Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 2, Cumulated No. 36, February 25, 2011

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0702

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

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1

A Theoretical Study of Family Resource Management

 

1Mehdi Yadollahi & 2Laily Hj Paim

 1Dept. of Resources Management& Consumer Studies, Putra University, Malaysia & University of Payame Noor, Sirjan, Iran; E-mail: mfma155@yahoo.com

2Dept. of Resources Management & Consumer Studies, Putra Universiti, Malaysia

 

Abstract: Family resource management has a fundamental role in helping meet and alter the increasing complexities faced by the families. In this way, this article attempts to describe the theories of family economic management. To solve the economic problems we need to improve the economic status of families who fail to manage their budget, which results in high debt levels and a lack of personal savings. The implication of this study arises from the fact that there has been little research carried out on the family economic status. Theoretically, the findings of this study enrich the knowledge concerning family economic and management functions.

[Mehdi Yadollahi & Laily Hj Paim. A Theoretical Study of Family Resource Management. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.01

 Key Words: Family resource, Economic function, Economic organization

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Biological Investigation of Persian Gulf blue swimmer crab (portunus pelagicus) In Khuzestan coasts

Ashraf Jazayeri1*, Forough papan1, Ahmad savari2, Tayeb Saki Nejad3

1. Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz 2. Khoramshahr University of Marine Science and technology

3. Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz branch

*corresponding Arthur: jazayeriashraf@yahoo.com

Abstract: A bout 361 Million square kilometers (70.8 percent) of the totol area of the earth is covered by seas and oceans. Although this huge ecosystems always make the human curious about them, but the need for advanced equipments for approaching deep and semi-deep areas is the reason for shortage of information about these ecosystems and their inhabitants comparing to the lands. So during recent years extensive researches have performed about marine ecosystems with emphasis on recognition of biological variations and make use of aquatics in several new applications such as nutrition, health, medical and industry. Although Persian Gulf have unique specifications such as different ecosystems and different varieties but it is less investigated accurately. Certainly for protecting such a valuable ecosystem, at first we must have comprehensive information of its structure. This emphasizes the necessity of exact study in all the parts. Therefore current study, investigates blue swimmer crab (one of the valuable Persian Gulf crustaceans) in hunting zones of Khuzestan province. This variety which is spreader globally has a high economic value and is considered in growing aquatics in many countries. The results of this research show that in width parts of some carapace, male blue swimmer crabs are always heavier than female ones. Also there is a positive and meaningful correlation between weight and the parameters of carapace's length, carapace's width, propodus length of male's claws and the width of 6th band of abdomen. Sex ratio during a year of study was F: M = 56%: 44% which should be the relative frequency of females. In the investigation of females maturation during a years it is found that although there were mature female crabs at all of the month in a year but the climax of their maturation in a year and in the place of study, were march and April. Indeed according to the factor of mature carapace width, the mature width was 88 mm carapace width in females. In male crabs, the mean gonad weight in immature was 0.15g and in matures was 1.2g. Also gonad index (GSI) in male crabs was observed with minimum amount of 0.480 during Feb and maximum of 0.807 in Dec.

[Ashraf Jazayeri, Forough papan, Ahmad savari, Tayeb Saki Nejad. Biological Investigation of Persian Gulf blue swimmer crab (portunus pelagicus) In Khuzestan coasts. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):7-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.02

Keywords: Biology, blue swimmer crab, Persian Gulf, portunus pelagicus

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3

Biotechnological and phytochemical studies on Sabal yapa Becc. growing in Egypt

 

Nagwa M. Ammar (1), Hussein S. Taha (2), Mohammed S. Hefnawy (3) and Ahmed H. Afifi (1)

 1-Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Center, El Tahreer Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2-Plant Biotechnology Department, National Research Center, El Tahreer Street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

 3- Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University.

hussein.taha2@#yahoo.com

 Abstract: This study aim to production of the biologically active lipoidal fraction from Sabal yapa Becc., Family Palmae, using tissue culture technique, which previously proved its remarkable and significant antiandrogenic activity. Immature embryos of S.yapa unripe fruits were cultured on fortified of MS media with different type of growth regulators, and incubated under light or dark conditions. Calli growth and lipoidal content were evaluated. MS medium augmented with 10 mg/l 2,4-D and 3mg/l of both 2iP and BAp showed the best modified medium for calli production under light or dark conditions. The highest mass calli production was recorded after the 5th week of cultivation. However, the significant growth rates (mg/day) were recorded during the 3rd week of cultivation. Moreover, fractionation of lipoidal calli, was analyzed by GLC and compared with that of the in vivo fruit. The obtained results revealed that the lipoidal content was 0.85% in in vivo fruit while it recorded 0.64 and 0.68 (%) with calli resulted under light or dark conditions, respectively. The maximum percentage of unsaponifiable fraction (59.6 %) was recorded in fruit, however, it recorded 20.83 and 17.53 (%) with calli produced under light or dark conditions, respectively. Although, the highest percentage of the total fatty acids fraction 70.8 and 74.1 (%) were recorded with calli which governed under light or dark conditions, respectively, it was 32.3 (%) in fruit. Further, we recommend the exploitation of plant tissue culture technique for the preparation and production of the biologically active non-polar fraction of S. yapa fruit at semi-industrial scale using bioreactors.

[Nagwa M. Ammar, Hussein S. Taha, Mohammed S. Hefnawy and Ahmed H. Afifi. Biotechnological and phytochemical studies on Sabal yapa Becc. growing in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):14-20]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.03

 Keywords: Sabal yapa, Palmae, non-polar extract, callus, lipoidal fraction

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The Role of Natural Antioxidants and Snacks on the Weanling Rats Health

 

Heba Ezz El-Din Yossef* and Abeer A.Khedr

 Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, Faculty of Home Economics Minufiya University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt

dr_heba5@yahoo.com *

 

Abstract: The effect of processed snacks, commercial snacks and commercial snacks + orange juice on the lipid profile, haematogenic characteristics, liver and kidney functions, glucose and malonlialdehyde (MDA) in weanling rats were evaluated. Weight gain and histological examination of liver and kidney tissues were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) in hemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell, glucose and creatinine between control and other snacks groups. Rats fed commercial snacks resulted in a significant (P≤0.05) increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low lipoprotein (VLDL), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), urea, creatinine and malonlialdehyde compared to rats fed basal diet. However, supplementation commercial snacks diet with orange juice as a source of antioxidant resulted in significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the previous parameters and improves the liver and kidney tissues as compared with commercial snacks diet.

[Heba Ezz El-Din Yossef and Abeer A.Khedr. The Role of Natural Antioxidants and Snacks on the Weanling Rats Health. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):21-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.04

Keywords: Snacks foods, hemoglobin, lipid profile, liver function, malonlialdehyde

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5

Devising an instrument to assess human resources productivity in an Iranian context

Amir Ashkan Nasiripour1, Fardin Mehrabian2, Pouran Raeissi3, Jamaledin Tabibi4

1. Associate Professor, Department of Health Services Management, - Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding author).
2. PhD student of Health Services Management, - Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 - Associate Professor, School Of Management and medical information services, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,Iran,
4- Professor, Department of Health Services Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Email: nasiripour@srbiau.ac.ir; Tel: 00982144869701

 

ABSTRACT: Background: There are various factors affecting human resources productivity. Moreover, it is a necessity to identify the most important and efficient ones. Therefore, there should be an appropriate instrument to determine the factors in the most comprehensive way. Accordingly, this study has employed Factor Analysis to devise a locally-based instrument to assess human resources productivity in Guilan University of Medical sciences. Materials and Methods: To achieve the mentioned goal, two stages have been taken during the fall of 2009. One was qualitative and the other was cross-sectional. In the former step 45 expert managers were included as the sample of the research to determine productivity factors and in the latter 321 staff members of scientific society, training and human resources departments of Guilan University were selected to establish the productivity variables. Results: To enclose, One questionnaire with 5 headings and 42 questions has been obtained as follows: Organizational culture with 18 questions / Environmental conditions with 7 questions / Motivation factors with 10 questions / Empowerment with 4 questions / Method of leadership with 3 questions. Discussion: The invented device, regarding to it reliability, validity, relevance and indigenousness in assessing of human resource productivity, could be useful for all the universities of medical science. Using of this device could improve the effectiveness of educational activities which are performed for the faculty members and experts of education

 (Amir Ashkan Nasiripour, Fardin Mehrabian, Pouran Raeissi, Jamaledin Tabibi. Devising an instrument to assess human resources productivity in an Iranian context. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):28-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.05

 Key words: human resources productivity, Factor Analysis, locally-based instrument, productivity factors, productivity variables

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Production and application of Spirulina platensis rich in fatty acids, and vitamins

Aly, M.S I, Amber S. Gad*2. El Sayed M. Kamel

1Agriculture Microbiology Dept,2 Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Dept., National Research Center, Egypt..Faculty. of medicine, Pharmcology. Dept. Zagazig Univ

*amber2gad@yahoo.cm

Abstract: Spirulina platensis is a microscopic blue-green alga in the shape of a spiral coil, living both in sea and fresh water. It is widely used as health food due to its protein content, vitamins and active substances for immune system. Polyunsaturated fatty acids amount to 46.548 %(w/w) of total lipids.Among the essential fatty acids detected in El Khadra lake water body in Waadi El Natroun micro- alga, cholesterol decreasing γ-linolenic acid with 0.986%(w/w). Vitamin A amounts to 120.13 g/100g, vitamin C amounts to 540.34 g/100g and vitamin D amounts to 105.6 g/100g were found. Vivo studies revealed Spirulina effectiveness on Triglycerides(TG). Total cholesterol(TC),High density lipoprotein-chloestero(HDL-ch), body weight, serum calcium., serum iron, and serum ferritin after treatment of the experimental rabbits for 30 days.

[Aly, M.S, Amber.S. Gad. El Sayed M. Kamel. Production and application of Spirulina platensis rich in fatty acids, and vitamins. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):36-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.06

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, γ-linolenic acid, vitamins, hypercholesterolemia, serum calcium, prothrombin., serum iron, serum ferritin

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Efficacy of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Ventilatory Functions in Postmenopausal Asthmatic Women

 

Soheir Mahmoud Ali El-Kosery*1, Khadyga Said Abd El-Aziz1, Nagwa Mohamed Badr2,

Adel Farouk El- Begawy3 and Randa Osama Mohamed1

 1Department of Physical Therapy for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/ Respiratory Disorders and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effect of inspiratory muscles training in improving ventilatory functions in postmenopausal asthmatic women. Fourty postmenopausal women, complaining from bronchial asthma, one year ago, were participated in this study. They were divided randomly into two equal groups (A and B).Both groups received traditional medical treatment which was consisted of theophyline, salbutamol sulphate(bronchodilator), dexamethasone, carbocisteine (muco-regulator) & antibiotic for six weeks. In addition to traditional medical treatment, Group “A” received the inspiratory muscles training by using inspiratory muscle trainer. Assessment was performed by measuring weight and height then the body mass index was calculated for each woman in both groups (A&B) before treatment. Also, Electronic Spirometer was used to measure ventilatory functions (Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume, Forced Vital Capacity /Forced Expiratory Volume and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation) before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Results showed a statistically highly significant improvement (P<0.001) in all ventilatory functions in group (A) than group (B) after end of treatment. So, it could be concluded that inspiratory muscle training with traditional medical treatment were more effective than traditional medical treatment only for these cases as it was effective, safe, easy to perform and led to reducing symptoms of asthma.

[Soheir Mahmoud Ali El-Kosery, Khadyga Said Abd El-Aziz, Nagwa Mohamed Badr, Adel Farouk El- Begawy and Randa Osama Mohamed. Efficacy of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Ventilatory Functions in Postmenopausal Asthmatic Women. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):46-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.07

 Key words: Inspiratory Muscle Trainer - Ventilatory Functions - Postmenopausal Asthmatic women

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Analyzing Efficiency of Agricultural Extension Programs by Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) (Illustrate: Wheat Farmers of Khouzestan Province, Iran)

 

Ahmad Reza Ommani

Assistant Professor Islamic Azad University Shoushtar Branch, Iran

ommani75451@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of research is analyzing efficiency of agricultural extension programs by Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). The method of research was qualitative. The research carried out by 4 analytical loops in rural area of Shoushtar township of Khouzestan province, Iran. Each analytical loop consist 6 to 9 rural people and one outsider as facilitator. According to results extension programs based on efficiency was ranked. This ranking respectively include: Farmer Filed School (FFS), Meeting in Farm (MF), Results Farm Demonstration (RFD), Method Farm Demonstration (MFD), Extension classes, Bulletin and Posters, Radio and TV program. Also ranking of educational needs respectively include: productivity indicators, sustainability, farm management, water management, pest and disease, west management.

[Ahmad Reza Ommani. Analyzing Efficiency of Agricultural Extension Programs by Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) (Illustrate: Wheat Farmers of Khouzestan Province, Iran). Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):54-58]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.08

 Keywords: PRA, Extension program, Shoushtar

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Bio-Oil From Rice Straw By Pyrolysis: Experimental And Techno -Economic Investigations.

 

Shadia R. Tewfik*, Mohamed H. Sorour, Abdelghani M.G. Abulnour, Hala A. Talaat, Nihal M. El Defrawy, Joseph Y. Farah and Ismail K. Abdou

 

Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, Engineering Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*Corresponding author email: shadiatewfik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The use of biomass as a source of energy is gaining increasing interest in both developed and developing countries as a renewable source of energy and to avoid the environmental hazards associated with open burning of ligno-cellulosic materials. This work is concerned with the fast pyrolysis of rice straw which is generated seasonally in enormous quantities to produce biooil which could replace fuel oil #2. Experimental investigations on a pilot-scale in an entrained flow reactor demonstrated that the biooil produced is of acceptable characteristics and has a calorific value of about 29kJ/kg. Process design has been developed for a 200 ton/day commercial facility. Material and energy balance and basic engineering have been accomplished using ASPEN PLUS. Techno-economic investigations have been conducted and financial analysis has been performed using ASPEN ICARUS. Results indicated that for a Base Case, the Fixed Capital Cost is about US $ Million 7.6 and for a pessimistic selling price of US $ 0.13/kg, the Internal Return of Return (IRR), exceeds 43%. Sensitivity analysis indicates that even for increase of the Fixed Capital to about US $ Million 10.9 the IRR still exceeds 30%. Further work is needed for technological development and for ensuring processing over the year round using other ligno-cellulosic materials.

