Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 34

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0701

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 19, 2010. 
 
All comments are welcome: editor@americanscience.org

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS  

 

  No.

Titles / Authors

page

 

1

The Effects of Processing on the Anti-Nutritional Properties of ‘Oze(Bosqueia angolensis) Seeds

 

Nwosu, J. N.

 

Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

ifytina19972003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oze’ (Bosqueia angolensis) is found in the tropical rain forest and grows in thick humid forest of undisturbed land. It belongs to the family Moracea. Wholesome ‘oze’ (Bosqueia angolensis) seeds were given different treatments, which included blanching, cooking, roasting and malting. The samples obtained from these treatments were analyzed for anti-nutritional properties. The ‘oze’ seeds had up to eleven anti-nutrients with alkaloids (2730 mg/100 g) and Total phenols (2500 mg/100 g) predominating. Except for Total phenols and Trypsin inhibitors (37.3 TIU/100 g) all the other anti-nutrients were found more in the hulls than the edible cotyledons. Also all anti-nutrients except phytates and oxalates were eliminated by malting. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: anti-nutritional factors, malting, blanching

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Screening of Leguminous Plants for VAM Association and Their Role in Restoration of Degraded Lands

 

Kiran Bargali

 

Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India

Email: kiranbargali@yahoo,co.in

 

Abstract: In present study, 50 leguminous plant species were assessed for association of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi. For this, fine roots of these plants were carefully dug out, washed and stained using root clearing methods and observed under microscope. Out of 50 species screened, 5 showed no VAM association, 2 species showed very low level of colonization (> 20%), 17 species showed 20 to 49 % colonization, 24 species showed 50 to 69 % colonization and only 2 species showed very high level of colonization i.e. <70%. Most of the plant showed hyphae with vesicle/arbuscles. However in five species viz. Bahunia retusa, Crotolaria albida, Desmodium elegans, D. heterocarpon and Vicia rigidula only hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi is present. Thus, the legumes with high to very level of VAM colonization can be use in restoration of degraded lands. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):7-11]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Legumes, roots, vesicles, arbuscles, colonization

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Model for Calculating the Concentration of Dissolved Iron Relative to the Final Solution pH and Temperature during Oxalic Acid Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore.

 

Chukwuka I. Nwoye1 and Ihuoma E. Mbuka2

 

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University P.M.B 5025 Awka,

Nigeria

2Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526

Owerri, Nigeria.

chikeyn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Model for calculating the concentration of dissolved iron (relative to the final solution pH and temperature) during leaching of iron oxide ore in oxalic acid solution has been derived. The model;

%Fe = 1.1849(γ/T)3

was found to calculate the concentration of dissolved iron being dependent on the values of the final leaching solution pH and temperature measured during the leaching process. It was observed that the validity of the model is rooted in the expression (%Fe/N)1/3 = γ/T where both sides of the expression are approximately equal to 0.2. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted concentration of dissolved iron from the corresponding experimental values was found to be less than 18% which is quite within the acceptable range of deviation limit of experimental results. Concentrations of dissolved iron per unit rise in the solution temperature as obtained from experiment and derived model were evaluated as 0.0011 and 0.0015 %/0C respectively, indicating proximate agreement. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):12-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Model, Dissolved Iron, Solution pH and Temperature, Oxalic Acid, Iron Oxide Ore

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Cytogenetic effect of Insecticide Telliton and Fungicide Dithane M-45 on Meiotic Cells and Seed Storage Proteins of Vicia faba.

 

*Atef A. A. Haiba; Nagwa R. Abd El-Hamid; Elham A. A. Abd El-Hady and Abd El-Rahman M.F. Al-Ansary

 

Department of Genetics and Cytology, Genetic Engineering Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. *Atefhaiba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The genotoxic effects of insecticide Telliton and fungicide Dithane M-45 were examined on meiotic cell divisions and changes in the M2 seed storage protein banding pattern of Vicia faba plants. The percentage of abnormal pollen mother cells, (PMCs) increased as the concentration of both pesticides increased. All concentrations and treatment periods of both pesticides, induced a number of chromosomal aberrations in PMCs as stickiness, bridges, laggards, disturbed, micronuclei and multinucleate. A marked change was observed in the M2 V. faba seed storage protein banding pattern. These changes included alterations in band intensity, relative mobilities, disappearance of some bands and appearance of new other ones. These results showed that Telliton has more mutagenic effects than Dithane M-45. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):19-25]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: Vicia faba, chromosomal abnormalities, insecticide, fungicide and SDS -PAGE protein

