egypt.

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benha University. Benha, Egypt

 

Abstract: The effective removal of HM ions from aqueous wastes is among the most important issues for many industrialized countries. The present work has been carried out to study the adsorption of Cd(II), Al(III), Co(II) and Zn(II), by adsorption technique using CKD which, are both wastes and are pollutants. The sorption process was examined in terms of its equilibria and kinetics. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of Cd(II), Al(III), Co(II) and Zn(II), onto CKD waste over a wide range of operating conditions of sorbat concentration, pH, contact time, sorbent dose. The batch experiments showed that the most effective pH range was found from 5.5 to 8. Time-dependent experiments for the removal efficiency of HM ions showed that Al(III) required a shortest contact time, for Zn(II) and Cd(II), binding to the CKD was rapid and occurred within 20 to 40 min and completed for Co(II) within 4 hrs. High sorption capacities were observed for the four HM ions. The binding capacity experiments revealed the following amounts of HM ions bound per gram of CKD: 165.994 mg/g, 75.389 mg/g, 64.296 mg/g and 108.875 mg/g for Zn(II), Al(III), Co(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The equilibrium data for HM ions fitted both Langmuir and Freundlich models and based on Langmuir constant. The adsorption isotherm studies clearly indicated that the adsorptive behavior of HM ions on CKD satisfies not only the Langmuir assumptions but also the Freundlich assumptions, i.e. multilayer formation on the surface of the adsorbent with an exponential distribution of site energy.

[Taha, A. Waly; A. M. Dakroury; G. O. El-Sayed and S. A. El-Salam. Assessment Removal of Heavy Metals Ions from Wastewater by Cement Kiln Dust (CKD). Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):910-917]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key words: Sorbat, Sorbent, Adsorption, Freundlich, Langmuir and Neutralization. Cement kiln dust (CKD)

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Evaluation of Avian Influenza Vaccines used in Broiler Flocks in Egypt. 

Lebdah, M.A and *Shahin, A.M.

Avian and Rabbit Medicine Department; Faculty of Vet. Med.; Zagazig University

*abeer.shahin@gmx.de  

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of different types of commercial Avian Influenza Vaccines (H5N1 &H5N2) used in Egypt. Three – hundred and fifty day-old broiler chicks were divided into 7 groups. Six groups of chickens were vaccinated with H5N1 and H5N2 AI vaccines at 1, 7, and 14 days-old. The chickens of group 7 were kept as negative control. All groups were fed adlibtum and kept under observation. Serum Samples were collected at day-old to evaluate the maternal immunity and after 7 weeks post vaccination with both types of vaccines from all chickens. This study revealed that, the challenge virus was highly pathogenic for control group as causing 100 % mortalities 24 hours after challenge with 106 EID50/ 0.2 ml intranasal. Challenge of other groups showed difference in pathogenicity of the virus and immune response of the chickens according to type of vaccine and age of birds at vaccination. It could be concluded that H5N2 AI vaccine was more protective than H5N1 AI vaccine as the protection percentage and GMHI titer of experimentally broiler chicks vaccinated at day-old and fourteen days-old with H5N2 higher than chicks vaccinated with H5N1. Moreover, the vaccination of the chicks at seven days-old showed higher GMHI titer and protection percentage than vaccination at one day-old.

[Lebdah, M.A and Shahin, A.M. Evaluation of Avian Influenza Vaccines used in Broiler Flocks in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):918-926]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Evaluation of Avian Influenza Vaccines used in Broiler Flocks in Egypt

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Her 2/neu Gene and VEGF in Bladder Cancer in Egypt: Relationship to Schistosomiasis

Olfat A. Hammam 1, Iman Abdel Aziz 2,Ola Mahmoud 2, Manal Zahran 2, Amr Alkholy 3, Ahmed Abdel Hadi1, Maha Akl 1, Mohamed Wishahi 3. Bruno Voss4 and Sabine Boehm4

Departments of Patholog 1, Hematology 2, Urolog3, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, El-Nil Street, Giza, Egypt

Research Institute for Occupational Diseases4, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. *totoali1@hotmail.com 

Abstract: The aim of the current study was to assess Her2/neu protein on paraffin tissue sections and serum VEGF in carcinoma of the urinary bladder in a cohort of Egyptian patients. Furthermore, they were correlated to the schistosomal-associated and non-schistosomal associated bladder cancer as well as tumor types and disease stages. Immunohistochemical (IHC) procedure for Her 2/neu, FISH for detection of Her2/neu gene and serum level of VEGF by EIISA were performed in 35 patients with chronic cystitis (10 patients with nonschistosomal chronic cystitis and 25 patients with chronic schistosomal cystitis), 135 were schistosomal-associated malignant patients (75 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 60 cases of urothelial carcinoma) and 50 cases of non schistosomal-associated urothelial carcinoma. In addition to 20 normal blood donor volunteers act as control. IHC results for Her 2/neu was overexpressed in malignant group compared to control and chronic schistosomal cystitis groups (p<0.01). In malignant group it was 1+ in 33 (30%), 2+ in 45 (40.9%) and 3+ in 32 (29.09%). Her 2/neu incidence was significantly higher in urothelial carcinoma group 80/110 (72.2%) compared to SCC 30/75 (40%) with (p<0.01) and in high grade tumors than low grade tumors with (p< 0.01). FISH results in SCC showed that the signal ratio were 0-1.0 in 2 (6.6%), 1.1-2.0 in 18 (60%), and ≥2.0 in 10 (33.35%), which were considered positive for Her 2/neu gene amplification. In urothelial carcinoma the signal ratio was 0-1.0 in 10 patients (12.5%), 1.1-2.0 in 25 (22.3%), and ≥2.0 in 45 (58.2%). Overexpression of Her2/neu gene was significantly higher in high grades; 31 (63.6%) than in low grades; 14(56%) tumor with (p< 0.01), also Her2 /neu gene was significantly (p< 0.01) higher in invasive tumors; 45 cases (78.9%) than in non invasive tumors 10 (43.3%) with high significance (p< 0.01). The serum VEGF levels showed higher levels for SCC, urothelial carcinoma patients, chronic cystitis patients compared to normal controls, they  were 94.7% (71/75), 89% (98/110), and 22.9% (8/35), 5% (1/20) respectively. Our results suggest that Her 2/neu overexpression might provide additional prognostic information in patients with bladder carcinomas. Because 50% of our patients harbor Her 2/neu overexpressing those patients may potentially benefit from molecular targeted therapy targeting Her 2/neu for bladder carcinoma and they should be identified by gene amplification analysis using FISH in IHC 2+ patients. In addition association between increased serum VEGF levels with high grades and invasive bladder cancer patients indicates that serum VEGF may play a role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer and may serve as an indicator of tumor progression and future recurrence and may be a candidate as a new noninvasive diagnostic tool.

[Olfat A. Hammam, Iman Abdel Aziz,Ola Mahmoud, Manal Zahran Amr Alkholy, Ahmed Abdel Hadi, Maha Akl 1, Mohamed Wishahi 3. Bruno Voss4 and Sabine Boehm. Her 2/neu Gene and VEGF in Bladder Cancer in Egypt: Relationship to Schistosomiasis. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):927-936]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key Words: Her 2/neu protein; Her 2/neu Gene; IHC- FISH; Serum VEGF

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Ultrasonic Comparative Assessment for Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed  

N.N. Ibiari*, S.A. Abo El-Enin, N.K. Attia and G. El-Diwani

Chem. Eng. and Pilot Plant Dept., National Research Centre, Egypt 

Abstract: The application of ultrasound during extraction and trans-esterification of oil from rapeseed was evaluated. Two methods of extraction were used, batch wise extraction and                soxhlet extraction. In batch wise extraction procedure, ground rapeseeds were added to solvent and ultra-sonicated either by cleaning bath or ultrasonic generator. Conventional soxhlet extraction assisted in the soxhlet chamber by ultrasound has been developed. Ultrasonic technique reduced time required to extract oil. Using batch wise extraction procedure, percent recovery of oil increased almost 17.83% and 20.99% by using cleaning bath and ultrasonic generator respectively rather than control after 2hrs.While in using soxhlet extraction percent  recovery reached 85% after 1.5 hr in case of ultrasonic and after 4 hrs without using ultrasonic. Physical and chemical properties of rapeseed oil were tested. Then the alkaline trans-esterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide for production of biodiesel was studied, using ultra-sonication and magnetic stirring. In trans-esterification the use of ultra-sonication and magnetic stirring led to similar high yields of 90% of methyl esters after approximately 10 min. of reaction time. Comparison between biodiesel obtained and standard biodiesel and diesel fuel was done.

[N.N. Ibiari, S.A. Abo El-Enin, N.K. Attia and G. El-Diwani. Ultrasonic Comparative Assessment for Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):937-943]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Ultrasound, extraction, biodiesel, rapeseed oil, transesterification

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Application of Different Methods of Natural Aeration of Wastewater and their Influence on the Treatment Efficiency of the Biological Filtration

Tarek Ismail Sabry 1, Walid Hamdy*2 and Saleem S. AlSaleem3

1 Sanitary Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

2 Sanitary Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt.

3Al Qassim Research Station, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, KSA.

awawalid@yahoo.com 

Abstract: The main objective of the proposed study is to examine the performance and the feasibility of using three different natural aeration methods (AM). The first two methods are the spray aerator (AM1) and the cascade aerator (AM2). The third method, the curtain aerator (AM3), is a new aeration technique that has different dynamic movement of wastewater falls (physical scrubbing action of aeration) for the aerobic treatment of raw sewage. The study investigates the most effective and suitable natural aeration system among these three methods for use in rural areas of developing countries where high costs of construction, operation, and maintenance of high-rate energy-intensive conventional aeration system technologies are the main bottleneck. The influences of the investigated natural aeration systems on the biological filtrations system are also investigated. The experimental results indicate an increasing in the aeration during the whole experimental by 21 %, 29 %, and 27 % for the AM1, AM2, and AM3 aeration systems, respectively; in respect with dissolved oxygen saturation. The results also showed that the amount of DO added to wastewater was influenced by both the surface loading rate (m3/m2.hr) of the aeration method and the splash movement of wastewater through the surface of the different methods As well, it was observed that cascade aerator (AM2), and the curtain aerator (AM3) had better removal efficiency in BOD, COD, and TSS compared with the spray aerator (AM1).

[Tarek Ismail Sabry, Walid Hamdy and Saleem S. AlSaleem. Application of Different Methods of Natural Aeration of Wastewater and their Influence on the Treatment Efficiency of the Biological Filtration. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):944-952]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key Words: Natural aeration; wastewater treatment; biological filter; low-cost technology; rural developing countries

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Biochemical Changes in Glutathione Redox System and Glucose Regulation in Late Pregnant Ossimi Ewes 

Ali Hafez El-Far*1, Mohamed K. Mahfouz2 and Hussein A. Abdel maksoud2

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Damanhour Branch (Al-Bostan), Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Moshtohor, Banha University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Pregnancy is the more prevalent stress in under feeding small ruminant with multiple bearing. Fifty Ossimi ewes of two years old and their body weight ranging between 35 and 50 kg were allotted into three groups; Group I: contains ten non pregnant non lactating ewes were used as control group. Group II: contains twenty single pregnant ewes* and Group III: contains twenty twin pregnant ewes used as experimental animals. Our study focused on the comparison between single and twin bearing ossimi ewes in the last four weeks of pregnancy and the day of parturition by measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the activities glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); glutathione reductase (GR-ase); glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) in erythrocytic haemolysate. In addition, glucose, non esterfied fatty acid (NEFA), Beta hydroxyl butyric acid (BHBA), cortisol, insulin and protein electrophoric patterns were measured in serum. Our results concluded that, In erythrocytic haemolysate the mean values of GSH-Px and GST in group II and III during the period of 2nd and last week before parturition and at the day of parturition were high significantly increased. While, GSH and t-SOD were high significantly decreased (P<0.01) and GR-ase activities were significantly decreased. While serum insulin level decreased while serum NEFA, BHBA and cortisol were increased in single and twin but in twin the values is more significant. The data showed that twin bearing ewes are more susceptible to pregnancy toxemia than single bearing that may be influence the productivity and performance of those animals.

