Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 5, Cumulated No. 39, May 25, 2011

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0705

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Robust Control of an Active Suspension System Using H2 & H Control Methods

 

Fatemeh Jamshidi, Afshin Shaabany

 

Islamic Azad University, Fars Science and Research Branch, Shiraz, Iran

Fjamshidi59@yahoo. com, afshinshy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, H2 & H∞ contro1 for an active suspension system are presented. These Controllers are designed for the order reduced model of the plant that makes the design problem so easy, But preserves the performances and stability of the nominal closed loop system. Some constraints on the Input and output sensitivity functions are considered. The results show control specifications are met to large extent with both methods.

[Fatemeh Jamshidi, Afshin Shaabany. Robust Control of an Active Suspension System Using H2 & H Control Methods. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.01

 

Keywords: Active Suspension System, H2 Control, H∞ Control, Sensitivity Constraint

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2

Biotechnological Approach for Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) Production from Agricultural Wastes (Rice Husk) by Cunninghamella elegans

 

Roushdy M.M. 1*, Abdel-Shakour E.H.2 and El-Agamy E.I. 1

 

1. Applied medical Sciences Department, College of Community (Unaizah), Qassim University, KSA

2. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*m27roushdy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Peroxidases are essential enzymes in biodegradation of lignin which have been investigated intensively in fungi. Six fungal isolates were isolated from rice husk and screened for their activities to produce an extracellular lignin peroxidase enzyme (LiP). One isolate (identified as Cunninghamella elegans) was found to be the most potent one. The maximum LiP productivity was under static condition (LiP activity= 15800 U L-1), at pH 6 (LiP activity= 14200 U L-1), 30°C (LiP activity= 15300 U L-1) and after 14 days incubation period (LiP activity= 14300 U L-1). LiP Purification protocols involved several steps including firstly, the precipitation of LiP with 80% ammonium sulphate with a fold of 2.43 and enzyme activity of 89500 U L-1. Secondly, LiP was further purified using Sephadex G-100 fractionation with a purification fold of 2.76 and enzyme activity of 112200 U L-1. Finally, the molecular mass of purified LiP was estimated at 50 kDa. using SDS-PAGE technique.

[Roushdy M.M., Abdel-Shakour E.H. and El-Agamy E.I. Biotechnological Approach for Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) Production from Agricultural Wastes (Rice Husk) by Cunninghamella elegans. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):6-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.02

 

Keywords: Biotechnology; Fungi; Cunninghamella elegans; lignin peroxidase enzyme; SDS-PAGE

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3

Changes in physico-mechanical properties of banana fruit during ripening treatment

 

Mahmoud Soltani*, Reza Alimardani, Mahmoud Omid

 

Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. *mahmoodsoltani39@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. In this paper, some physical and mechanical properties of banana fruits at different level of ripeness were investigated. Relation between various stages of ripeness and these properties were determined and correlation coefficients were calculated. The color of the fruit skin was measured as L*, a* and b* in CIELAB system. The mechanical properties were extracted from plotted force-deformation curve. A significant difference at 5% level was found between the level of ripeness and these properties. Duncan’s multiple range test was conducted and results were reported. Results showed that changes in L*, b* and C was similar, also variation of color index (CI) was similar to a*. The firmness, rupture energy and hardness decreased as banana fruit ripened. All measured physico-mechanical properties of banana fruit except deformation had High correlation with stage of ripeness. Result of deformation analysis showed no significant difference at various stages of ripeness. The correlation between deformation and stage of ripeness was obtained as 0.2.

[Mahmoud Soltani, Reza Alimardani, Mahmoud Omid. Changes in physico-mechanical properties of banana fruit during ripening treatment. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):14-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.03

 

Key words: Banana fruit, Physical, Mechanical, Ripening

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4

Neural Network and Wavelet Transform For Classification and Object Detection

 

Afshin Shaabany, Fatemeh Jamshidi

 

Islamic Azad University, Fars Science and Research Branch, Shiraz, Iran

afshinshy@yahoo.com, Fjamshidi59@yahoo. com

 

Abstract: The practical utilization of object detection and classification, in high-performance structural mine detection or proximity fuses is somewhat impeded due to some complicated phenomena such as: existence of multiple wave modes, jamming, high susceptibility to diverse interferences, bulky sampled data, clutters and difficulty in signal interpretation. An intelligent signal processing approach using the wavelet transform and artificial neural network algorithms was developed; this was actualized in a signal processing package. The intelligent signal processing technique comprehensively functions as signal filtration, data compression and pattern recognition, capable of extracting essential features from acquired raw wave signals and further assisting in structural mine detection or proximity fuses evaluation. For validation, the algorithm was applied to the detection and classification of 10 different objects.

[Afshin Shaabany, Fatemeh Jamshidi. Neural Network and Wavelet Transform For Classification and Object Detection. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):20-25]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.04

 

Keywords: Wavelet; Classification; Mine detection; intelligent signal processing

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5

Pharmacokinetic of florfenicol (Water soluble formulation) in healthy and Pasteurella infected broiler chickens

 

H. A. El-Banna and H.Y. El-Zorba

 

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University

Corresponding author: elzorba1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Florfenicol has been approved in the European Union for use in cattle and pigs as an injectable solution for treatment of respiratory diseases in cattle through injection. But now, it was introduced in some countries as an oral solution for the treatment of several poultry diseases. The aim of the present study is to describe the Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (water soluble formulation)in broiler chickens after either a single intravenous and oral administration (by a dose of 30 mg/kg-1 body weight). Meanwhile, comparing its disposition in control healthy and Pasteurella-infected broilers. Following the IV administration of the drug in healthy and diseased birds, the drug plasma concentration declined in a biphasic pattern. The maximum plasma concentration of florfenicol in control healthy and diseased was reached one hour after its oral administration. But the peak level detected in control broilers was higher than that detected in infected birds. Conclusion: Data of the present study showed that volume of distribution, total body clearance in infected birds were higher than that determined in healthy ones. On the other hands, systemic bioavailability were significantly lower (F %, 55.6 %) in diseased broiler compared to values determined in healthy ones (F %, 71.5).

[H. A. El-Banna and H.Y. El-Zorba. Pharmacokinetic of florfenicol (Water soluble formulation) in healthy and Pasteurella infected broiler chickens. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):26-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.05

 

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Florfenicol- Pasteurella-infected broilers

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6

Rural women participation in extension activities

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: In all communities, rural women are considered as an important factor in achieving rural development goals and in fact are half of the manpower needed for rural development. However, in the rural community of Iran, there are gaps between the ruling class (capital owners) and villagers, between literate and illiterate, and between men and women. Especially in villages women have fewer possibilities in terms of investment and less power and credit. Role of rural women, over of men, is more influenced with different economic, social, cultural and ecologic factors. Rural women are considered as a noticeable potential in the community either directly (crops production, livestock, handicrafts, cottage industries) or indirectly by helping the agricultural sector (as labor).

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Rural women participation in extension activities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):33-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.06

 

Keywords Rural women participation, extension activities

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7

Effect of Oleozon on Healing of Exposed Pulp Tissues

Rania Sayed Mosallam; Amany Nemat; Ahmed El-Hoshy and Shiro Suzuki.

Lecturer, Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Professor of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral surgery and Medicine, National Research Center

Lecturer of Operative dentistry, Faculty of oral and Dental medicine, Cairo university.

Visiting Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Dentistry

dr_anemat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare the healing effect of Oleozon and calcium hydroxide on experimentally exposed pulp tissue. Method: Direct pulp exposures were conducted in nine dogs, i.e., three dogs were prepared for each experimental period of 7, 30 and 90 days. In each dog the upper and lower canines of the right side were capped with calcium hydroxide (Dycal), while those of the left side were capped with ozonated olive oil (Oleozon). After the observation periods, the teeth were prepared for histomorphological examination. Results: The tissues capped with Oleozon revealed inflammation with dilated blood vessels and hemorrhages at 7 days, a slight inflammatory response at 30 days, and the increase of collagen fibers and fibroblast with dilated blood vessels at 90 days. While, the tissues capped with calcium hydroxide exhibited medium degree of inflammation and necrosis adjacent to the exposure site at 7 days, remarkable absorption of necrotic tissues with few collagen fibers and fibroblast at 30 days, and a localized connective tissue capsule with depositions of reparative dentin at 90 days. Conclusion: Based upon the results and the limitations of the study, it was concluded that direct pulp capping with Oleozon induced less degrees of irritation to the dental pulp compared to that with Dycal. Clinical significant: The application of Oleozon paste for direct capping to exposed pulp could have a possibility to serve as a therapeutic method to enhance pulp tissue healing.

[Rania Sayed Mosallam; Amany Nemat; Ahmed El-Hoshy and Shiro Suzuki. Effect of Oleozon on Healing of Exposed Pulp Tissues. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):38-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.07

 

Key words: Experimental pulp exposure, pulp capping, Calcium Hydroxide, Oleozon,histopathological examinations

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8

Assessing Advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning

 

Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi

Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: most distance education courses offered by traditional colleges and universities that are semester and classroom oriented, with courses offered by most of the DETC-accredited institutions you can study any time and anywhere. Distance education is especially suited for busy people who wish to increase their knowledge and skills without giving up their jobs, leaving home, or losing income. You learn while you earn. Many courses provide complete vocational training; others prepare you for upgrading in your present job, without losing wages, experience or seniority. You receive individual attention, and you work at your own pace. In recent years, technology has played a significant role in transforming the traditional distance education school into a dynamic, interactive distance learning method using toll-free telephone lines, as well as a diverse array of personal computers, video devices, CD and DVD ROMs, online courses over the Internet, interactive devices, and other modern technological innovations. The future for distance study promises to be exciting.

[Ali Badragheh and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing Advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning.

 Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):45-51]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.08

Keywords: Distance Learning, education

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9

Relationship between civic engagement and level of people’s participation in local government

 

* Seyed Hamid Mohammadi, ** Sharifah Norazizan, *** Zahid Emby

 

* Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia

Tel: 60-17-2118806 E-mail: hmd_mohamadi@yahoo.com

** Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia

 E-mail: sharifah@putra.upm.edu.my

*** Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia

 E-mail: Zahid@putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: This paper attempts to identify the relationship between civic engagements of local people and level of their participation in local government of Torbat-Heydarieh, Iran. The paper is based on the study carried out among 400 citizens of Torbat-Heydarieh. The analysis of data uses Pearson correlation to determine the relationship between variables involved. The findings reveal that two levels of participation (tokenism and citizen-power) have positive and significant relationship with civic engagement, while there is no significant relationship between non-participation level and civic engagement. The findings of the study imply that those respondents who engage more in civic activities would participate in high level of participation in local government.

[Seyed Hamid Mohammadi, Sharifah Norazizan, Zahid Emby. Relationship between civic engagement and level of people’s participation in local government. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):52-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.09

 

Keywords: civic engagement; people’s participation; local government

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10

Use of Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Review

 

Nahid Golmakani 1, Samira Ebrahimzadeh Zagami 2

 

1,2. Instructor of Midwifery, School of Nursing and midwifery, Mashhad University Of Medical Science, Mashhad Iran. ebrahimzadehzs@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Premenstrual syndrome is a common condition in women and includes a range of emotional, psychological, and physical symptoms triggered by the menstrual cycle. Complementary and alternative medicine use is more prevalent in the treatment of diseases, and many women use medicinal plants without a physician’s prescription. Modified diet and use of herbal medicine may be one effective method in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. The purpose of this study was to collect information about medicinal plants used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. This review studied articles obtained from data bases, Pubmed, Science Direct, MD Consult, Inter Science, and Iran Medex from 2000-2010. Several studies and trials have shown a reduction of premenstrual syndrome symptoms after consumption of Hypericum perforatum, Vitex agnus castus, saffron, ginkgo, and soy rather than the placebo group. Medicinal plants can be used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome if certain precautions are followed. More studies are needed about these and other plants.

[Nahid Golmakani, Samira Ebrahimzadeh Zagami. Use of Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Review. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):60-64]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.10

 

Keywords: Medicinal Plant, Premenstrual Syndrome, Treatment

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11

Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Rat Liver; Histoarchitectural, Histochemical and Ultrastructural Studies

 

Amal A.A. El Daly

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

 

Abstract: Green tea consumed worldwide since earliest time considered beneficial to human health due to its specific metabolic activity along with antioxidant effect. This study was headed for investigate the effect of green tea on histoarchitecture and histochemistry as well as the fine structure of rat liver. For this purpose, male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus); 3 months age weighing between 100 –120 g were used. The animals group-housed six for each in wire mesh cages fed ad libitum divided into two groups: control and experimental group. The latter was divided into three subgroups; 1%, 1.5% and 3% green tea extract feeding animals. Green tea was received instead of drinking water for 25 days using feeding bottles. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and liver pieces were prepared for both light and electron microscopic examination. The results depicted hypertrophied hepatocytes associated with cloudy swelling. There were some pyknotic and karyorrhectic hepatic nuclei in comparison to the control. Blood vessels appear congested and Blood sinusoids contracted. There was an indication of few collagen fibrils in the hepatic stroma. Hepatocytes had PAS positive deposits in their cytoplasm. Furthermore, hyalinization of the hepatocytes was distinct in the animal's liver feeding on higher doses. The ultrastructural results revealed destructed hepatocytic organelles as well as hypertrophied and irregular contoured hepatocytic nuclei. Moreover, many lipid droplets, few profiles of granular endoplasmic reticulum and destructed mitochondria in the hepatocytes cytoplasm were apparent especially after higher doses of treatment. Though, it was fulfilled that green tea consumption induced an alteration in the liver tissues and its fine structure as well as carbohydrate metabolism. Consequently, another aspect was providing into the cellular response of rat liver toward green tea extract property. It must be carefully using for it's harmfully outcome on long term. 

[Amal A.A. El Daly. Effect of Green Tea Extract on the Rat Liver; Histoarchitectural, Histochemical and Ultrastructural Studies. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):65-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.11

 

Keywords: Green tea extract, Histoarchitecture, Histochemistry, Ultrastructure, Liver, Rat

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12

Disadvantages of Online Education: Drawbacks to Consider

 

Ali Badragheh

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

*Corresponding author: badraghehali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education delivers classes (live or pre-taped) to students in their home, office, or classroom. It is used by K-12, higher education, continuing education and business. As the cost of delivering quality education increases, institutions find that limited resources prevent them from building facilities, hiring faculty, or expanding curricula. They are using distance education to maximize resources and are combining their assets with others to produce programming. Distance education is offered internationally, nationally, regionally, and locally over all forms of conferencing technology. Distance learning is expanding and examples of it are increasing dramatically. Fewer than 10 states were using distance learning in 1987; today, virtually all states have an interest or effort in distance education. Distance learning systems connect the teacher with the students when physical face-to-face interaction is not possible. Telecommunications systems carry instruction, moving information instead of people. The technology at distant locations are important and affect how interaction takes place, what information resources are used, and how effective the system is likely to be.

[Ali Badragheh. Disadvantages of Online Education: Drawbacks to Consider. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):74-80]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.12

 

Keywords: Online Education, distance education

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Pros and Cons of Online Classes: Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Courses

 

Ali Badragheh

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

*Corresponding author: badraghehali@yahoo.com

Abstract: Distance education can be used for some aspects of most disciplines. For example, several institutions of higher education already have developed certificate programs, undergraduate programs, and graduate programs in health and physical education that are delivered using distance education methods. Eastern Oregon University, Emporia State University, Kutztown University, LaSalle University, the Medical College of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, and Virginia Tech are among institutions integrating distance technology into their physical education programs. Traditional programs that are heavily based in skill development and demonstration or require laboratory work can be offered in a distance education framework using interactive video interfaced with computers to facilitate a hands-on learning approach at a distance. Classes that use lecture and laboratory experiences are easily adapted to a distance education situation. Course materials, including animals for dissection, are sent to class participants with video and written instructions and assignments.

 [Ali Badragheh. Pros and Cons of Online Classes: Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Courses. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):81-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.13

 

Keywords: Online Classes, distance education

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Private extension: functions and duties

 

Molouk Gharibpanah, Azita Zamani

Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran

*Corresponding author: fereshteh12150@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization." When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector. In fact, various cost-recovery, commercialization, and other so-called privatization alternatives have been adopted to improve agricultural extension. The form and content of decentralization has dominated development discourse and public sector reform agenda in Kenya in the last two decades. The evolution of public agricultural extension arrived at a worldwide turning point in the 1980s, one that represented the end of a major phase in the growth of publicly funded extension in both the developed and developing world. Agricultural extension increasingly has become defined as one or other of (apparently) differentiated activities of technology transfer or rural development. In many situations, the transfer of technology, heretofore considered the purview of public sector systems, has been reconceived. Such changes suggest a refocussing of paradigms for the delivery of public sector extension.

[Molouk Gharibpanah and Azita Zamani. Private extension: functions and duties. Journal of American

Science 2011;7(5):88-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.14

 

Keywords: private extension

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Using Information and communication technologies (ICT) in extension education

 

Azita Zamani and Nahideh Erfanirad

Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium. Against the backdrop of the ongoing ICT boom, this paper makes an attempt towards studying its applications and usage planning process and policy making for the rural communities focusing on how it helps in aligning the key factors and reduce the problems of alienation, fragmentation and dislocation of knowledge. Policy makers and service providers have increasingly come to view information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly the Internet, as an important tool in providing disadvantaged groups and areas with access to information, services and markets that would otherwise be inaccessible. The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that.

[Azita Zamani and Nahideh Erfanirad. Using Information and communication technologies (ICT) in extension education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):94-97]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.15

Keywords: information and communication technologies (ICT), agricultural extension

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Water Scarcity and Need for Sustainable Water Use

 

Ahmad Reza Ommani1 and Azadeh N. Noorivandi2

 

1Assistant Professor Department of Agricultural Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran, Ommani75451@yahoo.com

2 Department of Agricultural Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran, noorivandi_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Availability of water is the most limiting factor for agricultural sector. More than 90% of the renewable water in the country is used for agriculture, but the sector still cannot provide enough production to meet the demand of the population. On the other hand, with the current conditions the total agricultural products from irrigated farming are 56 million ton and total water used for irrigated agriculture is 83 bm3, therefore water productivity is 0.7 kg/ m3. For the supply of food for the year 2020 the agricultural production should increase to 160 million ton. Therefore the water productivity should increase to 1.6 kg/ m3. Therefore, focus on efficient use of water through irrigation efficiency and improvements in management of water use will be the major challenges in the coming years.

[Ahmad Reza Ommani. Water Scarcity and Need for Sustainable Water Use. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):98-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.16

 

Keywords: water, agricultural products, Extension expert

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Agricultural Extension and Sustainable Water Resources Management in Agriculture

 

Ahmad Reza Ommani1 and Azadeh N. Noorivandi2

 

1Assistant Professor Department of Agricultural Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran, Ommani75451@yahoo.com

2 Department of Agricultural Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran, noorivandi_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural extension is a public service for human resource development (HRD) in the agricultural sector. Multiple studies in Iran showed that, although extension services has played a positive role in agricultural development of Iran, but there are difficulties, barriers, misunderstandings, and weaknesses in the transfer of new technology and information to farmers. Lacking the suitable linkage between extension and research organizations has been a barrier for transfer of appropriate new technology to farmers. This problem exists in water sector of agriculture. The major consumer of water in Iran is the agriculture sector. Identifying suitable extension mechanisms have important role to developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension mechanisms for supporting sustainable water resources management in agriculture of Iran is the one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development. [Ahmad Reza Ommani. Agricultural Extension and Sustainable Water Resources Management in Agriculture. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):106-112]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.17

 

Keywords: Water, Extension mechanisms, Agriculture sector

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The Speed of light - A Fundamental Retrospection to Prospection

 

Narendra Katkar

 

Author – Investigator – Analyst, Founder-Chair

International Research Center for Fundamental Sciences (IRCFS), 4-158/41, Plot Nr.41, Sai Puri, Sainikpuri, Secunderabad, 500094: Andhra Pradesh, INDIA

Tel: 91-40-9948425413

Webpage: https://sites.google.com/site/ircfsnk/home; Email: Narendra.katkar@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: Speed of light can not be achieved independently by any Body even a Photon, unless it has a source, a thrust of that speed. Further, no amount of radiation or light form can be produced freely, unless some amount of (mass) rest energy is converted to dynamic liberated energy. With the investigation of above query and retrospection in mass- energy relation, a paradigm shift in understanding fundamental nature of Energy and Universe is presented.

[Narendra Katkar. The Speed of light - A Fundamental Retrospection to Prospection. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):113-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.18

 

Key words: Light Speed, photon, electron positron interaction, Energy, Universe

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Waste management in rural areas of Iran

 

Mortaza tavakoli 1, sadegh afrasiyab rad2

 

1. PhD, Faculty Member; Department of Geography, University of Zabol, zabol, Iran

tavakoli@uoz.ac.ir or tavakoly52@gmail.com

2. M. Sc student, Department of Geography, University of Zabol, zabol, Iran

 

Abstract: The most important role of health is providing physical and mental well-being for people of society. Today, the waste problem is focused less than any other environmental hazards such water and air pollution. Purpose of this study is recognition review and analysis state of waste production resources in rural areas of central rural sub city areas of Shiraz and Zabol counties. Research method in this study based on field observation, interviews, obtains data, from the questionnaire, and analyze data by SPSS software. Findings show that most produced rubbish in rural of Shiraz is paper and textile with 63%, maximum street rubbish is animal stool with 42%, and most market waste is vegetable with 69%. In comparing with rural of Zabol, maximum domestic waste is paper 38% and major rubbish production research is dust with 64%, maximum market rubbish is vegetables 58% and major amount of street rubbish is paper with 54%. There is a significant relationship between waste production amount and rural distance to city and between waste component and method of dispose it and distance to city. the studies done in the waste management in studied rural level, shows great part of human and finance resources spend collecting and transport and no action don in the fields of production, storage, recycling and disposal.