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Studies on the uptake of heavy metals by selected plant species growing on coal mine spoils in sub-tropical regions of India

 

Bandita Deo1, Gayatri Nahak2, and R.K.Sahu2

 

1. Regional Plant Resource Center, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar, Orissa,India

2. Department of Botany, B.J.B (A) College, Bhubaneswar-751014, Orissa, India

sahurajani@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The accumulation of heavy metals in naturally occurring plants of herbs, shrubs and trees grown on

South Bolanda coal mine overburdens in subtropical region of India were illustrated.. The inter-elemental relationships of different parts of five plant species including herbs, shrubs and trees with the coal mine wastes were studied. From the tree species maximum positive correlation was observed for Cu in stem and leaf of Trema orientalis. The stem and leaf of Haldina cordifolia, Diospyrous melanoxylon and Ixora arborea showed positive correlation for Cr, Fe and Cu respectively. Among the shrubs in Phyllanthus reticulatus, Cr in stem showed a positive correlation with Cr in leaf. Here among five species of annual herbs, the correlation coefficient for inter elemental variable of whole plant and coal mine spoil for chromium was marked in Catharanthus roseus. From the above investigation it was concluded that stabilization of coal mine spoils could be achieved successfully by the plantation of suitable plant species available in native area. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):26-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: Coalmine spoils, Heavy metal, Inter-elemental relationship, Overburden Positive correlation

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Credit and money market of the bank of the central Africa States (BEAC)

 

Ndjedanem Demtade Nadingar1, Chen Shuwang yang 1

 

China University of Geosciences (Wuhan)

388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, P.R. China Postcode: 430074. alafi2004@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: In a context of world economic crisis, our article on the credit and money market aim to emphasize the influence of the bank of the States of Africa on the saving in each one of its members in general and on Chad in particular through the service of credit and money market. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):35-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: BEAC, Credit, Money Market, Interbank market, obligatory reserves

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Ricotta Cheese from Whey Protein Concentrate

 

Mohamed El-Sheikh, Atif Farrag , Ahmed Zaghloul

Dairy Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Zaghloulah2003@yahoo.com

 

Abatract: Ricotta cheese was made from UF-whey protein concentrate (WPC) fortified with 2, 4 and 6 % skim milk powder (SMP), and acidified with 0.14 g/kg citric acid or 1.5 % Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL). All WPC mixtures were homogenized at 300 kp/cm2 first stage and 200 kp/cm2 second stage at 60C. The fresh cheese yield was determined. Samples were taken from whey, WPC mixtures and cheese. The samples were analysed for moisture, nitrtogen, ash, pH, lactose and fat contents. Viscosity of WPC mixtures and cheeses were also assessed. The cheese samples were also assessed for organoleptic properties.The best results were obtained from cheese treated with citric acid , this treatment showed the higher cheese yield, higher viscosity and best organoleptic quality than those made with GDL. Ricotta cheese made from WPC showed the best organoleptic properties followed by that made from WPC fortified with 2% SMP. The results indicated that WPC ingredient can be successfully use in the manufacture of Ricotta cheese. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):40-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: Ricotta cheese, WPC, SMP, Citric acid, GDL

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Molecular Analysis of Genetically Improved Therapeutic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strains with High Selenium Uptake

 