[Shadia Tewfik, Mohamed Sorour, Abdelghani Abulnour, Hala Talaat, Nihal El Defrawy, Joseph Farah and Ismail Abdou. Bio-Oil From Rice Straw By Pyrolysis: Experimental And Techno-Economic Investigations. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):59-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.09

Keywords: biomass, fast pyrolysis, bio-oil, entrained reactor, process design, techno-economics

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Effect of Stitch Geometry on Particle Bypass in Air Filter Bags

 

M. A. Saad and R. F. El-newashy*

 

Department of clothing and knitting Industry Research, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Fabrics used as a filter media in dust control may have satisfactory efficiency. However, the sewn areas of the filter fabric sleeves may cause a bypass of fine particle size dust through needles holes or bent areas of fabric layers. The present study focuses on the filtration and cleaning efficiency of the sewn areas of filter fabrics using different particle size of solid material. Four types of stitch formation type EFa-1, SSa-1, LSc-1 and BSa-1 according to British Standard BS 3870 were used.

[M. A. Saad and R. F. El-newashy. Effect of Stitch Geometry on Particle Bypass in Air Filter Bags. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):68-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.10

 Keyword: Filter Bag – sewing stitch – sewing machines- sewing threads

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Diagnostic Value of Serum Cystatin C as an Early Indicator of Renal Impairment in Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

 

Mohamed El –Shazly1, Ayman El Shayeb*1, Pacint Moez2, Mohamed Samy3, Mariam Zaghloul 1

Tropical Medicine1, Clinical Pathology2 and Radiodiagnosis 3 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, drayman65@yahoo.com *

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Diagnosis of moderately impaired renal function is of great importance in patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients with a markedly impaired glomerular filtration rate can be diagnosed easily by elevated serum creatinine concentrations but, moderately reduced renal function may be missed. Cystatin C (CysC) has been suggested as a sensitive marker of renal function, independent of sex or muscle mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum cystatin C concentrations for the detection of moderately impaired renal function in chronic HCV Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis as well as its correlation with Child-Pugh score and renal resistive index (RRI). Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on seventy subjects; group I fifty non azotemic chronic HCV patients with liver cirrhosis (furtherly subdivided according to the Child-Pugh score into group Ia, Ib, Ic) and group II twenty healthy subjects with matching age and sex as control group. Liver function tests, renal function tests, CysC levels and RRI were measured on the same day for all patients. CysC levels were measured using the automated latex-enhanced immunonephelometric method. Results: Mean serum levels of serum Cystatin C were 0.660.05, 1.020.28, 1.170.32 and 0.650.10 mg/dl in groups Ia, Ib, Ic and II respectively. Serum cystatin C was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls. Moreover, It was significantly higher in Child C cirrhotic patients than in those with Child B and A (F=19.14 and P=0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between serum cystatin C and each of blood urea (BU), serum creatinine, RRI and Child-Pugh score in patients with HCV induced liver cirrhosis.(r=0.454,0.781,0.508 and 0.412respectively) (p0.01). On the other hand, significant negative correlation was found between serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance. (r= -0.746 and p0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum cystatin C is advantagous over serum creatinine particularly in early detection of mild renal impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis.

[Mohamed El –Shazly, Ayman El Shayeb, Pacint Moez, Mohamed Samy, Mariam Zaghloul. Diagnostic Value of Serum Cystatin C as an Early Indicator of Renal Impairment in Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients with Liver Cirrhosis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):75-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.11

Keywords: Chronic Hepatitis C, Liver cirrhosis, serum markers of GFR and serum cystatin C

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Breast Cancer Gene 1 (Brca 1) Mutation in Female Patients with or without Family History in Qalubia Governorate

 Fouad El-said El-Debaky1, Naglaa Ibrahim Azab*1, Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini1, Sanya khairy Eliwa1 and Hamed Rashsad Musalam2

 1Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

2General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

*naglaa1270@yahoo.com

 Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and its impact on morbidity and mortality is significant and well documented. BRCA genes mutation account for most of the cases of familial breast cancer. Female BRCA1 mutation carriers have an 80% to 85% risk of developing breast cancer over their life-time. This study aims to detect 5382insC, 185delAG and C61G mutations in BRCA1 gene in healthy females and breast cancer female patients in Qalubia Governorate and correlate them with the presence or absence of family history of breast &/ or ovarian cancer to allow identification of individuals at high risk. Materials and methods: 50 females divided into 20 healthy females and 30 breast cancer patients with or without family history of breast &/or ovarian cancers were included in the study.185delAG and 5382insC mutation were detected by multiplex mutagenically separated PCR (MS - PCR) and C61G mutation was detected using the RFLP method. Results: It was found that the incidence of BRCA1 gene mutation in the breast cancer group was higher than its incidence in the control group Also the incidence of BRCA1 gene mutation in the groups with family history was higher than in the groups without family history. In addition, multiple exons mutation frequency was higher than one exon mutation in the breast cancer group with family history. Moreover, 5382insC mutation was found to be the most frequent BRCA 1 gene mutation among the females of Qalubia governorate followed by C61G mutation and 185 delAG mutation. Conclusion: In conclusion, BRCA1 gene mutation and multiple BRCA1 exons mutations play an important role in the pathogenesis of familial breast cancer in Qalubia Governorate, Egypt.

[Fouad El-said El-Debaky, Naglaa Ibrahim Azab, Naglaa Fathy Alhusseini, Sanya khairy Eliwa and Hamed Rashsad Musalam. Breast Cancer Gene 1 (Brca 1) Mutation in Female Patients with or without Family History in Qalubia Governorate. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):82-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.12

 Key words: familial breast cancer, BRCA1 gene, 5382insC mutation, 185delAG mutation, C61G mutation

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Serum Visfatin in patients with chronic hepatitis C

 

Abd El Fattah Hano1, Akram Deghady2, Sahar Shaaban*1 and Marwa Abd El Rahman1

 1 Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

sahoram@hotmail.com *

 

Abstract: Background: The role of visfatin in non alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is now well known accordingly, the aim of this work was to study the serum level of Visfatin in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and their relations to the nutritional state of patients as well as the biochemical markers of liver disease. Subjects: This study was carried out on 75 male subjects classified into five groups all of them were subjected to measurement of body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, liver function tests, PCR for HCV, serum visfatin level & liver biopsy when ever possible was done. Results: Mean serum Visfatin level was significantly elevated in group II (HCV & cirrhosis) and group IV (HCV & steatosis) than in group V. (P < 0.05). Significant positive correlation was found between serum visfatin & BMI, degree of inflammation & fibrosis. (P<0.05) On the other hand, significant negative correlation was noted between serum visfatin & apolipoprotein A1. (P<0.05). Conclusion: High levels of visfatin in patients with HCV and steatosis than other patients' groups suggest its involvement in the process of steatosis and its progression. Furthermore, high levels of visfatin in patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis and schistosomiasis suggest its role in liver fibrogenesis. 

[Abd El Fattah Hano, Akram Deghady, Sahar Shaaban and Marwa Abd El Rahman. Serum Visfatin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):94-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.13

 Keywords: Serum; Visfatin; patient; chronic hepatitis C

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Characterization of Poly-isoprene Rubber Layer Backed with Porous Material as Sound Absorber and Vibration Damper

 

Abd-elfattah A. Mahmoud* and Mohamed Abd-elbasseer

 

Acoustics Department, National Institute for Standards. Geiza, Egypt.

yy_abd_elfattah@yahoo.com*

 

Abstract: There are several methods to decrease acoustic noise. Sound absorption is one of the noise control methods, commonly, multi-layer sound absorbers are applied to absorb broad band noise, the sound absorption coefficient of different materials are measured in impedance tube using two-microphone transfer-function method according to ISO 10534-2 and ASTM E1050-98 international standards. Multi-layers sound absorbers effectiveness depends on their construction. The effects of different porous materials (R, S &F), and layers backing on the sound absorption and of poly isoprene rubber will be studied. The treatment for Multi-layered with sponge and rubber increasing the sound absorption coefficient value at about 0.9 and shifted towards a lower frequency range 315-800 Hz.

[Abd-elfattah A. Mahmoud and Mohamed Abd-elbasseer. Characterization of Poly-isoprene Rubber Layer Backed with Porous Material as Sound Absorber and Vibration Damper. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):102-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.14

 Keywords: Characterization; Poly-isoprene; Rubber Porous; Material; Vibration Damper

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The Effect of Boiling on Milk Microbial Contents and Quality

 

Ahmed M.M. Metwally1, Nadia M.A.Dabiza*2, Wagih I.El-Kholy2 and Zeinab I.Sadek2

 1Dairy Technol.Dept. Faculty of Agric. Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Dairy Science Department, National Research Center Dokki, Giza, Egypt

nadiadabiza@yahoo.com *

 

Abstract: Though milk boiling is a widespread heat treatment in number of countries, the process was not thoroughly studied. In this study, the effect of boiling buffaloes and cow's milk samples for different periods on their microbiological contents, keeping quality and bacterial ecology contents and chemical changes were determined. Lethality rate of 6.53, 6.77, 7.301 and 7.44 in buffaloes` and 6.76, 7.059, 7.012, 7.15 and 7.159 log10 cfu/ml in cows milk were obtained on boiling the samples for 0.5, 1,2 and 5min., respectively. Boiling milk for 0.5 and 1min decreased the bacterial count from 3.6109 in cow's milk into 6.3102 and 3.2 102 and from 7.8109 in buffaloes ‘milk into 2.26103 and 1.3103 cfu/ml, respectively. On cold storage, the microbial content of boiled milk, not only did not increase but also declined on the first week. Boiling destroyed bacterial vegetative cell leaving behind spores of the sporeformer which were dominated with B.cereus and Micrococcus leteus. Boiling affected milk quality far less than the effect occurred in UHT milk as determined by O.D- value measurements.

[Ahmed M.M. Metwally, Nadia M.A. Dabiza, Wagih I.El-Kholy and Zeinab I. Sadek. The Effect of Boiling on Milk Microbial Contents and Quality. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.15

 Key words: Boiling period, Bacillus cereus, Buffaloes` and Cows` milk, UHT milk

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Evaluation of the Effects of Bagasse on Tensile and Compressive Strength of Lightweight Concrete

 

Mojtaba Labibzadeh 1, Mehdi Nasirifar 1, Amin Khajehdezfuly 1

 1Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

Labibzadeh_m@scu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Mechanical characteristics of lightweight concrete contained bagasse, including splitting tensile and compressive strength have been examined. Bagasse as an agricultural waste was obtaining in the form of small wood chips after extracting cane sugar in the Khouzestan state of Iran. In this research, at first a fixed mix design was considered according to ACI-21. Then some samples were prepared corresponding to the above mentioned design code and by inserting 20,30,40 and 50% bagasse as a replacement for aggregates in concrete mixture and consequently these samples were tested. The results showed that by increasing of the content percentage of bagasse, compressive strength decreased and this decrease for concrete containing 20% bagasse is about to 36%.The concrete containing 20% bagasse has more splitting tensile strength in compared to normal concrete approximately up to 13%. Finally, based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that concrete with 20% bagasse could be introduced as an alternative lightweight concrete regarding to its lower unit weight and higher splitting tensile strength.

[Mojtaba Labibzadeh, Mehdi Nasirifar, Amin Khajehdezfuly. Department of Civil Engineering,Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):115-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.16

 Keywords: Bagasse; Lightweight concrete; Compressive strength; splitting tensile strength

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Sulphur efficiency in rising of pollution soil by heavy metals qualification under conditions of lettuce plant cultivation

 

Abd El Fattah, M.S. Khaled, S.M. and Safaa. A.M.

 National Research Centre, Plant Nutrition Department, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Pot experiment was established in green house at National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt, in polluted soil from industrial wastes by heavy metals. Sulphur elemental was used at different rates (100, 200 and 300 ppm). Lettuce plant of class (lactuca sativa var. Capitata). Loamy sand soil type from Helwan region at south of Egypt. Some parameters in fresh plant were performed. From plant analysis showed existence positive relationships between sulphur concentrations were added and chlorophyll concentrations, (N,P and K ) and (Fe, Mn, Zn and Co) while a negative contact between sulphur rates were added and (Cd, Ni, Pb and (Cu) contents by comparison with control. Water filtering from water irrigation was analyzed and shown that heavy metals were leached from soil. Soil was analyzed at experiment end shown that nonexistence heavy metals in soil except slight traces. All the differences between treatments were significantly.

[Abd El Fattah, M.S. Khaled, S.M. and Safaa. A.M. Sulphur efficiency in rising of pollution soil by heavy metals qualification under conditions of lettuce plant cultivation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):121-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.17

Key words: Sulphur. Loamy sand soil. Lettuce plant. Heavy metals. Macro-micro nutrients-chlorophyll

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Incorporation Jatropha Curcas Meal on Lambs Ration and It’s Effect on Lambs Performance

Abo El-Fadel M.H., Hussein, A.M. and Mohamed, A.H.

Animal Production Research Instiute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

alaaapri@link.net

 

Absract: This study was conducted to determine the effect of heat (HJM), or biologically with lactobacillus bacteria (BJM), treatments of Jatropha curcas meal with on concentrate ion of anti-nutritive compounds. In order to replacement of costly imported soybean meal and find out their effects on rumen fermentation characteristics degradability and consequently lambs performance. Seven concentrates feed mixtures (CFM), contained soybean meal was replaced with untreated Jatropha meal (UJM) by 0%, JMU (CFM0), 25% JMU (CFM1), 50% JMU (CFM2), or heated Jatropha meal (JMH) by 25% (CFM4) and 50% JMH (CFM5) or biological Jatropha meal (JMB) by 25% (CFM10) and 50% JMI (CFM11), were formulated to study their degradation kinetics in the rumen, concentration of anti-nutritive compounds and performance of lambs fed tested rations. Biological treated (BJM) was more effective in decreasing anti-nutritive compounds than heat treatment. These were reflecting on the degradation kinetics, where DM and OM and their effective degradability (ED) were higher in (BJM) than (HJM). No significant differences were detected for daily gain of lambs fed rations contained Basel or that contained 50% BJM. Economic cash return was more profit for BJM ration than the Basel ration. Under the conditions of the present experiment, could be concluded that the bacterial treated JCMB could be replaced up to 50% JMB with Soybean meal at CFM.