[Ali Hafez El-Far, Mohamed K. Mahfouz and Hussein A. Abdel maksoud. Biochemical Changes in Glutathione Redox System and Glucose Regulation in Late Pregnant Ossimi Ewes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):953-959]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: pregnancy, glutathione, single bearing, twin bearing, ewes

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Economic Return of Recycling the Agricultural Wastes in Egypt and Spain  

Mohamed G.M. Abou El- Azayem* and Salah S. Abd El-Ghani

Department of Agricultural Economics, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. 

Abstract: Animal wastes and plant wastes are an important resource in Sustainable Agricultural Development and organic crops production for healthy food for life, when it is recycled to produce organic fertilizer (compost). It is clear that through the study of The economic returns to rotate some animal wastes and plant wastes in Egypt and Spain, And to identify. The quantity and value of losses in the content of animal wastes and plant wastes fertilizer elements (N, P, K) And also to identify Economic returns to recycling plant wastes for the production of industrial organic fertilizer (compost). Sustainable waste management means using resources efficiently to cut down on the amount of waste produced and where waste is generated, dealing with it in a way that contributes to the economic, social and environmental goals of sustainable development.

[Mohamed G.M. Abou El- Azayem and Salah S. Abd El-Ghani. Economic Return of Recycling the Agricultural Wastes in Egypt and Spain. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):960-970]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Economic Return; Recycling; Agricultural Waste; Egypt; Spain

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Role of S-100B as a Serum biochemical marker for brain injury in Egyptian Patients with phenylketonuria 

Mohga S Abdallah1, Hayat M Sharada1, Esmat Ashour2*,Lamiaa Mageed 2, Nagwa Meguid 3

1Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science , Helwan University

2Biochemistry Dept., Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology  Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3 Children with Special Needs Dept.,  Medical Reseach Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

drmohgashafik@yahoo.com., hayatsharadamk@gmail.com.,esmatashour3@yahoo.com., malakalhoda@yahoo.com., Meguidna@yahoo.com 

Abstract :Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by high phenylalanine (Phe) levels in blood. Tissue accumulation of L-phenylalanine (Phe) is the biochemical hallmark of human phenylketonuria (PKU), an inherited metabolic disorder clinically characterized by mental retardation and other neurological features. The mechanisms of brain damage observed in this disorder are poorly understood. S-100B protein is highly specific for nervous tissue where its role is not yet fully understood. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the diagnostic value of measuring S-100b in the serum of PKU patients as a marker for brain lesion. Additional validity should be acquired by a comparison with plasma levels of phenylalanine. Methods: Nineteen PKU patients from 15 families were selected from the clinic for special needs at the National Research Centre. Their age ranged between 2 and 20 years in addition to 15 healthy controls with same age. Blood samples were drawn to investigate circulating serum levels of S-100b using ELISA technique for all the studied cases.  Results: Statistical significant increase of serum S-100B concentrations was present in PKU patients compared to controls. Regarding sensitivity and specificity, PKU patients, serum neural protein S-100b showed high sensitivity and specificity values. In addition, there was non significant negative correlation between S100B and Phe Conclusion: we concluded that serum S-100B blood could be a useful peripheral marker of nervous system damage in patients with phenylketonuria.

[Mohga S Abdallah, Hayat M Sharada, Esmat Ashour, Lamiaa Mageed, Nagwa Meguid. Role of S-100B as a Serum biochemical marker for brain injury in Egyptian Patients with phenylketonuria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):971-978]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key Words: Phenylketonuria, Serum neural protein S-100B

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Changes in Biochemical and Isozymes Components of Watermelon seeds during accelerated Ageing Technique 

Magdy M. Rashed1; Magdy shallan1; Mahmoud Fathy2; and Anisa I. Ismail2 

1Bio Chemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza,Egypt

2Department of Seed Technology, Horticulture Research Institute, A R C, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt 

Abstract: The aims of this work was  to study some  changes in the total content of storage components of watermelon (citrullus lanatus)  seeds during accelerated ageing technique and its relation to seeds viability. Materials and Methods: Before the experiment, seeds were stored for two years in store house at 25Cin the start experiment, ageing at 50C with 17% moisture up to 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours respectively. Germination percentage was decreased, a reduction in the total content of storage components such as proteins, carbohydrates, in addition, increasing oils and decreases in the activities of various esterase enzymes under the same condition were observed. Results: It was clearly that 50C with 17% moisture content could be used as a good ageing seed testing condition for watermelon seeds  In the present study The treatments watermelon seeds could be identified by Biochemical analysis   (Esterase isozyme and Protein) banding pattern.

[Magdy M. Rashed; Magdy shallan; Mahmoud Fathy; and Anisa I. Ismail. Changes in Biochemical and Isozymes Components of Watermelon seeds during accelerated Ageing Technique. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):979-985]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Key words:  Watermelon, accelerated ageing seed, seed germination

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Effectiveness of Low Power Laser Therapy and Betamethasone in Minimizing Postoperative Edema and Trismus after Third Molar Surgery: a Clinical Trial 

Dalia A. Radwan1, Nermeen H. Mohammed1, Ahmed A. Zaky2

1 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

2Dental Laser Application, National Institute for Laser Enhancement Science, Cairo University

Corresponding author: dradwan@link.net  

Abstract: Purpose: In this study the therapeutic low-power laser (LPL) and Betamethasone (as an anti-inflammatory) were compared in terms of their effects on edema and trismus associated with surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars.  Material and methods: 20 healthy patients divided into two equal groups were included in the study. Group ( I) received LPL irradiation (energy output 6 J/cm2 with constant power density of 100 mW, wavelength 980 nm) on the 1st and 3rd postoperative days. Group (II) received a single dose of 4 mg systemic intramuscular Betamethasone Sodium Phosphate (Diprofos) into the gluteal region immediately after suturing of the surgical wound. Both groups received the usual medical and physical postoperative recommendations. Results: LPL irradiation (group 1) showed reduction of postoperative edema on the 3rd postoperative day. In addition, no significance difference resulted on comparing this effect between both groups. Postoperative trismus was nearly the same in both groups. No adverse effects of the procedure or medication were observed. Conclusion: LPL therapy is effective than systemic Betamethasone in reducing postoperative edema after third molar surgery without statistical significant differences. However both treatment modalities have the same effect on postoperative trismus.

[Dalia A. Radwan1, Nermeen H. Mohammed1, Ahmed A. Zaky. Effectiveness of Low Power Laser Therapy and Betamethasone in Minimizing Postoperative Edema and Trismus after Third Molar Surgery: a Clinical Trial. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):986-989]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Key words: edema, trismus, low power laser therapy, Betamethasone

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Comparism Of The Quality Parameters Of The Seed And Condiment Oil Of Adansonia Digitata 

I.Y Chindo1*, J.S Gushit2, P.N Olotu3, J. Mugana1and  D.N. Takbal1

1Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

3Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

istifanuschindo@yahoo.com 

Abstracts: The oil quality parameters of the seed and condiment oil of Adansonia digitata were evaluated. The Iodine value, Peroxide value, Saponification value and percentage Free Fatty Acid (FFA) were 98.07g/100g, 1.4mEq/Kg, 122.60mg/g and 0.21% respectively for seed oil and 71.06g/100g, 10.20mEq/Kg, 142.80mg/g and 6.37% respectively for the condiment oil. The variation in the parameters from seed oil to condiment oil observed include increased in peroxide value, FFA and Saponification value and decreased in Iodine value. The changes have been interpreted to be due to some structural changes in the Triglyceride leading to the formation of new chemical properties and products. The Infra Red (IR) spectra have also given an identification of Rancidity of the condiment oil due to bands observed at 3400- 2700 and 1705 cm-1 indicating the possible formation or absence of acid and aldehyde respectively; which are products of oxidative Rancidity.

[I.Y Chindo, J.S Gushit, P.N Olotu, J. Mugana and  D.N. Takbal. Comparism Of The Quality Parameters Of The Seed And Condiment Oil Of Adansonia Digitata. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):990-994]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Rancidity, Adansonia digitata, seed oil, condiment oil, Saponification & Infra Red

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Distribution of Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides in Soils around the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Zaria-Nigeria 

Muhammad, Musa Auwal; Idris, Isa Funtua; Simon, Peter Malam and Arabi, Suleiman Abdullahi  

Muhammad, Musa Auwal

Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1014 Zaria, Nigeria, Email: mamyola@yahoo.com

Idris, Isa Funtua

Material Science and Development Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1014 Zaria, Nigeria, Email: iifuntua@yahoo.com

 Simon, Peter Malam

Health Physics and Radiation Biophysics Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1014 Zaria, Nigeria

Arabi, Suleiman Abdullahi

Material Science and Development Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1014 Zaria, Nigeria, Email: arabisuleiman@gmail.com  

Abstract: A portable HPGe spectrometer has been employed to characterised, in-situ gamma activity concentration from the primordial Radionuclides 238U, 232Th 40K in the soil at 12 monitoring points (MPs) in the environment in and around the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The MPs were marked-out using Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation. The measured activity concentrations due to 238U range from 4.8 ± 3.0 to 11.9 ± 2.0 Bq kg-1 with an average of 8.3 ± 2.6 Bq kg-1, 232Th range from 15.5 ± 4.3 to 46.4 ± 3.5 Bq kg-1 with an average of 34.3 ± 3.4 Bq kg-1 and 40K range from 317.2 ± 8.4 to 985.3 ± 7.0 Bq kg-1 with an average of 641.8 ± 7.3 Bq kg-1.

[Muhammad, Musa Auwal; Idris, Isa Funtua; Simon, Peter Malam and Arabi, Suleiman Abdullahi. Distribution of Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides in Soils around the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Zaria-Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):995-1001]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: In-situ gamma, activity concentration, primordial Radionuclides

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An Introduction of OSCE versus Traditional Method in Nursing Education: Faculty Capacity Building &

Students’ Perspectives

1*Shadia A. Eldarir, 2Hanan A. El Sebaae, 2Hanaa A. El Feky, 3Hewida A. Hussien, 1Nagwa Abd El Fadil     and 4Inas H. El Shaeer

 1Maternal-Newborn Health Nursing Dept., 2 Medical Surgical Nursing Dept., 3 Pediatric Nursing Dept., 4 Community Health Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background Assessment of clinical competence is of great importance when evaluating the expected learning outcomes of nursing education. Increasing number of students enrolled at Egyptian nursing faculties might increase the chances of malpractice that compromise patients’ conditions. Therefore it is challenging to have such an objective assessment tool to comprehensively assess students’ clinical competencies especially with increased students’ number. Aims of  the current project are building capacity of nursing faculties and staff members for OSCE; establishing simulated learning experiences (OSCE) in nursing practice; comparing the feasibility, utility, and effectiveness of using OSCE versus traditional clinical assessment; examining faculty and students perspectives for OSCE; and evaluating the effectiveness of OSCE versus traditional clinical assessment. Method: To achieve aims of this study needs’ assessment of faculty members were carried out during conduction of raising awareness seminar about OSCE which attended by 72 faculty and staff members from both Cairo and Ain Shams Universities. A total of  7 workshops were held  to build up their capacities on the scheme of OSCE and clinical scenario writings .One-hundred and forty  faculty and staff members were  attended and pre-post tests a were administered. Out of the 140, 31 were trained as data collectors. . Implementation of the OSCE was carried out on 400 second and third year students at the areas of critical care units. Comparison of students' achievements at traditional and OSCE methods were carried out. Faculty’s and students’ perspectives were investigated. Results: Needs’ assessment revealed that 57% of faculty members knew nothing about OSCE and 98.6% of them had no experience in using OSCE; also a high statistical significant differences between OSCE and traditional assessment groups in the first and second trial (t = 2.423, p= 0.016), and (t= 6.23, p= 0.000) respectively. The students' achievements were better with OSCE. Faculty staff members indicated that, OSCE saves time (76.3%), prepares highly qualified competent students (62.5%) and improve students’ performance (62.5%). Conclusion OSCE examination offers an attractive option for assessment of students’ competency. It provided particular strengths in terms of faculty staff objectivity and reliability of the assessment process for all students, especially when compared with other methods of assessing practice.