Khattab1, Ahmed Ihab 2, Karima Mohamed 1ِAbdelnasser

1 Genetics & Cytology Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, EGYPT.

2 Food Science Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, EGYPT.

ahmedihab66@hotmail.com

Abstract: This study was initiated to take advantages of mutagenesis in conjunction with protoplast fusion technique to obtain hyper- polyploidy strains with high selenium uptake. After UV-mutagenesis, results showed that five mutants uptake nearly all selenium present in growing medium and six mutants uptake 3.5 fold of selenium than the original strain. Moreover, selenium uptake of superior yeast mutants in the presence of selenium oxide (100 mg/L) showed that yeast cells tolerate high selenium concentration in the growing medium and uptake percentages ranging from 46.84 to 79.38. Intra-specific protoplast fusion technique was carried out in order to obtain polyploidy isolates with high selenium uptake. Data showed that 38 fusants obtained from cross 1 and 36 fusants from cross 2. In cross No.1, 71 % of fusants uptake more selenium than the first parent (mutant 5/8) and 97.4% than the second parent (mutant 5/9). For cross 2, 36.9 % of fusants uptake more selenium than the first parent (5/8) and 100 % than the second parent (20/1). Finally, an attempt was done to evaluate the genetic effect of UV-mutagenesis and protoplast fusion on nucleotide sequence by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Many differences were noticed in mutant and fusant strains in comparison the wild type strains. These differences in RAPD profiles confirmed the evidence of genetic variations in yeast genome after mutagenesis and protoplast fusion technique. Also, these differences could be used as genetic markers for genetic diversity of selenium uptake characteristics. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):45-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Selenium uptake, UV-mutagenesis, protoplast fusion and RAPD

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Synthesis, (in vitro) Antitumor and Antimicrobial Activity of some Pyrazoline, Pyridine, and Pyrimidine Derivatives Linked to Indole Moiety

 

Ekhlass Nassar

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Asma Fahmy Street, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt.

ekhlass_nassar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aldol condensation reaction between 3-indolaldehyde 1 and 4-methoxyacetophenone 2 afforded chalcone compounds 3. This compound was reacted with some different reagents such as hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine, thiosemicarbazide, hydroxylamine, ethyl cyanoacetate, urea and thiourea to give pyrazolines 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6, oxazoline 7, Michael adduct 8, pyranone 9, and oxo 14a and thiopyrimidine derivatives 14b, respectively. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by microanalyses and various spectral data. Some of the synthesized new compounds were screened against antitumor and antimicrobial activity. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):57-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Heterocycles, cyclizations, pyrazolines, pyridines, antitumor activity

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Structural Effect on the Base-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of (E) Methyl 3-Carboxy-4-Aryl-3-Butenoate Hemiesters, and the Isomeric (E) 3-Methoxycarbonyl-4-(2-Naphthyl)-3-Butenoic Acid

 

Shadia M. Abdallah

 

Department of Chemistry, University College of Women for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University, Asma Fahmy Street, Heliopolis-11341, Cairo, Egypt

shadiamabdallah@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The structural effect on the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of (E) methyl 3-carboxy-4-phenyl-3-butenoate (1), (E) methyl 3-carboxy-4-(1-naphthyl)-3-butenoate (2), (E) methyl 3-carboxy-4-(2-naphthyl)-3-butenoate (3), and (E) 3-methoxycarbonyl-4-(2-naphthyl)-3-butenoic acid (4), at different temperatures (35-50C) in 50% aqueous dioxane (v/v), shows that the rate of reaction follows the overall second order kinetics, first order with respect to each of the hemiester and base. It decreases in the order: (1) > (2) > (3) > (4). Ratios between the values of k2 (k1/Cw), and also between k3 (k1/Cw2) in different mixtures are less than 1, which means that the reaction is apparently independent of Cw. The activation parameters E#, DH#, DS#, DG#, and Arrhenius frequency factor (A), confirmed the structural effect on their rates of hydrolysis. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):67-70]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Hemiesters, Hydrolysis, Molecularity, Reactivity

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Increasing Health Benefits of Milk Fat by Partial Replacement with vegetable oils Fortified with Carotenoids

 

Ahmed Saad Gad* and Ahmed F. Sayed

 

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*asgad2004@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: Partial replacement of milk fat with vegetable oils meet consumer demanded for reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids and hence may contribute to reduce the risk for heart disease. Different natural sources of carotenoids as fat-soluble antioxidants (green pepper, parsley and broccoli) were mixed in emulsion form with milk fat phase to protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, 1:1:1, v/v/v) which used in partial replacement from the oxidization, besides acting as biological antioxidants. Carotenoids solubility efficiency through the preliminary treatments of milk such as blending, pasteurization and homogenization was monitored as well as antioxidant activity using -carotene/ linoleic acid assay was determined in homogenized milk with (2%) carotenoids extract emulsion. Results showed that the solubility of carotenoids increased with blinding, pasteurization and homogenization. The partial substitution of milk fat was the most suitable milk fat phase as a healthy benifits. Broccoli showed the highest carotenoid content and also recorded the highest antioxidant activity. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):71-79]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Milk fat, vegetable oils, carotenoids solubility, antioxidant activity

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New Safe Methods for Controlling Anthracnose Disease of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruits Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.)