[Tavakoli mortaza, afrasiyabiy rad sadegh. Waste management in rural areas of Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):128-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.19

 

Keywords: Environmental health; Waste production; Rural; How disposal; Iran

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Key Characteristics of Adult Education and Literacy Programs

 

1Ali Badragheh, 2Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A distinguishing characteristic of adult education programs is that program content and language must be suitable and respectful of adult clients. For example, instead of using the word “student” which may imply a traditional teacher/student relationship where a student is subservient to the teacher, all state program materials use the word “learner” or “customer.” Using this type of language acknowledges the adults’ existing knowledge and real-world experience and makes them the focus of the program. The Pennsylvania Adult Basic and Literacy Education Indicators of Program. Quality emphasize the importance of customer satisfaction and learner progress on individualized goals One quality area explicitly states that “program staff and learners jointly develop, regularly evaluate, and update an instructional plan that incorporates the individual’s learning styles and preferences”. This is just one example of how learners and staff are equals and collaborate on the learners’ participation in the program.

[Ali Badragheh and Mohammad Abedi. Key Characteristics of Adult Education and Literacy Programs. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):136-141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.20

 

Keywords: adult education, Literacy

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Learning styles in adult education

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran. *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the best of all possible worlds, you would incorporate all three learning styles into each of your lessons. However, this is just not possible in the real world of teaching. In truth, it is often not hard to include both auditory and visual learning styles in your lessons. For example, you can have instructions written on the board and say them out loud. However, it is not always as easy to include the tactile/kinesthetic learning style into your lessons. The sad truth is that many students have this as their strongest learning style. It is best to not force the issue but instead find natural places to include kinesthetic learning. If your class warrants it, you could include simulations, role-playing, debates, or the use of manipulative.

[Mohammad Abedi and Ali Badragheh. Learning styles in adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):142-146]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.21

 

Keywords: learning styles, adult learning

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Advances of biological taxonomy and species identification in Medicinal Plant Species by DNA barcodes

 

Chong Liu 1, Zhengyi Gu1, Weijun Yang 1*, Li Yang 2, Dilnuer1

 

 1.Xinjiang Institute of Materia Medica/Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Uygur Medicine, Urumqi 830004, China; liu_chong02@163.com

2. Pharmacy school of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830004, China

 

Abstract: Medicinal Plant Species taxonomy is authenticated according to morphological features. It is a long-standing problem of mixing authentic species with their adulterants in medicinal preparations. However, DNA barcoding is a new technique that uses a short DNA sequence as a molecular diagnostic for species-level identification, Our purpose is to briefly expose DNA Barcode of Life principles, relevance and universality. Barcode of life framework has greatly evolved, giving rise to a flexible description of DNA barcoding and a larger range of applications. Similarly, a variety of single locus or combined loci have been propose as DNA barcodes for the plant identification, which are the coding regions or non-coding regions in plastids or the nuclear genome, such as rbcL, matK, rpoB, rpoc1, psbA-trnh, ITS and rbcL+psbA-trnH.

[Chong LiuZhengyi GuWeijun YangLi YangDilnuer. Advances of biological taxonomy and species identification in Medicinal Plant Species by DNA barcodes. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):147-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.22

 

Key words: DNA barcoding; ITS2; matK; psbA-trnH

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Analysis situation of Activity Status in Urban and Rural Area Population of Iran

 

Mortaza tavakoli

 

 PhD, Faculty Member; Department of Geography, University of Zabol, zabol, Iran

tavakoli@uoz.ac.ir or tavakoly52@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study has looked into the population of Iran aged 10 and above by activity status and sex including the urban and the rural areas. An analysis of the country’s population and activity status could explain the economic and social situations of the state and its people. The increasing unemployment and reduction of goods and productive services may cause some detrimental effects in the society and country’s economy. Through the study’s assessment on the country’s population and activity status, the collaboration of the government and its various sectors can set forth to strengthen human development by investing in human resources and employment. A significant increase in the population rate of male and female students in the rural areas and with the decrease in the rate of homemakers for both sexes is a good sign. This implies that these individuals have seen the potentials of education in empowering them to develop their skills and abilities and obtain necessary knowledge of making a living and becoming a productive individual. Population growth forms formidable barriers to a country’s progress and development and this phenomenon is usually attributed to socio-cultural, religious and environmental factors but with a better understanding of its occurrence will help regulate and control its growth.

[Tavakoli mortaza. Analysis situation of Activity Status in Urban and Rural Area Population of Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):152-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.23

 

Keywords: activity status; rural and urban area, Iran

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Physical and Mechanical Properties of beans

 

Alireza Shirneshan

 

 Mechanical Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Iran

 

Abstract: Food properties are needed and play a significant role to predict and define the quality and behavior of seeds. In this study physical (dimension, weight, volume, sphericity, static coefficient of friction) and mechanical (maximal impact deformation, dynamic coefficient of friction) properties of four common beans are reported. As static coefficient of friction is equal to tangent of slip angle, a suitable apparatus was constructed and static coefficient of friction for four genotypes Daneshkadeh and Dehghan (white color) Naz and Sayyad (Red color) on three surfaces (rubber, tarpaulin and steel galvanized) were measured. Also dynamic coefficient of friction was determined at surface moving velocities of 4, 8 and 12 m/min. Mechanical behavior under impact load were determined in terms of average rupture force in pendulum impact, that is design and constructed. Randomize complete block design showed that, static and dynamic coefficient of friction had major difference between beans genotypes, surfaces and velocity. Mean values showed that the lowest static coefficient (0.32) occurred with steel galvanized surface and highest (0.44) on tarpaulin surface. The lowest dynamic coefficient of friction (0.24) occurred with steel galvanized surface and highest (0.385) on tarpaulin surface. It was observed that the magnitudes of physical damage in Sayad beans were higher than Naz, Daneshkadeh and Dehghan respectively. The average loss of germination to beans decreased with increasing impact energy. Naz and Dehghan had minimum mean volume and weight and Daneshkadeh had maximum sphericity and geometric mean.

[Alireza Shirneshan. Physical and Mechanical Properties of beans. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):158-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.24

 

Keywords: Bean, friction, Dynamic, Impact, physical attributes

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Stimulation effect of some bioregulators on flowering, chemical constituents, essential oil and phytohormones of tuberose (Polianthes tuberos L.).

 

(1) Lobna, S. Taha and (2) Rawia, A. Eid

 

Department of Ornamental Plant and Woody Trees.National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

* Corresponding author, emil, lobnasalah82@yahoo.com

Abstract: Bulbs of tuberose plants were soaked (24h) or sprayed with solutions of spermidine and ATP at 50, 75 or 100ppm for each. Both bioregulators (especially at 100 ppm) augmented plants bulblets and flowering characteristics (No. of bulblets, fresh and dry weights of bulblets, no of days to flowering, No of florets/spike, spike length, length of rachis and fresh and dry weights of spike) Spermidine was more effective than ATP for bulblets parameters but ATP was preferred for flowering parameters, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b and carotenoides), chemical constituents of plants (Indoles, phenols and total carotenoides). Essential oil content of flowers was significantly improved by soaking or spraying of ATP at 50, 75 or 100ppm. The highest amount of endogenous GA3 produced with ATP at 100ppm. However, spermdine (100ppm) caused the highest amount of cytokinins. Using ATP as soaking or spraying treatment at 75 or 100ppm resulted in the highest amount of ABA.

[Lobna, S. Taha and Rawia, A.Eid. Stimulation effect of some bioregulators on flowering, chemical constituents, essential oil and phytohormones of tuberose (Polianthes tuberos L.). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):165-171]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.25

Key words: Spermidine, ATP, flowering, chemical constituents, essential oil, phytohromones, tuberose

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Lens Protein Changes Associated With Cigarette Smoking

 

Eman M. Aly * and Eman S. Elabrak

 

Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.

*e.Aly@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Smoking is an independent risk factor that has dose-response effect. The goal of the present work is to study the biophysical and biological effects of smoking on the crystalline lens of the rabbits. Materials and methods: Twenty New Zealand albino rabbits used in this study were classified into five groups in which group I (n=4) served as control. The other groups were exposed to different durations of cigarette smoke (five cigarettes per day). Animals were decapitated after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and soluble lens proteins were separated and the following measurements were carried out: estimation of total soluble protein, refractive index measurement, sodium dodocyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and determination of sodium, calcium and potassium concentrations. Results: The results showed that, exposure of the animals to cigarette smoke resulted in decrease of the protein concentration and potassium content that was accompanied by an increase in the refractive index of the soluble lens proteins and an increase in sodium and calcium content. In addition, there were changes in the molecular structure of soluble lens proteins demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Conclusion: smoking causes morphological and functional changes to the lens that may lead to cataract.

[Eman M. Aly and Eman S. Elabrak. Lens Protein Changes Associated With Cigarette Smoking. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):172-177]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.26

 

Key words: Ultrasound, Rabbits, Lens, Refractive index, Proteins, SDS

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Effect of prophylactic antibiotics (Cephalosporin versus Amoxicillin) on preventing post caesarean section infection

 

Walaa H. Ibrahim 1, A. M. Makhlouf 2, Mervat A. Khamis1, and Entisar M.Youness*1. 

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assuit University

2Obstetrics & Gynecological Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University

*entisarmohamedyones@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Prophylactic antibiotics have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of febrile morbidity associated with cesarean section after labor. However, the relative effectiveness of different single antibiotics has been studied infrequently. Several new broad spectrum antibiotics are now available, and any further benefit from more traditional antibiotics for surgical prophylaxis remains untested. A randomized clinical trial for testing the efficacy of cephalosporin versus Amoxicillin in preventing post cesarean section infection, and to identify the role of health education about wound care in reducing post cesarean section wound infection. This study conducted at emergency unit of the Obstetrics &Gynecological department, Woman's Health Center, Assuit University Hospital, between 2008 to 2009. Women's undergoing emergency and elective cesarean section were recruited into the study and given either drug as prophylaxis. The sample comprised 200 pregnant women. 100 pregnant women received Amoxicillin and the other 100 pregnant women received Cephalosporin as a prophylactic antibiotic. For each group, 50 women received routine hospital wound care and the other 50 women received health education about wound care. Random assignment was done by computer generated tables. Concealed envelopes containing the random number made to be opened after deciding to include the case in the study. the -present study reported that the percent of surgical site infection (SSI) of elective cesarean section was 2.5% (0.5% in Amoxicillin group and 2% in cephalosporin group) with no significant difference between both groups. We can concluded that use of Amoxicillin as a prophylactic antibiotic as effective as Cephalosporin in preventing post cesarean section wound infection. And women that received health education about wound care are less likely to expose to wound infection than those who receive only routine hospital care, in spite that the comparative results are not significant.

[Walaa H. Ibrahim, A. M. Makhlouf, Mervat A. Khamis, and Entisar M.Youness. Effect of prophylactic antibiotics (Cephalosporin versus Amoxicillin) on preventing post caesarean section infection. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):178-187]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.27

 

Key Words: Prophylactic antibiotics, Wound infection, Cesarean section.

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Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Tumors

 

Hassan A.Maher Wael1, Khamis N.Nehal1 and Hammam M. Makram1

 

1. Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

wael_hassan2@med.suez.edu.eg,

 

Abstract: Fine needle aspiration cytology has many advantages that make it a first-choice diagnostic approach in many tumors. However, its role in diagnosing soft tissue tumors has been debated and at times discouraged. The aim of the study is to review the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing soft tissue tumors and to establish cytological criteria for the most encountered soft tissue tumors. The databases were searched up to 2010 and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature was performed, focusing on the followings: utility and limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, diagnostic efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, the cytological features of the most commonly encountered soft tissue tumors, the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in differentiating benign soft tissue tumors from soft tissue sarcomas and its role in grading and exact subtyping of soft tissue sarcomas. The findings of this review showed that fine needle aspiration cytology in conjunction with ancillary studies, especially immunohistochemistry, along with the clinical and/or radiographic data can approach a diagnostic accuracy of 95% for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Also, placing the sarcoma into one of the five cytomorphological group (pleomorphic, spindle, myxoid, small round/ovoid and epithelioid) is useful to reach a confident diagnosis of benignity or malignancy and to suggest a type-specific diagnosis. However, subtyping or grading spindle cell sarcomas as well as lipomatous tumors are often challenging and the use of immunohistochemistry is mandatory for proper diagnosis of these tumors.

[Hassan A.Maher Wael, Khamis N.Nehal and Hammam M. Makram. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Tumors. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):188-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.28

 

Key words: Fine needle aspiration cytology, soft tissue tumors, cytological criteria, immunohistochemistry

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Behavioral Responses of Castrated Buck Kids at Different Ages By Using Different Methods of Castration

 

Souad A. Ahmed and Essam A. Ahmed

Department of Animal Hygiene, Behavior and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University. Egypt. *souadahmed45@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the behavioral responses of kids to castration by burdizzo (Bur), rubber ring (RR) or control handled, 90 buck kids were used. Behavioral responses of kids throughout the 180 minutes after castration or control handled were assessed by using a video camera Castration of younger kids (7 and 21 days) took significantly shorter time than 42 days old. RR produced the highest values of active pain behavior, frequency of elimination, less frequently suck, teat seeking or nibble at feed. The scrotal sloughing was delayed in older kids. Results of questionnaire indicated that most castrations were done at the farm; castration failure was only in some of Burdizzo especially those older than 8 weeks. It was concluded that kids castration must be done as early as possible to reduce the total pain response and for achievement of animal welfare, and Burdizzo method is the preferable technique for castration of kids at all ages.

[Souad A. Ahmed and Essam A. Ahmed. Behavioral Responses of Castrated Buck Kids at Different Ages By Using Different Methods of Castration. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):200-209]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.29

 

Key words: kids age, castration, Bur, RR, behavior.

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Synthesis of Some New Annulated Thieno Pyridine,Pyrazolopyridine and Pyrido Pyridine Derivatives

 

F.F. Mahmoud, Nadia T.A. Dawood, Nahed F. Abdel-Ghaffar

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

dawounadia @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The reaction of arylidenemalonitrile with cyanothioacetamide afforded pyridine derivatives. Thus compound 1 reacted further with different nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents yielding different products which were confirmed via spectroscopic analysis.

[F.F. Mahmoud, Nadia T.A. Dawood, Nahed F. Abdel-Ghaffar. Synthesis of Some New Annulated Thieno Pyridine,Pyrazolopyridine and Pyrido Pyridine Derivatives. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):210-218]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.30

 

Keywords: Arylidene malononitriles,Dihydropyridines,Antimicrobial activity.

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Diagnosis of Nutrient Status in Balady Mandarin Orchards of a Newly Reclaimed Area in Egypt

 

Khalifa, R. Kh. M.; El-Fouly, M.M.; S.H.A. Shaaban* and H.A. Hamouda

 

Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre

 

Abstract: The present work aimed to determine the nutritional status of Balady mandarin orchards, through soil testing and leaf analysis, in order to work out a proper fertilization programs. A field study was conducted at El-Tall El-Kepeer, Ismailia governorate, covering 19 Balady mandarin orchards grown on sandy soils under drip irrigation. These soils are of poor fertility. However, fertilization of these orchards still depends upon the grower's inherited knowledge and in very small scale on the extension information. The trees were fifteen years old. The orchard soils had very high pH values, low to high level of EC and Na, and were low in total CaCO3 and very low in O.M. The values for available nutrients in soil were found to be as very low of P, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu. Values of K, Mg ranged between very low to medium levels, However values of Ca ranged between medium to high levels. The leaf macronutrient values were low in N, ranged between optimum to high in P and Mg, ranged between low to high in K, However values of Ca was ranged between low and optimum. The leaf micronutrient contents were as follow, Fe ranged from optimum to high; Mn, Zn and Cu were ranged from low to the beginning of optimum levels. The nutrient correlations of the leaves revealed some antagonisms between K and Ca, Mg and both of Mn and Zn. Also, the nutrient correlations of the leaves and fruits revealed some antagonisms between N in leaves and Zn in fruits, P and K in leaves and Mn in fruits, K in leaves and N, Cu in fruits, Ca in leaves and K in fruits.

[Khalifa, R. Kh. M.; El-Fouly, M.M.; S.H.A. Shaaban and H.A. Hamouda. Diagnosis of Nutrient Status in Balady Mandarin Orchards of a Newly Reclaimed Area in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):219-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.31

 

Keywords: Mandarin, sandy soil, nutrient diagnostics, nutrient uptake

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Using Condition Monitoring to Estimate Repair and Maintenance Costs of Tractors in Iran

 

Ahmad Mohammadi 1, Morteza Almasi2, Alireza Masoudi3, Saeed Minaei 4, Hamid Mashhadi Meighani5

 

1 Department of mechanization, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;

E-mail: Ahmad.mohamady@gmail.com

2Associated Professor in Mechanization, Scientific Member of Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; E-mail: morteza.almassi@gmail.com

3Ph. D. in Control Monitoring, Scientific Member of High Education Center, Karaj, Iran;

E-mail: atk@alborztadbir.com

4 Associated Professor in Agricultural Machinery, Scientific Member of Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; E-mail: sminaee@isamme.ir

5Assist Professor in Agricultural Machinery, Scientific Member of Islamic Azad University, Arak branch, arak. Iran; Email: Hamid_mashhadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the most aspects of managing of agricultural machinery is control and estimating of repair and maintenance costs. So, this is necessary to introduce mathematical methods to define repair time and machine condition. It reduces repair costs and increases the chance of machine service. In this research, condition monitoring was established to introduce this mathematical model for tractors in Iran. The study was done on MF285 and MF399 as the most conventional tractors in Iran. 120 tractors were selected randomly and their repairing and maintenance costs as well as working time were recorded. The costs for usual methods and control monitoring methods were compared by F test in SPSS software. Results show that the effects of CM can reduce costs in comparison with usual method significantly (Sig=0.002). Finally by assuming cumulative working time (X) as independence and cumulative costs based on definite percent of initial price (Y) as dependence variable a mathematical model was introduced. Powered regression introduced this model as Y=0.0028 X0.981 which can used to estimate repairing and maintenance costs for selected tractors.

[Ahmad Mohammadi, Morteza Almasi, Alireza Masoudi, Saeed Minaei, Hamid Mashhadi Meighani. Using Condition Monitoring to Estimate Repair and Maintenance Costs of Tractors in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):227-231]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.32

 

Key words: Condition monitoring, Tractor, Repair and maintenance, Model

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Characteristics of educators in adult education

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran. *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Complex role of adult learning and training process is significant, his role gradually changed from the donor information and active for many years will assume that the principles and techniques that are used in teaching children to contribute equally in the adult learning process On the other hand is effective in children for adult education teachers were employed. Later that person was well trained (ie the experts), who could well slow or a group leader to manage the program, was selected as an adult educator. Thus learners directly in adult education programs that are based on experience were used, and adult As a mature child which has its own characteristics and is unique is that the principles and techniques of the different techniques used for the education of children is needed. As a result the role of adult educator gradually from non-skilled person without the expertise of individual specialists and trained to be changed and Instructors for training and educational opportunities were provided at all levels are therefore unable to work for educators from institutions with short-term training courses for users of the guidance program (project leaders) through summer workshops for professional leaders through programs Training of Master and PhD levels in schools of higher education courses were provided.

[Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh. Characteristics of educators in adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):232-236]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.33

 

Keywords: Distance education, adult education

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The role of indigenous knowledge for sustainable development

 

Khatereh siyar

 

Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge that is restricted to one specific culture and/or certain society. Indigenous knowledge is different with scientific knowledge that was established by universities and scientific communities. This knowledge is basis for decision making at field of agriculture, health, education, food and natural sources. Indigenous knowledge is set of all knowledge and skills that people enjoy in one geographical area (in one environmental conditions) that most of their skills and knowledge be transmitted to next generation, and new generation would be adapted with them and add to it. Many experts believe that for making a sustainable development, Indigenous and modern knowledge should be combined. Nowadays, so much efforts have done to make use of Indigenous knowledge but main part of these efforts were done for derivation and making it scientific.

[Khatereh siyar. The role of indigenous knowledge for sustainable development. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):237-241]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.34

 

Keywords: sustainable development, indigenous knowledge

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Socio-economic analysis of foreign immigrants in South East Iran

 

Mortaza tavakoli

 

PhD, Faculty Member; Department of Geography, University of Zabol, zabol, Iran

tavakoli@uoz.ac.ir or tavakoly52@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Beginning of immigration refer to age of times that human lives on the earth. The first human for keep from damage and problem’s choosing immigrant as a solution. In between international immigrant with notice to it effect’s in era and destination is the most important. Analytic Situation of Pakistani immigrant to Iran is the main goal of this research. The all of society that use in this research is N=1350 person from Pakistani immigration that lives in Konarak and Chabahar that the 219 person with simple Random Sampling method chosen and for analytic this data and information use from Excel and Spss 16 software’s. The results show the main reason of immigrant Pakistani to these two cities is finding job and suitable work. Two stimulant consist of economic and other reason such local convenience, better life, more security has direct effect on other behavioral this reason has most important in between other reason.

[Tavakoli mortaza. Socio-economic analysis of foreign immigrants in south east Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):242-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.35

 

Keywords: International immigrant’s, Pakistani immigrants, Southern East of Iran

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Clinical value of transforming growth factor beta as a marker of Fibrosis in adolescents with Chronic Liver Diseases

 

Elham Abdel Ghaffar, Bahaa El-Din Hassanin, Mona EL-Tokhy*

 

Pediatric & Clinical Pathology* Depart., Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatic fibrosis is the final common path of liver injury in most chronic liver diseases and can lead to cirrhosis, which is responsible for the majority of clinical complications. Our aim is to asses the clinical value of serum Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) as a fibrogenesis marker in adolescents with chronic Liver Diseases. Methods: We measured serum levels of TGF-β in 25 adolescents with chronic liver disease and 25 healthy controls, and determined their relationship to frequently used liver function tests and liver biopsy findings. Results: Serum Transforming growth factor β was significantly higher in patients than in controls as (P < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between TGFβ and TSB as r is 0.4682 and p is < 0.05. High significant positive correlation between TGFβ and (stage, grade of liver fibrosis, PT and duration of illness)as p is < 0.001and r is 0.9409, 0.7447, 0.5293 and 0.5952 respectively. Highly significant negative correlation with prothrombin concentration (PC) and serum albumin level as p is < 0.01 and r is -0.6460 and -0.5371 respectively. Sensitivity of TGFβ in diagnosis of fibrosis was 65%, specificity 94% and area under curve (AUC) was 0.812.The cut-off value of TGFβ used to discriminate significant fibrosis was 22.6 ng/ml and it was a dependant predictor factor for diagnosis of fibrosis with positive predictive value 75.5% and negative predictive value 90.4 %. Conclusions: TGF-β had the ability to discriminate patients with significant fibrosis. and may be useful in reducing but not replacing the need for liver biopsy.