[Abo El-Fadel M.H., Hussein A.M. and Mohamed A.H. Incorporation Jatropha Curcas Meal on Lambs Ration and It’s Effect on Lambs Performance. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):129-132]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.18

 Keywords: Jatrofa curcas meal, biological treated heated treated, degradability and daily gain.

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Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):133-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.19

Withdrawn

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Hormesis Influence of Glyphosate in Between Increasing Growth, Yield and Controlling Weeds in Faba Bean

 

El-Shahawy, T.A. and Faida A.A. Sharara

 Botany Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study investigates the response of faba bean and associated weeds to the low rates of glyphosate (1.4, 2.8, 5.6, 11.2, 22.4, 44.8, and 89.6 g a.i./feddan) corresponding to 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 19.2% of the usage rate (0.467 kg/feddan), respectively. Two field experiments were conducted in this regard during two successive seasons (2008/2009-2009/2010). The plants were sprayed once and twice, 5 and 15 weeks after sowing. Generally, the one foliar application treatments were more effective in increasing faba bean growth than the two foliar application treatments. The best results obtained were for the concentration 11.2 g/feddan, especially sprayed as once. Plant height, fresh and dry weight as well as yield and its components were significantly increased in response. Total protein and carbohydrate contents were unaffected by the treatments. Weeds in converse were negatively affected recording the highest inhibition rate at the concentration 11.2 g sprayed also as once. It has been suggested that the low doses of glyphosate can induce faba bean growth, and this could indirectly affect weeds growth.

[El-Shahawy, T.A. and Faida A.A. Sharara. Hormesis Influence of Glyphosate in Between Increasing Growth, Yield and Controlling Weeds in Faba Bean. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):139-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.20

Keywords: faba bean, glyphosate, herbicides, hormesis, weeds

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Neurological Disorders In Shoe-Makers And The Role Of Some Trace Elements

 

Salwa F. Hafez1, Yasser H. Ibrahim2, Amal S. Hussein1 and Mahmoud A. Hassanien2

 Departments of 1Environmental & Occupational Medicine and 2Air Pollution Research, National Research Centre, Egypt

Salwa999_2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Workers in shoemaking industry are exposed to various risk factors which can result in many health hazards. They include CNS affection, other system abnormalities and biochemical derangements. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible neurological disorders among shoe makers, determinate the levels of Cu, Zn and Se in the workers, and correlate the environmental concentrations of respirable dust, heavy metals, and organic solvents contents in the workplaces with the detected neurological disorders. The study included 62 shoe makers and 72 control subjects who were matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status. Questionnaire and clinical neurological examination were done for all subjects. Serum trace elements (Cu, Se and Zn) were determined. Air samples were collected for environmental monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), respirable dust and its heavy metal content such as (Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni). Results showed that VOCs level in the ambient air of the workplaces were found to be lower than the OSHA standard. Respirable dust and heavy metal concentrations were found to be significantly lower than the Egyptian standard. The results of neurological examination revealed that 61% of the shoe makers had neurological disorders, while all the control subjects were normal. Nearly half the shoe makers with neurological abnormality had combined cranial and spinal neurological disorders (47.4%). Olfactory and auditory nerves recorded the highest frequency of affection. Among motor abnormalities, sensory abnormalities and disturbances in micturation reported in workers, muscular weakness had the highest frequency of occurrence. Duration of exposure in shoe makers with combined cranial and spinal abnormalities, and spinal alone were significantly longer than that in normal shoe makers and those with cranial problems while there was no significant effect of the age on the incidence of neurological abnormalities. On comparing levels of the trace elements between the shoe makers and controls, Se was significantly lower in the shoe makers, while levels of Cu and Zn levels were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant difference in levels of Cu, Se, and Zn between neurologically normal and abnormal shoe makers. In conclusion, Occupational exposure to organic solvents and other chemicals in shoemaking industry was found to have hazardous effects on nervous system both cranial and spinal. The protective role of trace elements has been suggested. Levels of Se were decreased in shoe workers, while, the exact role of Zn and Cu are not clarified in the development of neurological abnormalities and needs further study.

[Salwa F. Hafez, Yasser H. Ibrahim, Amal S. Hussein and Mahmoud A. Hassanien. NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS in SHOE-MAKERS and the ROLE of SOME TRACE ELEMENTS. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):145-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.21

Key Words: Cranial Neurological Disorders, Spinal Neurological Disorders, shoemakers, Organic Solvents, Zinc, Selenium

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Ultrastructural Studies On The Effect Of Electromagnetic Field On The Liver Of Albino Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

 

Mohamed El-Hady El-desoky and Marwa Mohamady

 Department of Zoology - Faculty of Science - Benha University

dr.elhady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of long-term exposure of rats (1 hour per day, 3 days weekly for 4 weeks) to either static or time varying magnetic fields of induced flux densities 2 mT (millitesla) =20G (Gauss), on the ultrastructure of liver tissue. One hundred and ten male rats were divided into three main groups. Animals of the first group (10 rats) were not exposed to the magnetic field and represented the control group. The second group (50 rats) was exposed to static magnetic field (direct current) at strength of 2 mT. The third group (50 rats) was exposed to alternating magnetic field (alternating current) at strength 2 mT. The results revealed structural irregularity in hepatocyte nuclei as the most prominent ultrastructural change in the liver of treated groups. This was manifested as irregularity of nuclear membranes, widening of the nuclear pores and heterogeneous distribution of the chromatin material. Furthermore, swelling and clumping and deformation of mitochondria were observed in the groups exposed to the magnetic field. In addition, the rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared with marked dilation and the lysosomes appeared distorted.

[Mohamed El-Hady El-desoky and Marwa Mohamady. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE LIVER OF ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS). Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):154-165]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.22

 Keywords: Electromagnetic Field; Ultrastructural Studies; Liver; Albino Rats

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Seed Morphology and Seed Coat Sculpturing of 32 Taxa of Family Brassicaceae

 

Wael Taha kasem l, Ghareeb, A2 and Marwa, E.2

 1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Cairo, Egypt

ataawael@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The seed exomorphic characters of 32 taxa were investigated by the aid of LM and SEM. The seed exomorphic characters that is diagnostic at the generic and specific level are, seed shape, dimensions, colour, epidermal cells, and seed coat surface, aspect of anticlinal and periclinal walls. The seed shape among the taxa showed wide range of variations. LM revealed most of the seeds vary from globose to oblong-ellipsoid or elongate. The seed shape as observed in the present study seems to be diagnostic at the generic level. Also, most of the investigated seeds have no wings except Farsetia aegyptia. The SEM investigation at higher magnifications revealed main six types of seed surface sculpture; reticulate, ocellate, foveate, papillate, stellate and domate. The seed exomorphic criteria extracted from LM and SEM were analyzed by the STATISCA program package using the UPGMA clustering method. Produced data facilitate the construction of an dendrogam between the studied taxa.

[Wael Taha kasem, Ghareeb, A and Marwa, E. Seed Morphology and Seed Coat Sculpturing of 32 Taxa of Family Brassicaceae. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):166-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.23

 Keywords: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae); Seed coat sculpture; LM; SEM

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Evaluation of the Reaction of Major Weeds and Some Rice Cultivars to Colletotrichum graminicola

 

Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh1 and Armin Javadzadeh2

 1. Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Guilan Province 41335-3516, Iran. Tel:00989111384168

2. Department of Plant Breeding and Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Azerbaijan Province Iran

*Corresponding author’s email: ssafarimotlagh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Sagitaria trifolia and Echinochloa spp. are among the most important damaging weeds of rice paddies. In this research, Colletotrichum graminicola was isolated from these weeds and studied as a biological agent for controlling weeds. To do so, at first, reactions of five rice cultivars including three indigenous cultivars such as Hashemi, Ali Kazemi and Binam and two bred ones, i.e. Sepidroud and Khazar to Colletotrichum graminicola were evaluated. Thus, a complete random design with three replications and five treatments was used at a greenhouse. Then, Colletotrichum graminicola was inoculated on these weeds. The experimental design was a randomized completed with three replications. Inoculation was done at the 3-4-leaf stage using a spore suspension consisting of 10conidia/mL distilled water to which Tween-20 1% was added. Results showed that Colletotrichum graminicola caused high disease ratings in Alisma plantago-aquatica, Sagitaria trifolia, E. crus-galli and E. oryzicola, respectively. In addition, the studied rice cultivars showed a significant reaction in terms of the disease rating among which bred cultivars were less tolerant. Moreover, the fungus reduced fresh weight, dry weight and height in the studied weeds and rice cultivars. Therefore, C. graminicola can be used as a mycoherbicide for the biological control of these weeds only when other cultivars except the above-mentioned rice cultivars are planted. This issue particularly requires producing new tolerant cultivars with a combination of the desired traits.

[Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh and Armin Javadzadeh. Evaluation of the Reaction of Major Weeds and Some Rice Cultivars to Colletotrichum graminicola Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):179-185]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.24

 Keywords: weeds, Colletotrichum graminicola, rice, biological control.

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The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework and Application of Community Empowerment and Participation in Processes of Community Development in Malaysia

 

1Asnarulkhadi A Samah & 2Fariborz Aref

 

1Dept. of Social and Development Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia

2Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran, fariborz.aref@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study defines and discusses the concept of participation in the context of social development in general, and in terms of community development and community work specifically. Community development could not be achieved without community participation. The principles and techniques underlying the empowering process are also elaborated. The study describes the application of the concepts defined in some of the community work and community development activities in Malaysia.

[Asnarulkhadi A Samah & Fariborz Aref, The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework and Application of Community Empowerment and Participation in Processes of Community Development in Malaysia, Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):186-195]. (ISSN: 1545-1003)” http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.25

Keywords: community, community participation, empowerment

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Level set segmentation method in cancer's cells images

Ali Elyasi*, Yousef Ganjdanesh**, Kave Kangarloo*, Mehdi Hossini**, Marzie Esfandyari**

*Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University، Central Tehran Branch, poonak Sq. Tehran, Iran

**Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University، Saveh Branch, Felestin Sq. Saveh, Iran

Corresponding Author: Tel:+98 21 66423022, E-mail: alielyasi15@gmail.com

Abstract: For early detection in cancer, it is necessary that cells be monitored on time. One of the first steps in the monitoring process is segmenting the cancer's cells. In this paper, we focused on the level set method and compared with snake active contour that use in image segmentation. Level set method is a fast and accurate approach that can be used in segmentation and reduce human interaction as possible. A set of cancer cells images is selected to serve as the representative test set. The selections are different sizes and resolutions.

[Ali Elyasi, Yousef Ganjdanesh, Kave Kangarloo, Mehdi Hossini. Level set segmentation method in cancer's cells images. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):196-204]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.26

Keywords: Level set; GVF snake; cancer’s cell; Image segmentation

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Thermo-Statically Safety Control of Dez Dam under Unexpected Lake Level Reduction

 

Mojtaba Labibzadeh, Amin Khajehdezfuly

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

Labibzadeh_m@scu.ac.ir 

 

Abstract: Dez dam stability was examined due to unexpected decrease in its reservoir level by performing a 3D finite elements analysis. The dam as well as its foundation and abutments have been modeled in a relatively exact manner. Moreover, the vertical contraction joints were simulated in the analysis. Hydrostatic, gravity and thermal forces have been taken into account as the main load combinations. 10m reduction of reservoir level from normal water level of the dam reservoir was considered in the modeling and the possibility of initiate and development of cracks in dam body was investigated by means of monitoring of principal stresses. The obtained results revealed that no serious instability would occur in Dez arch concrete dam.

[Mojtaba Labibzadeh and Amin Khajehdezfuly. Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(2):205-212]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.27

Keywords: Arch dam, Concrete dam, Thermal, Hydrostatic, Gravity, Contraction joints, Dam safety

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Determinants of urban Land Price in Freetown, Sierra Leone

 

Victor Tamba Simbay KABBA1, 2 and Jiangfeng Li3

 1Department of Land Resources Management, Faculty of Economy and Management,

China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074, China

Victor_kabba@yahoo.co.uk; 0086-15827480592

2Institute of Geography and Development Studies, School of Environmental Sciences

Njala University, Republic of Sierra Leone

3Department of Land Resources Management, Faculty of Earth Resources,

China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China

Abstract: Internal migration has over the last two decades increased demand for residential land in Freetown. Unfortunately, access to land via the government functionary has not kept pace with demands. The majority of the population therefore depends on the unofficial land market. This study addressed two objectives. The first attempted to identify the most important variables that determine urban land price. The second compared the east, and west sections of the city, in terms of which factors are significant in determining land price in each area. Taking eight settlements, four on either side of the city centre, 160 residents were interviewed for objective one. A model was developed using 10 variables, and a regression equation, based on land maximization theory was ran. The obtained parameters-r2=0.81, P=0.000, α=0.05, indicated a strong overall positive correlation between the dependent and explanatory variables, and the regression model highly significant. Positive correlation coefficients were shown by income, population, infrastructure, social status, environmental concerns and neighbourhood. These indeed explained the factors that influenced residential land use in Freetown, especially in the western half of the city. For objective 2, a total of 40 land traders and 40 land buyers were interviewed, and the results presented in percentages. These showed that the two sides agreed only on income, and population as significant in determining land price. We concluded that this had to do with class division, as the west houses the three arms of government, diplomats, and wealthy, as against the middle and low class in the east.

[Victor Tamba Simbay KABBA and Jiangfeng Li. Determinants of urban Land Price in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):213-223]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.28

Keywords: residential land; urban land market; land price; model; east/west ends

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Determination of the Appropriate Time of Relaying Cassava into Pepper in Intercropping System in Nigeria

 

Adeola, R. G. 1, Tijani-Eniola, H. 2 And Kolawole, G. O. 3

 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000 Ogbomoso, Nigeria

3Agronomy Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Department of Agronomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000

Ogbomoso, Nigeria; adeola20022000@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Relay intercropping of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) into pepper (Capsicum annum L.) is a common practice among farmers in Nigeria. However, there is high variation in the time of the relay thus leading to variability in yields of cassava and pepper. Field experiments were conducted to determine the appropriate time to introduce cassava into pepper in a relay intercrop. The experiment was a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Five different planting dates of relaying cassava into pepper were evaluated. Pepper and two cassava varieties were the test crops. Sole pepper was included for comparison. Delayed relay planting of cassava into pepper beyond 1 MAT (Months after transplanting) adversely affected the yield of both cassava varieties while simultaneous planting of pepper and cassava significantly (P 0.05) delayed flowering and maturity of pepper with a resultant effect of significant (P 0.05) reduction in fruit yield of pepper. The most appropriate time to introduce cassava into pepper in a relay intercrop was 1 MAT.