[Shadia A. Eldarir, Hanan A. El Sebaae, Hanaa A. El Feky, Hewida A. Hussien, Nagwa Abd El Fadil and Inas H. El Shaeer. An Introduction of OSCE versus Traditional Method in Nursing Education: Faculty Capacity Building & Students’ Perspectives. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1002-1014]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 Key Words: Assessment, OSCE, traditional method, Faculty capacity building, students’ perspectives

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Effect of Type of Aggregate on the Properties of Refractory Concrete 

S.A. Ghonaim*, H.B.G. Ghazal**, and M.F. Abadir*** +

* Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality

** The High Institute of Engineering, Shorouk

*** Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

+ Corresponding author: Magdi F. Abadir

The Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Cairo, Egypt

Area Code: 12613; Tel: 202 35678617; Fax: 202 35678625; E–mail: magdi.abadir@yahoo.com  

ABSTRACT: Low cement refractory concrete samples were prepared by mixing cement (containing 50% alumina) in percentages ranging from 10 to 20% with aggregate and the necessary amount of water. Two types of refractory aggregate were used: Bauxite containing 81% alumina and grog containing 52% alumina. Four particle sizes of each aggregate were used each time. The cast samples were left in their moulds for 24 hours in a 100% relative humidity cabin. The de–molded specimens were left in  open air until their moisture content reaches 3–6%, then put in a drying oven at (110 ± 5) ºC until reaching constant weight. They were then tested for phase constitution, water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity and cold crushing strength (after 28 days curing). It was found that bauxite based samples gave better results than those prepared with grog. It was also found using statistical analysis that the percent cement used affects all properties much more than does the particle size of aggregate.

[S.A. Ghonaim, H.B.G. Ghazal, and M.F. Abadir. Effect of Type of Aggregate on the Properties of Refractory Concrete. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1015-1027]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key Words: Refractory concrete – Alumina – Grog – Sodium citrate

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Effect of Beta Radiation on Extraocular Muscles 

Mohamed A. Marzouk ,MD*, Hossam E. Sayed*, Ayman  A . Shoman  , MD* , Hisham  A .Hashim ,MD*. 

* Ass. Professor – Research Institute of Ophthalmology – GizaEgypt.                   

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different Beta radiation doses on frogs extraocular muscles. Methods: 50 frogs of species Rana Ridibunda were used in this study, they were divided into 5 groups, every group was treated with a different dose of radiation, and the first group was taken as control. Results: The estimation of soluble protein content in extraocular muscles of Beta radiated eyes showed a gradual decrease with the increase of dose. Conclusion: Significant changes in extraocular muscles were detected with the increase of Beta radiation dose.

[Mohamed A. Marzouk, Hossam E. Sayed, Ayman  A. Shoman, Hisham  A. Hashim. Effect of Beta Radiation on Extraocular Muscles. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1028-1033]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Effect; Beta Radiation; Extraocular; Muscle

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Chronic Asthmatic Chest Troubles And Their Effects On Cognitive Functions, Psychosocial Behaviour And Academic Achievment Among Children In Egypt 

Samiha Samuel*, Mai Safwat*, William Morkos**, Samar Salem**, Tarek El-Adly*and Abeer Mohammed.

*Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

**Department of Childhealth, National Research Center

 ABSTRACT: Chronic illness is clearly an important factor affecting psychosocial state of children and adolescents. This case-control study is an effort to clarify the effect of chronic asthmatic chest troubles, as chronic illnesses, on the cognition and psychological aspects of such chronically ill children. This study was executed in the Chest Clinic of the Abou El-Reesh Children's Hospital, Cairo University. The Study was carried out on 23 children suffering from chronic asthmatic chest troubles (13 boys and 10 girls) with an age range of 6-15 years (mean age ± SD = 9.6±2.67). Twenty three age and sex matched children not suffering from any disease and living under the same socioeconomic conditions were taken as controls. WISC-R and PSCL were used to assess the cognitive and psychosocial adjustment among children while the mid-year scores for Mathematics and Arabic language were used to evaluate the academic performance. Our results indicated that chronic asthmatic disease has a negative effect on cognitive abilities, psychosocial behavior and academic achievement of such children.

[Samiha Samuel, Mai Safwat, William Morkos, Samar Salem, Tarek El-Adly and Abeer Mohammed. Chronic Asthmatic Chest Troubles And Their Effects On Cognitive Functions, Psychosocial Behaviour And Academic Achievment Among Children In Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1034-1043]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Chronic; Asthmatic; Chest; Cognitive Functions; Psychosocial Behaviour

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Effect of different sources of potassium fertilizers on growth yield, and chemical composition of Calendula Officinalis

*Yassen, A.A; **Habib, A. M.; *Sahar, M. Zaghloul, and *Khaled, S.M. 

*Plant Nutrition Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

              **Ornamental plant Dept., Faculty of agriculture, Cairo University

azimyassen@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT: A field experiments were carried out during the two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, in Qualubia Governorate, Egypt, to study the effect of different source of potassium fertilizer (banana residue and potassium sulphate) on yield, and chemical composition of herbs and flowers of Calendula Officinalis. It had been deduced that) that application of potassium fertilizer from different sources; potassium sulphate and banana residue were effective in increasing all tested growth yields compared with unfertilized treatment. Data also, showed that mixing potassium sulphate or/ and banana residue led to a marked increase in fresh and dry weight of herbs and flowers as compared with application of potassium sulphate or/ and banana residue solely in both seasons. Data also, showed that mixing potassium sulphate or/ and banana residue increased N and P and K content and uptake as compared with the control, potassium sulphate and banana residue alone.

[Yassen, A.A; Habib, A. M.; Sahar, M. Zaghloul, and Khaled, S.M. Effect of different sources of potassium fertilizers on growth yield, and chemical composition of Calendula Officinalis. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1044-1048]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Key words: Calendula Officinalis - potassium fertilizer - banana residue - growth – yield - NPK

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Effect of packing on extension of self life of retail meat

*Khalafalla, F.A; Nagwa, S.S. Ata; Mona. A.E. Elshabrauy, Azza, S.M. Abu Elnaga Dorgham,S.M and Khairy, A. E

*Faculty of vet. Medicine. Beni-Suef University, Egypt. National Research Center. Dokki, Egypt.

Abstract: The packing of meat in retail markets plays important role in controlling of microbial load. Trails for extension of shelf-life of meat was studied during chilling. The comparative between the different types of packing as well as compared with fresh and chilled meat have low available data. Therefore, this study was carried out to assessment the effect of packing (Aerobically and anaerobically) on chilled meat as compared with fresh ones in retail market.

[Khalafalla, F. A; Nagwa, S.S. Ata; Mona. A.E. Elshabrauy, Azza, S.M. Abu Elnaga Dorgham, S.M and Khairy, A. E. Effect of packing on extension of self life of retail meat. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1049-1058]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

Keywords: packing; meat; retail market; microbial load

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Serum Level of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein as a Screening Modality for Osteoarthritis among Knee Joint Pain Patients

 Ahmed M. Awadallah *1, Gehan H.Sabry1 and Tarek M.Khater2

1Departments of Clinical Pathology Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

2 Orthopedic Surgery Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

*a_mamdouh8@hotmail.com

 Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of estimation of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as a screening tool for osteoarthritis (OA) among patients with knee joint pain. Patients & Methods: The study included 140 female patients with knee pain and 20 volunteers to donate blood as a control group for laboratory findings. All patients underwent full history taking, clinical examination for evaluation of pain severity using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and extent of patient mobility using mobility score (MS) and had knee anteroposterior radiographs that were scored using the Kellgren-Lawrence scoring (K-L score) system. Patients were classified according to K-L scores into: group A: pain plus no radiographic findings (K-L score=1), group B: pain plus doubtful or minimal radiographic findings (K-L score=1) and group C: pain plus radiographically determined OA (K-L score≥2). Venous blood samples were obtained from all patients and controls for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) determination and ELISA estimation of serum COMP and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Results: Group C patients had significantly higher pain scores and lower MS compared to groups A and B. Mean patients' serum COMP levels was significantly higher compared to control levels and in group C compared both to controls and to groups B and A levels with significantly higher levels in group B compared to controls and group A. However, serum COMP levels were non-significantly higher levels in group A compared to control levels. There was a positive significant correlation between serum COMP levels and body mass index (BMI), pain VAS score and radiological grade and a negative significant correlation with MS. ROC curve analysis revealed that elevated serum COMP is a sensitive predictor and high BMI is a specific predictor for the presence of OA. Serum COMP at 1097.5 ng/ml was the best cutoff point with high sensitivity (87.7%), positive predictive value (PPV, 92.6%) and accuracy (84.3%) for differentiation between patient with and without OA radiological manifestations and serum COMP at 1290 ng/ml showed 100% specificity and PPV and accuracy rate of 65.7% for diagnosis of the presence of radiological findings of OA. Conclusion: Estimation of serum COMP level could be considered as screening modality for patients with knee pain and using cutoff point of 1097.5 ng/ml helps to define patients free of OA and cutoff of 1290 ng/ml could define patients with OA.

[Ahmed M. Awadallah, Gehan H. Sabry and Tarek M. Khater. Serum Level of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein as a Screening Modality for Osteoarthritis among Knee Joint Pain Patients. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1059-1066]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

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Biochemical Changes in Glutathione Redox System and Glucose Regulation in Late Pregnant Ossimi Ewes 

Ali Hafez El-Far*1, Mohamed K. Mahfouz2 and Hussein A. Abdel maksoud2

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Damanhour Branch (Al-Bostan), Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Moshtohor, Banha University, Egypt.

  

Abstract: Pregnancy is the more prevalent stress in under feeding small ruminant with multiple bearing. Fifty Ossimi ewes of two years old and their body weight ranging between 35 and 50 kg were allotted into three groups; Group I: contains ten non pregnant non lactating ewes were used as control group. Group II: contains twenty single pregnant ewes* and Group III: contains twenty twin pregnant ewes used as experimental animals. Our study focused on the comparison between single and twin bearing ossimi ewes in the last four weeks of pregnancy and the day of parturition by measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the activities glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); glutathione reductase (GR-ase); glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) in erythrocytic haemolysate. In addition, glucose, non esterfied fatty acid (NEFA), Beta hydroxyl butyric acid (BHBA), cortisol, insulin and protein electrophoric patterns were measured in serum. Our results concluded that, In erythrocytic haemolysate the mean values of GSH-Px and GST in group II and III during the period of 2nd and last week before parturition and at the day of parturition were high significantly increased. While, GSH and t-SOD were high significantly decreased (P<0.01) and GR-ase activities were significantly decreased. While serum insulin level decreased while serum NEFA, BHBA and cortisol were increased in single and twin but in twin the values is more significant. The data showed that twin bearing ewes are more susceptible to pregnancy toxemia than single bearing that may be influence the productivity and performance of those animals.