 

Abd-AllA , M.A.1 and Wafaa M. Haggag2

 

1 Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Centre – Egypt.

2 Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Centre – Egypt. Wafaa_hagggag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. Mango suffers from several diseases at all stages of its life. Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gleosporioides is the most important post harvest disease of mango. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan solution on the mycelium growth and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) the causal agent of anthracnose disease of mango fruits was studied under vitro conditions. Chitosan solution at 0.6mg/l obtained significantly reduction of C. gloeosporioides growth and inhibited spore germination, while, chitosan solution at 0.8mg/l resulted a complete reduction and inhibition of fungal mycelium growth and spore germination. Meanwhile, coating mango fruits with 0.2 and 0.4% (w/v) chitosan solution obtained a highly protective effect against anthracnose disease incidence of mango fruits, by 98.1% and 95.4% after 30 days of storage, respectively. At the same treatments were reducing the percentage of fruit rotted tissues by 89.3 and 95.0%, respectively. The results of this study showed that chitosan was a alternative safe coating method for prevent mango fruits against anthracnose disease which causes economic losses during transportation, marketing and storage. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):80-86]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Chitosan – Mango fruits – Anthracnose disease –Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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The Antischistosomal Activity of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni Eggs is Influenced by Saponin Extracted from Atriplex

nummularia

 

Amany Sayed Maghraby a, Manal Abdel Aziz Hamed *b, Hanan Farouk Aly b, and Sanaa Ahmed Ali b

 

a Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Center of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, Therapeutic Chemistry Department, b Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*manal_hamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antischistosomal, biochemical and humoral immune response of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni eggs homogenate influenced with or without saponin extracted from Atriplex nummularia. The work was extended to study the histopathological picture of the liver before and after challenge. Total worms reduction recorded 57.14, 80.95 and 42.85% in immunized mice with Fasciola egg homogenate (50g/100l PBS/mouse), Fasciola egg homogenate influenced by saponin (50g/100l PBS/mouse) and saponin alone (50g/100l PBS/mouse), respectively. Immunized groups with Schistosoma egg antigen and Schistosoma egg antigen influenced by saponin showed reduction in total worms by 47.61, 52.38%, respectively. In conclusion, immunization with Fasciola gigantica egg homogenate possesses promising antischistosomal properties with an immunomodulatory response to saponin. Heterologous homogenate had antischistosomal activity more than homologous homogenate. In addition, heterologous homogenate influenced with saponin had more antischistosomal activity than its homologous homogenate. Moreover, Fasciola gigantica egg homogenate had an immunoprophylactic effects by increasing the IgM and IgG levels against Schistosoma egg antigen. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):87-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Fasciola gigantica- Atriplex nummularia- saponin- Schistosoma mansoni- egg antigen- immunoprophylactic

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Prognostic value of a simple evolving disseminated intravascular coagulation score in patients with severe sepsis

 

Ahmed A.Battah, Tareik S.El Gohary, Mohamed Ashraf

 

Critical Care Department, Cairo University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objective: to predict outcome in patients with severe sepsis using the simple evolving DIC score calculated in the first 48hrs from two readily available global coagulation markers, platelet count and prothrombin time, and comparing its accuracy with (SOFA) score. Patients and Methods: fifty patients with severe sepsis in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in Critical Care Medicine Department Cairo University were included in the study. The SOFA score and our simple evolving DIC score were calculated in all patients just before enrollment in the study. Results: Patients with higher simple DIC score had the highest SOFA scores and were associated with worst outcome. Mortality rate increased from 0% for simple DIC score < 1 to 90,9% for simple DIC score 2 or 3 and reach 100% for simple DIC score 4. Conclusion: the simple evolving DIC score calculated in the first 48hr appears, besides its general availability and easy calculation at the bedside, to be a reliable and accurate tool in predicting patients' outcome. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):101-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Prognostic value; intravascular; coagulation; sepsis

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The Relationship between P Wave Dispersion and Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Significant and Insignificant Coronary Artery Disease

 

Randa A. Soliman., MD, Ahmed A. Battah., MD, Ayman Hekaal., MD Mohamed Ashraf., MD, Ashraf Wadei., MD.