[Elham Abdel Ghaffar, Bahaa El-Din Hassanin, Mona EL-Tokhy. Clinical value of transforming growth factor beta as a marker of Fibrosis in adolescents with Chronic Liver Diseases. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):251-259]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.36

 

Keywords: Liver fibrosis; Hepatitis C virus; Hepatitis B virus; Liver fibrosis; TGF-β

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Codification of the Strategy Map in Small, Auto-parts Manufacturing Companies (Case Study: Sahand Khodro Company of Tabriz)

 

1 Samad Khabbaz Bavil * and 2 Armin Rajabzadeh and 3 Mohammad Behravesh

 

1 MSc of Management (MBA), lecturer of Management, Department of Social Science and Economics, Payam Noor University, Ahar Branch, Ahar City, East Azerbaijan, Iran.
E-mail: s_khabbaz@pnu.ac.ir.

2 MSc of Management (MBA), lecturer of Management, Faculty of Social Science, Department of Marketing Management, Payam Noor University, Varzeghan Branch, Varzeghan City, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

E-mail: a_rajabzadeh@pnu.ac.ir.

3 MSc Student of Industrial Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Amirkabir Technology, Tehran, Iran. E-Mail: behravesh@aut.ac.ir.

 

Abstract: One of the issues which hinder the execution of strategies in organizations is that it remains in a general level of actions and orientations. In response to this problem, the strategy map attempts to illustrate the organization strategies in terms of cause-effect relations and show how these strategies can change into measurable objectives and specified operations which must be followed by organizational units and also employees. By translating its strategy into the logical structure of the strategy map, Sahand Khodro Company created a common, tangible reference point for all its employees and personnel. In this study, we have translated the strategy of Sahand Khodro Company into operational objectives and evaluators from four aspects of the strategy map. By codifying the strategy map, Sahand Khodro Company was able to achieve greater profitability and better response in relation to all the beneficiaries involving customers, employees, director and owner of the company and the society.

[Samad Khabbaz Bavil and Armin Rajabzadeh and Mohammad Behravesh. Codification of the Strategy Map in Small, Auto-parts Manufacturing Companies (Case Study: Sahand Khodro Company of Tabriz). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):260-267]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.37

 

Key Words: Strategy, Strategy Map, Auto-Parts Manufacturing Industry, Small Companies, Tabriz.

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Prediction of Traditional Climatic Changes Effect on Pomegranate Trees Under Desert Condition in EL-Maghara, Egypt

 

Seidhom, S.H. and Abd-El-Rahman, G.

 

Water Requirements and Meteorology Unit, Chemistry and Soil Physics Department, Desert Research Center, El-Matareya, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The main aim of this study is to combat and forecasting climate changes, with some soil managements in El-Maghara Research Station at North Sinai, Egypt, on pomegranate trees. The applied treatments were irrigation intervals and soil mulching with drip irrigation in the desert sandy soils and its impact on the water use efficiency and saving of irrigation water. A field experiment was carried out through split plot design during the three seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010 with pomegranate trees have 9 years age, planted at distances 3.6 X 3.6 meters (324 tree/fed). Experiments included 72 test unit consists of three irrigation intervals (2, 4 and 6 days) and three soil mulching practices under the trees (control without mulch, bitumen mulch and olive pomace mulch) and four replicates each have two trees, as the amount of irrigation water was calculated according to Penman - Monteith equation for data the last 10 years of the meteorological data of the region. The results were analyzed statistically, which were as follows: (1) There is a detected local climatic change for the main meteorological data of the site compared either with 10 or 30 years recorded data. These changes are partially caused by the global climatic change in one hand and to the local Oasis effect in the site in the other hand. These changes play a positive role in enhancing the yield of pomegranate trees referring to the horticulture references. (2) A significant increase of the values of pomegranate fruit yield, crop water use efficiency, water economy, water saving, total revenue and total profit by increasing of air temperature and humidity of the atmosphere and increasing the irrigation period to 6 days. Olive pomace mulch under the trees, gave a higher yield than bitumen mulch, and without mulch. (3) Significant decrease values of water consumptive use, crop coefficient of pomegranate, irrigation water use efficiency coefficient and environmental stress coefficients by increasing the irrigation period to be 6 days. Olive pomace mulching under the trees gave a higher yield than bitumen mulch and then without mulch. (4) The highest for the application of economic olive pomace mulch under irrigation with a period of 6 days. In all cases, the applied treatments get higher investment ratios (IR) than the traditional one (2.25 LE/IL). The study recommends with using drip irrigation every 6 days by the amount of irrigation water calculated according to Penman-Monteith equation without addition leaching requirements, with plants residues mulch such as olive pomace under the trees, which gave the highest return of one pound investment with ~ 3.07 LE., taking into account the vulnerability of the study area to the phenomenon of the Continental and Oasis effect, under conditions similar to the study area.

[Seidhom, S.H. and Abd-El-Rahman, G. Prediction of Traditional Climatic Changes Effect on Pomegranate Trees Under Desert Condition in EL-Maghara, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):268-280]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.38

 

Keywords: climate change, irrigation intervals, mulching, pomegranate, water use efficiency, environmental stress coefficient.

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Deterioration and Diffusion Studies of Radioactive Wastes from the Concrete Matrix by Dynamic Method

 

A. El- Dakroury

 

Hot lab. Center and waste management, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759 Cairo Egypt

Aishaw95@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In designing radioactive waste repositories, it is necessary to predetermine the degree of cement performance change due to leaching degradation. Cement is a porous material and consists of solid phases in contact and in equilibrium with a pore water solution. The progress of degradation can be expressed in terms of water exchange cycles or speed of diffusion of ions in the pore solution. Cementitious materials are fundamentally unstable in water and will change properties with time. High pH conditions of aqueous solutions in a radioactive waste repository can be brought about by dissolution of cementitious materials. In order to clarify the mechanisms involved in maintaining this high pH for long time, the dissolution phenomena of cement hydrate was investigated. In the present research, leaching tests on powdered cement hydrates were conducted by changing the ratio of mass of leaching water to mass of cement hydrate Ordinary Portland cement hydrate was contacted with pour water and placed in a sealed bottle. After a predetermined period, the solid was separated from the solution. Calcium hydroxide is one of the main reaction products resulting from the hydration of Portland cement with water. It is also one of the more soluble phases found in hydrated cement systems. Study's the influence of calcium hydroxide dissolution and its effect under the dynamic leaching system. From the results of XRD analysis on the solid phase and the calcium concentration in the aqueous phase, it was confirmed that Ca (OH) 2 was preferentially dissolved when the liquid/solid ratio was 30 to 35 %, and that C–S–H gel as well as Ca (OH) 2 were dissolved when the liquid/solid ratio was 45% or larger. The crystalline phases were identified using X-ray diffraction. The leaching of 137Cs was carried out according to the ANSI/ ANS -16.1.

[A. El- Dakroury. Deterioration and Diffusion Studies of Radioactive Wastes from the Concrete Matrix by Dynamic Method. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):281-290]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.39

 

Keywords: deterioration ; diffusion ;solubility; cement hydrate; C–S–H gel

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Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):291-298]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.40

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Serum Fetuin-A levels in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy: Its relation to diabetes control

 

 Ayman Ramadan1, Amira Shoukry1, Mabrouk Ibraheim Ismail1, Maher Borai 2

 

1Internal Medicine and 2clinical Pathology Departments, Zagazig University, faculty of medicine, Zagazig, Egypt. Aymedman@yahoo.co.uk

 

 Abstract: Background and objective: Fetuin-A is a circulating calcium-regulatory glycoprotein that inhibits vascular calcification. In the present study, serum fetuin-A was studied as a novel risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy and the relation between its levels with the state of diabetes control.

Patients and Methods: 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and early diabetic nephropathy, 25 patients of them have well controlled diabetes on treatment (the first group), the other 25 patients have uncontrolled diabetes (the second group), and another 25 healthy volunteers (control group)) were enrolled in this cross sectional study. Serum fetuin-A, Fasting plasma glucose(FP glucose), glycated hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides), Serum creatinine, Glmerular filtration rate (GFR), Albumin excretion in urine were measured.

Results: There was a significant reduction in Serum fetuin-A levels in controlled diabetic patients (314±66.8) and uncontrolled diabetic patients (252.4±55.6) patients compared to control group (478.6±74.4). A significant decrease was also detected in uncontrolled diabetic patients when compared to controlled diabetic patients (P<0.001). A strong inverse correlation was found between serum fetuin-A and each of F P glucose, glycated HBA1c, serum creatinine,and albumin excretion in urine (P<0.001). whereas; GFR was significantly positively associated with serum fetuin-A levels (r = 0.53, P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy, especially with uncontrolled diabetes, is linked to low fetuin-A which represents a novel risk factor for the development of vascular complications. This factor could be responsible for the development and progression of accelerated nephropathy especially with uncontrolled diabetes.

[Ayman Ramadan, Amira Shoukry, Mabrouk Ibraheim Ismail, Maher Borai. Serum Fetuin-A levels in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy: Its relation to diabetes control. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):299-302]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.41

 

Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy; fetuin-A; Glycated hemoglobin A1c; diabetes mellitus; and control

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Parameter Estimation and Dynamic Simulation Of Gas Turbine Model In Combined Cycle Power Plants Based On Actual Operational Data

 

H. Emam Shalan *, M. A. Moustafa Hassan **, A. B. G. Bahgat ***

 

* El-Kureimat Power Station, Ministry of Electricity, University, Cairo, Egypt, hanyemam1980@yahoo.com

** Electrical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, mmustafa@eng.cu.edu.eg

*** Electrical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo, Giza, Egypt, agbahgat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Gas turbines are very important nowadays for electric power generation specially that used in the Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPPs). For this electric power generation, the dynamics of the gas turbine and parameters estimation are very essential. In this article, a simple procedure is used for estimating the parameters of Rowen’s model for HDGTs in dynamic studies for analysis purposes. The parameters of Rowen's model for a 265-MW HDGT are derived and several simulated tests using Matlab/Simulink are presented. The way of obtaining the parameters are based on simple physical laws. It explains briefly how to extract the parameters of the model using the operational and performance data. The obtained results via simulations using Matlab/Simulink are highly matched with the involved scientific articles that published in different literature. Furthermore, the obtained results verifies the operational results of the considered HDGT. However, the procedure here is applied on a practical HDGT. The same procedure could be applied for any scale (size) of gas turbines.

[H. Emam Shalan, M. A. Moustafa Hassan, A. B. G. Bahgat. Parameter Estimation and Dynamic Simulation Of Gas Turbine Model In Combined Cycle Power Plants Based On Actual Operational Data. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):303-310]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.42

 

Keywords: Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP), Dynamic Simulation, Gas Turbine, Mathematical Modeling, Thermodynamic Process.

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Risk Factors And Impacts Of Pre-Eclampsia: An Epidemiologicl Study Among Pregnant Mothers In Cairo, Egypt

 

Essam A. El-Moselhy; Hamed O. Khalifa; Soliman M. Amer; Khadra I. Mohammad* And Hani M. Abd El-Aal*

 

Departments of Community Medicine and Obstetric & Gynecology*, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University. dr_elmoselhy@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Pre-eclampsia (PE) represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in mother, fetus and infant in many parts of the world. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral, socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of PE among pregnant mothers and to define the impact of PE on health of the fetuses and neonates. Subjects and methods: A case-control, hospital based study design was used. All the cases and controls were interviewed and examined; clinically and laboratory. Results: Multiple gestations, rural residence, mothers married more than once, inter pregnancies' interval <3 years, primi-gravida, low social level and maternal age group 26-30 years were significant socio-demographic and personal risk factors (OR=9.79, 4.16, 4.0, 2.73, 2.16, 2.16 and 1.98, respectively). Further, much salty diet intake, no adequate fresh fruits/vegetables and much fat were significant dietary risk factors (OR=1.99, 1.85 and 1.83, respectively). Also; urinary tract infection, vaginal infection/ vaginosis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, polyhydraminos, diabetes and stress were significant medical and obstetric/gynecologic risk factors (OR=5.59, 4.41, 3.62, 3.59, 3.35 and 2.98, respectively). Fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, neonate birth weight <2.5 kg and neonate intensive care admission were more common in pre-eclamptic mothers compared to controls with statistically significant differences (P=0.00, 0.04, 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The mean of 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores were significantly lower in newborns of pre-eclamptic mothers compared to controls (P=0.00 for each of them). Also, the mean Hb level was significantly lower in newborns of PE cases compared to controls (P=0.00). Recommendations: Improving ante-natal care for pregnant mothers in Egypt. Population based studies are needed in different areas in Egypt and on large numbers of mothers to understand the full epidemiology of PE.

[Essam A. El-Moselhy; Hamed O. Khalifa; Soliman M. Amer; Khadra I. Mohammad* And Hani M. Abd El-Aal. Risk Factors And Impacts Of Pre-Eclampsia: An Epidemiologicl Study Among Pregnant Mothers In Cairo, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):311-323]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.43

 

Keywords: Risk Factors; Impacts Of Pre-Eclampsia; Epidemiologicl Study; Pregnant

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Amniotic Fluid Selenium And Maternal Biochemical Findings Among Pre-Eclamptic Women In Cairo, Egypt

 

Essam A. El-Moselhy; Hesham H. Amin* And Hani M. Abd El-Aal**

 

Departments of Community Medicine, Clinical Pathology* and Obstetric & Gynecology**, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University. dr_elmoselhy@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a multi-factorial and a multi-system disease. Selenium (Se) may be one of the disease causes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out the mean level of amniotic fluid selenium and the biochemical profile among the pre-eclamptic mothers and controls in Cairo, Egypt. Subjects and methods: A case-control, hospital based study design was used. All the cases and controls were examined laboratory. Results: The mean amniotic fluid Se level was lower among pre-eclamptic cases; total, mild and severe compared to controls with a statistically significant differences (P=0.00, 0.00 and 0.00, respectively). Further, the difference was statistically significant between mild and severe cases (P=0.00). Also, the mean hemoglobin level, mean hematocrit percent and mean platelet count were lower among pre-eclamptic cases compared to controls with statistically significant differences (P=0.00 for each of them). While; the mean lipid profile (except SHDL- cholesterol), mean liver enzymes levels, mean blood urea level, mean fasting blood glucose level and indicators of infections and/or inflammatory processes, mean total leucocytic count and mean C-reactive protein level were higher among pre-eclamptic mothers compared to controls with statistically significant differences (P=0.00 for each of them). On the other hand, the mean serum createnine level was higher among pre-eclamptic cases compared to controls with a statistically insignificant difference. Further, these differences were also present between the mild and severe PE cases. Lastly, the most important significantly correlated factors of severe PE were low amniotic fluid Se, high total leukocytic count, high fasting blood glucose and C-reactive protein levels (P=0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.03, respectively). Recommendations: Early ante-natal care, including health education, and treatment of pre-eclamptic women are recommended. Se supplementation may be a way to prevent PE. Population based studies are needed in different areas in Egypt on large number of pregnant women to determine their biochemical profile and to find out other possible trace element deficiencies that might be risk factors for PE.

[Essam A. El-Moselhy; Hesham H. Amin And Hani M. Abd El-Aal. Amniotic Fluid Selenium And Maternal Biochemical Findings Among Pre-Eclamptic Women In Cairo, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):324-336]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.44

 

Keywords: Amniotic Fluid Selenium; Maternal Eclamptic Women; Cairo; Egypt

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Effects of Thiopurine S-methyltransferase Genetic Polymorphism on Mercaptopurine Therapy in Pediatric ALL

 

Sherif A Aboul Naga*, Gamal T Ebid, ** Hisham M Fahmi*, Manal F Zamzam*, Hafez F Hafez*** and Azza M Kamel**

 

Affiliations: * Pediatric Hematology/Oncology department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

** Clinical Pathology department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

*** Cancer biology department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

gamalthabet@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Mercaptopurine is one of the most important drugs used in cancer treatment. Its elimination depends mainly on the enzyme Thiopurine S-methyl Transferase (TPMT). A number of known genetic polymorphisms can affect the activity of this enzyme. Aim of the work: to study the pattern of TPMT polymorphisms in a cohort of Egyptian patients with ALL and its impact on response to therapy and toxicity. Patients and methods: the study included 52 low-risks pediatric ALL patients treated by (PNCI XIII LR Protocol). TPMT genotype was done for common mutations using polymerase chain reaction-based assays. Clinical follow-up, documentation of events, and 6-MP dose reductions were performed throughout the maintenance phase in a double blinded fashion. Results: TPMT genotyping showed that 40 patients (76.9%) have the wild type and 12 patients (23.1%) have the mutant type, two (3.85 %) of which were homozygous for G238C and ten were heterozygous (19.25%). TPMT mutant patients, especially homozygous, were at greater risk of 6-MP toxic effects and needed more frequent dose reductions. Mean duration of missed therapy was 50.250 weeks for the mutant patients vs. 25.825 weeks for wild-type patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: TPMT heterozygous and homozygous patients require lower doses of 6-MP.These results justify performing TPMT genotyping before initiating 6-MP therapy in all children with ALL to minimize consequent toxicity through dose modifications.

[Sherif A Aboul Naga, Gamal T Ebid, Hisham M Fahmi, Manal F Zamzam, Hafez F Hafez and Azza M Kamel. Effects of Thiopurine S-methyltransferase Genetic Polymorphism on Mercaptopurine Therapy in Pediatric ALL. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):337-346]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.45

 

Key words: Pharmacogenetics, Thiopurine S-methyl Transferase, TPMT, Mercaptopurine, 6-MP, Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, ALL

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Assessing of Adult Learning Principles

 

Ali Badragheh

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran

*Corresponding author: badraghehali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Transfer of learning is the result of training and is simply the ability to use the information taught in your program but in new settings and contexts. As with reinforcement, both types of transfer: positive and negative should be used in the program approach. Positive transference, like positive reinforcement, occurs when the learner uses the skill learnt in your program. It is very important for any learner’s orientation to the new skills they develop that they can practice in their own situations. Using knowledge from financial literacy training to work out the best way to use (or not use) credit in their lives is an important tool that many participants could use immediately. Participants can check how much credit debt they have, what interest they are paying and what alternatives there may be. Negative transference, again like negative reinforcement, occurs when the learners applying the skill do not do what they are told not to do. This also results in a positive (desired) outcome. This means it’s important to find out what the participants in your program have been using their new skills for. Check to see if they are applying the techniques properly or whether they have misunderstood a key aspect of the program. Once wrong information is absorbed and used again and again it simply becomes another bad habit that could make financial decision-making worse instead of better.

[Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh. Assessing of Adult Learning Principles. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):347-353]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.46

 

Keywords: adult education, Adult Learning

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Principles of Adult Learning in agricultural education

 

 

Ali Badragheh

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran

*Corresponding author: badraghehali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: As we know reinforcement is a very necessary part of any teaching/learning process. Through it, trainers encourage correct modes of behaviour and performance and discourage bad habits. Your program should use both reinforcement techniques throughout. Positive reinforcement is normally used when participants learn new skills. As implied, positive reinforcement is "good" and reinforces "good" (or positive) behaviour. Negative reinforcement is useful in trying to change bad habits or inappropriate modes of behaviour. The intention is extinction -- that is, the trainer uses negative reinforcement until the "bad" behaviour disappears or the learner understands why past practice is not beneficial to them. Examples could be ensuring participants always compare different rates of interest available to them before signing up for any new debt (a positive reinforcement) and not considering credit purchases that leave them with no income safety net for unforeseen circumstances (negative reinforcement).

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Principles of Adult Learning in agricultural education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):354-361]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.47

 

Keywords: adult education, Adult Learning in agricultural education

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Development Partnership in Practice: The Sawah Technology

 

1Oladele O. I and 2Wakatsuki T

 

1Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa, oladele20002001@yahoo.com,2Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University Nara Japan wakatuki@nara.kindai.ac.jp

 

Abstract: This paper examines the process of technology development and dissemination with respect to sawah rice production. The term sawah refers to man-made environment for rice production that includes levelling and bunding of rice fields with inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage. It has been hypothesized that sawah rice production technology holds the ace to the expected green revolution in West Africa as a yields of 5t/ha have been obtained. The process of sawah rice technology development and dissemination is exploring strategic synergy and partnership among Japanese institutions, research institutes, Ministry of agriculture, extension agencies, farmers groups, Millennium Village and Universities in Nigeria and Ghana which can be described as an emerging innovation system for rice production in West Africa. The partnership was empirically ascertained in terms of involvement, kind of involvement and intensity of involvement of the various stakeholders in the areas of joint problem identification (JPI), joint priority setting and planning (JPSP), collaborative professional activities (CPA), joint On- farm Adaptive Research (OFAR), dissemination of knowledge (DK), joint demonstration trials (JDTR), joint field days (JFD), joint seminar and workshop (JSW), evaluation survey (ES), and evaluation meeting (EM). A structure questionnaire was used to elicit information from a list activities identified among the stakeholders. Data collected were subjected to percentage distribution and one way analysis of variance to determine differences in the involvement of each of the actors. The results show varying degrees of involvement, types of involvement and different levels of intensity. While Japanese institutes are very prominent in funding and training, scientists and farmers are prominent in problem identification and joint demonstration trials. The implications of the results are discussed and pragmatic suggestions made for a proactive revamping of the process of technology development and dissemination for rice production in West Africa.