[Adeola, R. G., Tijani-Eniola, H. And Kolawole, G. O. Determination of the Appropriate Time of Relaying Cassava into Pepper in Intercropping System in Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):224-231]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.29

 Key Words: Capsicum annuum, cropping pattern, Manihot esculenta, relay intercrop, sole crop

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Enhancement the teaching and learning methods of some zoological courses (invertebrate, parasitology and animal physiology) in Taif University, KSA

 

Ismail Shalaby1,2, Nahla S. El-Shenawy1,2, Mahi Ghobashy1,2 and Amaal Mohammadein1,3

1Biology Department, Faculty of science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. 2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. 3Zoology department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

elshenawy_nahla@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to outline specific manners by which learning and teaching processes can be enhanced in the university campuses for the sake of superior learning capabilities and experiences. This paper describes the advantages of various approaches of improving the teaching of some biological courses (invertebrate, parasitology and animal physiology), including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, the previous courses are taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering classification of invertebrate, biology of invertebrate and parasites, molecular biology, pathology and immunology, as well as clinical manifestations, diagnosis, therapy, control and prevention of parasitic diseases. Animal physiological course included the description of different systems in the human body and compared with the other animals. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subject, starting from diseases in animal species or from organ systems; it also tackles training of skills for problem solving and self-learning. Combined approaches include elements of the disciplinary approach and those of other methods. A list of the developed courses and the way of presentation has been discussed. The course syllabus put in student guide to be given to the student in the beginning of the semester. Improving the practical courses has been done by recording them in video. The strategy in the lectures has been changed with the students to minimize the distance with them. Moreover, three workshops have been hold during improving the courses to enhance the efficacy of the technician in the using the computer and modern equipments. Based on the observations and experiences regarding teaching biological courses (branch of zoology), some suggestions have been made which may be helpful in the development of curriculum of zoology in Taif university, KSA to approach to online biological programs (E-learning) at leading research universities.

[Ismail Shalaby, Nahla S. El-Shenawy, Mahi Ghobashy and Amaal Mohammadein. Enhancement the teaching and learning methods of some zoological courses (invertebrate, parasitology and animal physiology) in Taif University, KSA. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):232-238]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.30

Keywords: Zoology; teaching, disciplinary, problem-oriented, combined and Region-specific approaches; E-learning, preparation of syllabus, evaluation of courses.

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Water use efficiency in rice hybrid under different water intervals and nitrogen levels

 

Ashouri, M and E, Amiri

 

Islamic azad university Roudsar & Amlash branch, Iran.

E-mail: mashouri48@yahoo.com and mashouri@iau-roudsar_amlash.ac.ir

Tel: +981426212910; Fax: +981426212911

Corresponding Author: Ashouri, M.

 

Abstract: Shortage of water in rice cultivation area of Iran is going to be a major problem in near future therefore water use in rice production systems has to be reduced and water use efficiency increased. Experiment was conducted in a split plot based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications during 2007-2008. Four levels of nitrogen (N1=0, N2= 90, N3= 120 and N4= 150 kg/ha) were splited on 4 different irrigation managements (I1=continuous submergence, I2= 5, I3= 8 and I4= 11 days interval). Grain yield was 7342, 7079, 7159 and 5168 kg/ha in I1 to I4 and 5303, 6628, 7398 and 7418 kg/ha in N1 to N4 respectively. Water use efficiency was 1.41, 1.53, 1.68 and 1.31kg m3 in I1 to I4 and 1.16, 1.48, 1.67 and 1.63 kg/m3in N1 to N4 respectively. Water used was 5190, 4630, 4270 and 3950 m3 in I1 to I4 and 4590, 4470, 4440 and 4540 m3 in N1 to N4 respectively. The results clearly showed that continuous submergence irrigation is not essential for rice production and we can use irrigation interval 8 days. The application of 120 and 150 kg/ha nitrogen produce same grain yield, therefore consumption of 120 kg/ha nitrogen for rice hybrid advised.

[Ashouri, M and E, Amiri. Water use efficiency in rice hybrid under different water intervals and nitrogen levels. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):239-243]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.31

 

Keywords: irrigation, nitrogen, water use efficiency, rice, Iran

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Pathological Evaluation of Probiotic, Bacillus Subtilis, against Flavobacterium columnare in Tilapia Nilotica (Oreochromis Niloticus) Fish in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

 

Mohamed H Mohamed and Nahla AG Ahmed Refat

 Dept of Vet. Pathology, Fac Vet Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig City, Egypt.

Nahla_kashmery@hotmail mohamedelariny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fifteen out-of eighty-five of collected Tilapia nilotica fish (17.64%) showing skin lesions, were positive for Flavobacterium columnare with cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. These skin lesions were large erosions with loss of scales and red-grayish patches, particularly at the frontal head region and abdomen. All of the positive isolates (Flavobacterium columnare) were molecularly tested by means of PCR. With consistent with F. columnare standard ATCC 49512 strain, these isolates produced a 675 bp band. One hundred apparently healthy Tilapia nilotica fingerlings (305 gm) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, in water or diet against the intramuscular challenge with Flavobacterium columnare infection. They were equally divided into 10 groups (10 fish for each group). Five groups were experimental control {placebo (gp 1), intramuscularly infected with 0.2 x108 F. columnare CFU (gp 2), received 0.1 gm/L probiotic in water (gp 3), 0.2 gm /L probiotic in fish diet (gp 4), or 1 gm/L oxytetracycline (gp 5)}; two were prophylactic experiment {received 0.1 (gp 6) or 0.2 (gp 7) gm of probiotic in water and diet, respectively 2 months before bacterial infection and continued for a week later}; and three were treated experiment {intramuscularly infected with 0.2 x108 F. columnare CFU and then received the probiotic in water (gp 8), diet (gp 9) or 1 gm/L oxytetracycline for a week (gp 10)}. Specimens from the skin, gills, liver, kidney and intestine were collected, fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin solution and were routinely processed for pathological examination. Exposure of the fish to F. columnare infection produced focal coagulative necrosis, ulcerations besides severe hydropic and spongiosis in the epidermis, particularly at the necrotic areas of the fins and heavily infiltrated with granulocytes and few lymphocytes. The dermis was infiltrated with neutrophils and the underlying muscles were necrotic. The gills showed coagulative necrosis in the gill-filaments with neutrophils infiltration and few extravasated erythrocytes. Focal proliferation of the respiratory epithelium was noticed particularly those covering the secondary lamellae which frequently sloughed. The probiotic (prophylactic experiment) in water or diet was alleviated the lesions of the Flavobacterium columnare infected fish with an increase of water quality, while such changes were still similar to those described with infected fish in probiotic treated experiment. The oxytetracycline-treated group showed significant reduction of these lesions and the treated fish appeared normal.

Collectively, it could be concluded that the probiotic, B. subtilis, in water or diet (as prophylaxis) are effective in amelioration the lesions of F. columnare infections that have wide spread among Egyptian freshwater fish. Oxytetracycline is the drug of choice to treat such disease and minimize the lesions of F. columnare.

[Mohamed H Mohamed and Nahla AG Ahmed Refat. Pathological Evaluation of Probiotic, Bacillus Subtilis, against Flavobacterium columnare in Tilapia Nilotica (Oreochromis Niloticus) Fish in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):244-256]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.32

Keywords: Flavobacterium columnare, Probiotic B. subtilis, Tilapia nilotica, PCR and Oxytetracycline

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Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):257-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.33

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Evaluation of Lumbo-Pelvic Stabilizing Exercises in the Treatment of Backache after Normal Labour.

 

Hala M. Hanfy1*, Fayiz F. Elshamy1, Mohamed A. Awad1, Hossam Gad.2

 1Department of physical therapy for Obstetric and Gynaecology, Faculty of physical therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Department of Orthopedic surgery, Faculty of medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

*Awad18111972@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Lumbo-pelvic stabilizing exercises in the treatment of post partum backache. Twenty volunteers women diagnosed with post partum backache, their ages ranged from 25-35years, they were delivered normally and received stabilizing exercises for lumbo-pelvic muscles (24 sessions), 3 sessions per week for 8 week. All women were evaluated before and after the end of the treatment progrmme using visual analogue scale for pain assessment and Oswestry disability questionnaire for the assessment of functional disability The obtained results showed highly statistically significant decrease in pain intensity.(p<0.001), and improve the functional disability (p<0.01) at the end of the study Accordingly, it could be concluded that lumbo-pelvic stabilizing exercises appears to be effective in the management of post partum backache.

[Hala M. Hanfy, Fayiz F. Elshamy, Mohamed A. Awad, Hossam Gad..Evaluation of Lumbo-Pelvic Stabilizing Exercises in the Treatment of Backache after Normal Labour. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):270-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.34

 Key words: post partum – backache – lumbo-pelvic stabilizing exercise -visual analogue scale – Oswestery disability questionnaire

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The Association between Lichen Planus and Hepatitis C Virus

 

Hasnaa A. Abo-Elwafa*1, Esam-Eldeen Abdel-Aziz Nada2, Reham Ezz- Eldawla El-Sharkawy2, Nesreen Ali Ahmed Abdel-Rahman2

 Clinical Pathology Department1, Dermatology and Venereology Department2, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt. *aboelwafahasnaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus, has been associated with a wide variety of extrah- epatic manifestations (EHM) in the natural history of the disease. Lichen planus LP has also been reported in association with the hepatitis C virus. Objective is to determine the frequency of HCV in patients with LP in Sohag University Hospital. Patients and methods: The study was carried out at Sohag University Hospital in Clinical Pathology Department and Dermatology Venereology Department from October 2009 to April 2010, on 70 patients with LP (34 males, 36 females) their age ranged from 25 to 80 years old, and 20 patients (11 males, 9 females) their age ranged from 22 to 70 years old as a control group with other dermatological manifestations. Patients were recruited from the out patient clinic of dermatology department, full history, clinical examination, biopsy in some cases to confirm the diagnosis of LP and laboratory investigations for anti-HCV detection, liver function tests were done. Results: There is no significant difference between LP group and control group regarding the age or the sex (p = 0.176). There is highly significant increase in HCV infection between LP group (p = 0.000), there is a significant increase in HCV infection among the old age patients (p = 0.008), HCV infection and duration of LP showed a significant correlation (p = 0.022). There was an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in actenic LP patients and mucous LP patients compared with those of classic type (p = 0.028). Conclusion: A possible relationship between LP and HCV, thus, it seems that the HCV antibody test is necessarily required for LP patients.

[Hasnaa A. Abo-Elwafa, Esam-Eldeen Abdel-Aziz Nada, Reham Ezz- Eldawla El-Sharkawy, Nesreen Ali Ahmed Abdel-Rahman. The Association between Lichen Planus and Hepatitis C Virus. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):277-282]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.35

 Key words: Lichen Planus- HCV Infection; dermatological manifestation

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Protective Effect of some Antioxidants against CCl4-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells from BRL3A Cell Line.

 

Kamel, H.H.1, Azza, H. Abd-El-Rahman1, Walaa, M.S. Ahmed1 and Amira, H. Mohamed2

 1Clinical Pathology Dept., Fac. of Vet. Med. Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Dept., Fac. of Vet. Med. Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Azza_abdelrahman92@yahoo.com

 Abstract: An in vitro experiment was conducted to investigate the protective effect of ascorbic acid, mannitol and aminoguanidine at different concentrations against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity and oxidative stress in hepatocytes cell line (BRL3A) from buffalo rats. Results were compared with those of vitamin E as standard hepatoprotective agent. Treatment of BRL3A with CcL4 lead to generation of free radicals detected after two hours incubation using ESR technique and produced cell injury demonstrated by increased leakage of LDH, ALT and AST to the media. Exposure to CcL4 caused apoptosis to cells but did not induce lipid peroxidation as tested by the TBARS technique. Treatment with vitamin E has significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the leakage of intracellular enzymes, reducing the oxidation of proteins and decrease incidence of apoptosis. Ascorbic acid, mannitol and aminoguanidine were ineffective against CcL4 toxicity.

[Kamel, H.H., Azza, H. Abd-El-Rahman, Walaa, M.S. Ahmed and Amira, H. Mohamed. Protective Effect of some Antioxidants against Ccl4-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells from BRL3A Cell Line. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):283-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.36

 Keywords: Protective Effect; antioxidants; CCl4-Induced Toxicity; Liver; Cell; BRL3A Cell Line

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Recognition of Geographical diffusion Esophagus Cancer in Southwestern of Caspian Sea

Bahman Ramezani Gourabi

Associate Professor of Physical Geography

Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch, Iran

bahman@iaurasht.ac.ir, bahmanr2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Esophagus Cancer is an important disease in Iran and has second rank of death after heart disease, in north of Iran this disease has maximum diffusion and has arrangement of Iran in Asian belt of this disease.Environmental and climatically conditions in each area could be helpful toward diffusion and out breaking diseases, like as Esophagus Cancer. Rate of appearing this disease in recent years in Iran and especially in Gilan province (Southwestern of Caspian Sea) has increased that this problem could be very importance by cost ill and its problems.The aim of this paper is recognition of geographically diffusion of Esophagus Cancer in Gilan and presents it by map.The research method of this paper has used from medical documents diseases from hospital, library document studies (Soil, Geology and climate) and field work from 2001-2005 years.Results of this paper has showed that Esophagus Cancer (most rate) rather than on mans,and it has more diffusions in central area in province of Gilan(Talesh,Lahijan,Someh sara and Rasht) and environmental factors such as, soil factor (Lithosel and Brown forest, climatically factors (season and cold course) and has relationship effectives on Esophagus Cancer diffusions and its presenting by map. This paper has written in framework at Geography of Health (Medical geography) that Geographical scattering an important of this paper, than this essay must be complete by other specialists (Environmental and medicines).