[Ali Hafez El-Far, Mohamed K. Mahfouz and Hussein A. Abdel maksoud. Biochemical Changes in Glutathione Redox System and Glucose Regulation in Late Pregnant Ossimi Ewes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1067-1073]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: pregnancy, glutathione, single bearing, twin bearing, ewes

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A Typical Bacteria in Ventilator Associated Pneumonia; an Egyptian University Hospital Experience

 Nadia Abdel-Salam Mokhless1,3 , Malaka Farouk El-Mofty1,3  , Nesrine Fathy Hanafi* 1,3, Akram Muhammad Fayed2,3 and Sara Lotfy Asser1,3.

1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2Critical Care Medicine,  3Faculty of Medicine University of Alexandria, Egypt.

 Abstract: Background Ventilator-associated  pneumonia (VAP) is  the  most common  hospital acquired  infection  seen  in  ICU in  patients on mechanical  ventilation. A diversity of microbes can cause VAP, causative agent differ according to patient populations and types of ICUs. Atypical  bacteria   not cultured by routinely used methods , have  been  implicated  as  causes  of  VAP, still  no sufficient studies to assess size of their role as causative agent in  VAP. In this study we aim at estimation of   the  potential  role  of  atypical  bacteria  as  Mycoplasma  pneumoniae, Chlamydia  pneumoniae  and  Legionella  pneumophila in  ventilator-associated pneumonia  in  the  intensive  care  units  of  Alexandria  Main  University  Hospital. Materials and methods: 60 endotracheal aspirates were collected from VAP   ICU patients. Samples were subjected to routine culture as well as  PCR amplification using specific primers for  detection  of  the  following  atypical bacteria :  Mycoplasma  pneumoniae, Chlamydia  pneumoniae  and  Legionella  pneumophila. Results:  Out of the 60 endotracheal aspirate, routine culture revealed growth of:  enterobacteriaecae in 14 (23.3%) aspirate, pseudomonas in 13(21.7%), candida  in14(23.3%) , and MRSA in  10 (16.7%) . In 19 (31.7%) endotracheal aspirates, no growth was encountered on routine culture. PCR reaction was positive for Atypical bacteria in 9 (15%) out of 60 samples, five were positive for mycoplasma, three for Legionella, and only one was positive for Chlamydia. Atypical bacteria positive results were encountered in 4 (21%) out of 19 aspirates with no growth culture results. Conclusion: Our results point that atypical bacteria are not an uncommon cause for VAP. This finding has to be taken into consideration while tailoring the empiric antimicrobial coverage of patients diagnosed with VAP.

[Nadia Abdel-Salam Mokhless, Malaka Farouk El-Mofty, Nesrine Fathy Hanafi, Akram Muhammad Fayed and Sara Lotfy Asser. A Typical Bacteria in Ventilator Associated Pneumonia; an Egyptian University Hospital Experience. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1074-1079]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Bacteria; Ventilator; Pneumonia; Egyptian; Hospital

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Synthesis of Some New Benzoxazole Acetonitrile Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Herbicidal Efficiency.

M.A.youssefa, S.M.A.Sherifb, A.M.A.Elkadyc and  S.E.S.Hamoudac.

a Chemistry Department , Faculty of Science , Helwan University.

b Chemistry Department , Faculty of Science , Cairo University .

c Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), Agriculture Research Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Twenty three new 2-cyanomethyl benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized by different methods. Their structures were elucidated by many ways as elemental analysis, spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The herbicidal activity of the newly synthesized compounds was evaluated against wheat as pattern for monocotyledonous plants, three plant parameters were studied, seed gerimination, root and shoot growth under laboratory conditions. Compounds that showed an observable inhibition on one or more of the growth parameters under study were considered as promising compounds and needs more studies from the toxicological, soil, environmental and formulation points of view to stand on the most potent derivative that can be formulated in a suitable formulation form to be used in the field of pest control. Compounds (16a),(16b),(16f),(13b),(10a),(7a) and (3b) inhibited all growth parameters under study by different degrees. While compounds (13b) and (13a) were more effective on root and gerimination respectively. Most synthesized compounds inhibited markedly shoot growth.

[M.A.youssef, S.M.A.Sherif, A.M.A.Elkady and S.E.S.Hamouda. Synthesis of Some New Benzoxazole Acetonitrile Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Herbicidal Efficiency. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1080-1090]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: 2-cyanomethyl benzoxazole , 2-arylidene cyanomethyl benzoxazole, herbicidal activity, growth parameters, wheat and monocotyledonous plants

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Designing a Reliable Supply Chain Network Model under Disruption Risks 

Nader Azad, Hamid Davoudpour

 Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran. n.azad@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper, we consider random disruption risks in designing a reliable distribution network model. We consider the disputations in the location and the capacity of the distribution centers. In our model, the probability of disruption in distribution centers is dependent to the amount of investment for opening and operating them.

We show that this problem can be formulated as a non-linear integer programming model, and then for obtaining optimal solution, we linearize the mentioned model. In the following to solve the model in large-sized instances, a tabu search algorithm is developed. The results indicate that the tabu search method is efficient for a wide variety of problem sizes.

[Nader Azad, Hamid Davoudpour. Designing a Reliable Supply Chain Network Model under Disruption Risks. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1091-1097]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Supply chain network, Distribution network, Facility location, Random disruption risks, Tabu search

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Serum Fetuin-A in Chronic Renal Disease Patients: Contribution to Endothelial Dysfunction and Hemostatic alteration

Nadia A. Hussein1, Ola M. Mahmoud1, Manal Y. Zahran1,  Manar A. Rafaat2

1Hematology and 2Nephrology Departments, Theodor  Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

nadhussein@hotmail.com  

Abstract: Background/Aim: Fetuin-A is a circulating calcium-regulatory glycoprotein that inhibits vascular calcification. In the present study, serum fetuin-A was studied as a novel risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction (ED) and hemostatic alteration in patients with chronic renal disease (CRD). Patients and Methods: 15 CRD patients on conservative treatment, 15 end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on regular hemodialysis (HD) treatment and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Fetuin-A, thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), D-dimer, high sensitivity CRP (hs CRP) and IL-6 were measured by ELISA. Results: There was a significant reduction in Fetuin-A levels in CRD and HD patients compared to controls. A significant decrease was also detected in HD group when compared to CRD group. The inflammatory markers, hs CRP and IL-6, were significantly increased in CRD and HD patients in comparison to controls. The increase was also significant on comparing HD group to CRD group. A strong inverse correlation was found between serum fetuin-A and each of hs CRP and IL-6. In addition, regression analysis revealed that hs CRP is an independent determinant of serum fetuin-A level. The traditional markers of ED, TM and vWF, were significantly increased in CRD and HD patients compared to controls. The increase was also significant when HD patients were compared to CRD patients. The significant inverse correlation between fetuin-A and each of TM and vWF supports the hypothesis that low serum fetuin-A with subsequent vascular calcification could be one of the contributing factors for the development of ED in CKD and HD patients. The fibrinolytic parameters tPA, PAI-1 and D-dimer levels were significantly higher in CRD and HD compared to controls.  HD patients had significantly higher values of the previously mentioned parameters in comparison to CRD patients. t-PA, PAI-1 and D-dimer were significantly correlated to fetuin-A in CRD and HD patients. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that in CKD and HD patients inflammatory processes are increased and linked to low fetuin-A and vascular calcification which represents a novel risk factor for the development of ED. The interplay of these phenomena could be responsible for the development and progression of accelerated thrombogenesis that is peculiar to renal patients.

[Nadia A. Hussein, Ola M. Mahmoud, Manal Y. Zahran, Manar A. Rafaat. Serum Fetuin-A in Chronic Renal Disease Patients: Contribution to Endothelial Dysfunction and Hemostatic alteration. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1098-1105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Serum Fetuin; Chronic Renal Disease; Patients; Endothelial Dysfunction; Hemostatic alteration

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Electrogastrographic Findings in Cerebral Palsy Patients

 Nassar M.F.1 Aly R.H.1, Mahmoud N.H.2, El-Batrawy, S.R.3  and Abdel-Kereem N.1

 1Pediatrics Department and 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 3Department of Anthropology, National Institute of Research, Cairo, Egypt.

*maie_nassar@yahoo.co.uk

 Abstract: Objectives: This work was designed to detect any changes in the gastric electrical activity and gastrin levels in infants with cerebral palsy (CP) and correlate them to the clinical findings. Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 30 CP patients in comparison to 12 age and sex matched clinically healthy infants. All enrolled infants and children were initially subjected to complete history taking with special emphasis on gastrointestinal symptoms, clinical examination and routine laboratory procedures as well as total serum gastrin hormone by ELISA. Electrogastrographic (EEG) recording for gastric electrical activity was performed for all subjects upon enrollment.  Results: The initial power ratio was non-significantly higher in CP patients compared to the controls while the dominant frequency (DF) was non-significantly lower. Regarding the initial visual analysis of the EGG, 13 patients (43.3%) were normogastric compared to bradygastria in 16 (53.3%) of them. Initial serum gastrin was higher in CP patients compared to the controls. The regression analysis revealed that gastrin was the most determinant factor for dominant frequency values followed by the power ratio in the CP patients. Conclusion: In conclusion, CP patients have disturbed gastric motility which explains the different proximal gastrointestinal clinical manifestations experienced by our patients and this should be considered during their nutritional rehabilitation programs.

[Nassar M.F. Aly R.H., Mahmoud N.H., El-Batrawy, S.R.and Abdel-Kereem N. Electrogastrographic findings in cerebral palsy patients. Journal of American Science, 2010; 6(12): 1106-1113]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  http://www.americanscience.org.

 Key words: electrogastrography; gastrin; cerebral palsy

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Significance of Angiopoietin-2 as a Serum Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma 

Shereen Shoukry Hunter*1, Maha Sayed Hassab-Allaah1, Mahmoud Ahmad El-Ansary2, Faten M El Shanawani 3   and Mona M Hassan3

1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

3Clinical Chemistry Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

*shereenhunter@hotmail.com 

Abstract: Background and study aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and one of the major causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of Angiopoietin-2 as a non-invasive marker for HCC. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 30 patients with documented HCC and 30 cirrhotic patients with no evidence of HCC; as well as 30 healthy subjects who served as control group. The levels of alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) were measured for all cases together with full clinical assessment, liver biochemical profile, viral markers, ultrasound, abdominal triphasic computerized tomography (CT) scan and guided liver biopsy for HCC cases with atypical triphasic CT pattern. Results: There was a statistically highly significant elevation (p< 0.001) in the mean serum AFP in HCC group (155.5 ± 271.5 ng/ml) when compared with the control group (6.3 ± 2.4 ng/ml) and also a highly significant elevation (p<0.01) when compared to the cirrhosis group (29.3 ± 31.2 ng/ml). There was a statistically highly significant elevation (p< 0.001) in the mean serum Ang-2 in HCC group (10855 ± 5321.92 pg/ml) when compared with both the control (480.67 ± 202.3 pg/ml) and cirrhosis (5578.33 ± 2928.21 pg/ml) groups. The diagnostic sensitivity of AFP at a cutoff of 200 ng/ml was 24% and the specificity was 100%. The cutoff level of Ang-2 for diagnosis of HCC in this study was 8100 pg/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 80% respectively. Serum Ang-2 was significantly elevated in HCC patients with portal vein thrombosis than those without. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of hepatic focal lesions and the serum level of Ang-2. The combined use of the two markers (AFP and Ang-2) led to an increase in the sensitivity of AFP from 53.3% to 83.3%. Conclusion: Serum Ang-2 is elevated in patients with cirrhosis and further elevated in patients with HCC, so its use as an independent tumor marker in the diagnosis of HCC is to be considered. Simultaneous measurement of serum AFP and Ang-2 may enhance the sensitivity of HCC detection.