 

Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: We investigated the relationship between P wave dispersion, which is easily measured on the surface electrocardiogram and left ventricular end diastolic pressure and echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: We studied 50 patients with CAD: 8 patients with non significant CAD (16%) and 42 patients with significant CAD (84%). P wave dispersions were calculated by measuring minimum and maximum P wave duration values on the surface electrocardiogram. The relationships between P wave dispersion and the left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), Left atrial volume (LAV), left atrial diameter (LAD) and echocardiographic measurements of diastolic dysfunction were investigated. Results: P wave dispersion was 65.7 18.8 ms. The magnitude of P wave dispersion was higher in group of LVEDP > 15 than those who had their LVEDP < 15 mmHg, (70.6 15.2 vs. 60 20.4 respectively and p value 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between the values of p wave dispersion and LVEDP, LAD and LAV as the correlation factor was (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, respectively and the p values were significant) . Also P wave dispersion was found to be higher in the group of significant CAD than insignificant CAD (68.7 18.5 vs. 50 10.35 respectively and p value 0.008). When patients with LVDD were staged, PD was 49 9 ms in stage 1(9 pts.), 55 10 ms in stage 2 (26 pts), and 58 7 ms in stage 3 (15 pts.). As the severity of diastolic dysfunction increased, P wave dispersion increased but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P 0.07). Conclusion: We conclude that P wave dispersion is a non invasive marker for LVEDP and highly correlated to LA volume. P wave dispersion is another alternative for assessment of LV diastolic Dysfunction in CAD. P wave dispersion did not show a significant change in the 3 stages of diastolic dysfunction in our small studied groups so larger studies might be of help to elucidate that difference. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):108-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Wave Dispersion, Diastolic Dysfunction, Coronary Artery Disease

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Patient's Needs from Quality Health Care Dimensions as Ranked by Nurses and Patients

 

Dalal T. Akel, Samah F. Fakhry and Mona M. Shazly

 

Lecturers of Nursing Administration- Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

Abstract: Quality can vary markedly between organizations, It is important that health care organizations define precisely what quality care means to patients as well as health team This paper aimed to compare the ranking of patients' needs for quality health care dimensions by nurses and patients. Each subject of the 150 patients was interviewed and asked to rank each of these needs, also the nurses (n=45) were requested to rank these needs not according to their own priorities, but as they thought the patients would do, by separately answering a questionnaire developed by the researchers based on (Gtherstrm et al., 1995, Farrell, 1991). the results revealed that the patients gives high first priority of care as regard continuity, accessibility, and security (74.0, 70.8, 67.3 ) while nurses give the priority to security, accessibility, and continuity (86.7, 73.8, 53.3 ) respectively It is noteworthy that all patients and nurses gives low priority of care as regard integrity (13.3). Overall, no statistically significant difference was found between the ranking of nurses and patients related to the overall quality care dimensions p=0.861., It was recommended that hospital administrators and clinicians must identify particular patient' needs as an indicator of patient's satisfactions, and develop interventions to meet those needs and priorities, Further studies are recommended to identify the effect of social determinates of patients on their ranking of needs, the difference between patients needs in critical care settings, and the effect of providing care based on patients' needs on the care cost- effectiveness. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):116-125]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: quality of care, patients' needs priority

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Study on the effect of N-level fertilization on constituents of grape leaves and fruit quality using FT-IR spectroscopy

 

M. S. Abou Rayya; M. A. Moharram and W. A. El hotaby

 

Horticultural Crops Technology Department, Agricultural Division and Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division National Research Center, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2005 and 2006 in a private orchard locates at 62 km. of the CairoAlexandria desert road.Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used in the present work to study the effect of N-fertilization levels on the concentrations of chlorophyll, A , B and caretenoids in grape leaves and fruit quality of grapes . Ammonium nitrate (N-fertilizer) was applied after the beginning of vegetation growth to supply 33.3%, 66.6%, 100%, 133.3%, 166.6% of the recommended N-fertilizer level. (The recommended N-fertilizer level according to the ministry of Agriculture is 50 units N and this consider as the level of 100% for comparing during N application). Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B and total Carotenoieds were determined by using visible spectroscopic techniques at wave lengths 470nm, 645nm, and 662nm respectively. It was found that for the leaves of the first three samples the concentrations of Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B and Total Carotenoieds increase with increasing of N-level. For the forth sample the rate of increasing of the concentration of pigment is characterized by a first sharp increase up to 100% followed by slow increase up to 166%. As the fifth and sixth sample the increases in the pigment concentrations with increasing N-level assumes the maximum values at 100% N-level then decrease with increasing N-level. This results obtained by using visible spectroscopic techniques is in good agreement with the results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy. The determined values of ash content of leaves indicated that the fraction of ash content increases with the increase of the N-level from 33% to 100% and then slightly decreases with increasing the N-level to 133% and 166%. This means that the ash content of the leaves is influenced by the N-level.The fruiting data give strong evidence that the length of the clusters increases with increasing N-level until reaching the maximum in 100% treatment (the recommended level), also the T.S.S (Total Soluble Solid) and T.S.S/ Acidity ratio recorded the highest values at 100% treatment which reflect the degree of maturity and the quality of the grape production. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):126-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