[Bahman Ramezani Gourabi. Recognition of Geographical diffusion Esophagus Cancer in Southwestern of Caspian Sea. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):297-302]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.37

 Keywords: Esophagus Cancer, Geography of health, Caspian Sea

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Development of ELISA Method for primary Detection of HCV using core Antigen

 

Shirin Nourollahi1, Seyed Mehdi Boutorabi2, Ali Mirjalili3, Mahmoud Mahmoudian Shooshtari4, Maryam Razaghi1, Masoomeh Hashemi5, Mehrdad Jalalian6, 7

 1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University-Zanjan branch.Iran

2. Director of Research Lab., Pishtaz Teb Inc. Tehran, Iran.

3. Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

4. Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran.

5. Department of Biochemistry, Payamenour University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

6. Khorasan Razavi Blood Center, Mashhad, Iran.

7. Department of Community Health, faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia.

shirin_nourollahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Studies show that Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antigens appear before antibody while the early days of infection. Therefore detecting antigens could lead us to diagnosing the infection on time. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen in order to evaluate the role of core antigen as a marker of HCV infection. A total of 280 samples was tested by third generation anti-HCV, and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed only when the anti-HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was positive. All samples were tested with HCV core antigen using Elisa kits. Among the 280 samples, 95 samples were anti-HCV positive. Among those 95 samples, 75 samples were RT-PCR-positive. The cut-off value was set at 0.15 unit of optical density (equivalent to 2.5 pg/ml of core antigen based on the distribution of healthy subjects (anti-HCV-negative subjects). The difference between the mean optical density values of HCV-ribonucleic acid-positive (HCV-RNA-positive) samples and HCV-RNA-negative samples in the HCV core antigen assay was highly significant (1.4 us 0.08, p < 0.005). The sensitivity and specificity of the core antigen assay were 88% and 96%, respectively. The pretreatment of the anti-HCV-positive samples with a solution that contained 1.5 M glycin buffer (pH = 2) increased the sensitivity of the assay (from 57.3% to 88%). This assay is a simple, sensitive, and useful method for use as a screening strategy for HCV infection in anti-HCV-positive or anti-HCV-negative individuals.

[Shirin Nourollahi, Seyed Mehdi Boutorabi, Ali Mirjalili, Mahmoud Mahmoudian Shooshtari, Maryam Razaghi, Masoomeh Hashemi, Mehrdad Jalalian. Development of ELISA Method for primary Detection of HCV using core Antigen. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):303-307]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.38

 Keywords: Hepatitis C virus (HCV); Core antigen; ELISA; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

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Diversity of Medicinal Plants in the Biospherical Reservation Areas of Iran

(A Case Study of the protected area of Miankaleh)

 

Abed Vahedi1, Esmaeil Yasari2

1Corresponding author: Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Mazandaran, 48148-35497. Cell: +98-09356211306. Iran. abedvahedy@gmail.com

2Assistant Prof, Payame Noor University, Sari, Mazandaran, 48189-35455. Cell: +98-9113511510, Iran. e_yassari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Awareness of people concerning the side effects of chemical drugs has caused an increasing interest in traditional medicine. This study was carried out to gather and identify medicinal plants, their curative effects and the part of them which is used from the reservation area of Miankaleh. The region under study has an area of 68800 hectares situated 12 kilometers north of the city of Behshahr and northwest of the city of Gorgan. During numerous visits to the area, plants were gathered and, after their identification using specialized references of medicinal plants, the part used and the curative effects of the plants were determined. Results obtained showed that out of a total of 43 families, 125 genera, and 155 species found in the region, 33 families, 52 genera, and 61 species (39% of all the species) belonged to medicinal plants, among which the class Asteraceae with 6 species and the class Chenopodiaceae with 5 species had the most medicinal species. The most used parts of the plants were the leaves with 31%, the whole plants with 19%, and the roots with 15%.

[Abed Vahedi, Esmaeil Yasari. Diversity of Medicinal Plants in the Biospherical Reservation Areas of Iran (A Case Study of the protected area of Miankaleh). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):308-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.39

 Key words: Miankaleh, Medicinal plants, Boispherical reservation area, traditional medicine

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Effective Use Of Teaching Methodologies At Secondary Level In Pakistan

 

Tariq Mehmood 1, Zahoor-ur-Rehman 2

 1. Author Tariq Mehmood is Principal at Benevolent Public School, Kohat Road Peshawar and Ph.D. Scholar at Preston University, Islamabad, Pakistan. tariq_619219@yahoo.com

2. Al-Khawarizmi Institute of Computer Science University of Engineering & Technology, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Lahore Pakistan. xahoor@uet.edu.pk, zahoor@kics.edu.pk

 

Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the effective use of teaching methodologies at Secondary level in Pakistan. All the participants i.e.100% of Fourth Six week training workshop on “Educational Leadership and Institutional Management” for educational managers at Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan were included in the sample. For the purpose of data collection, a questionnaire was prepared. Data collected through the questionnaire was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by applying percentage. Major findings of the study reveal that (1) teacher’s presents a brief overview of the contents; (2) teacher’s uses A.V. aids to enhance the student’s comprehension of the concepts; (3) teacher speaks at a rate which allows students time to take notes; (4) teacher evaluates the success of his teaching by asking questions about the topic at the end of the session and; (5) teacher assigns homework and checks it regularly. It was concluded that teachers probe questions answer is incomplete, repeats questions when necessary and also responds students queries politely and carefully; teacher establishes and maintains vigilant contact with the student’s body movements do not contradict the speech and takes notes to respond students curiosity and the teachers voice can be heard easily, he raises and lowers his voice for variety and emphasis. It has been recommended that A.V. materials should be used more vigilantly by teachers to make their teaching effective, teacher must pay attention to remove sign of puzzlement to make students learned better and teacher should pay more attention to his own personality and manners and be cooperative with student’s words.

[Tariq Mehmood, Zahoor-ur-Rehman. Effective Use Of Teaching Methodologies At Secondary Level In Pakistan. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):313-320]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.40

 Keywords: Teacher, teaching methods, strategies, tactics, secondary level

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Importance of Credits for Rural Women

 

Mohammad Abedi1, Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi2, Seyed Mahmoud Hosseini3, Iraj Saleh4

 1, 2 3Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Email: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of important factor for production and occupation is capital. In developing societies that most of their exploiters are novice, lending and credit projects is suitable tool for accessing purposes such as increasing efficiency and obliterating deprivation from rural society. But at one side, we need credits to make technological changes in productive activities and at the other hand we need suitable technical technologies to use credits with optimum efficiency. Supplying credits and analyzing credits approaches cause opportunity to activate poor men’s working power, establishing field for sustainable production and income, prevent usurers and pre shoppers of agriculture productions to plunder poor rural men and finally empowering poor people especially women who can work but were deprived to have capital and work tools, and extension accordance to their activities such as needs assessment, identifying target group, organizing poor people, giving needed specialized and public training etc. have important role on effectiveness and make effective activities of these credits.

[Mohammad Abedi, Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi, Seyed Mahmoud Hosseini and Iraj Saleh. Importance of Credits for Rural Women. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):321-329]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.41

 Keywords: women, rural, credit, empowerment

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Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):330-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.42

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The variational iteration method for exact solutions of fuzzy heat-like equations with variable coefficients

 

Hamid Rouhparvar, Saeid Abbasbandy, Tofigh Allahviranloo

 Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University Saveh Branch, Saveh 39187/366, Iran

Department of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14778, Iran; rouhparvar59@gmail.com

 

Abstract. In this paper, the variational iteration method (VIM) and Buckley-Feuring method (BFM) are applied to find the exact fuzzy solution of the fuzzy heat-like equations in one and two dimensions with variable coefficients. Further a comparison between VIM-BFM and Seikkala solutions is provided.

[Hamid Rouhparvar, Saeid Abbasbandy, Tofigh Allahviranloo. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):338-345]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.43

 keywords: Fuzzy functions; Fuzzy heat-like equations; Iterative method; Variational iteration method

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The Zoning of Drought with SIAP model in Sapeedroud valley, Gilan-Iran, South western of Caspian Sea

 

Bahman Ramezani Gourabi

 Associate professor in Physical Geography,Islamic Azad University,Rasht branch-Iran

bahman@iaurasht.ac.ir, bahmanr2000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Drought is a natural disaster and its repeatable in all climates. In each year more than half of earth is prone to drought occurrence, in Iran also, many times drought condition has happened, such as in 25 years occurred and has influenced on crop yield and water resources. The aim of this paper is recognition of drought with Standard Index Annual Precipitation ( SIAP model ) in framework of research project. The results of research paper has shown in Sapeedrud valley drought has occurred in upland and lowland area( 12-19% from total frequency) and the other area is 5-12 % drought from total frequency and also the focuses of drought years has located in south area in all research period.

[Bahman Ramezani Gourabi. The Zoning of Drought with SIAP model in Sapeedroud valley, Gilan-Iran, South western of Caspian Sea. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):346-350]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.44

 Keywords: Caspian Sea,Drought,Gilan,SIAP model

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Fundamental challenges of information and communication technology (ICT) in education

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 1Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

 2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There are Fundamental challenges about the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. This has led to serious skills shortages in many countries. In turn this has put increasing pressure on policy makers, universities and other training institutions to come up with approaches to inspire young students to choose ICT for their studies. There is also a strong argument for retraining many people who already have pre-service and in-survive education, whether in the workforce or not, to overcome to looming ICT skills crises. This paper reports on the examination of these points. It will also explore appropriate ways to combat this problem through analysis and identification of real prospects for ICT education.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Fundamental challenges of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):351-355]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.45

 Keywords: ICT, education

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Comparison of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Light Weight Concrete Prepared with Bagassese between Cubic and Cylindrical Specimens

 

Hassan Tanoursaz 1, Mojtaba Labibzadeh 2,*

 1. Civil Engineering Department, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Bearnch, Iran

2. Civil Department, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

*Corresponding author: Tel: +98-0916-311-7745, E-mail: labibzadeh_m@scu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Sugar cane had been one of the most important agricultural products in the province of Khuzestan in Iran Country. Because of that since a long time ago this region has been called "The sugar Cane Region" or "Khoozestan ". In the process of sugar cane refinery, yellow fibers called Bagasse are generated which are known as the wastes of this product. About one million tons of Bagasse is produced in the province of Khuzestan each year, which could be a source of bioenvironmental problems and environmental pollutants. In this study, this tributary product which had been used before by the author and his co-workers (labibzadeh, et. al., 2011) to generate a kind of Light Weight Concrete (LWC) was more examined in order to investigate its effect on the relationship between the compressive bearing of the proposed LWC with different shape samples ( cubic and cylindrical ) including Bagasse. To perform this work, at the first a constant mixing plan was considered according to ACI-211.2 standard code, then some samples were prepared according to this strategy, without adding Bagasse and after curing, they were tested. Then, samples with the mentioned mixing plan and 10,20,30,40 &50 percents of including Bagasse were designed to substitute the aggregates in the mixture and after curing these samples according to standard code manual ACI-211.2, the corresponding tests conducted and the results have been deduced and interpreted. The results showed that the ratio of compressive strength of cylindrical samples to cubic ones of the normal concrete for mass concrete is 0.89 which can be increased to 1 for 20% including Bagasse light weight concrete. Here, the point which should be considered is the noticeable reduction of this ratio for 30% Bagasse concrete which is equal to 0.988 to 0.404 for 40% Bagasse concrete.

[Hassan Tanoursaz, Mojtaba Labibzadeh, Amin Khajehdezfuly. Comparison of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Light Weight Concrete Prepared with Bagassese between Cubic and Cylindrical Specimens. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):356-360]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.46

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Prevalence of fascioliasis among slaughter sheep in selected abattoirs in Imo State, Nigeria

 

Njoku-Tony, R.F and Okoli, G.C

 Department of Environmental Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

Corresponding author: Njoku-Tony, R.F, Email- tonyrosefeechi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A 12 months study on fascioliasis in sokoto gudali sheep of Hausa origin (northern part of Nigeria) was carried out in five different abattoirs in Imo State, Nigeria between 2004 and 2005.The abattoirs were Obinze, Okigwe, Afor-Enyiogugu, Afor-Ogbe, and Orlu. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis among slaughter sheep in selected abattoirs in Imo state. Five grams of feces and liver from freshly slaughtered sheep of both sexes, and from different locations and ages were collected, taken to the laboratory and analyzed for fasciola eggs and adult flukes. Direct smear, formol ether concentration and sodium chloride floatation methods were used to harvest the eggs and adult parasites. Out of 367 sheep examined, 64 (17.2%0) were infected. Infection was highest in Obinze abattoir (29.6%) followed by Afor Enyiogugu abattoir with (29.0%) Okigwe (15.6%), Orlu (12.5%) and Afor Ogbe (12.4%). Infection was highest in females than in males and was also sex dependent. Among adult sheep (>2yrs) examined, 59 (14.9%) were infected while out of 38 young goats (<2yrs), 5 (13.2%) were infected. Infection level rose with increased rainfall with the highest level observed at the peak of the rainy season and dropping during the dry season months. The number of parasites were 180, and mean worm load 281. Intensity was higher in males than in females. This result therefore calls for an improved disease control and adequate sanitation programme for sheep rearers in the study area.

[Njoku-Tony, R.F and Okoli, G.C. Prevalence of fascioliasis among slaughter sheep in selected abattoirs in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):361-366]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.47

 Keywords-Fascioliasis, worms, slaughter sheep, abattoirs, tropics, Nigeria

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Geoenvironmental Study Of Groundwater Contamination In A Dual Aquifer Environment Using Earth Resistivity Imaging

 1Samson Idowu Jegede, 2Isaac Babatunde Osazuwa, 3Nasir Khalid Abdullahi

1Department of Physics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. Edo State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Physics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Kaduna State, Nigeria..