[Shereen Shoukry Hunter, Maha Sayed Hassab-Allaah, Mahmoud Ahmad El-Ansary, Faten M El Shanawani and Mona M Hassan. Significance of Angiopoietin-2 as a Serum Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1114-1123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords:  Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)

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Double -Control, Randomized Study of Antibiotic Prophylaxis during Standard Dose Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients

 Fatma Zakaria*1 and Mohamad Zakaria2

 Departments of Clinical Oncology1 and Microbiology2, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Abstract: Background: Dilemma of antibacterial prophylaxis after chemotherapy still opened. Patients and methods:Double, control trial in patients who were receiving cyclic chemotherapy for solid tumors or lymphoma and who were at risk of temporary, sever neutropenia (fewer than 500 neutrophils/ml).  Patients were randomly divided into two group, the first groups assigned to receive oral 500 mg of quinolone once daily for seven days during the expected neutropenic period, while the second group received no prophlaxis (control group). The primary end point was the incidence of clinically documented febrile episodes (FE) (temperature of more than 38oC) due to infection. Assessment of the risk of FE in controll group on first versus non first cycles with or without first cycle FE in the light of different pretreatment factors. Secondary end point included the incidence of all infections, severe infections, hospitalization and cost. Results: A total of 403 patients randomly divided into 201 patients received antibacterial prophylaxis quinolone (levofloxacin®) and 202 patients as control  group. The tumors included breast cancer 238 (59.1 percent), lung cancer 82 (20.3%), testicular cancer 34 (8.4%) and lymphoma 49 (12.2%). During the first cycle of chemotherapy, 3.5% of patients in the quinolone group had at least one febrile episode, as compared with 8.4% in the control group (P=0.009).The per- cycle FE rate for the first cycle was 8.4% compared with 4.4%  in non first cycles in control group. During the entire chemotherapy course, 9.5% of patients in the quinolone prophylactic group had at least one febrile episode; as compared with 16.3% in the control group (P ≤0.005).There was significant reduction in the rate of G3&G4 neutropenia in quinolone group (52%). The respective rates of infections were 33.8% and 42.1% (p=0.098) for quinolone versus control group. Hospitalization was required for treatment of infection in 3% of patients in the quinolone group and 7% of patients in the control group (P≤0.05). Respective rates of reduction of cost and length of stay (LOS) were 51.8% and 51.6% for infections in quinolone prophylactic group. Respective rates of sever infections were 1.0% and 2.0% (p≤0.06), for quinolone and control group, with one infection related death in each group. An organism was isolated in 194/250 cycles (77.6% of infections). Conclusions: Quinolone prophylaxis (levofloxacin is preferred) should be offered to those receiving standard dose chemotherapy for solid tumors and lymphomas to reduce incidence of fever, infection, hospitalization and cost with rational selection of patients for antibacterial prophylaxis with first cycle chemotherapy.

[Fatma Zakaria*1 and Mohamad Zakaria. Double -Control, Randomized Study of Antibiotic Prophylaxis during Standard Dose Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1124-1135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 Keywords: Antibiotic Prophylaxis; standard Dose; Chemotherapy; Cancer; Patient

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Protective Effect of Broccoli and Red Cabbage Against Hepaocellular Carcinoma Induced by N- Nitrosodiethyamine in Rats 

Aml F. M. Morsy*a, Hodaa S. Ibrahima and M. A. Shalabyb

a Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University, Egypt.

b  Pharmacology Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

* dr_aml_fawzy@yahoo.com  

Abstract: The hepatoprotective effect of broccoli and red cabbage extracts against hepatocellur carcinoma induced by N- Nitrosodiethyamine (NDEA) in male rats were studied. Four groups of rats were used; group (1) was used as a negative control (normal), while rats of the other groups were given NDEA as a single interperoitenial dose with subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) once weekly for six weeks to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Group (2) was left as a positive control, while groups (3) and (4) were pretreated with broccoli and red cabbage 10%extract, for 12 weeks, respectively. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis and liver tissues were histopathologically examined. The obtained results revealed that rats with hepatocellur carcinoma (HCC) had significant increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin and malondialdehyide (MDA), as well as significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, compared to the normal control group. Liver sections of rats with HCC showed fatty infiltration of hepatocytes, cytomegaly with karyomegaly as well as vesicular active nuclei and presence of more than one nucleolus in some hepatocytes. Oral administration of broccoli and red cabbage extracts caused significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin as well as MDA and produced significant increase in GSH, GPX, SOD and CAT, compared to the positive group. Liver of these rats revealed only slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, while other sections showed apparent normal hepatocytes. This study concluded that broccoli and red cabbage have a protective effect against hepatocellular carcinoma in rats, therefore this study recommends increased dietary intake of broccoli and red cabbage may be beneficial for patients with liver cancer as a preventative measures.          

[Aml F. M. Morsy, Hodaa S. Ibrahim and M. A. Shalaby. Protective Effect of Broccoli and Red Cabbage Against Hepaocellular Carcinoma Induced by N- Nitrosodiethyamine in Rats. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1136-1144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Broccoli; Red cabbage; Liver cancer; Biochemistry; Histopathology; Rat

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Eating Behavior and Problems in Egyptian Adolescents; Relation to Dietary Intake 

Zeinab M. Monir*; Abla G Khalifa; Fawzya Hassaballa; Sawsan Tawfeek;  Mohamed Abdelmonem, Moönes Abu Shady and Manal Mansour

Child Health Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. *zeinab_monir@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Objective of this study is to examine the presence of disordered eating (ED) behavior among Egyptian adolescent boys and girls and detect the influence of obesity, body image, depression, somatic symptoms, binging and weight teasing by peers and family members as well as assessing dietary intake of macronutrients and micronutrients and its correlation to obesity and eating disorder. Subjects and Methods: The sample consisted of 1124 adolescents (642 girls & 482 boys) aged from 14-17 years, divided according to their BMI into four groups. The questionnaires used were EAT, ACDI, body image, and teasing, 24hr- dietary recall. and sociodemographic data were collected. Results: we found that 25.5% & 38.6% of boys and girls reported ED that was significantly correlated to body image, bad eating habits, depression and somatic symptoms. ED is more prevalent among overweight-obese adolescents of high social class. Adolescents have deficient intake of vitamin A, calcium, thiamine and niacin; girls are more deficient in iron and boys are deficient in vitamin C. On assessing weight teasing by peers and family member by weight status and ED after adjustment for socioeconomic standard; there was statistically significant association with obesity in girls & boys. Conclusion: Social back ground, obesity, negative body image and depression and teasing are the main risk factors for developing ED. Early detection and intervention for ED by biological and psychological approaches, treatment of overweight and obesity using family based treatment; early detection of depression and encouraging sports practice are recommended.

[Zeinab M. Monir; Abla G Khalifa; Fawzya Hassaballa; Sawsan Tawfeek;  Mohamed Abdelmonem, Moönes Abu Shady and Manal Mansour. Eating Behavior and Problems in Egyptian Adolescents; Relation to Dietary Intake. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1145-1159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: eating disorder (ED), obesity, depressions, body image, teasing

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Raising Awareness of Deaf Students and their School Care-Givers about First Aid Intervention in Medical Emergencies 

Rabab El-Sayed Hassan*1 and Samar Elhoseiny Abd-Elraouf2

1Pediatric Nursing, 2Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University. Mansoura, Egypt, *biboelsayed@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Objectives: To assess and raise the awareness of deaf students and their school care-givers about first aid intervention in medical emergencies. Participants: All deaf students in both the preparatory and secondary levels of education in a school for the deaf, who were under 18 years old (n = 44), in addition to school dormitories care-givers (n = 2) were participated in this study. Research Hypothesis: An implementation of first aid intervention program would have a positive outcome on raising awareness of deaf students and their school care-givers in medical emergencies. Methods: Participants' knowledge and skills were assessed using pre and post test questionnaire sheet contained thirty seven quiz multiple choices statement questions in Arabic language. Moreover, post-test intervention didactic and practical learning sessions consisted of six video films on DVD-ROM are presented to the participants accompanied by sign language translation in order to achieve the research objectives. Results: An intervention program showed a clear positive outcome on raising awareness of deaf students and their school care-givers about first aid intervention in medical emergencies. The highest percentage of deaf students (61.4%) obtained the lowest sum score lies between zero to less than 25% in the pre-intervention phase, while about half of them (45.5%) obtained sum score lies between 50 to less than 75%, and more than tenth (11.3%) obtained the highest sum score that lies between 75 to 100% in the post-intervention phase, which revealed statistical significant differences in the participants' knowledge of skills at p=0.001 and 0.000. Similarly, pre knowledge sum scores of the two school care-givers about first aid skills rose from 43.2% and 63.2% respectively reached to the mastery level of 100% in response to the study intervention programmed. Conclusion: Although not enough for all items to be statistically significant, first aid intervention program raised the awareness of deaf students and their school care-givers.

[Rabab El-Sayed Hassan and Samar Elhoseiny Abd-Elraouf. Raising Awareness of Deaf Students and their School Care-Givers about First Aid Intervention in Medical Emergencies. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1160-1168]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Deaf children; First aid; school-age; Care-givers

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Sudeck’s Atrophy, Hyperhydrosis and other Hypersympathetic Syndromes, what is the Recent Proper Surgical Management? 

Abulazaym A.A.1* and Horria H.2

1Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

 2General surgery Department, Faculty of medicine, Mansoura University,  Mansoura, Egypt.

abaaaza51@yahoo.com*  

Abstract: Twenty eight patients with upper limb Sudeck’s atrophy (minor causalgia), hyperhydrosis (palmar and axillary) and causalgia were submitted to endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy as a definitive treatment. There were 9 patients with Sudeck’s atrophy, 16 patients with upper limb hyperhydrosis and 3 patients with major causalgia. The procedure was successful in curing 26 patients (92.86%) and gave mild improvement in two patients (7.14%) whom belonged to the Sudeck’s atrophy (minor causalgic) group because of the advanced dystrophic changes in their limbs. The commonest side effects were compensatory sweating. The procedure is effective, very simple, and required only two nights stay, and is recommended as a method of choice for the surgical treatment of hypersympathetic syndromes of the upper limbs as Sudeck’s atrophy, hyperhydrosis and major causalgia.

[Abulazaym A.A. and Horria H. Sudeck’s Atrophy, Hyperhydrosis and other Hypersympathetic Syndromes, what is the Recent Proper Surgical Management. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1169-1174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Sudeck’s Atrophy, Hyperhydrosis and other Hypersympathetic Syndromes, what is the Recent Proper Surgical Management

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Reconstructive Cervical Laminoplasty with the Preserved Fixed Spinous Processes Row as an Intervening Bone Graft; a Successful Novel Surgical Approach. 

Abulazaym A.A.*1 and  Meziad M.2

1Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Orthopedic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

abaaaza51@yahoo.com*  

Abstract: Study design: A prospective study to evaluate the outcome of a novel operation for cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical canal stenosis; the Reconstructive Cervical Laminoplasty with the preserved fixed spinous processes row as an intervening bone graft. Objective: To explore a more effective, less invasive and more physiological operative technique for cervical myelopathy of cervical spinal canal stenosis. Background: The popular two cervical laminoplasties for the nowadays becoming common in elderly people cervical myelopathy of cervical spinal canal stenosis, i.e. open door laminoplasty and double doors laminoplasty are plagued with many drawbacks such as around 50% diminution in the range of cervical movements, 25% occurrence of kyphotic deformity, laminar fusions, from 10% to 50% chronic axial neck pain and nuchal musculature atrophy. A more physiological modification of this very beneficial operation is badly needed. We presented our novel reconstructive cervical laminoplasty with the preserved fixed spinous processes row as an intervening bone graft to avoid such drawbacks. Methods: This prospective preliminary study included 14 patients who underwent the novel reconstructive cervical laminoplasty with the preserved fixed spinous processes row as an intervening bone graft operation for their cervical myelopathy. Results:  The novel operation is proved to be easier, more physiological and succeeded to avoid to a great extent the aforementioned drawbacks of the two popular cervical laminoplasties; only about 30% diminution of cervical movements occurred, no kyphotic deformities, post-operative axial neck pain was moderate and occurred in only 21% of the patients and the post operative nuchal musculature atrophy was avoided.   Conclusion:  Cervical myelopathy secondary to cervical spinal canal stenosis can be managed adequately with our novel cervical reconstructive myelopathy with the preserved fixed spinous processes row as an intervening bone graft. This technique obtained satisfactory outcomes and avoided the drawbacks of the popular laminoplasty operations. It can be a standard procedure for the surgical treatment of this nowadays becoming common disease.