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Effect of different cytokinins concentrations and carbon sources on shoot proliferation of bitter almond nodal cuttings

 

Abou Rayya M.S.; N.E.Kassim and E. A. M. Ali

 

Horticultural Crops Technology Department, Agricultural Division and Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division National Research Center, Egypt

 

Abstract: The present work was carried out in plant tissue culture Laboratory, Agriculture Development Systems project (ADS) at Giza, Egypt during the period from 1999-2003. It aimed to study the effect of various cytokinins at different concentrations ( 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L) and effect of carbon source (Sucrose, Glucose and fructose) and their concentrations on shoot number and shoot length /explant and fresh weight (g/explant0 on bitter almond nodal cuttings. The most effective cytokinine for enhancing in vitro growth was BA followed by kinitine and zeatin respectively. Lower concentration of BA and kinitine at (0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) gave healthier plants than 2.0 or 4.0 mg/L. However, using 4.0 mg/ L BA in shoot proliferation medium increased in vitro growth (No.of shoots /explant, fresh weight) of bitter almond nodal cuttings. Glucose was the most effective carbon source for stimulating the production of shoots, fresh weight and shoot length on the new developed shoots. It was followed by sucrose and fructose. On the other hand, sucrose gave healthier plant than glucose or fructose. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):135-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: cytokinins, carbon sources, shoot proliferation, nodal

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A Study the Phase Transformations in Amorphous Diphenyl Carbazide (C13H14N4O)

 

F. El-Kabbany, S. Taha* and M. Hafez

 

Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

* Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Fayoum University.

profdrsthassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thermal and electrical properties of amorphous diphenyl carbazide (DPC) are studied between room temperature and its melting point ≈ 435 K. The study includes a set of measurements DTA, DSC, dielectric constant (ε), electrical resistance (R), the pyroelectric current (I) and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained are strongly supported each other and indicate that the amorphous DPC samples undergo four different phase transitions at 323 K, 363 K, 395 K and 415 K respectively. It is found that each phase transition belongs to a certain definite crystal structure. These crystal structure variations are found to be amorphous, monoclinic, tetragonal, orthorhombic and amorphous within the temperature range of this study. Thermal analysis revealed that the thermal energies for these four different phase transitions are 10.92 J/g, 7.63 J/g, 79.3 J/g and 31.77 J/g respectively. The electrical measurements showed that the conduction in these phases is activated by energies of 0.22, 0.3, 0.16 and 0.47 eV respectively. The first phase transition is attributed to the variation in hydrogen bonding N-H to the carbonyl group C=O, which is leading to a twisted intermolecular charge transfer (TICT) in the temperature region of this phase transition. The second phase transition is mainly due to the weaking of the N-H hydrogen bonding with increasing temperature. Beside that, it may be due to the reorientational molecular motion to another equivalent position. The third phase transition is attributed to a changing in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding with –CO as well as –N-H groups. These changes can greatly affect the charge distribution and in turn affect the transition process (populated locally excited states). The fourth phase transition is due to the weaking of the hydrogen bond of N-H group. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):140-146]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Diphenyl carbazide; Polymorphism, thermal and electrical properties

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IR Study of the Low Temperature phase Transition in Amorphous Diphenyl Carbazide C13H14N4O

 

F. El-Kabbany, S. Taha* and M. Hafez

 

Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

* Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Fayoum University.

profdrsthassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The low temperature dependence of IR spectra of amorphous diphenyl carbazide C13H14N4O has been investigated below zero temperature. The data is reported here between room temperature and down to -70oC and the IR spectra are recorded in the frequency range 400-4000 cm-1. This study is an extension of a recent one, which detected the presence of polymorphic character of this complex compound by IR, DSC and DTA at 50oC, 90 oC, 120 oC and 140 oC. It includes measurements and interpretation of the IR spectral band shape, frequencies of modes and band shifts as a function of temperature. Eleven different fundamental modes have been investigated explicitly. Special attention is paid to the most sensitive modes which reflect the low temperature phase transition process in detail. These modes are 3328 cm-1, 1677 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1251 cm-1, 750 cm-1 and 494 cm-1 in which the variations strongly support the low temperature phase transition in DPC at -47oC. This phase transition does not show structural change but just a transformation from amorphous state to amorphous state as detected by x-ray analysis. The phase transition here is suggested to be of displacive type. A low temperature phase transition has been detected here for the first time in diphenyl carbazide at - 47oC. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):147-155]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Low temperature IR spectra; Diphenyl carbazide

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Effect of Trichoderma species on damping off diseases incidence, some plant enzymes activity and nutritional status of bean plants

 

Abd-El-Khair 1, H., R. Kh. M. Khalifa 2and Karima, H. E. Haggag3

 

1- Plant Pathology Department , 2- Fertilization Technology Department, National Research Centre, and 3) Pest Rearing Department, Central agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

 

ABSTRACTS: Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the common causal pathogens causes the damping off disease of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Egypt. The antagonistic effect of four Trichoderma species, i.e. Trichoderma album, Triechoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride, was tested against F. solani and R. solani in vitro, in greenhouse and in field. In vitro tests, all Trichoderma spp. significantly reduced the mycelial growth of two pathogenic fungi. In greenhouse experiment, T. album, T. hamatum, T. harizianum and T. viride, as soil treatments, significantly reduced the pre- and post-emergence damping off disease incidence under artificial infection with F. solani and R. solani. Soil treatments with four Trichoderma species significantly reduced the incidence of damping off disease where the percentages disease incidence were in the range of 7.0 -20.0% and 2.4 – 6.5%, compared to 25.7 and 13.5% in control plants, at pre- and post-emergence stages ,respectively. The best protection to damping off disease was obtained by T. hamatum, followed by T. viride, T. album and T. harzianum, respectively. The treatments gave the highest plant survival (%) and improved the growth and yield parameters. Results showed that the levels of chitinase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities highly increased in treated bean plant compared in untreated plants. The macro- and micro-elements content in treated bean plants was affected by Trichoderma species treatments compared to elements content in untreated plants. The relationship between plant nutrient content and some plant enzymes activity was studied. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):156-167]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trichoderma spp., biological control, nutritional atatus

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Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Egyptian Rhizobial strains for abiotic stresses performance

 

M. S. Abdel-Salam1*, S. A. Ibrahim2, M. M. Abd-El-Halim1, F. M. Badawy2 and S.E.M. Abo-Aba1

1: Microbial Genetics Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Div., National Research Centre, Egypt.

2: Genetics Department, Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Egypt.

*Corresponding Author: msam-one@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty one Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii strains and seven Rhizobium meliloti strains were characterized for their nodulation efficiencies and their growth performance against salinity, drought and heavy metals. About 67% of R. l. bv. trifolii strains and all R. meliloti strains were halotolerants. R. l. bv. trifolii strains were more drought-tolerant than R. meliloti strains. About 86% of R. l. bv. trifolii were multiple-metal resistant, iron resistance was the most abundant (~ 95%) followed by nickel resistant (~ 86%). Six R. meliloti strains were multiple-metal resistant, nickel resistance was the most apparent (~ 71%). The salt-and drought-tolerant Rhizobium strains are excellent models to study the resistance mechanism(s), and to elucidate the role of genetics of NaCl and drought tolerance. The characterized rhizobia had different applications. The salt tolerant, drought tolerant, and heavy metals resistance patterns found among the indigenous rhizobial strains are reflecting the environmental stresses pressure predominant in their locations and are very good examples of the importance of using efficient – indigenous rhizbial strain for plant successful inoculation. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):168-174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Key words: Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii, Rhizobium meliloti, nodulation, salinity, drought and heavy metals

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Evaluation of Corn Stalks Treated Biologically with Aspergillus niger as feed for growing rabbits

 

A.A. Elshahat,1 R.I. Elkady1, A.A. Morad2, M.A. Khalafallah2 M. Fadel3 and M. I. Moahmed1

 

1Animal Production Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), 2Agriculturel Microbiology Dept (NRC), 3Microbial Chemistry Dept.