[Oladele O. I and Wakatsuki T. Development Partnership in Practice: The Sawah Technology. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):362-367]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.48

 

Keywords: Development, Partnership, Sawah Technology, Rice

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Electrodeposition and characterization of Nickel from Gluconate baths in presence of

Some Additives

 

ALI ELTOUM M. S. 1,*, Baraka A. M.2, Hassan ELfatih. A. 1

 

1Scientific laboratories department, Faculty of Science, Sudan University of Science &Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

2Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

1Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Sudan University of Science &Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

*tetez74@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Electrodepsition of nickel from solutions containing nickel sulfate, boric acid, ammonium sulfate and sodium gluconate on copper substrate has been investigated. The study dealt with the influence of bath composition, current density, pH and temperature on cathodic current efficiency as well as the effect of urea, aniline sulfate and chloramine B as additives on the corrosion behavior using Potetiodynamic polarization curve and morphology of the deposited nickel using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimum conditions for producing nickel deposits from the free additives baths were: 0.2 mol/l NiSO4.6H2O, 0.2 mol/l sodium gluconate, boric acid 0.4 mol/l, ammonium sulfate 0.4 mol/l, pH 8,current density of 2.5 A/dm2 and at 25 0C. The same conditions were used in the presence of additives, under these conditions the cathodic current efficiency was 96.5% which decreased sharply with increasing temperature. These coatings have high corrosion resistance in comparison with Cu-substrate. However the surface morphology of the deposits varies from spherical grain to columnar in the absence and presence of additives, respectively.

[ALI ELTOUM M. S., Baraka A. M, Hassan ELfatih. A. Electrodeposition and characterization of Nickel from Gluconate baths in presence of Some Additives Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):368-377]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.49

 

Key words: Electrodeposition of nickel, copper substrates, additives, potentiodynamic polarization, cathodic current efficiency.

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Rural Empowerment: An Approach for Development in Rural Areas

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 

Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study provides a strategy for rural development in rural areas of Iran. Empowerment of rural areas has emerged as an important issue in recent times. The economic empowerment of rural is being regarded these days as a sine-quo-non of progress for a country; hence, the issue of empowerment of rural areas is of paramount importance to community developers, social scientists and social reformers. Empowerment can enable the local people to participate in the economic, political and social sustainable development of the rural communities. The findings of this investigation can assist rural developers in the implementation of rural development strategies based on rural empowerment.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi, Rural Empowerment: An Approach for Development in Rural Areas. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(5):378-381]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.50

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural development, cooperation

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Noise Level of Two Types of Tractor and Health Effect on Drivers

 

Mansoor Behroozi Lar1, Zahra Khodarahm Pour2, Mehrzad Payandeh3, Jahangir bagheri 4

 

1Professor, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran. behroozil@yahoo.com

2 Assistant professor, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran.Corresponding Author:

3M.Sc. Student in Agricultural Mechanization, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch, Shoushtar, Iran. payandeh.mehrzad@hotmail.com

Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran. moghaddas74@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: "Noise" or "unwanted sound" is one of the major sources of discomfort to the workers which affects human both psychologically and physically. The present investigation was conducted in Iran during the period from September to November 2010. The noise pollution caused by tractor and load were measured in open field with no obstruction and at the driver ear and by stander in accordance with NIOSHA standards. A ITM 399 (without cab) and Valtra T170 (with cab closed and open) and mold board plow and disk plow were used. Unloaded tractor noise was also measured. The data analyzed for different engine speed and gears. Results showed that the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) in the driver ear for the tractor without cab in all cases were more than NIOSH allowable 85 dB(A) criteria for eight hour of operation. The SPL of the tractor with open windows cab was also higher than the standards but lower than the tractor without cab. It was concluded that the driver should either stay on driving for less than 2 hours with tractors without cabin or open window cabin or the only best way, tractors should be equipped with factory made cabins. Even with the latter type of tractors, drivers should avoid opening the window very often for say checking the operation of the machinery behind the tractor or in case the air conditioner malfunctions.

[Mansoor Behroozi Lar, Zahra Khodarahm Pour, Mehrzad Payandeh, Jahangir Bagheri Moghadas. Noise Level of Two Types of Tractor and Health Effect on Drivers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):382-382]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.51

 

Keyword: sound level, noise measurements, tractors, cabin, driver's ear

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Review definitions and principles relating to Andragogy

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran. *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Learners must retain what the program delivers to them in order to benefit from the learning. In order for participants to retain the information taught, they must see a meaning or purpose for that information. They must also understand and be able to interpret and apply the information in their own real life contexts. Understanding includes their ability to assign the correct degree of importance to the material and its application in the future. The amount of retention is always directly affected by the degree of original learning. In other words if the learners did not learn the material well initially, they will not retain it well either. Retention by the participants is directly affected by their amount of practice during the learning. After the students demonstrate they can apply new financial skills, they should be urged to practice in their own time and for their own personal needs to retain and maintain the desired performance.

[Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh. Review definitions and principles relating to Andragogy. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):388-393]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.52

 

Keywords: adult education, adult learning

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Lateral Tarsal strip technique for correction of lower eyelid Ectropion.

 

Mohamed A. Marzouk*, Ayman A. Shouman, Ehab S. Elzakzouk and M.Tarek A. Elnaggar

 

 Research Institute of Ophthalmology – Giza – Egypt.

 

Abstract: Purpose: Lateral tarsal strip technique is a simple procedure that can be used in the presence of lateral canthal tendon laxity or malposition. The technique was used in this study on cases of involutional, paralytic, and cicatricial ectropion. The surgical outcome from different types of ectropion was compared and evaluated. Patients and methods: This retrospective study reviewed records of 30 patients who had undergone lateral tarsal strip from January-2008 to December-2010. All records were examined to determine the indication, management, outcome, postoperative complications and success rate. Results: A total of 17 males and 13 females made up the study groups. The mean age of the cohort was 59.15 +\- 6.2 yrs (range 4- 65 years). The average follow up was 24 weeks (6 months). The patients were divided into 3 groups: Group A: 10 patients with bilateral involutional ectropion (20 lids). Group B: 10 patients with unilateral paralytic ectropion (10 lids). Group C: 10 patients with cicatricial ectropion 9 unilateral and 1 bilateral (11 lids). Most common presenting feature was persistent tearing, which was seen in all patients, others included lid laxity, lagophthalmos and unacceptable cosmesis. Thirty-five lids obtained satisfactory correction of eyelid ectropion with a simple LTS surgical procedure, while six lids required additional intra operative ancillary procedures to correct the remaining skin laxity, scleral show and residual ectropion. Common ancillary procedures used were excision of skin and muscle strip, lateral tarsorraphy and scar revision in severe cicatricial ectropion. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved in all cases. Conclusions: Lateral tarsal strip is a simple technique, which can be used in different types of eye lid ectropion. The technique is directed at correcting the anatomical defect, preserving the natural anatomy and maintaining the integrity of tear passage and outflow, rendering excellent cosmetic and functional results. The ancillary procedures used in our study are suggestive of a very specific role for lateral tarsal strip as a sole treatment in correcting various types of eyelid ectropion.

[Mohamed A. Marzouk, Ayman A. Shouman, Ehab S. Elzakzouk and M. Tarek A. Elnaggar. Lateral Tarsal strip technique for correction of lower eyelid Ectropion. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):394-405]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.53

 

Keywords: Lateral Tarsal strip; malposition; paralytic; cicatricial ectropion.

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Preferred Educational Strategies and Critical Thinking Dispositions among Nursing Students

 

1* Eman El-Sayed Taha, 1Zinat Ibrahim El Hawashy,2 Shadia Abou Donia, and 1 Doaa Demerdash

 

1Nursing Education Department, 2 Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

*eman_said303@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thinking dispositions are characterological in nature, and like many human character traits, they develop in response to immersion in a particular cultural milieu. The cultural milieu that best teaches thinking dispositions is a culture of thinking environment that reinforces good thinking in a variety of explicit ways. The effective program for teaching thinking dispositions, therefore, should create a culture of thinking in the educational system. Critical thinking is a desirable outcome; so to develop and practice critical thinking; educators need to re-consider course content and curricular strategies used to develop critical thinking. The study aimed to determine nursing students' preferences of educational strategies and their critical thinking dispositions. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria. The subjects of this study consisted of (50%) of the total number of students of each academic level comprising 630 students. The students' total score of critical thinking dispositions had significant relation with nine preferred educational strategies out of twenty four. They strongly preferred the following educational strategies: role play, demonstration, portfolio computer assisted instruction/e- learning and panel discussion. While they moderately preferred the following educational strategies: interactive lecture, case study, questioning and nursing round. Finally, they never preferred written assignment. Based on the finding of this study annual assessment of students’ CTDs using the CCTDI is carried to select educational strategies that reinforce the positive dispositions and change the negative and ambivalent ones towards the positive inclination.

[Eman El-Sayed Taha, Zinat Ibrahim El Hawashy, Shadia Abou Donia, and Doaa Demerdash. Preferred Educational Strategies and Critical Thinking Dispositions among Nursing Students. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):406-416]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.54

 

Key words: Critical thinking dispositions, students' preferences, educational strategies

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Effects of strengthening adult education in agricultural development

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran. *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: adult education in the local agricultural education program is an essential component of the "total" program. Offering adult education programs helps to keep farmers and agribusiness employees better informed of current trends and provides them with opportunities to learn new skills and improve existing ones. Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Effects of strengthening adult education in agricultural development. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):417-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.55

 

Keywords: adult education, agricultural development

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Evaluation of Canopy Cover of Street Trees in Urban Forests Using by Satellite Data

 

Seyed Armin Hashemi

 

Department of Forestry, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. hashemi@iau-lahijan.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Information on structure of city forest such as species composition and canopy cover density is a prerequisite for planning, design and management of vegetation in cities in local and regional scale. For this purpose in present study, different inventory methods Including 100% inventory by using 20meters transects and aerial images (1:8000 scale) and spot satellite image were compared for evaluating canopy cover surface of street trees with 1 kilometer length is Sep2009, to develop an optimum and suitable method to evaluate canopy cover of these trees. In 100% inventory considered as the basis for comparing with various methods, canopy surface of these trees was calculated in each 15m transect. Results of paired –T test indicated that results of 100% inventory and aerial photos (p = 0.52, t = 0.809, df = 23) and satellite image (p = 0.48, t = 0.847, df = 23) don't differ significantly. Regression results indicated that using aerial images (R2= 0.92) and spot images (R2 = 0.89) is relevant to evaluate street trees canopy cover.

[Seyed Armin Hashemi, Department of Forestry, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):423-426]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.56

 

Key words: canopy cover, street trees, inventory, aerial photograph, spot images.

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Anionic Schiff Base Amphiphiles: Synthesis, Surface, Biocidal and Antitumor Activities

 

Nihal O. Shaker; *Fatma H. Abd El-Salam; Bahyia M.El-Sadek; Eman M. Kandeel and Sharbat A. Baker

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science (girl’s branch), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt, B.O. 11754.

 

Abstract: A series of anionic surfactants containing schiff base group was synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed using elemental analyses, FTIR, 1H-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The surface activities of these amphiphiles were determined based on the data of surface and interfacial tensions. Thermodynamics of adsorption and micellization processes of these surfactants in their solutions were also calculated. It was found that these compounds have tendency towards adsorption at the interface and also micelle formation at lower concentrations. Also, these schiff bases amphiphiles have been evaluated for their biocidal activity against bacterial and fungi species and their antitumor activity against three human tumor cells such as HEPG2 (liver), HCF7 (breast) and HCT116 (colon).

[Nihal O. Shaker; Fatma H. Abd El-Salam; Bahyia M.El-Sadek; Eman M. Kandeel and Sharbat A. Baker Anionic Schiff Base Amphiphiles: Synthesis, Surface, Biocidal and Antitumor Activities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):427-436]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.57

 

Keywords: Schiff base amphiphiles; surface activity, biocidal activity; antitumor activity; potent action.

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58

The study of relation between biodiversity indices of woody species and growing stock in natural forest stands

 

Seyed Armin Hashemi

 

Department of Forestry, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran.

hashemi@iau-lahijan.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In order to determine the relationship between diversity indices of woody species and growing stock per hectare in natural beech (Fugus orientalis Lipsky) Forests, Twenty sites specially at middle elevations were studied including three plots per each site. The dimension of each plot was 50 ×100 meters. The method of surveying was selective sampling. Results indicated there are positive linear regression between the biodiversity indices and growing stock per hectare. The best equation were obtained from the relationship between Brillouin index and growing stock per hectare (r =0.95).

[Seyed Armin Hashemi, Department of Forestry, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):437-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.58

 

Key words: Biodiversity indices of woody species, Growing stock, Beech, Natural forest stands

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Gene Action Studies of Different Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Heat stress and Normal Conditions

 

Zahra Khodarahmpour 

 

Assistant Professor of Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the type of gene action, genetic parameters of yield and other quantitative traits by crossing eight diverse maize inbred lines in partial diallel fashion. Seeds of F1 population along with their parents were evaluated in year 2010 in Shoushtar City (Khuzestan province in Iran) using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Genotypes planted at two dates, 6 July (to coincide heat stress with pollination time and grain filling period) and 27 July (as normal planting). Estimation gene effects and some of genetic parameters and graphic plot drawing to Hayman – Jinks method revealed statistics a and b significant for all traits in two conditions. Considering the average dominance degree and Hayman graphical plot, dominant effects for hektolitr weight trait under heat stress condition and for grain yield under normal condition, over dominance as well as partial dominance for other traits, were revealed.

[Zahra Khodarahmpour. Gene Action Studies of Different Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Heat stress and Normal Conditions. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):442-448]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.59

 

Key words: Maize; heat stress; genetic parameters; grafic plot

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Genetic Analysis of Yield and Qualitative Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Heat stress and Normal Conditions

 

Zahra Khodarahmpour 

 

Assistant Professor of Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

 Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the type of gene action and genetic parameters of yield and qualitative traits by crossing eight diverse maize inbred lines in partial diallel fashion. Seeds of F1 population along with their parents were evaluated in year 2010 in Shoushtar City (Khuzestan province in Iran) using a RCBD with 3 replications. Inbred lines and hybrids planted in two separate experiment at two dates, 6 July (to coincide heat stress with pollination time and grain filling period) and 27 July (as normal planting). Diallel analysis to Griffing,s method 4 and model II were performed. Also estimation gene effects and some of genetic parameters to Hayman – Jinks method revealed. Grain yield in stress condition of the highest ratio GCA/SCA was enjoyed that show additive effect role important. But; other traits of ratio GCA/SCA low were enjoyed. Hybrid K18×K166B of positive and significantly combining in two conditions for grain yield were enjoyed. Analysis of variance of F1 data showed significant differences for statistics a and b, suggesting the presence of both additive and dominance genetic effects in the expression of all traits. The average dominance degree for grain yield trait under normal condition and grain protein percent in heat stress, over dominance as well as partial dominance for other traits, were revealed.

[Zahra Khodarahmpour. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Qualitative Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Heat stress and Normal Conditions. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):449-454]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.60

 

Key words: Maize; heat stress; general and specific combining ability; over dominance and partial dominance

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Introduction the medicinal species of Asteraceae family in Ilkhji region and Sharafaldin regions of Esat Azarbaijan in Iran

 

Leila joudi*, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani, Hamide shadkami

 

Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University (IRI)

Leila.judy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: As medicinal plants are suitable alternatives for synthetic and chemical drugs (Idu and Osemwegie) also because of medical and nutritional importance and valuable protein contents of Asteraceae species, all plants of Asteraceae family are collected in Ilkhji and sharafaldin regions during growth seasons of 2007-2009. Plants were collected in 2 regions according to the classical method of regional floristical studies. Collected plants were recognized by valid references (Parsa and Reshinger). Then medical species are chosen by using pharmacopeias. The results of the current study demonstrated that at Ilkhji region 31 species belong to 24 genuses and at Sharafaldin region 25 species belong to 20 genuses that all of them belong to Asteraceae family. Among these species, 19 species at Ilkhji and sharafaldin region had medicinal properties. Medicinal species of these 2 regions consist of: Achillea tenuifolia, Achillea vermicularis, Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Acroptilon repens, Cardus pycnocephalus, Carthamus oxyacantha, Centaurea aggregate, Cichorium intybus, Cirsium ravens, Cnicus benedictus, Cousinia calcitrapa, Lactuca scarioloides, Lactuca serriola, Onopordon leptolepis, Senecio mollis, Sonchus oleraceus, Tragopogon marginatus, Xanthium spinosum. The results of this study showed that the region has a great potential for producing respective medicinal plants species belong to those families. Medicinal plants recently become more important because of their medicinal uses and in addition they are valuable source of protein.

[Leila Joudi and Hamide shadkami. Introduction the medicinal species of Asteraceae family in Ilkhji region and Sharafaldin regions of Esat Azarbaijan in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):455-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.61

 

Key words: Family – Pharmacopeia – Medicinal plant

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Manifestation of Existential Issues As a Brilliant Function for Quality of Matrimony

 

Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh1, Siti Aishah Hassan2, Rusnani Abdul Kadir2, Mansor Abu Talib 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran

2. Universiti Putra Malaysia. kalantar.counseling@kiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: There are some important issues in marital counselling which are discoursed in Existential thought. These issues are freedom, time, human communication, meaning of life, and anxiety, which are shared by the existential counsellors and philosophers. Even though there are full potentials of the existential issues to be applied during counselling sessions, most of them are ignored by couple counsellors. The purpose of this article is to highlight these issues as the key concepts in four different counselling theories of Existential thought. We found that, each theory used only certain issues as the key concepts. Therefore, this study gathers all of the applied existential issues for a future comprehensive marital counselling model. Applying these issues together seems to be a brilliant function for quality of matrimony. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):459-465]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.62

 

Keywords: Existential thought; existential issues; marital counselling; quality of matrimony

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Verbal Abuse and Coping Behaviors Directed to Operating Room Nursing Staff at University Hospitals

 

Hala A. Abdou

 

Nursing Administration Dept. Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

h_abdou_eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Verbal abuse is a most common form of workplace violence in the operating room settings. It affects operating room nurses personally and professionally. Such effects have a major implication for nursing profession in term of retention, satisfaction, and quality of care. So, the occurrence of verbal abuse depends on a great extent of coping behaviors among nurses working in the operating room environment. Thus this study aimed to determine the relationship between verbal abuse and coping behaviors directed at operating room nursing staff at university hospitals. This study was conducted in all operating room (n = 65) in five major governmental hospitals affiliated to University hospitals, Egypt. The subjects consisted of 206 operating room nursing staff categorized into operating room head nurses (n=16) and operating room nurses (n=190) working in the above mentioned settings. The participants completed a questionnaire includes the verbal abuse scale (VAS), this questionnaire consisted of a five section related to frequency and stressfulness of incidence of verbal abuse, strength of feeling, similarity of thought, severity of long term negative effects, and coping behaviors. The finding of this study shows that 40% of operating room nursing staff reported that they had been abused by surgeons followed by another nurses 27.7%. The average number of reported incidents during the year was at least once a month or less episodes of verbal abuse. Judging and criticizing, abusive anger as well as blocking and diversity were the most frequent and stressful forms of verbal abuse. The most severe, long term effect of verbal abuse was reported to be its impacts on the physical health, relationship with other nurses as well as patient care outcomes. Threatened was the most intense of emotional reactions, indifferent and frustration. In addition the operating room nursing staff identified with a variety of adaptive and maladaptive coping behaviors and rated the similarity and effectiveness of these coping behaviors in responses to verbally abusive episodes. Conclusion, the need of nursing administrators for empowering operating room nurses to develop the formal protocols for adequately supported dealing with and prevent incidence of verbal abuse from surgeons against them. Also, training of nursing personnel is an essential element of effective verbal abuse prevention program.

 [Hala A. Abdou. Verbal Abuse and Coping Behaviors Directed to Operating Room Nursing Staff at University Hospitals. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):466-476]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.63

 

Key words: Operating suites, surgeons, incidence of verbal abuse, similarity and effectiveness of coping behaviors

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Socio-demographic Determinants of Rubella Vaccine Uptake by Egyptian University Students Attended a Catch-up Vaccination Campaign

 

Ghada F. El-Sharkawy

 

Public Health & Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

ghada_el_sharkawy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Rubella immunization of susceptible persons is the best strategy to prevent all cases of congenital rubella syndrome. In November-December 2008, university students were included -for the first time in Egypt - in a mass campaign for measles-rubella vaccination. However, their rate of vaccine uptake and its determinants were not explored enough. So, a cross sectional study was conducted to compare the university students’ vaccine uptake by their socio-demographic characteristics and their knowledge and to identify motivating and de-motivating factors. Findings revealed vaccine uptake by 64.8% of the sample; significantly higher among younger students, who heard about the campaign and who knew its aim. Among the total sample, a high level of awareness was found in knowledge about rubella name, its hazards, suitable age for vaccination and hearing about the campaign while lower awareness level was found in knowing susceptible groups and campaign’s aim. Being from a governorate other than that of the university is the significant factor for low hearing about the campaign while being a female and being an urban resident were the significant factors for low knowledge of the campaign’s aim. Reported motivating factors for compliance were; knowing rubella hazards and the national aim and encouragement by family & friends while de-motivating factors were insufficiency of information, lack of trust in government and previous vaccination. In conclusion, rubella vaccine uptake by university students can be increased by more advertisement especially among older, female, urban and from other governorates students in addition to trust building and motivation.

[Ghada F. El-Sharkawy. Socio-demographic Determinants of Rubella Vaccine Uptake by Egyptian University Students Attended a Catch-up Vaccination Campaign. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):477-484]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.64

 

Key wards: Rubella vaccination- Compliance- Campaign – Socio demographic determinants - University students - Egypt

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Optimization of Bio-Fuel Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Sugar Cane Bagasse

 

Osman, M.E. *, Khattab, O.H., Hammad, I.A., El-Hussieny, N.I.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.