[Abulazaym A.A. and  Meziad M. Reconstructive Cervical Laminoplasty with the Preserved Fixed Spinous Processes Row as an Intervening Bone Graft; a Successful Novel Surgical Approach. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1175-1180]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Reconstructive Cervical Laminoplasty; Spinous; Processes Row; Intervening Bone Graft; Novel

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The Effectiveness of the Intervention Program on the Attitude and Self-Concept of Students with Dyslexia

 Zeinab, Mihandoost1, Prof. Habibah Elias2, Prof. Sharifah Nor3, Dr. Rosnaini Mahmud4

1Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

2 Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

3 Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

4 Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

xozns2006@yahoo.com

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the Barton Intervention Program on the attitude and self-concept of dyslexic students. The Dyslexia Screening Instrument (DSI), and Reading Text were employed in order to identify the dyslexic students in schools in Ilam, Iran. The population of the study included 138 dyslexic students studying in elementary schools in Ilam, Iran and from this population, 64 students were selected randomly and assigned equally to an experimental group and a control group (32 students in each group). The experimental group was taught for 36 sessions using the Barton method, in two levels, and ten lessons were provided to improve their reading skills. Reading attitude and self-concept to read instruments were employed to measure their attitude and self-concept, before and after the intervention program. The reliability of the reading attitude and self-concept were confirmed. The content validity of the scales was investigated using the judgment of 10 psychology experts.  The analysis of the finding through independent t-test showed a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group after the intervention, at ρ<0.000.

[Zeinab, Mihandoost, Prof. Habibah Elias, Prof. Sharifah Nor, Dr. Rosnaini Mahmud. The Effectiveness of the Intervention Program on the Attitude and Self-Concept of Students with Dyslexia. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1181-1191]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Intervention program; attitude; self-concept; dyslexia

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Evaluation of two different implant designs for immediate placement and loading in fresh extraction sockets 

Amr Zahran1, Hisham Samy2, Basma Mostafa 3, Ramy Rafik4

1.         Professor, Department of Periodontology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2.         Assistant Professor, Department of  Periodontology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3.         Researcher, Department of Surgery and Oral Medicine, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

4.         Assistant Researcher, Department of Surgery and Oral Medicine, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt 

Corresponding author: Dr. Basma Mostafa Zaki, BDS, MDS, PhD

Researcher, Department of Surgery and Oral Medicine, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street

Dokki- Cairo- Egypt-12311, Phone: +202 0124901019; E-mail: boshta@hotmail.com 

Abstract: This study was conducted to compare between two self-tapping, self-drilling tapered one-piece implant designs used for immediate post-extraction placement with the immediate loading protocol. Materials and Methods: Ten patients (6 males and 4 females), with a mean age of 28.5 years (range 18-39 years) were included in this study. All selected patients had two or more maxillary unrestorable hopeless anterior or premolar teeth indicated for extraction. Each patient received two implants of different designs (The OsteoCare™ Midi and Maxi-Z implants) which were placed in fresh extraction sockets and immediately loaded. Clinical criteria were survival rate, papillary bleeding index, probing depth, gingival index, Periotest M values, crestal bone level and bone density. An overall survival rate of 100% was attained. The results showed no significant difference in both the bleeding index and gingival index scores and also in the probing depth values, bone density measurements and crestal bone level for both implant designs after 3 and 6 months. The mean and the standard deviation of the Periotest M values (PTMV) for the Midi and the Maxi-Z implants immediately post operative were (-1.83+0.8) and (-2.57+0.9) and after 6 months were (-3.06+0.7) and (-3.11+0.7) showing a significant difference immediately postoperative and no significant difference after 6 months. Surface area analysis revealed that there is a direct relation between the initial stability and the surface area. Conclusion;It can be concluded that the immediate implant placement and loading using both designs is a successful treatment modality and the prognosis depends on proper case selection and treatment planning.

[Amr Zahran, Hisham Samy, Basma Mostafa, Ramy Rafik. Evaluation of two different implant designs for immediate placement and loading in fresh extraction sockets. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1192-1199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Dental implants, immediate implant, immediate loading, two implant designs

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Grape seed extract alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male rats 

Hala, A.H. Khattab a, Inas, Z.A. Abdallaha and Gehan, M. Kamel b

a Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University

b Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University

haya_khattab@hotmail.com 

Abstract: Natural dietary antioxidants are studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damage. Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitacease) is a potent antioxidant. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against the possible testicular dysfunction caused by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in male rats. Twenty sexually mature male albino rats were divided into four equal groups, the first served as negative control, the second received AlCl3 (20 mg/kg bw, 1/ 20 LD 50), the third administered GSE (75 mg/kg bw), and the fourth received AlCl3 and treated with GSE. Doses were given once daily via gavage for 70 consecutive days. The results revealed that, AlCl3 induced significant decrease in final body weight, sex organs relative weight, sperm concentration, motility and viability, serum testosterone concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, with significant increase in sperm abnormalities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentrations. Moreover, AlCl3 induced apparent alteration in the histological structure of the testis. Treatment with GSE ameliorated the harmful effects of AlCl3, this was also proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testis tissues . It may be concluded that GSE may be promising as a natural therapeutic agent in AlCl3-induced reproductive toxicity and oxidative stress in the male rat testes.

[Hala, A.H. Khattab, Inas, Z.A. Abdallah and Gehan, M. Kamel. Grape seed extract alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male rats. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1200-1209]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Grape seed extract- aluminium chloride- reproductive- experimental animals

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Assessment of Body Composition, Fat Distribution and Serum lipid Profile in Obese School Children

Nayera E. Hassan1,  Sahar A. El-Masry*1, Rokia A. El Banna1, Mona Salam2, Azza M Sarry El-Din1, Tarek S Ibrahim2 and Mona Anwar3

1Biological Anthropology Dept., 2 Child Health Dept., 3Medical Biochemistry Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*masrysa@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Objective: To determine the relationship between body compositions, fat distribution and blood lipid profile in obese school children aged 7 to 18 years. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, 150 pupils between the ages of 7 to 18 years were included. Anthropometric measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, peripheral adiposity: as the sum of triceps and biceps skinfold thickness, central adiposity: as the sum of sub scapular, suprailiac and abdominal skinfold thickness), body composition and serum total lipids profile were assessed. Results: There are significant sex differences in ages 7 -18 years regarding BMI, abdominal skinfold thickness and TC/ HDL-C, and in peripheral adiposity at young age (7-11 years) and central one at adolescents (12-18 years). Body composition and fat distribution showed significant sex differences in adolescent period only; and in fat distribution in young age period. For young age, triglycerides and HDL-C are correlated to most of the body composition and anthropometric parameters in boys and not in girls. For adolescents, there is no correlation between any one of the lipid profile and the body composition and anthropometric parameters in either gender. Conclusion: This study has shown that in comparison to girls, the correlation of body composition, fat distribution and lipid profiles were higher in boys aged 7 – 11 years only, with a tendency to develop the higher risk level of cardio vascular disease. Particular attention should be focused on the time prevention of childhood obesity.

[Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia A. El Banna, Mona Salam, Azza M Sarry El-Din, Tarek S Ibrahim and Mona Anwar. Assessment of Body Composition, Fat Distribution and Serum lipid Profile in Obese School Children. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1210-1217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Body composition, Anthropometry, fat distribution, lipid profile, School children, Risk of cardiovascular disease

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Evaluate of Head Loss, Sediment Value and Iron Removal in Rapid Sand Filter 

Hossein Banejad 1, Reza Pirtaj Hamedany 1, Navab Daneshi 1

1. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

Hossein_banejad@yahoo.com  

Abstract: Quality and appropriate quantity of water is necessary for human kind to survive. Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Iron is the fixed element found in the crust of the earth. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of iron. sediment value and head loss arising from it specially oxidized iron sediments in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models  in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input iron concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in iron concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in (1) appropriate design of rapid sand filter to iron removal, (2) prediction of rapid sand filter ability to iron removal and (3) estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash. [Hossein Banejad, Reza Pirtaj Hamedany, Navab Daneshi. Evaluate of Head Loss, Sediment Value and Iron Removal in Rapid Sand Filter

[Hossein Banejad, Reza Pirtaj Hamedany, Navab Daneshi. Evaluate of Head Loss, Sediment Value and Iron Removal in Rapid Sand Filter. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1218-1226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Sand filter, Iron concentration, Removal efficiency, Head loss

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Comparative Study Of Isocratic And Gradient Elution Chromatography In Stability Indicating Assay Of An Antihypertensive Drug Combination.

M. Abdel Kawy*, A.E. El-Gendy**, E.S. Shokry**

* Faculty of pharmacy, Cairo university

** Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University

ABSTRACT: Inspite that chromatographers are cautioned to avoid gradient elution when isocratic elution will do. In this work, the analytical properties of gradient and isocratic elution applied to separation of a complex sample of (fosinopril, hydrochlorothiazide and their degradation products) which can be done under isocratic condition are compared. Procedures were developed for determining fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in presence of each other and their degradation products by HPLC in the gradient elution mode using methanol- 20 mM KH2PO4 (PH 2.4) containing 0.1% triethyl amine. In the isocratic mode, the same mobile phase composition was applied in a constant ratio of 60: 40 (Buffer: methanol). Separation was achieved on a cyanopropyl column (4 x 250 mm, 5 mm) known for its high selectivity for polar and hydrophilic compounds and the least retentive of hydrophobic compounds which do not normally elute on standard C18 or C8 columns. The present work shows that gradient elution gave a shorter overall analysis time with similar resolution of the critical pair without sacrificing  repeatability in parameters, so many of the reasons given to avoid gradient elution deserve serious reconsideration especially for those samples that can be separated isocratically.

[M. Abdel Kawy, A.E. El-Gendy, E.S. Shokry. Comparative Study Of Isocratic And Gradient Elution Chromatography In Stability Indicating Assay Of An Antihypertensive Drug Combination. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1227-1236]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Comparative Study; Isocratic And Gradient Elution Chromatography; Stability; Antihypertensive Drug Combination

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Effect of Rhazya stricta extract on rat adiponectin gene and insulin resistance.

 Nabih A. Baeshen1, Sahira A. Lari2, Huda A. R. Al Doghaither1 and Hassan A. I. Ramadan1, 3

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah

3Department of Cell Biology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt

 Abstract: Rhazya stricta plants have always played a major role in the treatment of human and animal diseases.  The aim of this study was to study the effect of different doses of Rhazya stricta extract administered orally to rats, treatment period, effect on adiponectin protein, insulin resistance and finally its effect on exon 3 of adiponectin gene. Oral administration of aqueous leaves extracts of Rhazya stricta evoked fluctuations in adiponectin levels during eighteen weeks period of treatment. Serum adiponectin levels showed a significant increase after 2 and 4 weeks of treatments. Also a highly significant increase in adiponectin level, compared with the control group, was detected in rats treated with 0.125 gm/ml and 0.150 gm/ml after eighteen weeks of treatment. Insulin resistance is an important risk factor for type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we performed HOMA-IR to check the degree of insulin resistance in rats. The results showed an inverse highly significant correlation between adiponectin levels and insulin resistance degrees after two weeks of treatment with Rhazya stricta. Studies published to date indicate that polymorphisms at the adiponectin gene (exon 3) are indeed predictors of circulating adiponectin levels. However, our results showed a significance increase in adiponectin levels, we did not detect any rare mutation in this locus using CSGE technique. The effects of Rhazya stricta extract on the increase of adiponectin levels concentrations could be promising issue (after avoiding its possible mutagenic effects) in treating diabetes, carbohydrate metabolism, hypertension, as well as inflammatory conditions.