3Applied Science Department, College of Science & Technology, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna State, Nigeria.

samidojegede@yahoo.com, nasirasman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The variation of electrical resistivity as a function of soil properties was used as a vital tool to study groundwater contamination in the vicinity of some selected solid waste disposal sites in the municipal town of Zaria. The Abem Lund Imaging system with Terrameter SAS 4000 was used for the resistivity data measurements and the Res2dinv software was used for the processing and interpretations of the data. Due to the high conductivity of the contaminant plumes it was possible to delineate their pathways into the regolith and fractured aquifer environments. Resistivity data from inverted models obtained from profiles near monitoring wells, correlated well with electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solid (TDS) values of water samples taken from theses wells. The inferred water resistivity and the soil resistivity obtained from the resistivity tomosections at depths of water table revealed that the samples, which were collected from hand dug wells whose depths are within the overburden (regolith aquifer), are more polluted than the samples which were collected at deeper levels corresponding to the borehole samples (fractured aquifer). The findings of this study suggest the potentiality of the resistivity imaging technique as a pre-characterization tool for mapping subsurface contamination in the vicinity of waste disposal sites.

[Samson Idowu Jegede, Isaac Babatunde Osazuwa, Nasir Khalid Abdullahi. Geoenvironmental Study Of Groundwater Contamination In A Dual Aquifer Environment Using Earth Resistivity Imaging. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):367-377]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.48

 Key words: Resistivity imaging ∙ Groundwater ∙ Contamination ∙ Dual-Aquifer ∙ Environment

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Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies on some Derivatives of N-(4-Aminobenzenesulphonyl)Morpholine Carrying Amino Acid, Alkoxy and Triazole Moieties

 

H.M.Hassan1*, M. M.Abdelall1, A.M.El-Naggar1, M.E.Tamer1 and R.A.Bayoumi2 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Botony, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

* hassanomar61@ gmail.com

 

Abstract: The reaction of N-[4-(chloroacetyl)aminobenzenesulphonyl]morpholine (IV) in acetone or dimethyl-formamide with amine derivatives, 4-aminotriazoles (I,II) or sulpha drugs yielded the corresponding N-[4-(substituted glycyl)aminobenzenesulphonyl]-morpholine derivatives (V-XV). Moreover, some derivatives of N-[4-(alkoxyacetyl)aminobenzenesulphonyl]morpholine (XVI-XXI) were synthesized. The reaction of XI with the requisite aromatic aldehydes in methanol gave Schiff bases (XXII,XXIII). Coupling reaction between (III) and Pht- or Tos-amino acids using the phosphorus oxychloride method furnished the corresponding N-[4-(pht- or Tos-aminoacyl)aminobenzenesulphonyl]morpholines (XXIV-XXIX). All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, MS spectral data and elemental analyses and investigated their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

[H.M.Hassan, M. M.Abdelall, A.M.El-Naggar, M.E.Tamer and R.A.Bayoumi. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies on some Derivatives of N-(4-Aminobenzenesulphonyl)Morpholine Carrying Amino Acid, Alkoxy and Triazole Moieties. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):378-384]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.49

Keywords: Synthesis; Derivative; N-(4-Aminobenzenesulphonyl)Morpholine; Amino Acid; Alkoxy; Triazole Moieties

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Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):385-388]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.50

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Mathematical Modelling for Radon Prediction and Ventilation Air Cleaning System Requirements in Underground Mines

 

M.M.El - Fawal 

National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Naser City-P.O. Box 7551,Cairo,Egypt,

mohamed_Elfawal@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: As a part of a comprehensive study concerned with control workplace short-lived radon daughter concentration in underground uranium mines to safe levels, a computer program has been developed to calculate ventilation parameters e.g.: local pressures, flow rates and radon daughter concentration levels. The computer program (actually two parts, one for mine ventilation and other for radon daughter levels calculations) has been validated in an actual case study to calculate radon concentration levels, pressure and flow rates required to maintain the acceptable levels of radon concentrations in each point of the mine. The required fan static pressure and the approximate energy consumption were also estimated. The results of the calculations have been evaluated and compared with similar investigation. It was found that the calculated values are in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained using "REDES" standard ventilation modelling software. The developed computer model can be used as an available tool to help in the evaluation of ventilation systems proposed by mining authority, to assist the uranium mining industry in maintaining the health and safety of the workers underground while efficiently achieving economic production targets. It could be used also for regulatory inspection and radiation protection assessments of workers in the underground mining.. Also with using this model, it could be effectively design, asses and manage underground mine ventilation systems. Values of radon decay products concentration in units of working level, pressures drop and flow rates required to reach the acceptable radon concentration relative to the recommended levels, at different extraction points in the mine and fan static pressure could be estimated which are not available using others software.

[M.M.El – Fawal. Mathematical Modelling for Radon Prediction and Ventilation Air Cleaning System Requirements in Underground Mines. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):389-402]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.51

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling / Radiation Doses / Radon and Radon Daughters/Ventilation System /Underground Mines.

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Impact of Structured Nursing Measures Pre and Post Epidural Lumbar Anesthesia on the Occurrence of Post-Epidural Anesthetic Headache

 

1Zeinab Hussain Ali and *2Nadia Mohamed Taha

1Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Helwan, Helwan, Egypt

2Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Zagazig University, Zagazig Egypt

dr_nadya_mohamed@yahoo.com

Abstract: Lumbar puncture is a frequently performed procedure in medical emergencies and anesthesia. Headache after lumbar puncture is a common occurrence (32%) and carries a considerable morbidity, with symptoms lasting for several days, at times severe enough to immobilize. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of structured nursing measures on the occurrence of post-epidural anesthetic headache. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in El-naser Health Insurance Hospital; in Helwan city in Egypt on of 60 adult patients admitted for lower abdominal surgery using epidural anesthesia was recruited. The only exclusion criterion was pregnancy in female patients. Participants were alternatively assigned to either the intervention or control groups, ending with 30 patients in each group. The data collection tools consisted of two tools. Tool (1) was concerned with characterization of the pain and patient’s personal data. The second tool was a Visual analog scale (VAS). The researchers designed a structured pre-spinal anesthetic nursing intervention to be applied to the study group. The control group received the routine nursing intervention only. The results revealed that the incidence of headache became significantly lower in the study group, reaching its lowest rate (3.3%) by the end of the third day, compared to 76.7% in the control group (p<0.001). the mean duration of headache was shorter in the study (22.134.0 hours) than in the control (111.255.9 hours) group, p<0.001. as well Patients in the study and control groups also demonstrated statistically significant differences in the experience of symptoms associated with headache (p<0.001). In conclusion, the structured nursing measures before and after the procedure was successful in decreasing the incidence and duration of this headache and its associated symptoms. Therefore, it is recommended to generalize these structured nursing measures in hospitals to be included in the routine pre-operative and post-operative nursing care for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery with spinal anesthesia.

[Zeinab Hussain Ali and Nadia Mohamed Taha. Impact of Structured Nursing Measures Pre and Post Epidural Lumbar Anesthesia on the Occurrence of Post-Epidural Anesthetic Headache. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):403-411]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.52

Key words: Lumber puncture, post lumber puncture headache

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Evaluation of Some Quality Aspects in Pediatric Intensive Care Services at Benha University Hospital

 

Hussein Abdelshakour Abdelkader Hamed1, Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly 1; Mahmoud Abdullah Al-Azzouny 2; Doaa Refaey Soliman1 

1 Faculty of Medicine - Benha University, pediatric department, 2 Faculty of Medicine - Benha University, Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department

 

Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the quality practice of some aspects of pediatric intensive care services in Benha University Hospital through systematic surveillance approach for situation and gap analysis at PICU. Methods: The surveillance procedures were based on observational scoring meeting with staff and data collection by questionnaires. The surveillance activities were repeated for 9 times (from November, 2009 to March, 2010) for assurance of accuracy of collected data. Results: In the current study the overall assessment of infection control standards in all surveillance cycles (nine cycles) revealed that 6 audits were interpreted as "moderate compliance" (66.7 %) and 3 audits were interpreted as low compliance (33.3 %). As regards total sterilization standards, surveillances revealed, moderate compliance was achieved in 6 audits (66.7%) and high compliance was achieved in 3 audits (33.3%). The repeated nine audits were interpreted for personnel and structure as having moderate compliance (100%). The current study assessment of mechanical ventilation standards revealed variation through different audits that could be summarized as follows; high compliance of 6 audits (66.7%) and moderate compliance of 3 audits (33.3%). Conclusion: There are variable degrees of compliance with the national and international standards of infection control, sterilization and personnel and mechanical ventilation in Benha University Hospital PICU.

[Hussein Abdelshakour Abdelkader Hamed Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly; Mahmoud Abdullah Al-Azzouny; Doaa Refaey Soliman. Evaluation of Some Quality Aspects in Pediatric Intensive Care Services at Benha University Hospital. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):412-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.53

Key words: Quality Aspects, Intensive Care Services, systematic surveillance, mechanical ventilation.

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Detection of Community Acquired Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus among Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

 

Abeer Ghazal 1, Ola Kader 1, Samia Ebid 2, Nancy Mostafa 2 and Shimaa El Sayed 2 

1 Microbiology Department and 2Applied Medical Chemistry Department, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Abstract: The rates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the hospital, as well as the disease in the community, have continued to rise. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a variable genetic element that contains the methicillin resistance determinant, mecA. SCCmec typing is one of the most important molecular tools available for distinction between community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) occurring on a worldwide basis. CA-MRSA has been reported to carry the loci for Panton Valentin leukocidin (PVL) in high frequency in association with the type IV SCCmec. The present study aimed to differentiate between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA by detection of SCCmec and determination the prevalence of PVL gene among MRSA isolates. A total of 34 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were included in this study. Susceptibility of Staphylococci was determined by, Disc diffusion method including methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin discs. Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP2a) Latex Agglutination test was done to detect the presence of PBP2a responsible for methicillin resistance. In addition genotypic identification of MRSA was carried out by detecting mec gene by real time PCR. Conventional PCR was carried using different set of primers for the amplification of SCC mec for differentiating the HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA; moreover detection of PVL as virulence factor was also done. The antibiotic sensitivity of CA-MRSA ranged from 11.76% for ceftazidime to 47.06% for Imipenem, Erythromycin and Gentamycin; while the sensitivity of HA-MRSA ranged from 2.94% for Amoxicillin and Ampicillin/sulbactam to 29.41% for Amikin. Out of 34 S. aureus strains; 26(76.47%) isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin disc, 30(88.24%) isolates were resistant to methicillin; and all strains were resistant to cefoxcitin disc. All MRSA strains were confirmed to be methicillin resistant by detection of mecA gene using real time PCR. Out of 34 MRSA strains 32 (94.12%) were PBP2a producer. In the present study, though, the majority (25out of 34) of our strains were not SCC mec typable, yet among the nine typable strains the six hospital strains belonged to type II and III as reported in the literature and the three CA-MRSA belonged to the novel type V reported by other workers to be associated with CA-MRSA and the only PVL positive CA MRSA strain was untypable.

[Abeer Ghazal, Ola Kader, Samia Ebid, Nancy Mostafa and Shimaa El Sayed. Detection of Community Acquired Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus among Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):423-431]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.54

Keywords: Detection; Community; Methicillin Resistance; Staphylococcus; aureus; Staphylococcus; aureus

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Metabolic Effects of Estrogen and / or Insulin in Ovariectomized Experimentally Diabetic Rats

 

Aziza S. El-Nasr, Faten M.A. Diab, Nihal M. Bahgat, ٭ Mona A. Ahmed, Sahar S. Thabet and Soha M.Y. El-Dakkak 

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

٭drmona_agha70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Postmenopausal adverse metabolic changes increase cardiovascular risk and impair quality of life. This study was planned to evaluate the benefits gained by estradiol treatment alone and insulin treatment alone versus combination of these two hormonal therapies on the metabolic derangements accompanying estrogen deficiency with diabetes. Rats were divided into five groups: control sham-operated group, ovariectomized streptozotocin diabetic group (OVX–STZ), estradiol-treated OVX–STZ diabetic group that received daily subcutaneous injection of estradiol (50μg/kg) for 4 weeks, insulin-treated OVX–STZ diabetic group that received daily subcutaneous injection of insulin (10 or 20 IU/kg) for 2 weeks and combined estradiol-treated, insulin-treated OVX–STZ diabetic group. Rats in all groups were subjected to determination of body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c, insulin, estradiol, leptin and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, in vitro glucose uptake by the diaphragm and glucose output by both kidneys were measured. Insulin treatment alone increased peripheral glucose uptake, reduced renal gluconeogenesis, normalized blood glucose and plasma total cholesterol, decreased triglycerides, LDL-c and atherogenic index and increased HDL-c. Plasma MDA was reduced however, still higher than controls. Estrogen therapy alone lowered blood glucose although not fully normalized, increased peripheral glucose uptake and decreased renal gluconeogenesis, reduced plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c and MDA and elevated HDL-c as compared to untreated groups, yet, not completely normalized. Combined estradiol and insulin therapy returned all measured parameters towards control values with complete normalization of peripheral glucose uptake and blood glucose levels as well as plasma triglycerides, HDL-c, atherogenic index and MDA, while BMI, gluconeogenesis, total cholesterol and LDL-c approached control values although still not fully normalized. It is concluded that either insulin or estrogen therapy provided only partial improvement of the metabolic error of estrogen deficiency with diabetes while the best cure was found with combined estradiol and insulin therapy which achieved successful optimization of weight gain, reduced adiposity, tight glycemic control, alleviated dyslipidemia and normal oxidative state. Thus, insulin therapy together with hormonal replacement therapy as a coadjuvant might be the most advisable line of treatment in postmenopausal diabetic women.

[Aziza S. El-Nasr, Faten M. A. Diab, Nihal M. Bahgat, Mona A. Ahmed, Sahar S. Thabet and Soha M.Y. El-Dakkak. Metabolic Effects of Estrogen and / or Insulin in Ovariectomized Experimentally Diabetic Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):432-444]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.55

Keywords: Metabolic Effect; Estrogen; Insulin; Ovariectomize; Diabetic; Rat

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The Investigation perception of Agricultural Extension Agents about affective factors on effectiveness of Agricultural Advisory Services Companies in Iran

 

Solieman Rasouliazar1, Seyed Mahmood Hosseini2,

Seyed Jamal Farajallah Hosseini3 and Seyed Mahdi Mirdamadi3 

1 Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Mahabad, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

rasouli88s@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigation perception of extension agents about problems that Agricultural Advisory Services Companies (AASC) faced with them and reduced their effectiveness. Statistical population of the study consisted of Agricultural extension agents (N=381). By using the formula Cochrane, sample size was determined at 179. Questionnaire was the data instrument. The appearance and content validity of questionnaire was obtained by comments of extension experts. Reliability coefficient of the questionnaire 0.83 was obtained by Cronbach alpha. The results showed that AASC Increasing farm management skills of farmers. AASC also increasing the specialty of extension services to farmers. By using exploratory factor analysis barriers are classified in four factors, including Policy-making, Socio – cultural, Infrastructural and economical factors. These factors could explain 61% of variance in reduced effectiveness of AASC Services among farmers.