* mesosman@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty yeast isolates were tested for ethanol productivity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from sugar cane bagasse was the potent producer. Fresh Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown overnight on YEPD medium and was tested to determine the optimum conditions for both biomass and ethanol production. The maximum production of ethanol was obtained at 30°C, pH 6, 35% sugar cane molasses as fermentation medium, 1% corn steep liquor, 1ml of 1 O.D. YEPD broth and shaking at 200 rpm. Different microelements also were tested.

[Osman, M.E., Khattab, O.H., Hammad, I.A., El-Hussieny, N.I. Optimization of Bio-Fuel Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Sugar Cane Bagasse. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):485-492]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.65

 

Keywords: Optimization; Bio-Fuel Production; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Sugar Cane Bagasse

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Effect of Calcium chloride and Gibberellic acid on storability of "Succary Abiad" mango fruits under cold storage

 

Wahdan, M. T*., Habib, S. E., Bassal, M. A. And Qaoud, E. M.

 

Department of horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

*Wahdan2011@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study was carried out in two successive seasons (2007 and 2008) on Succary Abiad cv. mango trees grown in Abou Swear region, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The trees were 30-year-old, planted at 7×7 meters apart. Fruits storability was improved by CaCl2 or GA3 treatments under cold storage. Fruit weight declined starting from the first week of cold storage up to the end of storage period. GA3 40 ppm dipping treatment showed the lowest fruit weight loss in the two seasons. The fruit pulp percentage gradually decreased as the storage periods elongated. Fruits from CaCl2 2% dipping showed the highest fruit pulp percentage compared with the control fruits. Fruit firmness was the highest in fruits treated with CaCl2 2% sprayed at two months after full bloom or dipping after harvesting. Moreover, SSC increased gradually up to the end of storage periods. While, titratable acidity in the fruits showed gradually decreasing up to the end of storage periods as compared with its values at the beginning of storage. The fruit SSC/acid ratios showed gradually increasing in its values higher than at zero time storage. Total sugars in the fruits increased as the storage period elongated to reach its maximum values at the end of storage period.

[Wahdan, M. T., Habib, S. E., Bassal, M. A. And Qaoud, E. M. Effect of Calcium chloride and Gibberellic acid on storability of "Succary Abiad" mango fruits under cold storage. Journal of American Science 2011;493-501]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.66

 

Key words: Mango, CaCl2, GA3, fruit quality, cold storage

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Role of Bacterial Treatments for Upgrading Nutritive Value of Bean Straw and Native Goats Performance

 

Abd El-Galil1, Etab, R. and Ebtehag, I. M. Abou-Elenin*2

 

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Department of Animal Nutrition, Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), P.O. Box 443, Nadi El-Said St., Dokki, Giza. *eabouelenin@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty baladi kids (16.20 ±0.52 kg; four months age) were divided into four equal groups (five animals each). The animals were randomly assigned using a complete randomize design to receive one of the four rations for 90 days. All animals fed 50% concentrate feed mixture plus one of the roughages as follows: 50% rice straw (R1), 50% untreated bean straw (R2), 50% bean straw treated with Bacillus sp. (R3) and 50% bean straw treated with Ruminococcus albus (R4). Four digestion trails were carried out using metabolic cages to determine nutrients digestibility and feeding values. In addition, some rumen and blood parameters of experimental rations were determined. Data obtained revealed that treated bean straw with Ruminococcus albus (R4) was the highest CP and the lowest value of CF, ADF, ADL and cellulose. No significant differences were observed in total dry matter intake DMI (kg/ h/d) among R2, R3 and R4. Total gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (kg gain/kg DMI) were significantly (P<0.05) higher for R4 and R3 followed with R2 then R1. Bean straw treated with Bacillus sp. Or Ruminococcus albus had significantly (P<0.05) higher digestibilities of OM, CP, CF, EE, NFE, NDF, ADF and cellulose % than bean straw without treatment (R1) or control ration (R1). Total digestible nutrient (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) had significantly (P<0.05) higher values for R4 (67.76% and 10.32%) and R3 (66.88% and 10.05%) than those of R2 (63.55% and 7.28%) then R1 (62.15% and 5.36%), respectively. Total volatile fatty acids (TVFA’s) mean value and blood total protein for R4 was significantly higher (12.97 m.equ./100ml and 12.07 mg/100ml, respectively) than that of R3 then R2, and the lowest value was observed with R1. Further more, rumen ammonia NH3-N (13.95mg/100ml) and blood plasma urea (10.63 mg/100ml) were recorded significant higher values (P<0.05) for R4 and R3 than those of R2 and R1, while creatinine had no significant differences among all treatments. It was concluded that treatment of 50% bean straw treated with bacteria (Ruminococcus or Bacillus) improved its nutrient digestibility, ADG, and feed efficiency.

[Abd El-Galil, Etab, R. and Ebtehag, I. M. Abou-Elenin. Role of Bacterial Treatments for Upgrading Nutritive Value of Bean Straw and Native Goats Performance. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):502-510]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.67

 

Key words: bean straw, biological treatments, feeding values, performance, goats

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Fungal occurrence in physic nut ((Jatropha curcas) seeds during storage and possibility aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavs and Aspergillus paraziticus isolates.

 

Ahmed F. Sahab1, Soher E. Aly2, Lobna S. Nawar3 and Sawsan Y. El-Faham4

 

1 Plant Pathology Dept., N. R. C., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2 Food Toxicology &Contaminants Dept., N. R. C., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

3 Biology Dep., Fac. of Science, King Abd El-Aziz Univ., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

4 Food Tech. Dept., N. R. C., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding author: ahmedsahab2002@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The aims of the current study were to determine the seed quality of J. curcas of peeled and non peeled nut during storage and the capability of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus paraziticus isolates to produce aflatoxin. Seeds of peeled or non peeled nuts stored for one year and the recent collected seeds of non peeled nut were contaminated with fungi with an average of 37.8% on PDA medium and with an average of 48.9% on Czapek's agar medium. The percentage of fungal infection was higher in seeds stored for one year than in the seeds of the other two sources of non peeled nuts. The obtained results also showed that the number of fungi as cfu per seed was ranged from 0.8 to 6.7cfu/seed with an average of 2.93 and 3.3 cfu/seed on PDA and salt Czapek's agar media respectively. Twelve species which belong to seven genera were detected and they were classified as, Alternaria tenuis (11.03%), A. flavus (11.77%), A. niger (9.77%), A. paraziticus (2.05%), A. terreus (3.05%), Fusarium spp. (22.13%), Mucor spp. (6.20%), Penicillium spp. (11.03%), Rhizopus spp. (8.73%) and Rhizoctonia solani (11.87 %). Among the so called storage fungi, Aspergillus spp. was the most dominant fungi occurred in highest frequent (30.16%), beside the field fungi (damping –off, root rot and wilt pathogens), i.e., Fusarium spp and Rhizoctonia solani were also found in high frequencies. The current data showed that the highest percentage of contamination with A. flavus was detected in seeds of non peeled nut stored for one year (12.5%) followed by seeds of recent collected non peeled nut (12.1%), while A. Paraziticus were detected only in seeds of recently collected of non peeled nut by 6.1%. 62. Percentae of A. flavus isolates had a higher ability to produce aflatoxin B1 with maximal level reached to 20.6µg /100ml, while 60.0% isolates of A. paraziticus were able to produce aflatoxin in lower level than A. flavus, where the maximum level reached to 17.2µg /100ml.

[Ahmed F. Sahab, Soher E. Aly٠ Lobna S. Nawar, and Sawsan Y. El-Faham. Fungal occurrence in physic nut ((Jatropha curcas) seeds during storage and possibility aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavs and Aspergillus paraziticus isolates. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):511-516]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.68

 

Keywords: physic nut, seedborne fungi, aflatoxin, biodiesel, frequency occurrence 

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Microbiological evaluation of Egyptian white soft cheeses style

 

M.A El Sayed., Hosny I.M., El Kholy W.I., R.K. El Dairouty and Sahar H. S Mohamed

 

Dairy Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt. ibrahim_mhosny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 70 samples of the Egyptian white soft cheese style, different varieties, (30 samples of Domiati, 15 samples of Tallaga, 10 samples of Feta and 15 samples of Kariesh) were collected from Cairo & Giza governorate markets and microbiologically examined as well as the presence of mycotoxins. Aerobic colony bacterial counts (ACC) and molds & yeasts counts (M/YC) revealed that there are clear differences between the cheese varieties. Coliform group and Escherichia coli as fecal indicator contamination were implicated in 50 and 24 % of the retailed white soft cheese samples, respectively. The pathogenic E.coli O157H7 has been isolated from 19% of the total samples. Also, Salmonella spp, has been only isolated from Domiati and Tallaga cheese varieties in 3 and 7 % of the samples, respectively. Meanwhile, the other enteric gram negative foodborne bacteria as Proteus spp, Pseudomonas spp and Citrobacter spp have been isolated from all samples in an average of 24 %. Gram positive bacteria as staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from different Egyptian varieties of white soft cheese in rates of 25.7, 11.4 and 14.2% respectively. Therefore, the presences of these pathogens in 26% of the total white soft cheese samples were not accepted according to the Egyptian standard (ES) 1008-2000. Campylobacter jejuni was not found in any of the Egyptian white soft cheese style.The other part of study was to apply new methods as Food system (FS) kit, a rapid microbiological test which revealed complete compatibility with the conventional methods (CM) for mold and yeast and most likely for Salmonella spp. For the gram positive bacteria, FS test results revealed a relatively lower incidence percentages than the CM. According to the microbiological specifications of the ES 1008-2000, most of Domiati and Kariesh samples were not comply with the ES due to one or more of criterion, 80 and 86.6 % of samples, respectively. Totally, 28.6 % of the Egyptian style white soft cheese were accepted and meet the ES 1008-2000, using the microbiological conventional methods. While using FS kit test as a rapid method, results revealed 73.3 % of the tested samples (35 sample) did not meet the ES due to mold and yeast similar to that found by CM. Contrarily. However, FS test for the other ES specifications as Listeria monocytogenes, the presence of pathogenic bacteria as S. aureus, B. cereus and Salmonella spp, results were near but lower than obtained by CM. Thus, the deficiency the FS test is due to the lack of counts and coliform not set up, and subsequently the test is not highly recommended for compromising cheese samples with the ES. Aflatoxin M1, presence was studied in the same 70 samples of the Egyptian style white soft cheese retailed in great Cairo and Giza markets. Results revealed that 4 out of 15 Kariesh, 7 out of 30 Domiati, 3 out of 15 Tallaga and 2 out of 10 Feta cheese samples were positive for the presence of aflatoxin M1. The highest and lowest aflatoxin concentrations were 0.4 to 0.1 microgram / kilogram of the cheese.

[M.A El Sayed., Hosny I.M., El Kholy W.I., R.K. El Dairouty and Sahar H. S Mohamed. Microbiological evaluation of Egyptian white soft cheeses style. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):517-526]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.69

 

Keywords: soft cheeses; Microbiological; mycotoxins; Escherichia coli

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Microbiological quality of different varieties of Ready to Eat Foods retailed in Cairo area

 

Hosny I.M, W.I. El Kholy, R.K. El Dairouty, M.A. El Shenawy and Sahar H. Salah

 

Dairy Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt. ibrahim_mhosny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One hundred and thirty five different predefined / reference strains of mold, yeast and foodborne pathogens were recovered by FS kits to check up the reliability of the kits to be used as a rapid test for ready to eat different foods. A total of one hundred sixty five samples of ready to eat foods (meat, carbohydrate, savory, salad, dairy) were collected from Cairo area restaurants and take away shops and were tested microbiologically by the conventional (CM) and FS (RM) methods. Microbiological analysis encompassed the pathogenic food borne bacteria and other microbiological criteria determining food safety and according to Communicable Disease and Public Health CDPH, 2000. The results of FS test were reliable for different varieties of ready to eat foods as a rapid method with the conventional methods for detecting foodborne microorganisms. The microbiological analysis revealed that the worst the quality was due to salad foods 70%, then cheese samples 40%, meat different categories 30%, and carbohydrate foods 15% fit out the CDPH, 2000. The main etiologies were due to the presence and high levels of Enterobacteriaceae members and the pathogens of Salmonella spp, E. coli O157H7, S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes.

[Hosny I.M, W.I. El Kholy, R.K. El Dairouty, M.A. El Shenawy and Sahar H. Salah. Microbiological quality of different varieties of Ready to Eat Foods retailed in Cairo area. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):527-536]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.70

 

Keywords: microbiologically; Enterobacteriaceae; Salmonella spp,; E. coli O157H7, S. aureus, B. cereus

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The Effect of Calcium Nitrite on the Electrochemical Characterization of 3003 Aluminum Alloys in Sea Water

 

H. Mogawer and R. Brown

 

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881

mogawerh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of 3003 aluminum alloys with calcium nitride in sea water was tested using electrochemical techniques. It was found that calcium nitride can be used as an inhibitor to protect the 3003 aluminum alloy from corrosion in sea water, if used with a specific volume. Cyclic polarization testing was conducted to investigate the corrosion behavior of the 3003 aluminum alloys at different calcium nitride volumes. The studies showed that at high volumes (13 ml and up of calcium to 250 ml of sea water) or low volumes (1-7 ml of the calcium nitride 10 250 ml of sea water), the 3003 aluminum alloy has higher susceptibility to corrosion. When 8ml of the inhibitor used a noticeable difference was observed. Passivation was clear from the cyclic polarization curves. In addition to the cyclic polarization testing, SEM was used to study the surface of the alloys after being exposed to different volumes of calcium nitride. The results were matched.

[H. Mogawer and R. Brown. The Effect of Calcium Nitrite on the Electrochemical Characterization of 3003 Aluminum Alloys in Sea Water. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):537-541]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.71

 

Keywords: Effect; Calcium Nitrite; Electrochemical Characterization; Aluminum Alloys; Sea Water

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Importance of Micro-Credits for Rural Women

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Zahra Geraeli Afra

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women’s agriculture activities in villages of Iran in three sections of recent history of rural improvement have been affected by developmental factors. Before land reforms (1962), according to conventional laws in Iran, women were kept apart from having farm lands. According to customs, if farmer was farming in farm system and also if he had large farms so he must used his family workforce (especially woman workforce), but if it was small, he used to work at other’s fields for wage. In many cases, women had to work at other parts. Before land reforms and because of being traditional of instruments and production tools, using women’s roles was often in conservation and harvesting. While cultivating, most of picking cotton, was done by women, exclusively. In same period (before 1962), women roles was remarkable in cultivating rice. While plowing and preparing fields, they took part in third time trowel, also they had significant role in preparing natural fertilizer.

[Khatereh siyar, Zahra Geraeli Afra. Importance of Micro-Credits for Rural Women. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):542-546]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.72

 

Keywords: women, rural, credit, empowerment

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Role of rural women in rural economy

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: rural women are great part of workforce, needed for agriculture and rural societies. In 1966, according to F.A.O reports to food security congress, women doing 50% of productions in agriculture part averagely and this issue in developing country has very special importance. in African desert area about 70-80%, Asia 65%, in Latin America 45% and Caribbean and in Tunes 89% of workforces are women (Varzgar 2001:217) and in Iran more than 50% of agriculture workforce are women. Most rural women’s service work, pertain to out of house. For example: rural women not only traditionally strive for environmental protection, they also take part in maintaining forest, plant cultivation and weeding in rural regions.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Role of rural women in rural economy. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):547-551]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.73

 

Keywords: women, rural, credit, empowerment

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 Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):552-559]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.74

Withdrawn

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Average stem biomass of SANGUISORBA MINOR in Shanjan Rangelands, East Azerbaijan, Iran

 

Ghassem HABIBI BIBALANI

 

Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

Email: ghhabibi@iaushab.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Plants can be used for animal grazing, in wind erosion control, to reduce water flow rates, and to increase evaporation and transpiration. In the NW of Iran (East Azerbaijan Province), rangelands previously used to animal grazing were changed to agricultural land use; this vegetation is unsuitable vegetation coverage. We studied SANGUISORBA MINOR to determine its stem biomass characteristics. Data were collected using an accidental sampling methodology (1*1 m). In total, 8 plots were identify and 40 samples were collected for this research. In the minimum, maximum and mean stem biomass for this plant were found to me 4.5, 16.5 and 8.5 g, respectively.

[Ghassem HABIBI BIBALANI. Average stem biomass of SANGUISORBA MINOR in Shanjan Rangelands, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):560-563]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.75

 

Keyword: SANGUISORBA MINOR, Iran, Rangeland, stem Biomass.

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Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix in Iranian Bottled Drinking Water Factory: The Case study, Sistan & Baluchestan Region, Iran

 

Alireza Karbasi1*, Fatemeh Rastegaripour2, Abolfazl Tavassoli3 and Ebrahim Amiri4

 

*1. Department agricultural economics, Islamic Azad University, Zabol branch, Iran

3. Islamic Azad University, Mashhad branch, Iran. Young Researchers club. Iran

3. Islamic Azad University, Shirvan branch, Iran. Young Researchers club. Iran

4 Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Iran

 

Abstract: In this study the comparative advantage of bottled drinking water production in Sistan and Baluchestan province was investigated using DRC index and policy analysis matrix (PAM) in 2009. Data was collected from the site of External Trade Statistics Yearbook, FAO and annual foreign trade database. The Nominal protection coefficient showed that there was an indirect tax on producers in all sectors. The NSP index was positive in all regions. Result supports this idea that Sistan and Baluchestan has comparative advantage in bottled drinking water production. When yield increase and production cost decrease, bottled drinking water production is usefulness in Sistan and Baluchestan province.

[Alireza Karbasi, Fatemeh Rastegaripour, Abolfazl Tavassoli, Ebrahim Amiri. Applications of the Policy Analysis Matrix in Iranian Bottled Drinking Water Factory: The Case study, Sistan & Baluchestan Region, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):564-570]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.76

 

Keywords: Comparative advantage, policy analysis matrix, drinking water, Sistan and Baluchestan

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Bone and lipid profile changes in anandamide injected and high fat fed rats

 

Mai M. Hasan*1 and Dalia M. Abd- Elmotteleb2

 

1Department of physiology, 2 Department of pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Zagazig University

 

Abstract: Background: Endocannabinoid system has recently attracted the attention not only for the physiological functions, but also for the promising therapeutic potentials as drugs. Bone has been identified as major target for endocannabinoids in which anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are present at high levels. Also, obesity represents a risk factor for many health disorders including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Aim: to explore the effect of high fat diet and anandamide on lipid profile and bone in normal and high fat fed rats. Design: A total number of forty healthy, adult, male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups each (n=10): Group I: lean control group, Group II: lean injected group, injected with anandamide (0.02 mg/kg i.p., daily for 2 weeks), Group III: high fat-fed group(high fat diet control group) fed with (58% fat) for 12 weeks and Group IV: high fat-fed injected group fed with (58% fat) for12 weeks and then injected with anandamide (0.02 mg/kg i.p., daily for 2 weeks), in all groups initial body weight, final body weight, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, serum calcium, serum phosphate, serum alkaline phosphatase, dry femur weight, ash weight, bone calcium content, bone phosphorus content were measured and histopathological studies for bone sections were done. Results: high fat diet fed rats showed significant increase in final body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase activity, dry and ash femur weight, as well as significant decrease in serum level of high density lipoproteins (HDL), bone calcium and phosphorus content and corrected dry and ash femur in comparison to lean control group. While, anandamide injected groups (lean and high fat fed) showed significant increase in final body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), dry and ash femur weight, bone calcium and phosphorus content with significant decrease in serum level of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in comparison to their corresponding control groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased in lean injected, but significantly decreased in high fat injected rats in comparison to their control groups. The histopathological study showed normal bone architecture in lean control group, foci of new bone formation in lean injected group while high fat fed groups showed thinning in bone trabeculea with mild correction and foci of new bone formation in high fat fed injected group. Conclusion: High fat diet and anandamide caused disturbances in body weight and lipid profile. High fat diet was detrimental to bone health while, anandamide was able to produce beneficial effects on bone.

[Mai M. Hasan and Dalia M. Abd- Elmotteleb. Bone and lipid profile changes in anandamide injected and high fat fed rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):571-577]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.77

 

Keywords: Anandamide; bone; High fat diet; obesity; bone turnover.

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Over-under ground Biomass characteristic of perennial Species (Lappula microcarpa) in northwest Iran (Till area of Shabestar)

 

Hamideh Shadkami1٭, Ghassem Habibi bibalani2

 

1. M.Sc. On Plant Systematic-Ecology, Department of Plant biology, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran

2. Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

h_shadkamie@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Lappula microcarpa (Ledeb.) is an important perennial shrub widespread in the range areas of the arid and semi-arid phytogeographical region in northwest Iran. Previous studies have shown great variability in forage biomass production per plant among different varieties. Research area is of rangeland of Till village from Shabestar distract with distance is 25 Kilometers from it. This area is semi arid area and this land covered with natural range land grasses. Root and shoot in these species were sampled in one stage from Mar to Aug. roots of plants stable soils on slope and provide resistance against the forces that improve slope instability. We studied: Lappula microcarpa to determine its characteristics. Data were collected with random sampling in this aria with 1m2 in 64 quadrate plots. Mean, Max and Min over ground biomass of this plant is 0.17, 1.58, 1.25 g-2, respectively.

[Hamideh Shadkami, Ghassem Habibi bibalani. Over-under ground Biomass characteristic of perennial Species (Lappula microcarpa) in northwest Iran (Till area of Shabestar). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5:578-580]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.78

 

Key words: Root biomass, Lappula microcarpa, rangeland and soil.