 

Abstract: A total of sixty-four male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits weaned at 5 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups (sixteen rabbits/group) according to their initial live body weight (850 gm approximately to evaluate the possibility of feeding rabbits on diets containing corn stalks treated biologically with Aspergillus niger (A. Niger); and their response to growth performance, slaugher and carcass characteristics, edible organs as well as different blood parameters.The rabbits of the first three groups were fed on rations contained corn stalks treated biologically with A. niger, with 10%, 20% or 30% respectively, whilst those of the fourth group were give ration without A. niger (0% e.g. the commercial diet). At the end of the experimental period, three rabbits from each treatment were selected and slaughtered to study the different carcass characteristics. Blood samples were taken during slaughtering process in heparinized test tubes and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes, the plasma were collected and preserved in a deep freezer at -20C until time of the analysis. The different blood plasma chemical parameters were calorimetrically determined using the proper commercial kits, following the same steps as described by the manufactures. All the results were subjected to analysis of variance. The most important results obtained in the present investigation could be summarized in the following points; 1). It was observed that the different biological treatments did not affect the live body weight gains. On the other hand, feed consumption had been influenced significantly by the treatment differences. 2).The present study showed that introducing biological treated corn stalks at the rate of 10% of the concentrate feed mixture improves feed conversion of growing rabbits. 3). The data of slaughter weight (SW), carcass weight (CW), empty body weight (EBW) and dressing percentage (DP) were not significantly affected by the different biological treatments. 4). With the exceptions of testis, no significant effects were detected in absolute or relative weights of edible organs. On the other hand, marked differential effects due to the biological treatments had been noticed on weights and percentages of testis. However, upon the basis of the present results one may suggest that the biological treatments may have on important role on the testis. 5). Results of the statistical analysis revealed that weights and percentages of the different carcass cuts were not significantly affected by the biological treatments. 6). No significant effects were detected in blood constituents of the experimental rabbits due to the different biological treatments. Likewise, it was observed that the data of the present investigation lies within the normal levels. 7). It was concluded from the present study that the biological treatments used in the present experiment have no deleterious effects on the liver and kidneys functions since levels of blood chemical constituents were not significantly changed. 8).Finally upon the basis of the obtained results, it could be suggested that A. niger can be used safely and successfully to enrich poor quality roughages such as corn stalks. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):175-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Rabbits – Corn stalks – Biological treatments – Growth – Carcass – Blood components

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In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of The Antidiabetic Effect Of Different Extracts Of Nepeta Cataria In Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Hanan F. Aly; Mohamed Elsayed Ebrahim; Hemaia Mohamed Metawaa ;Ebtessam Abdel-monaem Ahlam Hosni ; Faten Mohamed Ebrahim

 

ABSTRACT: Both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed in the present research to investigate the pharmacological effects of successive Nepeta cataria extracts on some biochemical parameters in Streptozotocin diabetic rats compared to the currently used drug, Glicalized. These involved some biochemical parameters such as glucose, insulin, carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes; α –amylase, α- glucosidase, β- galactosidase, liver steoteosis; total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL–cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipid, liver function enzymes; alanin aminotransferase(ALT), aspatrate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP) and total protein, oxidative stress markers; NO and DPPH. In addition histopathological investigations were performed. The results obtained revealed that in vitro analysis, different successive extracts of Nepeta cataria exhibited inhibitory effect on oxidative stress indices ( NO and DPPH) and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). Total ethanol (70%), petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed respectively the most potent reducing power, while ethyl acetate and ethanol soxhlet appeared moderate or low reducing activity. In addition the in vivo anti-glycemic, antioxidant, antilipidemic effects of chloroform, petroleum ether as well as crude ethanol extracts in comparison with gliclazide as reference antidiabetic drug showed, these extracts have significant beneficial glycemic control, scavenging free radicals, normalized liver function, inhibited lipid synthesis associated with diabetic complication, as well as they have principle role in treatment and normalized liver and pancreas architecture. Hence, it could be concluded that Nepeta cataria extracts may be applied clinically for reducing complications against diabetes mellitus together with the ideal anti- diabetic drug glicalized. [Journal of American Science. 2011;7(1):184-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Nepeta cataria; oxidative stress; liver function; carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes

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