[Solieman Rasouliazar, Seyed Mahmood Hosseini,Seyed Jamal Farajallah Hosseini and Seyed Mahdi Mirdamadi. The Investigation perception of Agricultural Extension Agents about affective factors on effectiveness of Agricultural Advisory Services Companies in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):445-451]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.56

Keywords: Perception, Agricultural extension agents, AASC, Effectiveness, Iran

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Punjab Land use Classification, Reclassification and Redevelopment Rules: A predicament or new approach to urban management?

Rizwan Hameed1, Obaidullah Nadeem2

Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

1d_rizwan@hotmail.com; 2obaidnadeem@yahoo.com;

 

Abstract: Disorganized and unsustainable patterns of land use change have seriously affected the spatial structure of cities in Punjab and Lahore is no exception to this phenomenon. Realizing the consequent problems of parking, traffic congestion and unfavourable environmental impacts, the Government of Punjab has recently enacted the new set of Rules to regulate commercialization and change of land use. This paper critically reviews the contents of the Punjab Land Use (Classification, Reclassification and Redevelopment) Rules 2009 applicable to Tehsil/Town Municipal Administrations (TMAs) and City District Governments (CDGs) since these Rules embody a system of classification of land uses for the first time in Pakistan. The study involves interviews with the architects of said Rules and a short survey of selected Town Planners working in TMAs and CDGs. The review shows that despite some of the shortcomings, these Rules provide a new approach to mapping and regulating the land use development and conversion activities in urban areas for the benefits of inhabitants. Moreover, the need to prepare Master Plans in future in the light of these Rules appears to be an attempt to introduce bottom-up approach to plan making, which also can contribute to facilitating not only their preparation but also enforcement on ground. However, results of brief survey of Town Planners show that effective implementation is likely to be constrained by lack of political will and inadequate technical and financial resources. The circumstances indicate for adoption of facilitative and motivational approach to implementation and enforcement of the said Rules.

[Rizwan Hameed, Obaidullah Nadeem. Punjab Land use Classification, Reclassification and Redevelopment Rules: A predicament or new approach to urban management? Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):452-461]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.57

Keywords: Land Use Classification; Urban Management; Punjab, Pakistan

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Quality of Supervision of Ph.D. Program among Public Universities in Malaysia: A Rasch Model Analysis

 

Mikail Ibrahim[i], Siti Aishah Hassan[ii] 

[1] Faculty of Major Language Studies, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

[1] Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

siti_aishahh@putra.upm.edu.my 

 

Abstract: This study examines Ph.D. students’ satisfaction with the supervision process at four selected universities in Malaysia. In addition, the study also investigated the psychometric properties of Quality Supervision Scale (QSS); specifically the scale dimensionality, construct validity, endorsibility, and estimation of item and person score reliability of the scales. The participants were 153 Ph.D. students of these universities. The QSS includes many qualities of effective supervision such as supervisor academic competency, research methods competency, attitude towards supervisee, faculty academic and moral supports and supervisees’ personal traits was distributed to the respondents. The Rasch model analysis was employed to analyze the data for reliability, fit to the model, estimation of satisfaction levels and possibility of scale to function differentially across gender. Results suggested that generally students were satisfied with the supervision processes at these universities. In addition to that, the scale satisfied psychometrics properties by maintaining unidimensionality, reliability, and internal consistency. Furthermore, Rasch analysis revealed that, for gender, differences in overall satisfaction levels between males and females were marginal. The differential item functioning showed that only 6 of 49 calibrated items function differently. This suggested that students’ levels of satisfaction were constant across gender. However, the study recommended that future studies should examine the satisfaction level across different disciplines since previous studies suggested that satisfaction differs across different domains.

[Mikail Ibrahim; Siti Aishah Hassan. Faculty of Major Language Studies, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia; Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):562-575]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.58

Keywords: supervision, post-graduate studies, Ph.D. students, Rasch model

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Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):576-583]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.59

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 Effective Factors on Discontinuance of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems among Farmers in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran

 

Solieman Rasouliazar1, Saeid Fe'li2 

1 Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch, Mahabad, Iran

Ph.D Student of Agriculture Extension and Education, and Member of Youth Research Club-Garmsar Branch, Iran

rasouli88s@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine effective factors on discontinuance of sprinkler irrigation systems (SIS) among farmers in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. A causal-comparative design was used and data was collected by means of questionnaire and interview with farmers who had used SIS and at least produced and harvested one agricultural crop in West Azerbaijan Province, as the target population. The sample was obtained through proportional stratified sampling (n=124). Instrument validity was established by a panel of experts and reliability analysis yielded an alpha value of 0.81. Study results showed that approximately 30% (n=36) of farmers discontinued use of SIS. The findings indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between adopters who continued SIS regarding some dependent variables including respondents' personal and farming characteristics and respondents' viewpoints about installing and keeping SIS). The result of discriminate analysis showed that "use of river as water source", "use of Gun system to farm irrigation", and "system design", were identified as the most discriminative factors (99.20% of population), affecting discontinuance of SIS.

 [Solieman Rasouliazar, Saeid Fe'li. Effective Factors on Discontinuance of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems among Farmers in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):584-590]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.60

Keywords: Discontinuance, Sprinkler Irrigation System (SIS), Farmers, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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 Reduction of Alfatoxin in Clarious lazara Catfish By Ginseng Extract and Nigella sativa Oil

 

Mona S. Zaki1, Olfat M. Fawzi2 and Iman M. Zytuun3

1. Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center

2. Department of Biochemistry, National Research Center

3. Department of Microbiology, Zagazig University. 

Abstract: Aflatoxine the major toxic metabolites of fungi which are able to induce chronic liver damages. The antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Ginseng extract and Nigella sativa Oil 1% on Alfatoxin was investigated. Alfatoxicosis causes significant increase in liver enzyme SGOT and SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase activity and an increase in the level of cholesterol total lipid, decrease the level of total protein and hemoglobin and P.C.V. Moreover the liver exhibited some clinicopathological changes and decreased body weight. Both Ginseng extract and Nigella sativa Oil 1% reduced the development of hepatotoxicity by Aflatoxin. Nigella sativa showed more improvement of all enzymes of kidney and liver, and also total lipid and cholesterol were reduced and dody weight increased.

[Mona S. Zaki, Olfat M. Fawzi and Iman M. Zytuun. Reduction of Alfatoxin in Clarious lazara Catfish By Ginseng Extract and Nigella sativa Oil. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):591-596]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.61

Keywords: Aflatoxin toxicity. Nigella sativa oil effect. Ginseng extract effect. Clarious lazara Catfish

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 Influence Of Gender And Self-Esteem On The Organisational Commitment Of Civil Servants In Ekiti-State, Nigeria

 

Adebayo Sulaiman Olanrewaju 1, Olowookere Funmilola Kansola 1 

1. Department of Psychology, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, 5363, Nigeria

lanryadd@yahoo.com, sadebayo@unad.edu.ng,

 

Abstract: This study examined the influence of gender and self-esteem on the organizational commitment of civil servants in Ekiti State. Two hundred civil servants drawn from five ministries in Ekiti State responded to a battery of instruments (Self- Esteem Scale, Index of Self-Esteem and Organizational Commitment Scale). Four hypotheses were tested in the study. Results showed that there was no significant gender difference in employees’ level of self-esteem in ministries in Ekiti State [t (198) = 0.41; p>.05], significant gender difference in employees’ level of perceived organizational commitment was also observed [t (198) = 2.18; p<.05]. Further revealed was a significant main effect of gender [F (1, 199) = 3.99; p <.05] and self-esteem [F (1, 199) = 101.96; p <.05] on organizational commitment among civil servants in Ekiti State. Findings from hypothesis four showed that gender [B = 0.18, t = 2.78; p<.05] and self-esteem [B = 0.60, t = 10.49; p <.05] had significant independent prediction on perceived organizational commitment of civil servants. The implications of these findings were discussed in light of the literature.

[Adebayo Sulaiman Olanrewaju 1, Olowookere Funmilola Kansola. Influence Of Gender And Self-Esteem On The Organisational Commitment Of Civil Servants In Ekiti-State, Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):597-603]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.62

 Keywords: Gender, Self-esteem, Organisational commitment, Civil Servants, Ekiti State, Nigeria

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 Cultivation and detection of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in sea water

 

E. A. Ghazy1, M.G. Mahmoud1, M. S. Asker1, M. N. Mahmoud1, M. M. Abo elsoud1 and M. E. Abdel Samie1

1Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding author: Eman A. Ghazy

Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Telephone: +20233335982, Fax: +20233370931, E-mail marnoryas@hotmail.com

Abstract: Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) represent a class of anaerobic microorganisms that conduct dissimulatory sulfate reduction to obtain energy. This study is an attempt to isolate SRB from sea water by rapid and sensitive culture media and to control their effect using eight commercial biocides (Aldehydes and quaternaries). The present work studies the effective of composition of four recommended culture media (Postgate medium B, Starkey’s, Bars' and API media), besides, the presence of metal coupons in these media to enhance the growth of sessile SRB. Furthermore, the present study evaluates the efficiency of filtration of these culture media on the growth of SRB. The results revealed that modified Postgate medium B was the recommended medium for SRB growth. In addition, the results showed that rapid and abundant growth of SRB when the metal coupons were immersed in the culture media which were deficient in iron. Furthermore, the unfiltered culture media improved the SRB growth. The growth of SRB was depressed by 15 ppm of the commercial quaternaries rather than 20 ppm of the aldehydes.The present study aimed to detect and control SRB activities using a very rapid detectable culture medium. Besides reduction of their the economic loss in the petroleum sector.

[E. A. Ghazy, M.G. Mahmoud, M. S. Asker, M. N. Mahmoud, M. M. Abo elsoud and M. E. Abdel Samie. Cultivation and detection of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in sea water. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):604-608]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.63

Key words: SRB, Culture media, Biocides, Minimal inhibitory concentration

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 Identification of Cryptosporidium species infecting camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt.

 

Abdel- Wahab, A., Abdel -Maogood, S.

Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 12211 Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Cryptosporidium sp was investigated among 145 camels (5-8 years old) from Egypt. The prevalence of infection was 19.3%. The detected oocysts were ellipsoidal in shape with a mean length and width 7.5 5.6 um. Ten Cryptosporidium free mice were orally inoculated each with 350.000 oocysts (camel isolate). The prepatent period in mice was 2 days and the patent period could not be determined since they were still shedding oocysts until day 100 post- infection. The camel isolate of Cryptosporidium and the same isolate propagated in mice was non infective for lambs during an examination period of 3 months. Molecular characterization of the camel isolate indicated that the target gene (18SrRNA) gave positive result for C. muris at 435bp.

[Abdel- Wahab, A., Abdel -Maogood, S. Identification of Cryptosporidium species infecting camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):609-612]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.64

Key words: Camels, Cryptosporidium muris, prevalence, morphology, PCR.

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 Effect of Ultrasound Radiation on the Aqueous Humor of Rabbits' Eye

 

Eman S. Elabrak* and Eman M. Aly

 Basic Science Department, Biophysics Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.

*eman.saad@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: The present work aimed to evaluate the protein rabbit aqueous humor changes after exposure to ultrasound. Sixteen New Zealand rabbits (male and female) weighing 2.0-2.5 Kg, divided into four groups, group I served as control and the other three groups exposed to ultrasound of power intensity 3W/cm2 at frequency 10.8MHz for 10, 20 and 40 minutes exposure time. Estimation of protein content, gel filtration chromatography and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were carried out to aqueous humor for all the studied groups. The results showed a significant decrease of protein content of rabbits aqueous humor of all groups reached to maximum decrease (-41.3%) at 40 minutes of exposure. A change in the molecular structure of aqueous humor protein was observed in the shift of the protein fractions to high molecular weight and decrease in the mobility of all peaks in the electrophoretic pattern. It is concluded that aqueous humor protein is sensitive to the ultrasound exposure as a function of time of exposure and may lead to denaturation of proteins.

[Eman S. Elabrak and Eman M. Aly. Effect of Ultrasound Radiation on the Aqueous Humor of Rabbits' Eye. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):613-619]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.65

Key words: Ultrasound, Aqueous humor, Column chromatography, Electrophoresis, rabbits

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 A New Pool Market Method for Generation Expansion Planning in Restructured Power System

 

 Morteza Thaerkhani 1, Mohammad Sadegh Javadi 2, Amin Javadinasab 2

 1. Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, 2139643711, Iran

2. Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, 6138663849, Iran

msjavadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The issue of generation expansion planning (GEP) is more complicated in the restructured and modern power systems rather than traditional and monopoly systems. In Modern power systems, each Generation Company (Genco) invests in the section of generation in order to get to his own maximum profit. This paper presents a new mixed method to solve the GEP problem in Power Pool Market. This method is formed of two levels: local level and national level. In local level, each of Gencos declares his own generation level to Independent System Operator (ISO) aiming maximize the profit just with respect to local constraints. In national level, first the competition between Gencos will be modeled by game theory and Nash-Cournot equilibrium. Then, due to the generation level of each of Gencos, the system national constraints will be checked. If these constraints would be satisfied, problem-solving would be completed but if each of these constraints won’t be satisfied, their relevant coefficients will be changed in problem and this procedure would be repeated again and again until problem was converged to accepted solutions which satisfy local and national constraints.