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Parallelism Study between Biochemical, Immunological and Histochemical Parameters of Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride on Rats

 

1*Adel F. Badria; 2Hussein I. El-Belbasi; 3Mohamed M. Sobh and 4Farid A. Badria

 

1Tissue Engineering Lab, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazeig University, Zagazeig, Egypt

3Nephrology and Urology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

4Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egpyt

*faridbadria@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate, the parallism between biochemical, histochemical and immunological parameters in liver injury model induced by CCl4. We evaluated, (a) The activities of serum aminotransferases (ALT, AST), blood platelets count, hepatic antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), hepatic hydroxyproline concentration, serum collagenase activity and hepatic DNA content. (b) Serum autoantibodies (ANA, ASMA and AMA or LKM). (c)Liver histology in control and CCl4-treated rats at different interval times 24, 72 hrs and 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The activities of ALT, AST, collagenase and hydroxyproline concentration, were significantly elevated, while hepatic antioxidant enzymes, blood platelets count and hepatic DNA content were decreased in toxicated rats as compared to non-toxicated rats at 24-72 hrs. On histological examination, steatosis, lymphocyte inflammination and fibrosis were illustrated at 24-72 hrs in CCl4-treated rats compared to control rats. Absent of autoantibodies from the serum but lymphocytes in tissues were observed began from sample of 72 hrs. Thus we concluded that a parallelism study was demonstrated between biochemical, immunological and histochemical parameters in CCl4-induced liver injury rats.

 [Adel F. Badria; Hussein I. El-Belbasi; Mohamed M. Sobh and Farid A. Badria. Parallelism Study between Biochemical, Immunological and Histochemical Parameters of Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride on Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):581-591]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.79

 

Key words: Liver Fibrosis, Autoantibodies, Hydroxyproline, CCl4

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Application of JASMINUM OFFICINALE in poems by Nezami Ganjavi

 

Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani*

Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

* Corresponding Author: ghhabibi@iaushab.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Jasminum officinale (Common Jasminum officinale) or (Poet's Jasminum officinale) is a species of Jasminum officinale, in the family Oleaceae. Nezāmi-ye Ganjavi (1141 to 1209), or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Niżām ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakī ibn-Mu‘ayyad, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian language, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. Jasminum officinale has been used at 58 poetries lines that at 23 lines used this plant in Metaphor and at 15 lines used in Simile. Jasmine has been used for Metaphor for Tear (in 1 line), Face (in 7 lines), Women (in 1 line), White color (in 3 lines), His Book (in 1 line), Love (in 3 lines) and White hair (in 1 line). Jasmine has been used for Simile for White face (in 1 line), Eyebrow (in 1 line), White body (in 1 line), Water spring (in 1 line), With silver (in 1 line), Milk (in 1 line), Face (in 1 line), Expensive carpet (in 1 line), Hair (in 1 line) and Nail (in 1 line).

[Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani. Application of JASMINUM OFFICINALE in poems by Nezami Ganjavi. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):592-595]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.80

 

Key Words: Simile, Metaphor, Jasmine, Jasminum officinale, poems, Nezami Ganjavi

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Roles of Dog Rose in poems by Manochehri Damghani

 

Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani*

 

Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

* Corresponding Author: ghhabibi@iaushab.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Rosa canina (Dog Rose) is a variable scrambling rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1-5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Abu Najm Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri, Also known as Manuchehri Damghani, was a royal poet of the 11th century in Persia. Dog Rose has been used at 14 poetry lines that at 3 lines used this plant in Metaphor and at 3 lines used in Simile. Dog Rose has been used for Metaphor for Musk Seller (in 1 line), Silvery blindfolded (in 1 line) and Silvery ear (in 1 line). Dog Rose has been used for Simile for Canopy nail (in 1 line), Musk Seller (in 1 line) and Fragrant Crystal Cord (in 1 line).

[Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani. Roles of Dog Rose in poems by Manochehri Damghani. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):596-598]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.81

 

Key Words: Simile, Metaphor, Dog Rose, poems, Manochehri Damghani

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Security Performance Analysis and Enhancement of Authentication Protocol in Wireless Mobile Networks

 

Ja’afer AL-Saraireh

 

Applied Science UniversityUniversity, Amman, Jordan, 11931. sarjaafer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Due to the rapid growth of wireless technology and wireless services, a detailed look at the issue of security is required. Mobile networks are protected by using authentication security mechanisms. The authentication protocol incurs overheads on the transmission process. These overheads affect the mobile network performance such as delay, bandwidth allocation efficiency and throughput. The main aim of this research is to improve authentication mechanism in mobile networks. In the proposed protocol, AKA has been enhanced by generating temporary key to enable visitor location register (VLR/SGSN) to authenticate mobile station (MS) without intervention of HLR/AuC. Therefore, the bottleneck at the authentication centre is avoided by reducing the number of messages between mobile and authentication centre. A fluid mobility model is used to investigate the performance of signaling traffic and load transaction messages between mobile databases, such as Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR), for both the current protocol and the proposed protocol. The simulation results show that the authentication delay and current load transaction messages between entities and bandwidth are minimized as compared with the current protocol. Therefore, the performance and authentication delay time have been improved significantly. To validate the simulation results in this research work, the results have been compared and analyzed with the analytical results.

[Ja’afer AL-Saraireh. Security Performance Analysis and Enhancement of Authentication Protocol in Wireless Mobile Networks. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):599-610]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.82

 

Keywords: 3G, Authentication, UMTS, AKA, Security, Mobile Station, and Bandwidth

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Antimicrobial activity of Curcumin upon pathogenic microorganisms during manufacture and storage of a novel style cheese 'Karishcum".

 

Hosny I.M., W.I El Kholy, H.A. Murad and R.K. El Dairouty.

 

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

ibrahim_mhosny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A survey study was made to evaluate the level of microbial contamination of 35 samples of Karish cheese retailed in Cairo area in compare with the Egyptian standard (ES-1008-2000). Survey results indicated that the brand cheese showed the highest quality, while the street & shop made and vend cheese samples showed the higher the ACC and the worst mycological quality, as reached >103 cfu/g for each of mold and yeast counts. So, 57% of Karish cheese samples would not be accepted due to the high mycological counts. Coliform group and Escherichia coli as fecal indicator contamination were detected in 57 and 25.7 % of the retailed Karish cheese samples, in averages of ~103 cfu/g of the Coliform counts, respectively. However, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from 17, 8.5 and 2.8 % of the total Kariesh samples, respectively, but any was isolated from the brand cheese. A novel style of Karish cheese was made by adding Curcuma. Longa (Curcumin or Turmeric) at a rate of 0.3% (w/v), to obtain a new dairy product “Karishcum”. A primary experiment was done to determine the correct percentage of Curcumin addition to cheese milk to get good taste and long shelf-life. A panel test was carried out to determined organoleptic properties of “Karishcum”. The behavior of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated during cold storage period at 7°C+1,for 14days, revealed that addition of aqueous Curcumin extract (0.3%) achived a reduction of bacterial counts obout one log of Salmonella typhimrium, tow log of Pseudomonas aurogenosa and E.coli0157:H7, respectively. Meanwhile each of S.aureus, B.cereus and L.monocytogenes were vanished at the end of the cold storage period (14 days).

[Hosny I.M., W.I El Kholy, H.A. Murad and R.K. El Dairouty. Antimicrobial activity of Curcumin upon pathogenic microorganisms during manufacture and storage of a novel style cheese 'Karishcum". Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):611-618]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.83

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Curcumin ; microorganisms; Karishcum

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Impact of basic skills in decision-making among graduate literacy courses Gil Malek village to the literacy education of disadvantaged

 

Zahra Habibi Bibalani

 

Student of Education planning, Department of Education, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran. Habibibibalani.zahra@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It is essential that formal literacy curriculum with their books to see a series of training. Basic life skills training that are known. These skills are very high in this study between the two halves of four classes in two classes and skills training conducted by this group with the control group trained in skills s decision is evaluated. According to a study conducted by trained personnel decisions and analysis are high compared to others. With this training so we can develop the basic skills of life in more and more for our literacy education.

[Zahra Habibi Bibalani. Impact of basic skills in decision-making among graduate literacy courses Gil Malek village to the literacy education of disadvantaged. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):619-621]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.84

 

Keywords: basic skill; decision-making; literacy; education

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Roles of Boxwood in poems by Manochehri Damghani

 

Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh 1, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani 2

 

1. Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

2. Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

Mosazadeh.f@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Buxus sempervirens (Common Box or European Box; also as Boxwood) is a flowering plant in the genus Buxus, native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia, from southern England south to northern Morocco, and east through the northern Mediterranean region to Turkey. Abu Najm Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri, Also known as Manuchehri Damghani, was a royal poet of the 11th century in Persia. Boxwood has been used at 7 poetry lines that at 1 line used this plant in Metaphor and at 3 lines used in Simile. Boxwood has been used for Metaphor for Long hair (in 1 line). Boxwood has been used for Simile for Good hair (in 1 line), Khatoun Hair (in 1 line), Green Color (in 1 line).

[Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani. Roles of Boxwood in poems by Manochehri Damghani. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):622-624]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.85

 

Key Words: Simile, Metaphor, Boxwood, poems, Manochehri Damghani

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Credits for Rural Women in third world

 

1 Zahra Geraeli Afra, 2 Khatereh siyar

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

*Corresponding author: khaterehsiyar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the other roles that financial credits and women financial empowering play among women is that creating their sense of equality against men. Women especially at rural societies and undeveloped countries compared with men are kept powerless from many aspects and often are not considered equal against men. For example while they do more duties compared to men, but they don’t receive equal wage which men receive. Thus if they are financed in order to participate in development freely and deliberately, so they don’t fill weakness and their spirit of equality with men would increased. On the other hand inside one active and successful woman, there are great sources of energy and power to progress. She has capacity to do constant job during the day and also she has capability to do favorite activity alongside working and she can create great evolution in economic and social life at village, if credits provided for her.

[Zahra Geraeli Afra, Khatereh siyar. Credits for Rural Women in third world. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):625-628]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.86

 

Keywords: women, rural, credit

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Determination of the dominant families in Ilkhji region, Eastern Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran)

 

Leila Joudi* and Hamide shadkami

 

Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University (IRI)

Leila.judy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Systematic Knowledge or plant taxonomy is one of the very old and important branches of botany. By gathering plants, we can recognize rare species of plants or those which are facing extinction, so that we can find some ways to prevent them from destruction. In this research, all plants were gathered from Ilkhji area which is located in East Azerbaijan province. Ilkhji region is located in 25 km south west of Tabriz and the geographic coordinates 45.59 to 12 and 46.3 eastern longitudes and 37.55 to 37.57 north latitude. Plant samples from Yal, Khaselar, Kordlar and Chaman areas as well, were obtained during winter of year 2008 to fall year 2009. Standard method was followed with regard to collection of plant materials, drying, mounting, preparation and preservation of plant specimens’. All the plant samples were pressed according to standard guides. If the plant samples were too long, then they were cut from several areas, so the sample contained the complete plant. At the next stage, samples were stick to the herbarium Cardboards and then were identified using floras, keys, illustrations and explanations which are available for different sources of plant Species. Dominant plant families consist of: Asteraceae (30 species), Brassicaceae (23 species), Fabaceae (21 species), Poaceae (21 species) Boraginaceae (16 species) and Lamiaceae (16 species).

[Leila Joudi and Hamide shadkami. Determination of the dominant families in Ilkhji region, Eastern Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):629-632]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.87

 

Key words: Herbarium, systematic, flora

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Adult education in developing countries

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

 

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran. *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult illiteracy feeds the state’s unemployment, its welfare rolls, and the correctional institutions. Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. Despite landmark reforms in public schools, too many Kentuckians continue to drop out of school, thereby perpetuating the chronic problem of adult illiteracy. in developed countries, adult education is a form of informal education for people above 24 years is presented. In fact, a means of expanding knowledge, skills and abilities of adults. In these countries, adult education helps adults to variable conditions of political, social, economic and cultural adjustment, and pay to fix their shortcomings. Concept of adult education in revolutionary countries, is a combination of these two concepts. Changes in these countries due to social, political and cultural revolution, resulting from, literacy and continuing education necessary to find because of the revolution, there is cultural poverty on the other hand the implementation of development plans and the need for skilled personnel are expert. General adult education system based on economic conditions - social and cultural community is different and each specific goals will follow. General objectives of adult education and literacy in two categories is divided into professional education.

[Ali Badragheh, Mohammad Abedi. Adult education in developing countries. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):633-636]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.88

 

Keywords: adult education, developing countries

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Traditional Degrees and online degrees in distance education

 

Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh

Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distances between teachers and students are bridged with an array of familiar technology as well as new information age equipment. What sets today's distance education efforts apart from previous efforts is the possibility of an interactive capacity that provides learner and teacher with needed feedback, including the opportunity to dialogue, clarify, or assess. Advances in digital compression technology may greatly expand the number of channels that can be sent over any transmission medium, doubling or even tripling channel capacity. Technologies for learning at a distance are also enlarging our definition of how students learn, where they learn, and who teaches them. No one technology is best for all situations and applications. The base of available information technology resources is increasing with dramatic speed. Much has been learned about connecting various forms of technology into systems, so that the ability to link systems is growing. Most distance learning systems are hybrids, combining several technologies, such as satellite, ITFS, microwave, cable, fiber optic, and computer connections. Technology transports information, not people.

[Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh. Traditional Degrees and online degrees in distance education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):637-541]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.89

 

Keywords: Online Degrees, Traditional Degrees, distance education

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Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in Buffalo of the Tabriz region, Iran

 

Rahim Beheshti1, Behrad Eshratkhah1, Jalal Shayegh1, Jamshid Giasi Ghalehkandi2, Vahid Dianat1, Kambiz Valiei 3

1. Department of Veterinary medicine, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, East Azarbaijan, Iran.

2. Department of Animal science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, East Azarbaijan, Iran.

3. Department of Veterinary medicine, science and research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Rahimbeheshti@gmail.com

 

Abstract: To investigate the period prevalence, etiology and some epidemiological features of subclinical mastitis in buffaloes from the Tabriz region, milk samples from 51 lactating buffaloes were aseptically collected for bacterial and California mastitis test and somatic cell counte. An association was observed between the occurrence of subclinical mastitis and lactation number of buffaloes. The periodic prevalence rate of SCM was 27.36%. Staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria, representing 48.55% of the isolates. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (36.18%), was the most prevalent species followed by staphylococcus aurous (14%). Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium bovis and Bacillus subtilis was the subsequent bacterial groups in importance according with the distribution among flocks representing 14%, 8% and 7% of the isolates. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the most prevailing isolates from samples that showed positve CMT results.

[Rahim Beheshti, Behrad Eshratkhah, Jalal Shayegh, Jamshid Giasi Ghalehkandi, Vahid Dianat, Kambiz Valiei. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in Buffalo of the Tabriz region, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):642-645]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.90

 

Keywords: Subclinical mastitis; buffalo; etiology; prevalence

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Determination of most important part of yield components by Path Analysis in Corn

 

Maral Moradi*, Ebrahim Azarpour

 

Department of Agriculture, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, P.O. Box 1616, Iran

M.A4444@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In order to study of direct and indirect effects of yield components on corn yield for find the most important effective part on yield, an experiment in researching filed of Lahijan Islamic Azad University in 2009 was conducted. This experiment in Split plot format based on Randomized complete block design with two factors, main factor consist of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha) and sub factor consist of rows spacing (30, 40 and 50 cm) in three replications was performed. In this experiment, Single cross 704 cultivar was used and path analysis for determination of most important part of yield under these treatments was conduced. Determination of most important part of yield can use in agronomical and corrective managements. Results were showed that corn yield had significant correlation with ear length, rows in ear, plant height and ear per plant (r≥0.58). Among yield components, ear length was most determinative and most effective trait among other traits on yield, ear length increases had a positive effect on yield increasing and also indirectly affect yield from way of rows per ear and 1000 grain weight.

[Maral Moradi, Ebrahim Azarpour. Determination of most important part of yield components by Path Analysis in Corn. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):646-650]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.91

 

Keywords: path analysis; yield components; Yield function; corn

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Some pharmacokinetic aspects of tulathromycin in Fresian cattle calves

 

M.A. TOHAMY1, A.A.M. EL-GENDY1 and Taha A. Attia2

 

1Pharmacology Dep., Faculty of Vet. Med., Beni-suef University

2Pharmacology Dep., Faculty of Vet. Med., Menofia University

Corresponding author: drtahaatia@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin was studied after single dose intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration. Six apparently healthy Fresian cattle calves were used in a crossover design with 15-day washout period. After intravenous injection of tulathromycin, the half-lives of distribution and elimination (t0.5(α) and t0.5(β)), volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss), mean residence time (MRT) and total body clearance (ClB) were 0.166 h., 48.348 h., 4.252 L kg-1., 69.645 h. and 0.061 L kg-1 h-1., respectively. Following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of tulathromycin, the maximum concentration (Cmax) 0.330 and 0.309 ug ml-1 were achieved at a maximum times (tmax) 1.118 and 1.234 h., respectively. The mean values for absorption and elimination half-lives (t0.5(ab) and t0.5(el)) and MRT were 0.135 and 0.155 h., 68.929 and 65.874 h., 99.562 and 95.165 h., respectively. The intramuscular and subcutaneous bioavailabilities were 82.8 and 71.85%, respectively. The result of in-vitro protein-binding study indicated that 38.86 % of tulathromycin was bound to calve's serum proteins.

[M.A. TOHAMY, A.A.M. EL-GENDY and Taha A. Attia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):651-655]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.92

 

Keywords: pharmacokinetic; tulathromycin; Fresian; cattle; calves

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Dynamic Optimization of LQ Objective Loss Function: Application in Economic Planning

 

1 Amir Mansour Tehranchian, 2 Rezvaneh Poorhabib, 3 Nayere Karegar and 4Masoud Behravesh

 

1 Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran. E-mail: a.tehranchian@umz.ac.ir

2 M.Sc Student of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Institute of Higher Education Allameh Mohaddes Noori, Noor City, Mazandaran, Iran-mail: rg_poorhabib@yahoo.com.

3 M.Sc Student of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Institute of Higher Education Allameh Mohaddes Noori, Noor City, Mazandaran, Iran. E-mail: nayere.karegar@yahoo.com.

4 (Corresponding Author), Economics Researcher, Department of Economics and Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran. Address: No.370, Alemi Alley, Imam St, Shabestar City, East Azerbaijan, Iran. P.O. Box: 53817465833. Cell Phone: +989192227434. E-Mail: behravesh@bonabiau.ac.ir, behrawesh@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: In this paper, the stochastic dynamic optimization is used to calculate optimal values of liquidity and government budgetary expenditures for the Irans forth five year development plan (2005-2009). For this purpose, we minimized quadratic variations of inflation rate and the rate of economic growth from their plan target subject to a nonlinear dynamic system. The results show that, the optimal values of the above control variables are greater than those proposed in forth development plan whereas the optimal values are less than the occurred quantities. Based on obtained results, using the optimal macroeconomic policies will improve the rate of economic growth and inflation rate in comparison with their occurred values. [Amir Mansour Tehranchian, Rezvaneh Poorhabib, Nayere Karegar and Masoud Behravesh. Dynamic Optimization of LQ Objective Loss Function: Application in Economic Planning. [Amir Mansour Tehranchian, Rezvaneh Poorhabib, Nayere Karegar and Masoud Behravesh. Dynamic Optimization of LQ Objective Loss Function: Application in Economic Planning. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):656-660]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.93

 

Keywords: Macroeconomic Policies, Optimal Control Theory, Nonlinear Macro econometric system.

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Average stem biomass of ONOBRYCHIS MELANOTRICHA in Shanjan Rangelands, East Azerbaijan, Iran

 

Ghassem HABIBI BIBALANI

 

Department of Agriculture, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

Email: ghhabibi@iaushab.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Plants can be used for animal grazing, in wind erosion control, to reduce water flow rates, and to increase evaporation and transpiration. In the NW of Iran (East Azerbaijan Province), rangelands previously used to animal grazing were changed to agricultural land use; this vegetation is unsuitable vegetation coverage. We studied ONOBRYCHIS MELANOTRICHA to determine its stem biomass characteristics. Data were collected using an accidental sampling methodology (1*1 m). In total, 4 plots were identify and 20 samples were collected for this research. In the minimum, maximum and mean stem biomass for this plant were found to me 2.1, 6.5 and 3 g, respectively.

[Ghassem HABIBI BIBALANI. Average stem biomass of ONOBRYCHIS MELANOTRICHA in Shanjan Rangelands, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):661-664]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.94

 

Key word: ONOBRYCHIS MELANOTRICHA, Iran, Rangeland, stem Biomass

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Management of environmental degradation of Jeddah coastal zone, Saudi Arabia, using remote sensing and geographic information systems

 

Amal Bent Yahya Al-Sheikh

 

King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: This study is focused on the environmental degradation of Jeddah Governorate coast. The importance of study area is related to the effect of human factors and their roles in destruction and production of environmental problems in the coastal zone. The study is focused on the problem of land use planning and sustainable touristic development to maintain the marine ecosystem and its natural resources. Also this work is concerned with developing and suggesting strategy to protect the natural resources of the marine environment in relation to the future expansion of population and developmental projects. The study is elaborated using the recent techniques in remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS). TM and ETM landsat images acquired in 1986 and 2003 of the study area were used. Manuscripts and topographic maps of scale of 1: 4000,000 for Jeddah governorate, in addition to data and information obtain from different institutions were also employed. ERDAS Imagine 8.5 software was used for image processing (i.e. Export function, layers tacking, geometric correction. etc.). Results showed that the negative changes in the coast exhibit 84 km as it record a length of 111 km compared to195 km in 2003. This change leads to the depletion of natural environmental marine resources and erosion of the recreational areas at the coast line. Absence of a proper sustainable planning strategy and management for coastal natural resources, cause improper human pressures and disorders in the natural balance of the marine environment. The study has suggested a strategy for sustainable touristic development, represented in building systems and developing laws with continuous work to revise procedures and update the standard limits.