[Nabih A. Baeshen, Sahira A. Lari, Huda A. R. Al Doghaither and Hassan A. I. Ramadan. Effect of Rhazya stricta extract on rat adiponectin gene and insulin resistance. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1237-1245]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Rhazia stricta; rat adiponectin gene, exon 3; insulin resistance; mutagenicity

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Biomonitoring Of Aquatic Ecosystem With Concept And Procedures Particular Reference To Aquatic Macro invertebrates 

Shailendra Sharma, Praveen Sharma

*Department of Zoology, Shari Umiya Girls College, Mandleshwar,(M.P.) India

**Department of Chemistry, Narmada Samagra, Bhopal,(M.P.) India

shailendra.b.sharma@gmail.com  

ABSTRACT: The “biological monitoring” has been widely used to assess the environmental impact of pollutant discharges. The methodology must be evaluated in terms of false positives and false negatives. A false positive is an indication that an excursion beyond previously established quality control conditions (i.e., unacceptable conditions) has occurred when, in fact, one has not. A false negative is an indication that conditions are acceptable when, in fact, they are not. Statistics must play a more important role in biological monitoring because they are capable of explicit statements of confidence in the biological monitoring results. With appropriate statistical evaluation of the data, professional judgment on whether to initiate immediate action or wait for more confirming data will be more objective and reliable. In order to optimize the usefulness of biological monitoring, the selection of biological monitoring methodology shall not be based on the investigator’s favorite organism or group of organisms. Neither can be a convenient methodology adopted by regulatory agencies. The selections must be based on the compatibility of data generated with the decision making process, including the statistical establishment of confidence in the result obtained.

[Shailendra Sharma, Praveen Sharma. Biomonitoring Of Aquatic Ecosystem With Concept And Procedures Particular Reference To Aquatic Macro invertebrates. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1246-1255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key words: Biomonitaring, bioindicator, diversity indices, saprobic indix, macroinvertebrates

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Effect of different phosphatic fertilizers on growth attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Muhammad Bilal Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal Lone1, Rehmat Ullah2*, Shuaib Kaleem3 and Muhammad Ahmed3

1Department of Soil Science & SWC, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi

2Soil and Water Testing Laboratory, Rajanpur-Punjab-Pakistan

3Agriculture Adoptive Research Complex, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab-Pakistan

rehmat1169@yahoo.com

Abstract: Among all the elements required by a plant, phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for crop production and emphasis is being given on the sufficient use of P fertilizer for sustainable crop production. A pot experiment was conducted in green house at the Department of Soil Science and SWC, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during Rabi season, 2007. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 40 and 80 kg P ha-1 in the form of SSP, TSP, NP and DAP. A basal doze of 100 kg N and 60 kg K ha-1 was applied as urea and murate of potash (MOP) respectively. All the growth parameters of wheat were significantly improved by addition of P application. It was concluded from the study that phosphorus application at the rate of 80kg P ha-1 as single super phosphate (SSP) showed better results as compared to triple super phosphate (TSP), nitrophos (NP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) on phosphorus deficient soil of Balkasr area of Tehsil Chakwal.

[Muhammad Bilal Khan, Muhammad Iqbal Lone, Rehmat Ullah, Shuaib Kaleem and Muhammad Ahmed. Effect of different phosphatic fertilizers on growth attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1256-1262]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Key Words: Phosphorus, Wheat, Growth Attributes, P Fertilizer, calcareous soil

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A new categorization of construction materials based on sources of waste

across supply chain

 

Mohamad Reza Parsanejad¹, Mansor Momeni², Ahmad Jafarnejad³, Ali Mohaghar4

1,2,3,4 Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran parsanejad@ut.ac.ir

  

Abstract: Construction industry is an important part of any economy. But it does not have an appropriate performance especially in the productivity of materials. Statistics show production of billions of tons of construction waste per year in the world, and these issues threaten all beneficiaries of this industry. Thus, convenient strategies should be founded for improving waste production. This will not be achieved unless we recognize waste sources across construction supply chain. Also each material has its own source of waste, therefore exact identification of any material  and  after  that  its  source  will  help  to  develop  waste  minimization  strategies. In this research 30 questionnaires were distributed between experts. At first we prioritized waste sources, and by following the question about impact of sources on selected material, using binominal test, it observed that a category of sources had impact on some of material and another sources on another materials. Analysis of these two types of materials showed us that this result was not accidental and those materials when use in building, their dimensions is important (like brick, block, tile and etc.), those sources have impact on their waste that emphasize design parameters of building. Those material when use in building, their weight are important (like cement, gypsum, sand and etc.), those sources have impact on their waste that emphasize purchasing level of ordering and purchasing. Therefore materials categorized by their sources of waste across supply chain.

[Mohamad Reza Parsanejad, Mansor Momeni, Ahmad Jafarnejad, Ali Mohaghar. A new categorization of construction materials Based on sources of waste across supply chain. Journal of American Science 2010; 6(12):1263-1273]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Waste, Source of waste, Construction supply chain, Non-coordination, Dimensional, Weight based

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Effect of miso (A soybean fermented food) on some human cell lines; HEPG2, MCF7 and HCT116 

Abeer Abu Zaid 1, 2 and Nahla S. El-Shenawy2,3*

1Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Soy product Processing Center, Egypt. 2Biology department, Faculty of Science, Taif University (Qurwa), Taif, Saudi Arabia.

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt

elshenawy_nahla@hotmail.com 

Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the antitumor activity of miso, storage at different period or prepared with different starters, on human cell lines {HEPG2 (liver carcinoma), MCF7 (breast carcinoma), and HCT116 (colon carcinoma)}. The highest inhibitory effect on liver and breast carcinoma was seen when miso used after fermentation/aging zero time without storage period. Miso with different storage period (zero, 6 months and 5 years) has the same effect on colon carcinoma. Preparation of miso with different mixture of starters was also investigated on the same human tumor cell lines in culture. Miso prepared with A. oryzae and Bacillus subtilis starters inhibited the proliferation of human tumor cell lines culture with a wide variation in LC50 values (2.97, 3.37 and 3.37 µg/ml for MCF7, MCT116 and HEPG2, respectively). Miso prepared with Aspergillus oryzae and Pleurotus ostreaus starters inhibited human tumor cell line cultures with different LC50 values (10.9, 17.5 and 24.3 µg/ml for MCF7, MCT116 and HEPG2, respectively). The miso prepared with A. oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae effect only on MCF7 and HEPG2 with high LC50 values (25.5 and 35.8 µg/ml, respectively). We can conclude that the mixture of A. oryzae and Bacillus subtilis has the best effect among the other mixture of starters. The results indicated that all of fermented soybeans products with different mixture of starters contained higher isoflavones compounds than unfermented cooked soybeans. Moreover, soybean fermented with B. subtilis showed highest amount of isoflavones. Therefore, miso can be used as anticancer.

[Abeer Abu Zaid and Nahla S. El-Shenawy. Effect of miso (A soybean fermented food) on some human cell lines; HEPG2, MCF7 and HCT116. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1274-1282]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Miso; Human cell lines; Amino acid; Fatty acid; Isoflavones; Aspergillus oryzae; Bacillus subtili; Rhizopus oryzae; Pleurotus ostreaus

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Oxidative Stress in Brains of Rats Intoxicated With Aluminum and the Neuromodulating Effect of Different Forms of Sage  

EL-Kholy, W.M.; EL-Habibi, E.M. and Mousa, A.T.

Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk  

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the status of antioxidant system in the management of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced brain toxicity in rats and further to elucidate the potential role of three forms of Salvia officinalis (sage) in alleviating such negative effects. The results revealed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) were significantly increased, however, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the reduced glutathione (GSH) content  were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex (Co) and hippocampus (Hip) of rats intoxicated with AlCl3 . Inhibition, the lipid profile, total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly increased in serum and the mentioned brain regions, while phospholipids (PL), total protein (TP) and serum HDL-C were significantly decreased in AlCl3 group. Additionally, serum and brain regions acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities were significantly increased. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, sage when given in any form along with AlCl3 was able to regulate the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It can be concluded that Al-induced neuronal oxidative stress and inhibition of the antioxidant system, accompanied with disturbed lipid profile, total protein and enzyme activities could be the cause of AlCl3 neurotoxicity. In addition there different sage forms, by their antioxidant constituents, could be able to antagonize Al neurotoxicity perhaps by reducing the oxidative stress and improving the antioxidant status and particularly by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase activity, thus may improve memory and other brain cognitive activities.

[EL-Kholy, W.M.; EL-Habibi, E.M. and Mousa, A.T. Oxidative Stress in Brains of Rats Intoxicated With Aluminum and the Neuromodulating Effect of Different Forms of Sage. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1283-1297]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Key words: Aluminum neurotoxicity- Alzheimer’s disease- Salvia officinalis - Lipid peroxidation -Antioxidants-acetylcholinesterase

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First Record of Microsporidium Neonosemoides Sp. and some Ciliates Infecting Chrysichthus Auratus (Bagridae) from the Damietta Branch of River Nile, Egypt 

Enayat Salem Ahmed Reda

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

enayatSalem40@yahoo.com  

Abstract: The present study was carried out as a general survey for the possible ectoparasites that can infect the Nile fish Chrysichthus auratus. A total of 52 fish specimens were collected from Damietta branch of River Nile. Examination of the investigated fish revealed that, fish were infected with four ectoparasitic species belonging to three genera. These species were: Neonosemoides sp., Scyphidia sp. 1, Scyphidia sp. 2 and Ichthyophthirius multifillis. The first three species were recorded for the first time in Egypt. The recovered parasites have pathological effects on the host fish with subsequent economic losses were discussed.

[Enayat Salem Ahmed Reda. First Record of Microsporidium Neonosemoides Sp. and some Ciliates Infecting Chrysichthus Auratus (Bagridae) from the Damietta Branch of River Nile, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1298-1305]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key words: Neonosemoides sp., Ciliates, Chrysichthus auratus, River Nile. Egypt.

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Biochemical studies on some cotton by products Part I- Chemical constituents and cellulose extraction of Egyptian cotton stalks

*Fouad A. Ahmed; *Nadia M. Abdel-Moein ; **Amal S. Mohamed and **Shaimaa E. Ahmed

*Agric. Biochemistry Dep., Fac. Agric., Cairo University

** Cotton Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

shrose22@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: The main objectives of the current investigation are to compare some chemical constituents, mainly cell wall components (cellulose and lignin), of stalks of five Egyptian cotton cultivars, as a step to convert a low valued bio-wastes of cotton plant stalks into highly value product as pure cellulose, which will, also, contributed in solving major environmental and health problem in Egypt. Lignocellulosic raw material cultivars; Giza 80, Giza 85, Giza 89, Giza 86, and Giza 90 were used in this study. They were obtained from Cotton Research Institute experimental fields. As first stage, chemical analysis comparison among aforementioned cultivars was conducted. The results showed that, there were significant differences among the five studied cultivars in moisture, Lipids, wax, crude fibers and β cellulose contents. As coincides, ash, protein, holocellulose, hemicellulose, α cellulose and lignin percentages exhibits no significant differences among cultivars. The highest percentages of moisture estimated in Giza 89 (7.74%), also in ash and lignin (3.39% and 25.75%, respectively), but it was the lowest cultivar in wax percentage (2.43%). Giza 86 showed the highest percentage in lipids and crude fibers (1.96% and 46.92, respectively), also in protein and holocellulose percentages (5.12 and 77.26 %, respectively), but it was the lowest cultivar in β cellulose (1.11%) as well as ash (2.95 %). The highest percentage in wax and β cellulose estimate (3.67% and 2.72%, respectively) was in Giza 90, but it was the lowest cultivar in Lipids (0.96%) and hemicellulose (40.04%). The highest percentages in α cellulose (49.21%) was in Giza 80 which reflected the lowest percentage in the crude fibers (38.75%). The second stage was the preparation of cellulose by removing the waxes, lignin, and hemicellulose, since cotton stalk consists of 75±2% holocellulose percentage and 44±5% α cellulose %. The third stage was conducting physical test by analyzing the sample that was prepared by X-ray, then comparison with standard cellulose sample chart to confirm its structure as cellulose.