[Morteza Taherkhani, Mohammad Sadegh Javadi, Amin Javadinasab, A New Pool Market Method for Generation Expansion Planning in Restructured Power System. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):620-624]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.66

 Keywords: Generation Expansion Planning, Pool Market, Game Theory, Uncertainty

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 An Empirical Study of Awareness in Web Based Cooperative Writing Applications

 

Aslam Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasir2, Martinez Enriquez A. M.3, G. Escalada-Imaz4

 1,2Department of CS & E, U. E. T. Lahore, Pakistan

3Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. Mexico

4Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, IIIA-CSIC, Spain

1maslam@uet.edu.pk, 2yasir.muhammad1983@gmail.com, 3ammartic@cinvesta.mx, 4gonzalo@iiia.csic.es

 Abstract: As part of any groupware that supports people achieving a common goal, it is required to provide information about structured shared objects and the activities of participants, as well as an efficient communication service and effective coordination mechanism. Thus, this paper presents an empirical study of the trade-off concerning awareness functionality with in fifteenth well know cooperative writing applications (CWAs), evaluated on the basis of present and past awareness elements, these applications are classified taking into account time and work place parameters.

[Aslam Muhammad, Muhammad Yasir, Martinez Enriquez A. M., G. Escalada-Imaz. An Empirical Study of Awareness in Web Based Cooperative Writing Applications. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):625-633]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.67

Keywords: Computer Supported Cooperative Work; Groupware; Cooperative Writing Applications; Awareness

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Preventive Measures to Reduce Post - spinal Anesthesia Hypotension for Elective Cesarean Delivery

 

Nahed F., Khedr.

 Maternity and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University

drnahed2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To explore the effect of wrapping and/or raising of the legs as a Preventive Measures to Reduce Post - spinal Anesthesia Hypotension for Elective Cesarean Delivery.Setting: The study was conducted in the operating room (cesarean section) at Ain Shams maternity hospital. Study design: An experimental design. Type of Sample: - purposive sample. Methods: 120 parturients were undergoing elective Caesarean section randomly scheduled to four groups: Group (I) (n=30) parturients legs wrapped immediately before injection anaesthesia and elevated immediately after anesthesia administration. Group (II) (n=30) parturients legs wrapped, tightly wrapping was achieved after leg elevated to 45 degree for 2 minutes, with an elastic bandage applied from ankle to mid – thigh, immediately before anesthesia administration. Group (III) (n=30) parturients legs elevated to 20 degree immediately after anesthesia administration. Group (IV) (n=30) no intervention. Tools of data collection consisted of 1) Demographic data,2)Automated monitors for measurement of blood pressure,3)Graphic flow sheet to record blood pressure, and 4) neonate assessment sheet to record Apgar score at 1and 5minutes.Results : The findings revealed that, This study showed that, there is no inter group’s differences regarding their age, body mass index & baseline. Mean systolic arterial pressure MSAP. Meanwhile, a significant difference was noticed among the groups, whereas GI (wrapping & elevation) had a higher MSAP, lower percent of hypotension women late onset time of hypotension and a lower percent of babies with bad outcome the Neonatal outcome was excellent and similar in both groups. Conclusion: wrapping and elevation of the legs for parturients at spinal block for Cs had more effective measures to prevent hypotension. Recommendations: wrapping and elevation of the legs should be used in addition to traditional measures to prevent post-spinal hypotension as a non-pharmacological technique.

[Nahed F., Khedr. Preventive Measures to Reduce Post - spinal Anesthesia Hypotension for Elective Cesarean Delivery. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):634-640]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.68

 

Keywords: Lower limbs, hypotension, cesarean section, spinal anesthesia, wrapping, elevation 

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 Preliminary Horticultural Studies To Describe And Identify Of Two New Egyptian Mango Strains Using DNA Fingerprint.

 M. T. Wahdan1, A. Z. Abdelsalam2, A. A. El-Naggar3 and M. A. Hussein3

 1Department of horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

2 Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

wahdan2011@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Selection of some strains is considered the first step in improving mango production. So, this study was done for a three successive seasons (2003 – 2005) on two Egyptian mango strains "Hania" and "Aml" to describe them, horticulturally and identification those genetically utilizing DNA fingerprint. The vegetative characters (leaf shape, length, width, etc) and histological characteristics (number of stomata per mm (stomatal density), stomata length and width) showed great variation between the two studied strains. The fruit weight was 581 gm for Hania strain and 1020 gm for Aml strain. The two strains fruits had good characters as shape, net weight ratio, firmness, SSC, TA, Vit. C and total sugars. In generally, physical and chemical properties of Aml strain fruits were better than Hania strain. These differences of horticultural aspects due to genetic variances, which were determined by using SSR markers, of the 42 primers screened, 36 primers gave reproducible polymorphic DNA amplification patterns. 60.7 % of the scored fragments are considered putative genotypes-specific markers in both strains. The polymorphic information content (PIC values) ranged from 0.25 to 0.75, with a mean value 0.51 for all loci. The heterozygosity level was 0.68 and 0.53 for Hania and Aml strains, respectively. By banding patterns obtained from these 36 primers, each strain in this study could be distinguished from the other, indicating that, PCR by using SSR primers was an efficient method for genotype identification.

[M. T. Wahdan, A. Z. Abdelsalam, A. A. El-Naggar and M. A. Hussein. Preliminary Horticultural Studies To Describe And Identify Of Two New Egyptian Mango Strains Using DNA Fingerprint. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):641-650]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.69

 Key words: Mango, Histological, Morphological, fruit, DNA, Fingerprint, SSR

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 Effect of some chemicals on growth, fruiting, yield and fruit quality of "Succary Abiad" mango cv.

 

Wahdan, M. T., Habib, S. E., Bassal, M. A. And Qaoud, E. M.

 Department of horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Wahdan2011@gmail.com

 

Abstract : The present investigation was carried out in two successive seasons of 2007 and 2008 on mango cv. "Succary Abiad", at Abou Swear region, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt in a sandy soil and irrigated with immerged irrigation system, to study the effect of some chemicals and growth regulators on growth, leaf mineral contents, flowering, fruiting, yield and fruit quality. The trees were subjected to eleven treatments using urea 2%, NAA 40 and 60 ppm, Ca Cl2 2%, GA3 20 and 40 ppm and water spraying as control. The results revealed that, spraying with urea, NAA and GA3 at all concentrations significantly increased shoot length, number of leaves per shoot and leaf area higher than control while urea showed the superiority effect. Nitrogen and Potassium content in leaves significantly increased within urea, NAA and GA3higher than control. Calcium content in the leaves showed fluctuated values during the two seasons within the different treatments although Ca Cl2 2% sprayed at two months after full bloom showed the highest values in the two seasons of study. All treatments had significantly higher yield than control in the two seasons. The fruit weight and volume were the highest within all treatments compared with control. Fruit firmness and SSC were increased within all treatments with significantly increments than control. Vitamin C was significantly increased in fruits harvested from trees sprayed with GA3 40 ppm at two months after full bloom. Total sugars in the fruits significantly increased higher than control within all treatments except GA3 20 ppm added at one month after full bloom.

[Wahdan, M. T., Habib, S. E., Bassal, M. A. And Qaoud, E. M. Effect of some chemicals on growth, fruiting, yield and fruit quality of "Succary Abiad" mango cv. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):651-658]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.70

 Key words: Mango, Urea, NAA, CaCl2, GA3, yield, fruit quality

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 Economic effects of rural women's financial self-reliance 

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

 

1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Since, village is suitable place for farming and additional activities, so it can be said that women’s role at villages, has been toward this point and by developing agriculture sector and possibility to institutionalized appropriate infrastructure, we would have suitable attitude toward development process. Agriculture sector has critical responsibility, as one of the productive part of country for supplying needed food security, that it can assist this sector to access this main goal up to proper level, in accordance with workforce efficiency. To achieve this goal, women play main role, too. In spite of that, they couldn’t represent their abilities in this field, because of limitations that they face.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. Economic effects of rural women's financial self-reliance. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):659-663]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.71

 Keywords: rural women, financial self-reliance

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 Evaluation of radio protective effects of wheat germ oil in male rats

1 Ibrahim A.H. Barakat, 2 Osama A. Abbas, 2 Samia Ayad and 3Aziza M. Hassan

1 Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

2 Radiation Research Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt,

3 Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,

*Corresponding author: e-mail: azizayahassan@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Wheat germ oil posses various biological properties as an anticancer and antioxidant agent. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the radio protective ability of wheat germ (WG) oil against whole body irradiation rat. Wheat germ oil was given to rats by oral injection in a concentration of 1 ml/kg and 3 ml/kg body weight/dose for 3 successive days, last dose administered 24 h pre-irradiation exposure with an acute single dose level of 2 Gry delivered at a dose rate of 0.564 Gry/ min at the time of experiment. With regard to cellular system, the results clearly indicated that pre-treatment with 3ml oil is more potent than 1ml and there are no significant differences between control group and groups that received oil only at either 1ml or 3ml in comparison to the control. Prior administration of WG oil to rats, significantly countered radiation induced biochemical disorder (liver enzymes and kidney function analysis, as well as, cholesterol level in the serum) and DNA damage (evaluated by DNA fragmentation assay and chromosomal aberration in bone marrow) in a dose dependent manner maximally at a concentration of 3 ml/kg. The results clearly indicated that wheat germ oil has significant potential to protect cellular system from radiation induced damage and ability to scavenge free radicals might be playing an important role in its radio protective manifestation without any toxicity

[Ibrahim A.H. Barakat, Osama A. Abbas, Samia Ayad and Aziza M. Hassan. Evaluation of radio protective effects of wheat germ oil in male rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):664-673]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.72

Key words: wheat germ oil, DNA fragmentation, radioprotection, chromosome aberrations

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 Replacement age of agricultural tractor (MF285) in Varamin region (case study)

 Hossein Ahmadi Chenarbon1, Saeid Minaei2, Akbar Arabhosseini3

1.Department of Agriculture, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University – Varamin Pishva - Iran 2.Associate professor, Agricultural Machinery Eng. Dept., Tarbiat Modarres university, Tehran, Iran

3. Associate professor, Agrotechnology Dept., College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

h.ahmadi@iauvaramin.ac.ir

 Abstract: One of the main aims in the management of farm equipment and tractors is deciding about their replacement, based on technical and economic conditions. The objective of this research was to determine the economic life time for common used tractor in Varamin region, Iran, namely Massey- Fergusen 285. First the annual depreciation and interest were calculated considering the initial purchase price of tractor, and then the economic life was calculated based on repair and maintenance costs. The results showed that the most suitable replacement age is nine years for Massey- Fergusen 285.

[Hossein Ahmadi Chenarbon, Saeid Minaei, Akbar Arabhosseini. Replacement age of agricultural tractor (MF285) in Varamin region (case study). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):674-679]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.73

Key words: Economic life; replacement age; MF285

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 A Weighted Usability Measure for E-learning Systems

 

Aslam Muhammad1, Aksam M. Iftikhar2, Saqib Ubaid3, Martinez-Enriquez A. M.4

 1Department of CS & E, U. E. T. Lahore, Pakistan

2,3Department of CS & IT, University of Gujrat, Pakistan

4Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. Mexico

1maslam@uet.edu.pk, 2aksam.iftikhar@uog.edu.pk, 3saqib.ubaid@yahoo.com, 4ammartic@cinvesta.mx

 

Abstract: Currently learning paradigms have been overcome, using information and communication technologies (ICT) to give rise to e-learning domain. Thus, classical classrooms based training has been substituted by online systems working on Internet. The aim of an e-learning system is to fulfill requirements of instructors as well as learners. However, institutions offering courses online have a lack of applying efficient evaluation methods to both teachers and students. Frequent preoccupation concerns with functionalities and interface that a system must satisfy for users needs. In our studied case, learners need to face up to functionality of e-learning infrastructure rather than to acquire knowledge. When users spend more time, resources (software, hardware) unnecessarily, consequently they spend more costs, instead quenching academic thirst. Thus, this research aims to evaluate the usability of e-learning systems, a pondered measure of usability evaluation is proposed as a result of the analysis of the inquiry applied to the system users. We study, evaluate, and compare the usability of two applications, to highlight recommendations for improvement.

[Aslam Muhammad, Aksam M. Iftikhar, Saqib Ubaid, Martinez-Enriquez A. M. A Weighted Usability Measure for E-learning Systems. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):680-686]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.74

Keywords: e-learning; Usability; Evaluation; Assessment

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Relationship between the Quality of Work Life and Employees’ Aggression

 

1Masoud Porkiani, 2Mehdi Yadollahi, 3Zahra Sardini, 4Atefeh Ghayoomi

 1Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Iran E-mail: pourkiani@yahoo.com

2 Dept of Management, Payame Noor University, (PNU), Sirjan, I, R, Iran E-mail mfma155@yahoo.com

3 M.A. of Governmental Management, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Iran

4 M.A. of Business Administration, Islamic Azad University

 

Abstract: People working in organizations have a lot of needs, all of which are regularly in competition to guide their behaviors; if these needs aren’t met, they result in frustration, and failure in meeting the needs doesn’t necessarily cause the quick death of organizations. One of the most common reactions against failure is aggression which is harmful and affects soul and spirit, working relations and performance of employees even though it doesn’t cause physical damages. Thus, conditions of working environment which result in meeting the material and spiritual needs of people, represents the quality of work life; it is in such an environment that employees can feel possession, self-direction, responsibility and self-respect. The aim of the present research is to study the relationship between the quality of work life and employees’ aggression. This research was carried out using correlation method in statistical universe of employees working in Kerman Bahonar Copper and Sarcheshmeh Copper Industries (approximately 5190 employees in 2007); the sample volume was 384 people. To gather and collect information, two closed-ended questionnaires of “quality of work life and aggression” were used. Data was analyzed using Kendal’s Tau b Tests, Spearman Correlation Test and linear logarithm by means of SPSS Software. Results revealed that there is a relationship between quality of work life (and components of job security, justice and equality, received material salaries and allowances, skills improvement field and opportunity and employees’ participation in decision making) and aggression. Gender, age, education level, marital status, working record, employment status and job title are of those intermediate variables that were studied in relation to the research main variables. Statistical results showed that two variables of quality of working life and aggression are independent concerning sex, marital status, age, education level, working record and employment status and are related regarding job title.

[Masoud Porkiani, Mehdi Yadollahi, Zahra Sardini, Atefeh Ghayoomi. Relationship between the Quality of Work Life and Employees’ Aggression. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(2):687-706]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070211.75

Key words: Quality of Work Life, Aggression, Job Security, Justice and Equality, Material Salaries

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 1, 2011. 
 
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