[Amal Bent Yahya Al-Sheikh. Management of environmental degradation of Jeddah coastal zone, Saudi Arabia, using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):665-673]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.95

 

Keywords: Management; environmental degradation; Jeddah coastal zone; Saudi Arabia

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Effect of Counseling Sessions on Coping Strategies and Anxiety among Parents of Children with Ambiguous Genitalia

 

Fawzia Elsayed Abused¹ and Yosr Mohamed Elmasri²*

 

¹Pediatric Nursing Dept. ² Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing Dept, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. *dr_yosrelmasri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ambiguous genitalia condition is often an emotionally stressful event for parents. Preparation and ongoing support through counseling sessions could be beneficial to both parents and children and would alleviate some of their shame, isolation and ineffective coping associated with intersexes conditions. The present work aimed to investigate the effect of counseling sessions on coping strategies and anxiety among parents of children with Ambiguous Genitalia. A one-group before-after Quasi-experimental design was used. This study was conducted on parent who coming with their children at pediatric surgery department of Mansoura University Pediatrics' Hospital and Private Center for Pediatric Surgery at Mansoura city. The sample included all parents which their children was diagnosed as ambiguous genitalia (n=30). The revised three interview questionnaires, Socio-demographic data sheet, Taylor’s Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Parental Coping Strategy Inventory were administered to compare parent anxiety and coping before and after counseling sessions. The total coping score didn't differ significantly at pre and post intervention session (p>0.05), a highly statistically significant difference was observed between the pre and post test mean score of anxiety (p<0.001) and the coping strategies domain were not correlated significantly with total anxiety of parents at pre, post Inventory session (p>0.05). It is concluded that administration of counseling sessions for parents of children with ambiguous genitalia is an effective method to alleviate their anxiety. It is recommended that, the counseling should ideally be by those trained in sexual/gender/intersexes matters, as early as possible put the family in touch with a counselors and support group, and counseling should be multi-staged (at birth, and at least again at age two, at school entry, prior to and during pubertal changes, and yearly during adolescence) as well as examining parental coping strategies at different stages of development would be an interesting avenue for future research.

[Fawzia Elsayed Abused and Yosr Mohamed Elmasri. Effect of Counseling Sessions on Coping Strategies and Anxiety among Parents of Children with Ambiguous Genitalia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):674-682]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.96

 

Key words: Anxiety, coping, ambiguous genitalia.

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Serum Protein Carbonyl Content, Total Thiol and Nitric Oxide in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

Aida A. Mahmoud 1 and Mohamed A. Ismail 2

 

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University.

2Rheumatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University.

 

Abstract: Serum protein carbonyl group, total thiol group and nitric oxide were studied in 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Obtained results revealed that, Serum protein carbonyl content and nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate) were significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in the controls. However, total thiol group decreased significantly in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in the controls. In addition, protein carbonyl was negatively correlated with total thiol, while, nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate) didn't correlate with protein carbonyl or total thiol. The impaired serum antioxidant defence mechanisms as evidenced by decreased total thiol group resulted in increased protein oxidation as indicated by increased protein carbonyl.

[Aida A. Mahmoud and Mohamed A. Ismail. Serum Protein Carbonyl Content, Total Thiol and Nitric Oxide in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):683-686]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.97

 

Keywords: nitric oxide, protein oxidation, total thiol

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Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa, Linseed and Celery Oils against Testicular Toxicity Induced by Sodium Valproate in Male Rats

 

Hala, M.A. Wahba

 

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Minufiya University

hala.ali77@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The protective effect of nigella sativa, linseed and celery oils against testicular toxicity induced by sodium valproate (SVP) in male rats was studied. The experiment was carried out along 4 weeks on fifty male rats divided into 5 equal groups. Group (1) was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group (2) were given orally SVP in a dose of 500 mg/kg /day during the last week of experimental period (positive control). The other protected three groups were pretreated by oral administration of nigella sativa, linseed and celery oils each in a dose of 250 mg/kg/day and received SVP in the last week. At the end of experiment, sex organs were obtained for semen analysis, changes in sex organs weight and for lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue and histopathology. Also blood samples were collected for serum testosterone level. Results showed that pretreatment with nigella sativa, linseed and celery oil in SVP-intoxicated rats induced significant increase in the weight of testis, sperm count and motility with a decrease in abnormal sperms. An increase in serum testosterone levels and a decrease in testicular lipid peroxides (MDA) with increase in reduced glutathione were reported in the protected rats. Histopathological examination of the testes of protected rats revealed that these oils caused alleviation of testicular degenerative lesions which seen in valporate-treated rats. In conclusion, nigella sativa, linseed and celery oils produced protective effects against testicular damage induced by SVP. This study recommends that consumption of nigella sativa, linseed or celery oils may be useful as protective agents for patients who suffer from sexual impotency.

[Hala, M.A. Wahba. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa, Linseed and Celery Oils against Testicular Toxicity Induced by Sodium Valproate in Male Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):687-693]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.98

 

Keywords: Vegetable oils, Testes, Sperm, Testosterone, Antioxidant

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Docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced urinary bladder cancer: A Phase II study 

 

Hoda H. Essa and Samy M Al-Gezawy 

 

Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University

 

Abstract: The work aimed: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced recurrent, and/or metastatic urinary bladder cancer. Patients and methods: An outpatient regimen of gemcitabine and docetaxel combination was tried in thirty-three patients with locally advanced, recurrent,and/or metastatic urinary bladder cancer. Study treatment consisted of gemcitabine1000 mg m-2 (days 1+8), and docetaxel 75 mg m-2 (day 8) every 21 days for a total of six to nine cycles. Results: Among the 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) had transitional cell carcinoma, 7patients (21.2%) had squamous cell carcinoma and 9 patients (27.3%) had transitional cell carcinoma with squamous metaplasia. Two patients (6.1%) had complete remission (CR), and 14 patients (42.4%) had partial remission (PR), for an overall response rate of 48.5%. Disease stabilization (SD) occurred in 7 patients (21.2%), while 10 patients (30.3%) had disease progression (PD). Analysis of response rate according to prognostic features known to predict response; Patients with PS 0&1 had an overall response rate of 55.6% (15/27), and patients with PS 2 had an overall response rate of 16.7%(1/6), and this difference was statistically insignificant (P =0.1). As regard to the site of disease, the overall response rate of patients with soft tissue and locally advanced disease was 58.3% (7/12) and 42.9% for patients with visceral metastasis (9/21), and this difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.4). The response rates for patients with risk index of 0, 1, or 2 were100% (2/2), 66.7% (10/15), and25% (4/16), respectively (P = 0.006).With a median follow-up of 10 months (range, 2-20 months), the median survival time was 11 months, the median time to progression was 7 months, 1-year survival rate was 40.3% and1-year progression free survival rate was 28.3%.Both haematologic and non haematologic toxicity were treatable and not severe. Conclusion: This schedule of docetaxel and gemcitabine is active and well tolerated as a first-line treatment for locally advanced, recurrent, and metastatic bladder carcinoma. The favourable toxicity profile of this regimen may offer an interesting alternative, particularly in patients with compromised renal function or cardiovascular disease.

[Hoda H. Essa and Samy M Al-Gezawy Docetaxel and gemcitabine in patients with advanced urinary bladder cancer: A Phase II study. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):694-702]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.99

 

Keywords: Docetaxel, Gemcitabine, Advanced bladder cancer.

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Characterization and Reuse of Kiln Rollers Waste in the Manufacture of Ceramic Floor Tiles

 

M.M. Youssef 1 and H. B.G. Ghazal *2

 

1 Mataria Engineering, Helwan University, 2 The High Institute of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Shorouk, Cairo, Egypt. * hbarakat86@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Roller kilns used in the production of ceramic tiles are routinely ground to remove traces of contamination. The ground powder is usually discarded as useless waste. In a previous paper [1] the possibility of reusing this powder in refractory making was investigated. The present paper deals with the possibility of adding this powder without any treatment to standard wall tiles composition. XRD and XRF were used to identify the mineralogical and chemical composition of the powder. Powder compacts were prepared by uniaxial pressing at pressures ranging from 30 to 50 MPa. Firing was performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1350oC for soaking periods ranging from 2 to 6 hours. It was proved that among the investigated parameters, firing temperature plays the leading role in assessing sintering characteristics, followed by soaking time. Forming pressure hardly affected sinterability. SEM micrographs were performed under different firing conditions to follow up the morphology of phases appearing. It was proved that adding up to 10% powder to ceramic floor tiles standard mix did not alter its final properties.

 [M.M. Youssef and H. B.G. Ghazal. Characterization and Reuse of Kiln Rollers Waste in the Manufacture of Ceramic Floor Tiles. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):703-709]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.100

 

Keyword: Kiln Rollers Waste, Ceramic Tiles, Sintering Characteristics, Mechanical Properties, ES Standards

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Iran's Electricity Renewable Resource Planning

 

Mohammad Sadegh Javadi 1, Faride Ghanavati 2

 

1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

1Young Researchers Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

2Department of Executive Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran. msjavadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Iran’s domestic consumption and production have steadily grown together since 1984 and it is still heavily reliant on traditional thermal energy sources of electricity, with a small fraction being produced by hydroelectric plants. In this regard, the governments in energy sectors would like to investigate in renewable resources. Infrastructure resource planning in long term has an important role in maintaining future demand and also economical and environmental aspects of energy generation and consumption are recent worries about future for the ministry of energy in Iran. This paper surveys on the future infrastructure resource planning and long term demand forecasting for Iran electrical energy sector.

[Mohammad Sadegh Javadi, Faride Ghanavati. Iran's Electricity Infrastructure Resource Planning. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):710-714]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.101

 

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Resource Planning, Generation Expansion Planning

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Specific Geochemical Parameters and Oil: Source Rock Correlations of Some Oilfields in the North Western Desert, Egypt

 

M. I. Roushdy, A. I. Hashem, M. M. El Nady, Y. M. Mostafa, N.Sh. El Gendy and *Hager. R. Ali

 

Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

*hugochem@yahoo.com\

 

Abstract: Different analytical techniques, including liquid chromatographic separation, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to characterize the crude oil and extract samples of the source rocks. The samples were collected from different oilfields in North Western Desert Egypt namely: Meleiha, Misaada and Qarun oilfields. In the present work, the mentioned parameters have been used to essentially discuss the relation between the produced oils and their potential source rocks to confirm the indigenous sources for the petroleum generation of the studied oilfields. The results showed that the studied oil samples of Misaada and Qarun oilfields are well correlated with each other, where they are similar in their maturation and source depositional environments and slightly correlated with Meleiha oil. The correlation between source rocks and crude oils show that there is a good correlation between the extract samples of Kharita and Khatatba formations and crude oils from Qarun and Misaada oilfields. While the extract of Bahariya source rocks and Meleiha oil show slight correlation. These evidences indicate that Kharita and Khataba source rocks seem to act as sources and reservoirs for oil generation in the Qarun and Misaada oilfields.

[M. I. Roushdy, A. I. Hashem, M. M. El Nady, Y. M. Mostafa, N.Sh. El Gendy and Hager. R. Ali. Specific Geochemical Parameters and Oil: Source Rock Correlations of Some Oilfields in the North Western Desert, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):715-729]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.102

 

Keywords: Egypt. Oilfields, Biomarkers, Oil: Source Rocks Correlations, Western Desert

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Characterization of El-Fawakhir Serpentine Fibers and Their Use in the Reinforcement of Unsaturated Polyester

 

Ghoneim, I. A. 1, W.A. El–kholy 2, M.S. Hassan 3, M.F. Abadir 4*

 

1 Ministry of the military production, 2 Egypt Fibre Company, 3 Central Metallurgical Research Institute (CMRDI), 4Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*magdi.abadir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Serpentine fibers from the El–Fawakhir area in the Eastern Egyptian desert were obtained from the parent rock and characterized using XRD, XRF, IR and thermal analysis. They were then incorporated into unsaturated polyester (UP) matrix to from slabs. These slabs were tested for thermal conductivity and thermal expansion where their insulation behavior was much better than UP samples containing E type glass fibers. Both composite matrices (UP + Serpentine and glass fibers) exhibited similar values of thermal expansion, decreasing with increased fiber level. Both matrices showed comparable tensile and flexural strengths both increasing with increased fiber fraction; while the elongation was much lower in case of serpentine fibers. AC characteristics (AC resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor) were also determined for both types of UP matrices at different frequencies ranging from 40 Hz to 1 MHz and temperatures up to 120oC. The results showed similar behavior in both types of matrices although those reinforced with mineral fibers showed lower dissipation losses.

[Ghoneim, I. A., W.A. El–kholy, M.S. Hassan, M.F. Abadir. Characterization of El-Fawakhir Serpentine Fibers and Their Use in the Reinforcement of Unsaturated Polyester. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):730-736]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.103

 

Key words: unsaturated polyester – serpentine fibers – glass fibers – composite

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Ginger Administration has a Protective Effect on the Liver of Albino Rats Treated with 6-Mercaptopurine Drug

 

1*Olfat A. Abd-El Aty and 2Enas N. Morgan

 

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar –University (girls) -Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig - University

*Olfat_fair@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The leukemia is considered to be one of the most frequent tumors in childhood. The first line of its treatment is 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). There are many recorded cytotoxic effect for 6-mercaptopurine on tissues such as liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Nowadays the needs for administration of cytotoxic drugs is increases as the incidence of malignancies increases. So we have to search for a safe method that can minimize the side effects of these cytotoxic drugs. The ginger has many benefits as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant substance. Some indicated as a protective effect for ginger on the radiotherapy treated rats and also it protected from the hepatotoxic and gonado-toxic drugs. This work amid to investigate the protective effects of ginger on liver of rats treated by cytotoxic drug (6-mercaptopurine), a drug of choice in maintenance therapy for leukemia in adult and children. Our hope is to minimize the side effects of the cytotoxic drug with simple and available procedure. Material The current study had been carried on 40 white albino rats that divided into four equal groups. Group I: was served as control group. Group II: was given ginger extract only. Group III: was given 6- MP. Group IV: was given 6-MP + ginger extract. The following parameters were examined in all groups: 1- The serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspirate aminotransferase (AST). 2- The cell morphology and histo-pathological changes in the liver The results of the present study showed that treatment with 6-MP alone caused marked signs of cellular degeneration and necrosis of the hepatic tissues, significant increase in the serum levels of ALT (P<0.001) and AST (P<0.001) enzymes when compared with control group. However, the treatment by ginger along with 6-MP showed marked regeneration and improvement in the hepatic tissues and significant decrease in the serum levels of liver enzymes; ALT (P<0.001) and AST (P<0.001) when compared with 6-MP treated group. Conclusion: These findings indicated that ginger has protective effect against 6-MP induced hepatic toxicity.

[Olfat A. Abd-El Aty and Enas N. Morgan. Ginger Administration Has a Protective Effect on The Liver Of Albino Rats Treated with 6-Mercaptopurine Drug. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):737-745]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.104

 

Keywords: Ginger, 6-MP, hepatic toxicity.

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The Effect of Job Demands on Work-Family Conflict (W-FC) and Family-Work Conflict (F-WC) among Female Nurses

 

Hajar Namayandeh1, Samira Golestan1, Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei1, Saber Ghasemi1

 

1 Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch, Iran

h_nemayandeh@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The present study highlights the significance of job demands as one of the most important work factor on W-FC and F-WC. Nurses working in public hospitals in Shiraz-Iran are the respondents for this study; sample are including of 198 married female nurses. The findings revealed that married female nurses who experience an increase in job demands would result in an increase in W-FC and F-WC. Implications are discussed and recommendations are made regarding future researches in this area.

[Hajar Namayandeh, Samira Golestan, Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei, Saber Ghasemi. The Effect of Job Demands on Work- Family Conflict (W-FC) and Family-Work Conflict (F-WC) among Female Nurses. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):746-750]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.105

 

Keywords: Work-family conflict (W-FC); Family-work conflict (F-WC); Job demands

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A Survey on Day Lighting Design Strategies in Schools

 

Seied Majid Mofidi Shemirani1, Gholam Hossein Memarian2, Shahnaz Pour Naseri3, Vahid Vaziri4

 

1Assistant professor, department of architecture, university of science and technology, Tehran, Iran

2Associate professor, department of architecture, university of science and technology, Tehran, Iran

3PhD candidate, department of architecture, university of science and technology, Tehran, Iran

4PhD, department of architecture, university of science and technology, Tehran, Iran

 Vaziri.vahid@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Throughout history, daylight has been a primary source of lighting in buildings, supplemented originally with burned fuels and more recently with electrical energy. Before daylight was supplemented or replaced with electric light in the late 19th-century, consideration of good daylight strategies was essential. As we entered the mid-20th-century, electric light supplanted daylight in buildings in many cases. Fortunately, during the last quarter of the 20th-century and early years of this century, architects and designers have recognized the importance and value of introducing natural light into buildings. Daylight can provide a welcome and dynamic contribution to the human experience in buildings and, as demonstrated in recent studies on schools and retail sales environments, can impact human performance. Most people appreciate daylight and also enjoy the outside view that windows provide. Good daylighting design can result in energy savings and can shift peak electrical demand during afternoon hours when daylight availability levels and utility rates are high. Le Corbusier so clearly identified the importance of light in architecture when he expressed the point that, “Architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of volumes brought together in light...” emphasizing that “...the history of architecture is the history of the struggle for light. This article summarizes the use of daylight in primary schools with focus on goals, climate and weather, sky, conditions, design criteria, and strategies for day lighting design.

[Seied Majid Mofidi Shemirani.Gholam Hossein Memarian. Shahnaz Pour Naseri. Vahid Vaziri.. A Survey on Day Lighting Design Strategies in Schools. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):751-758]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.106

 

Keywords: Day Lighting; Design; Strategies; Schools

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Serum Fetuin-A Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy: It's Relation to Diabetes Control

 

1*Ayman Ramadan, 1Amira Shoukry, 1Mabrouk I. Ismail and 2Maher Borai

 

1Internal Medicine, 2Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. *aymedman@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Background and objective: Fetuin-A is a circulating calcium-regulatory glycoprotein that inhibits vascular calcification. In the present study, serum fetuin-A was studied as a novel risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy and the relation between its levels with the state of diabetes control. Patients and Methods: 50 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and early diabetic nephropathy, 25 patients of them have well controlled diabetes on treatment (the first group), the other 25 patients have uncontrolled diabetes (the second group), and another 25 healthy volunteers (control group)) were enrolled in this cross sectional study. Serum fetuin-A, Fasting plasma glucose (FP glucose), glycoselated hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides), Serum creatinine, Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Albumin excretion in urine were measured. Results: There was a significant reduction in Serum fetuin-A levels in controlled diabetic patients (314±66.8) and uncontrolled diabetic patients (252.4±55.6) compared to control group (478.6±74.4). A significant decrease was also detected in uncontrolled diabetic patients when compared to controlled diabetic patients (P<0.001). A strong inverse correlation was found between serum fetuin-A and each of F P glucose, glycoselated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, and urinary albumin excretion (r = -0.52, -0.55, -0.61, and -0.56 respectively; P < 0.001 for each). Whereas; GFR was significantly positively associated with serum fetuin-A levels (r = 0.53, P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy, especially with uncontrolled diabetes, is linked to low serum fetuin-A levels which represents a novel risk factor for the development of vascular complications. This factor could be responsible for the development and progression of accelerated nephropathy especially with uncontrolled diabetes.

 [Ayman Ramadan, Amira Shoukry, Mabrouk I. Ismail and Maher Borai. Serum Fetuin-A Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy: It's Relation to Diabetes Control. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):759-765]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.107

 

Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy; fetuin-A; Glycoselated hemoglobin A1c; diabetes mellitus; and control.

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IL 18 in diabetic patients with and without coronary atherosclerosis

 

Hanan Abdel mawgod, Abeer Ibrahim, *Ahmed A. Battah, and **Mustafa I. mokarrab

 

Biochemistry department, Faculty of pharmacy (girls), *Critical Care department, Kasr El Ainy Hospital, **cardiology department, Faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar and Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

s_eldayem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To assess interlukein 18 in diabetic patients with and without coronary atherosclerosis and to detect its relation to lipid profile and blood glucose. Also to investigate the hypothesis that the serum level of IL-18 is a predictor of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: The study included 45 diabetic patients (15 with no complication and 30 with coronary atherosclerosis) and 15 age and sex matched as a control group. Results: Total cholesterol, HbA1c and IL 18 is significantly different in the 3 groups and the highest level is in the diabetic patients with atherosclerosis. On the contrary HDL-c is significantly lower in diabetic patients with atherosclerosis than the other 2 groups. IL8 shows a strong significant positive correlation with blood glucose in diabetic patients with no complication and in diabetics with atherosclerosis. Conclusion: that, IL8 is a useful inflammatory marker in diabetic patients and it is higher in those with atherosclerosis. IL-18 might serve as a marker of future cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

[Hanan Abdel mawgod, Abeer Ibrahim, Ahmed A. Battah, and Mustafa I. mokarrab. IL 18 in diabetic patients with and without coronary atherosclerosis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):766-770]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.108

 

Keywords: IL 18; coronary; atherosclerosis; inflammatory.

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Efficient radial basis functions collocation methods for numerical solution of the parabolic PDE's

 

Majid Amirfakhrian

 

Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Payambar Complex, Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran.

majiamir@yahoo.com, m_amirfakhrian@iauctb.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper, we apply the collocation methods of meshfree RBF over differential equation containing partial derivation of one dimension time dependent with a compound boundary nonlocal condition. in this work, we compare efficient collocation methods in order to obtain approximate solution of nonlocal parabolic differential equations.

[Majid Amirfakhrian. Efficient radial basis functions collocation methods for numerical solution of the parabolic PDE's. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):771-775]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.109

 

Keywords: partial differential equations, parabolic equations, Radial basis function, collocation method

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Menopausal Symptoms and Quality of Life among Saudi Women in Riyadh and Taif

 

1&3Sahar M. Yakout, 1&2*Samar M. kamal and 3Salma Moawed

 

1Maternity and Gynecologic Nursing Department, Alexandria University. Alexandria, Egypt.