[Fouad A. Ahmed; *Nadia M. Abdel-Moein; **Amal S. Mohamed and **Shaimaa E. Ahmed. Biochemical studies on some cotton by products Part I- Chemical constituents and cellulose extraction of Egyptian cotton stalks. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1306-1313]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Cotton; stalk; Delignification; Hemicellulose; Cellulose; X-ray

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Bacterial infections affecting marine fishes in Egypt

M. Moustafa 1, Laila. A. Mohamed2, M.A. Mahmoud3, W.S , Soliman2, , A.E. Eissa 1 and M.Y. El-gendy2

1   Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Giza, Egypt

2   Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt

3   Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Giza, Egypt

4    Corresponding Author

 Abstract: Marine fishes are suffering from continuous depletion due to bacterial pathogens infections triggered by devastating environmental changes at their native aquatic environment. Qarun Lake and Suez Gulf are among the most vulnerable areas.  600 fish samples of Six different fish species;  Epinephelus tuvina, Sisganus rivulatus, and Dedlechilus labiosus native to Suez-gulf at Suez governorate; Mugil capito , Solea vulgaris and Tilapia zilli native to Qarun Lake at El-Fayoum governorate were examined throughout the different year seasons.  Gram positive and negative fish pathogenic bacteria were isolated from a total of 245 fish sample. Among those samples, the following bacteria were retrieved in the following percentages respectively, 17.55% (Vibrio. anguillarum), 16.73% (Vibrio. alginolyticus), 15.51% (Pasteurella. piscicida), 15.91% (Pseudomonas. fluorescens), 13.46% (Streptococus. fecalis), 11.02% (Aeromans . hydrophila), 6.12% (Aeromans. sobria) and 3.67% were infected with Staph. aureus. The Siganus rivulatus was the highest infected fish species with a prevalence of 8.33%, while Mugil capito was the lowest infected species (5.67 %). The highest total prevalence of bacterial infection was recorded in summer season (40.81%) while the lowest was recorded in winter (15.91%). The aforementioned bacterial isolates were successfully re-isolated from experimentally infected fish. The retrieved isolates were confirmed by semi-automated (API 20 E) and conventional biochemical tests.

[M. Moustafa, Laila. A. Mohamed, M.A. Mahmoud, W.S, Soliman, A.E. Eissa and M.Y. El-gendy. Bacterial infections affecting marine fishes in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1314-1324]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 Keywords: Marine fishes, Bacterial diseases ,Diagnosis, seasonal variation

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Clinical Prespective Of Repeat Breeding Syndrome In Buffaloes 

Ahmed W.M., El-khadrawy H.H., Emtenan M. Hanafi , Amal H. Ali ,  Shalaby S.A. 

Department of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, National Research Centre Dokki,Cairo, Egypt. (wahidmma@hotmail.com) 

ABSTRACT: Local meat production in Egypt is in continuous decrease and can not meet the local market requirement. So this study was designed to throw light on true repeat breeding syndrome (RBS) as one of the reproductive disorders that hinders the buffalo meat and milk production. A field survey was carried out on 1358 female buffaloes which were subjected to clinical and gynecological examination , and blood samples were collected for carrying out some relevant analyses. Treatment trials were practiced using different ways to control the condition and the economic impact of this syndrome has been studied. Results revealed that the incidence of clinical repeat breeding (RB) in the examined buffalo cows was 4.34 %. Typical repeat breeders represented 7.25 % of total reproductive disorders in female buffaloes. Serum progesterone level was 1.44 ± 0.39 and 3.66±0.84 in RB and normal buffaloes (NB), respectively. Oxidant/antioxidant markers in RB buffalo-cows showed increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and decreased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid (ASCA), reduced glutathione (R-GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum zinc, copper,iron and selenium values were lower in repeat breeder cows compared to normal animals. Repeat breeder buffalo-cows responded to the treatments with mineral mixture, GnRH and Lugol‘s solution with recovery rates; 63.64, 61.54 and 60.00%, respectively. The study concluded that special care should be paid for food additives to control this syndrome.

[Ahmed W.M., El-khadrawy H.H., Emtenan M. Hanafi , Amal H. Ali, Shalaby S.A. Clinical Prespective Of Repeat Breeding Syndrome In Buffaloes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1325-1331]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Key words:   Repeat breeding buffaloes - progesterone - oxidant/antioxidants and trace elements

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Efficiency of Natural Minerals in Presence of Different Nitrogen Forms and Potassium Dissolving Bacteria on Peanut and Sesame Yields 

Gehan H. Youssef, Wafaa M. A. Seddik and Mona A. Osman

Soil, Water and Environ. Research Institute, agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt 

ABSTRACT: A field experiment was carried out for two summer seasons at Ismailia Agric. Res. Station to study the effect of some natural minerals combined with potassium dissolving bacteria inoculation in the presence of different nitrogen forms on chemical properties of soil, nutritional status and yield of peanut-sesame. Each experiment was designed in a split-split design with three replications. Three forms of nitrogen fertilizer were included along with two natural minerals, in a presence of potassium dissolving bacteria inoculation, as well as one mineral fertilizer as source potassium fertilizer. Furthermore, data show high significant increases in available N due to the application of ammonium nitrate in combination with feldspar, and calcium nitrate in combination with potassium sulfate in a presence of inoculation for peanut and sesame, respectively. However, application of calcium nitrate combined with potassium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate in combination with feldspar, in a presence of inoculation, led to significant increases in K available in soil for peanut and sesame, respectively. Oppositely, the pH values, different to those of EC,  decreased either for inoculation or non-inoculation as compared to control. In spite of that, the values of EC and pH of soil were higher with application of either bentonite or bentonite + feldspar in a presence of all nitrogen fertilizer forms. Generally, the highest EC values in soil, after the two studied seasons were encountered with calcium nitrate fertilizer as well as bentonite mineral. Moreover, applying feldspar mineral and ammonium nitrate treatments had recorded the highest values of yield components as well as nutrient (N and K) uptake by either peanut or sesame crops, particularly in the presence of inoculation as compared to those given by other treatments.

[Gehan H. Youssef, Wafaa M. A. Seddik and Mona A. Osman. Efficiency of Natural Minerals in Presence of Different Nitrogen Forms and Potassium Dissolving Bacteria on Peanut and Sesame Yields. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1332-1345]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Natural Mineral; Nitrogen; Potassium; Bacteria; Peanut; Sesame

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Mitochoderial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) gene sequence of the Hymenolepis species. 

Omnia M. Kandil, Mona S. Mahmoud, Nesreen A.T. Allam, Amira H. El Namaky

Corresponding author: Kandil, O.M., Prof. of Parasitology, Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, Veterinary Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, P.O. Box 12622, Fax +20233370931, Mobile +20105414113 kandil_om@yahoo.com

Mahmoud, M.S., Prof. of Parasitology, Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, Veterinary Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, P.O. Box 12622,  monasaid3000@yahoo.com

Allam, N. A. T., Researcher of Molecular Biology and Animal Diseases, Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, Veterinary Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, P.O. Box 12622, nesreenallam_nrc@yahoo.com

El Namaky, A.H., Researcher of Parasitology, Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, Veterinary Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, P.O. Box 12622, amiraelnamaky@g.mail.com 

Abstract: Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta are the most common cestodes in humans, domestic and wild rodents.  Since isolates of H. nana species are morphologically identical, the way they can be reliably distinguished is comparing the parasite in each host using molecular techniques. In the current study, Mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase gene especially codons within subunit 1 (cox1) of H. diminuta and H. nana Egyptian isolates from different developmental stages (adult worms and eggs) and hosts origin (human and rat) were amplified, sequenced and aligned. PCR products were approximately 700 bp, 702 bp and 715 bp of  H. nana rat isolates, H. diminuta rat isolates, and H. nana human isolates, respectively. Moreover, despite their host susceptibility differences they all gathered in one cluster with three genbank  published isolates of H. nana; AB033412.1,  AB494472.1 and AY121842.1), forming one clade with 100% similarity, which was non significantly decreased on internal nodes. In addition, clearly far away from H. diminuta published sequence AB033412.1 who's assumed to be genetically closely related to Egyptian H. diminuta than all other H. nana isolates. Both Egyptian murine isolates of Hymenolipidid; H. diminuta and H. nana, were closer to each other than being to H. nana of human origin. The annotated sequences of Egyptian isolates were deposited in GenBank under the following accession numbers; H. diminuta (GU433102), H. nana rat isolate (GU433103), and H. nana human isolate (GU433104). Finally, the development of effective control strategies will only be possible if complete understanding of the epidemiology of infestation is elucidated.

[Omnia M. Kandil, Mona S. Mahmoud, Nesreen A.T. Allam, Amira H. El Namaky. Mitochoderial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) gene sequence of the Hymenolepis species. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1346-1353]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Hymenolepidid, Phylogeny, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), Sequencing

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Eusyllinae, Anoplosyllinae, and Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) for the Mediterranean Coasts of Egypt, Together the Description of One New Species 

F. A. Abd-Elnaby*¹ and G. San Martín²

1National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt

2 Departamento de Biología (Zoología), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, calle Darwin, 2, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

*faiza_abdelnaby@yahoo.com 

Abstract: In this paper, 18 species of the subfamilies Exogoninae, Anoplosyllinae, and Eusyllinae (Syllidae, Polychaeta) are reported from the Mediterranean Egyptian coasts, 8 of them are new records for the area: Odontosyllis fulgurans (Audouin and Milne Edwards, 1833); Syllides japonicus Imajima, 1966; Salvatoria clavata (Claparede, 1863); Salvatoria euritmica (Sardá, 1984); Sphaerosyllis glandulata Perkins, 1981; Parapionosyllis labornica Cognetti, 1965; Sphaerosyllis sp.; and Prosphaerosyllis sp. Five species were reported previously in the area. Four species are new records for Mediterranean Sea: Palposyllis prosostoma Hartmann-Schröder, 1977; Paraehlersia weissmaniodes (Augener,1913); Streptosyllis compoyi Brito, Núñez and San Martín, 2000; and Exogone africana Hartmann-Schröder, 1974); P. weissmaniodes and Exogone africana are two widely distributed Indo-Pacific species, so they could be considered as Lessepsian migrants. Finally, one new species is described, Parapionosyllis aegyptia.

[F. A. Abd-Elnaby*¹ and G. San Martín. Eusyllinae, Anoplosyllinae, and Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) for the Mediterranean Coasts of Egypt, Together the Description of One New Species. Journal of American Science 2010;6(12):1354-1363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

Keywords: Eusyllinae, Anoplosyllinae,  Exogoninae, Taxonomy, Mediterranean, Egypt, New species

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Association of Depression and Anxiety Disorders with Weight Status among Egyptian School Children: Giza Governorate 

Zeinab M Monira; Abla G Khalifaa & Manal Mansourb

The child health department; National Research Center, Dokki, Giza; Egypt, abla_ncr@yahoo.com.

a Professor Child Health; b Assistant Professor Child Health

*abla_ncr@yahoo.com.           Tel.: 0123723398