2Nursing Department.Taif University, Saudi Arabia

3Nursing Department. King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

*sakamal2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work aimed to study the effect of menopause symptoms on Saudi women’s quality of life. A descriptive study was carried out on a convenient sample of 120 women during their menopausal period who attended two gynaecologic clinics, in Riyadh, KSMC and Taif, KSA. The subjects were interviewed individually throughout a period of 10 months from February 2010 to November 2010.An interview questionnaire and Greene Climacteric Scale, and menopausal symptoms and the Manchester health questionnaire were used for data collection. The results showed 80% of none educated menopausal women had poor quality of life, 75% of the worker also, had poor quality of life and 63.7% of them who were multipara had poor quality of life. The Pearson correlation test proved a negative significant correlation between the total mean score of quality of life and total mean score of menopausal symptoms. The study concluded that Saudi menopausal women in the study subjects experience high prevalence of menopausal symptoms that adversely affected their quality of life. Women’s general characteristics such as: educational level, cohabitation, family size and their gravidity were among factors contributed to their poor quality of life.

[Sahar M. Yakout, Samar M. kamal, Salma Moawed. Menopausal Symptoms and Quality of Life among Saudi Women in Riyadh and Taif. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):776-783]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.110

 

Keywords: menopause; quality of life; Saudi; women.

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Amendment Effect of Antioxidants of Barley and Oat against Teratogenicity Induced by Amitraz

 

Omina, I. Ali ¹, Hanaa, M.R. Hegazy*² and Fatma, M. Fakhry ¹

 

¹ Toxicology Dept., Animal An. Health Res. Inst., Cairo, Egypt

² Toxicology Dept., Fac. of Vet. Med., Kafr El-Sheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

*drhantox@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study investigated the protective effect of phytonutrients and antioxidants in barley and oat added to diet on teratognic effects induced by amitraz® after maternal exposure during pregnancy. 40 pregnant albino rats were divided into 4 groups each of 10. one group was kept as control fed the balanced ration& administered distilled water. Three groups were administered amitraz® (50 mg/ kg b.w.) by gavage during organogenesis from days 6 through day15 of gestation, a group of them fed the balanced ratio and the other 2 groups fed the same diet supplemented with barley or oat (20%), 4 days prior of gestation and continued till the end of the experiment. All dams underwent a caesarean section on day 20 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for external, visceral and skeletal abnormalities. Amitraz induced maternal toxicity manifested as lower body weight gain, developmental toxicity included fetal death, a decrease in fetal body weight and length, as well as increased incidence of fetal external, visceral & skeletal anomalies. These findings were prevented or in lower incidence in groups provided with barley or oat. The obtained data were reviewed and discussed. Conclusively, barley and oat supplement have protective and positive modulation response due to their phytonutrients and antioxidants against congenital anomalies induced by amitraz®. In recommendation, the incorporation of cereal grains such as barley and oat in the food products are chemopreventive agents for adverse effects of xenobiotics.

[Omina, I. Ali, Hanaa, M.R. Hegazy and Fatma,M.Fakhry. Amendment Effect of Antioxidants of Barley and Oat against Teratogenicity Induced by Amitraz. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):784-790]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.111

 

Keywords: Amendment Effect; Antioxidant; Barley; Oat; Teratogenicity; Induced; Amitraz

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Quality and fertility of the frozen-thawed bull semen as affected by the different cryoprotectants and glutathione levels

 

M. A. El-Harairy1, Laila N. Eid2, A. E. B. Zeidan2, A.M.Abd El-Salaam2 and M. A. M. El-Kishk2

 

1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.

 2 Animal Production Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

mahrousatef@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Five sexually mature Friesian bulls (3-4 years old and 600-650 kg as an average body weight) were used in the present study. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment aimed to define the effect of different types of cryoprotective agents (7%glycerol: GL and 7% dimethyl sulfoxide: DMSO) and their combinations (3.5% GL plus 3.5% DMSO) on post-thawing sperm motility, freezability and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa. Enzymatic activity (aspartate-aminotransferase: AST, alanine- aminotransferase: ALT, acid phosphatase: ACP, alkaline phosphatase: ALP and lactic dehydrogenase: LDH) in the frozen-thawed semen was also determined. The second experiment was carried out to establish the effects of 3.5% GL plus 3.5% DMSO (the best cryoprotectant in the first experiment) supplemented with different levels of glutathione (0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM/ 100 ml) on the frozen-thawed semen quality and enzymatic activity during thawing-incubation at 37oC for 2 hours. The conception rates of the cows artificially inseminated with the frozen-thawed semen containing 7% GL, 7% DMSO, 3.5% GL plus 3.5% DMSO with or without 0.4mM glutathione (GSH) were also assessed. The results revealed that the highest (P<0.05) percentage of sperm motility, freezability of spermatozoa and the lowest (P<0.05) percentage of acrosomal damage of spermatozoa were obtained in the post-thawed semen extended with 3.5% GL plus 3.5% DMSO as compared to 7% GL or 7% DMSO alone.Moreover, the frozen-thawed bull semen extended with 3.5% GL plus 3.5% DMSO showed significantly (P<0.05) lower amounts of AST, ALT, ACP, ALP and LDH enzymes released into the extracellular medium than7% GL or 7% DMSO alone the (first experiment). The obtained results in the second experiment showed that the frozen-thawed semen extended with 3.5% GL plus 3.5% DMSO added with GSH at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8mM showed significantly (P<0.05) increased the percentage of frozen-thawed sperm motility and freezability of spermatozoa and decreased (P<0.05) percentage of acrosomal damage of spermatozoa and amount of AST, ALT, ACP, ALP and LDH enzymes released into the extracellular medium compared to free GSH medium (control). It is of interest to note that, the best level (P<0.05) of GSH which maintained frozen-thawed semen quality and enzymatic activities was 0.4mM/100ml GSH. The advancement of thawing- incubation time at 37oC for up to 2 hours of the frozen-thawed bull semen decreased significantly (P<0.05) the percentage of post- thawing sperm motility and freezability of spermatozoa, while increased significantly (P<0.05) the percentage of the acrosomal damage of spermatozoa and leakage of AST, ALT, ACP, ALP and LDH enzymes into the extracellular medium with the different glutathione levels or free glutathione medium. The highest conception rate (P<0.05) was recorded in the cows artificially inseminated with the frozen-thawed bull semen extended with 3.5% glycerol plus 3.5% DMSO added with 0.4mM GSH, and the lowest (P<0.05) conception rate was observed with the frozen-thawed bull semen extended with 7% GL or 7% DMSO alone.

[M. A. El-Harairy, Laila N. Eid, A. E. B. Zeidan, A.M.Abd El-Salaam and M. A. M. El-Kishk. Quality and fertility of the frozen-thawed bull semen as affected by the different cryoprotectants and glutathione levels. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):791-801]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.112

 

Keywords: Bull semen, glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, freezing, enzyme, glutathione.

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Burden and coping strategies in caregivers of schizophrenic patients

 

Wageeh Abdel - Nasser Hassan1, Ikram Ibraheem Mohamed2, Amira Ezzat Abd Elnaser 2, Nadia Ebraheim Sayed2

 

1 Faculty of Medicine, 2 Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University. Egypt

 

Abstract: Care of schizophrenic patients is an enduring stress and leads to considerable amount of burden among caregivers. Little is known about the ways in which families cope while caring for a relative with schizophrenia in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to explore burden and coping strategies in caregivers of schizophrenic patients and identify the relationship between burden and coping strategies among them. Caregivers were assessed by utilizing caregiver burden self report and ways of coping questionnaires. A descriptive correlational design was used for the study. The sample comprised of 100 caregivers of schizophrenic patients from psychiatric in patient and the outpatient clinic of Neuropsychiatry Department at Assiut University Hospital. The result revealed that level of burden reported by caregivers of schizophrenic patients was high. The most coping strategies used by caregivers of schizophrenic patients were self controlling, positive reappraisal and escape-avoidance. Burden was negatively and non significantly correlated with confrontive coping, distancing, seeking social support and positive reappraisal coping strategies. However, it was positively and non significantly correlated with self controlling, accepting responsibility, escape- avoidance and planful problem solving. Sociodemographic variables were not associated significantly with burden and coping strategies. It is concluded that: Caregivers experienced high level of burden. Burden was none significantly correlated with coping strategies. Recommendation: Psycho educational program is needed to assist caregivers cope successfully with burden resulting from the care of schizophrenic patients.

[Wageeh Abdel - Nasser Hassan, Ikram Ibraheem Mohamed, Amira Ezzat Abd Elnaser, Nadia Ebraheim Sayed. Burden and coping strategies in caregivers of schizophrenic patients. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):802-811]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.113

 

Key words: schizophrenia; caregivers; Sociodemographic.

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The Influence of Oral Administration of Simvastatin on Delayed Non-Union Facial Fractures-Clinical Study

 

Maha M. Sallam

 

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Unit, Research institute of Ophthalmology, Ministry of Scientific Research. Sallam_maha@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study ten patients with delayed facial fractures presented to our clinic, three of them were in the Research institute of ophthalmology clinic, dental and maxillofacial unit and the other seven were in AL Haram hospital clinic, maxillofacial unit. The patients were in a range of age 25-45 years old, two females and eight males (table.1). All of the patients had non-union fibrous healing and most of them had facial scars at different sites of the face. Others had a chief complaint of pain or numbness of different areas of the face. All of them underwent physical, clinical and radiographic investigations using computed tomograph. Reduction of bone fragments using bone holder was done. The infraorbital nerve was evaluated and decompressed when necessary. Following alignment of the fractures, fixation was maintained by a titanium miniplate and in some cases microplates and screws, after adaptation of the plates to the area. Postoperative care included antibiotics (Clindamycin 300mg.) for a total of 7 days, ice compresses intermittently for 24h., Voltaren 75mg. I.M. every12 h.. Simvastatin (zocor 20 mg. tab.) daily dose was prescribed only to five patients for 3 months (group1) while the other five patients received only the ordinary postoperative prescription (group 2). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral administration of simvastatin drug on accelerating delayed non –union fractured bone healing. Results: Follow up of the cases revealed slight edema, swelling and hematoma in the first2 weeks; however, it was less in simvastatin group patients, while no infection was noticed in all the patients. Clinical examination of the patients revealed good stability of the bones immediately postoperative. Three months postoperative CT. and/ or three dimensional (3D) facial bone CT scans for all patients revealed that the displaced bone was reduced to its normal anatomy. It was noticed that patients on the regimen of simvastatin (zocor tablets) (group1) had ameliorated recovery without any complications than in (group2), as the inflammatory reaction was more severe in this group. Bone healing seemed to be accelerated as seen in the CT. radiograph in (group1). At 6-month follow- up, all patients complained of no particular discomfort in everyday life activities and were satisfied with their external appearance. Conclusion:-From this study it could concluded that oral administration of simvastatin 20mg.tablets (zocor) could be prescribed as a regimen postoperatively for all patients with fractures specially in delayed cases for acceleration of bone and soft tissue healing and enhancement of postoperative inflammatory reactions.

[Maha M.Sallam. The Influence of Oral Administration of Simvastatin on Delayed Non-Union Facial Fractures-Clinical Study. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):812-818]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.114

 

Keywords: Oral Administration; Simvastatin; Facial

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Evaluation of the Effects of Colatropis gigantea Leaf Extracts on Blood pH, Blood Glucose and Total Protein concentrations in Diabetic Rabbits.

 

UHUO, Emmanuel Nnaemeka; OGUGUA, Victor N.; JOSHUA, Parker Elijah; OKONKWO, Chinedu Joseph and OKORO, Onyinyechi Ruth

 

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Author’s Correspondence: oguguavictor@yahoo.com; parkeselisco@yahoo.co.uk

+2348067346144; +2348034167192 and +2348037804687

 

ABSTRACT: Screening for the most effective organic extract revealed that acetone fraction significantly decreased the blood glucose level (p<0.05) when compared to other fractions and therefore was used for further study in phase 11. The result showed reduction of blood pH with significant value (p<0.05) of diabetic untreated when compared to group treated with acetone fraction of C. gigantea leaf extract. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in blood pH among the extract-treated groups and glibenclamide-treated group. Protein concentration was observed to increase significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rabbits treated with C. gigantea leaf extract when compared to diabetic untreated group. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in value of protein concentration of the group treated with acetone fraction of C. gigantea leaf extract was observed when compared with group treated to reference drug (glibenclamide).

[UHUO, Emmanuel Nnaemeka; OGUGUA, Victor N.; JOSHUA, Parker Elijah; OKONKWO, Chinedu Joseph and OKORO, Onyinyechi Ruth. Evaluation of the Effects of Colatropis gigantea Leaf Extracts on Blood pH, Blood Glucose and Total Protein concentrations in Diabetic Rabbits. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):819-826]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.115

 

Keywords: Colatropis gigantea; Blood pH; Blood Glucose; Total Protein; Diabetic Rabbits.

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Physicochemical Evaluation of the Effects of Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness Concentrations on the Water Samples in Nsukka Town, Enugu State of Nigeria.

 

NDEFO, Chinedum Joseph; ALUMANAH, Eddy O., JOSHUA, Parker Elijah and ONWURAH, Ikechukwu, N. E.

 

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Author’s Correspondence: josephchinedum@yahoo.co; parkeselisco@yahoo.co.uk

+2348039211604; +2348037804687 and +2348039569800

 

ABSTRACT: The problem of environmental pollution due to toxic metals has begun to cause concern now in most major metropolitan cities. Nsukka environs have been plagued with perennial problem of water supplies round the year and a better understanding of its water physicochemically status will help to address this daunting problem and issues of human health. The analysis carried out was on the utility water supplies in Nsukka area. Thirteen sampling areas consisting of four boreholes, six dugwells and three springs were chosen for this research work. A total of 26 water samples were taken from the sampling areas during the dry season and another 26 samples during the wet season. Water samples were collected from these sampling areas and refrigerated at 40C for processing. Harch Model C50 digital multirange meter was used to measure total dissolved solid. Complexiometric titration was employed in the determination of total hardness of water samples. Bacteriological analysis of the water samples were carried out to ascertain whether there was faecal contamination by the use of multiple tube/most probable number techniques. It was observed that total suspended solid concentration of water samples from dugwell sources was found to have significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with the water samples from the samples obtained from borehole and spring sources during both dry and rainy seasons. Total dissolved solid concentration was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the water sample from dugwell sources when compared with the total dissolved solid concentration in the water samples from both borehole and spring sources during both dry and rainy seasons. Water sample from dugwell sources had showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of total hardness as compared with water samples from borehole and spring sources during dry and rainy seasons. Also, there was significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of total hardness of water sample from borehole sources when compared with the spring sources during dry and rainy seasons. Therefore, from the foregoing, it could be concluded that these boreholes, springs and dugwells water tested in Nsukka town are physicochemically good for human consumption as all the physicochemical parameters tested conformed to WHO, SON and NAFDAC water quality standards except Iyi-adoro spring water which might not be very good for consumption during rainy season because of possible bacteria contamination.

[NDEFO, Chinedum Joseph; ALUMANAH, Eddy O., JOSHUA, Parker Elijah and ONWURAH, Ikechukwu, N. E. Physicochemical Evaluation of the Effects of Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness Concentrations on the Water Samples in Nsukka Town, Enugu State of Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):827-836]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.116

 

Keywords: Physicochemical; Total Dissolved Solids; Total Suspended Solids, Total Hardness.

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Hadji Mirza Aghasi and Political, Social and religious events in his era

 

Ali Ahmadalizadeh 1,2

 

1. Research Institute for Education, Ministry of Education, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Social History, University of Applied Science, Tehran, Iran

dr.alizadeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mirza Abbas Irvaani nicknamed as Hajj Mirza Aghasi, the Sadr-e Aazam (Prime Minister) of Mohammad Shah Qajar must be regarded as one of the star-crossed Iranian Sadr-e Aazams, because he undertook the office when Iran economy and agriculture was devastated due to the Russo-Persian Wars and in the other hands, both Britain and Russia were seeking more influence in Iran and in the court. So, in this harsh condition, Mohammad Shah appointed Hajj Mirza Aghasi as Sadr-e Aazam despite of domestic and foreign efforts to bring the power one that capable to meet their purposes. Although, historians described him as incompetent, semi-insane but history also depicts another picture of him as judicious, gentle, indisposed of punishment and kingcraft and science loving patriot. Following to development of the relations between Iran and the European countries, the economic backwardness and sociological and cultural evolution necessity of Iran was completely revealed and impelled some of the Iranian conscious and provident individuals, under the leadership of Abbas Mirza and then Hajj Mirza Aghasi to ponder and undertake effective measures to obviate this backwardness. In economic and sociologic perspective, as well as student dispatching, order book from abroad, abolishment of torture and execution and take advantage of western civilization are of the beneficial measure of Hajj Mirza Aghasi. In the economic field, he succeeded to launch great leaps towards economical development and advancement and calmed disturbed economical situation after two wars of the Fath Ali Shah period. By relying on agriculture as the pivotal economic factor of that age, Hajj Mirza Aghasi succeeded to relief economical difficulties via aqueduct building and stream construction to irrigate agricultural fields, in a manner that the plenty of cheap agricultural products of that period were available in the markets. Weaponry activity in the field of making artillery and other munitions is another important measure of Hajj Mirza Aghasi which played decisive role in the Iran-Harat war. In foreign affairs, Hajj Mirza Aghasi in struggling to reduce the Britain and Russia influences in Iran was forced to drag third country influence (France) in to the country. [Ali Ahmadalizadeh. Hadji Mirza Aghasi and Political, Social and religious events in his era. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):837-849]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.117

Keywords: Qajar, Hajj Mirza Aghasi, Sadr-e Aazam, Iran

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118

Solving an Inverse Diffusion Problem Using Tikhonov Regularization Method

 

R. Pourgholi and F. Torabi

 

School of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, P.O. Box 36715-364, Iran. pourgholi@du.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the diffusion coefficient based on the measurement obtained at the boundary by using a numerical approach. We consider the problem of recovering the diffusion coefficient of a rod that is a function of space. The approach is based on finite-difference method and the least-squares scheme. At the beginning of the algorithm, the finite-difference method is used to discretize the problem domain. The present approach is to rearrange the matrix forms of the differential governing equations and estimate unknown diffusion coefficient. The least-squares method is adopted to find the solution. This solution is unstable, hence the problem is ill-posed. This instability is overcome using the Tikhonov regularization method with the gcv criterion for the choice of the regularization parameter. The stability and accuracy of the scheme presented is evaluated by comparison with the Singular Value Decomposition method (SVD). Results show that a good estimation on the diffusion coefficient can be obtained within a couple of minutes CPU time at pentium IV-2.4 GHz PC.

[R. Pourgholi. Solving an Inverse Diffusion Problem Using Tikhonov Regularization Method. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):850-855]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.118

 

Keywords: Diffusion coefficient, Inverse diffusion problem, Finite difference method, Least-squares method, Stability, The Tikhonov regularization Method, SVD Method.

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Iran and Saudi Arabia Relationship under Iran’s Pragmatic Approach (1989-1993)

 

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri1, Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu1, Majid Khorshidi1, Daryoush Piri1

 

[1]. Department of Government and Civilization Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400., Selangor, Malaysia.

ekhtiari2002@gmail.com, ekhtiari_reza@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Iran’s revolution and its consequences distorted the previous close relationship between Iran and Saudi Arabia. This paper, first as introduction, will discuss the historical competition between ideological and pragmatic approaches in Iran’s foreign policy. Then it will study the domination of ideology in the foreign policy of Iran after the Islamic revolution and its role in Iran’s foreign relations with littoral states in the Persian Gulf region, in particular, Saudi Arabia. The study further examines the superiority of the pragmatic approach after the end of the Iran- Iraq war (1988) and gradual changes in Iran’s foreign policy from 1989. The research also analyzes the role of the new approach in re-establishing and improving the Iran-Saudi Arabia diplomatic relationship, which was severed in 1988, and limited cooperation of the two sides afterwards. The study concludes that despite Iranian-Saudi primary cooperation and agreement after the restoration of mutual ties, they were unable to maintain peaceful relations due to the bilateral and regional problems of the two countries.

[Reza Ekhtiari Amiri, Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu, Majid Khorshidi. Daryoush Piri. Iran and Saudi Arabia Relationship under Iran’s Pragmatic Approach (1989-1993). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):856-863]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.119

 

Key Words: Iran, Saudi Arabia, pragmatic approach, foreign policy

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120

Critical Viewpoint toward Shaykhiyya

Concerning the Coincidence of Hurqalya and the Imaginal World

 

Yaser Salari1

 

1 PhD student, Department of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Yaser581@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Shaykhis believed, that between the physical world and the spiritual world, there exists an intermediary world called Hurqalya (from the Greek word Huvarkalya) or the world of archetypal images (Alame' Mithal). From the Shaikhi's point of view, the first corporal form will annihilate completely after death and there will have no there return in the Intermediately World and the Resurrection Day, while the corps astral body will remain rotundas, away from any annihilation and destruction. The first body of man will accompany the soul only to the end of the Intermediately World, and while the first Israfil's Blowing of trumpet is heard it will be annihilated too. But the second body as the soul carrier will always accompany the soul and it will never be separated from it, except the time of the Blowing after the second Blowing of the Trumpet in the Resurrection Day, the soul will join the second corps along with the second body, and therefore the spiritual and the corporal resurrection of Sheikhiet will occur. In this paper, the critical viewpoint toward Shaykhiyya is discussed concerning the coincidence of Hurqalya and the Imaginal World. The imaginal world in the spiritual topography of a domain that can only be seen by those who have turned away from the sensus communis and rely on spiritual hermeneutics (ta’wil), a profound issue which he discusses both in the al- Talwihat and Alwah- i imadi. Seeing the archetypes requires transcending all obstacles in order to go beyond what Suhrawardi symbolically refers to as the Qaf Mountain. Finally, the Sheikhis' view of resurrection has been reviewed and analyzed from the point of view of exalted theosophy.

[Yaser Salari. Critical Viewpoint toward Shaykhiyya Concerning the Coincidence of Hurqalya and the Imaginal World. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):864-870]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.120

 

Keywords: Shaikhiyya, imaginal world, Intermediately World, Critical Viewpoint, Coincidence.

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Models for Controlling and Replenishing of Inventories in a Supply Chain (With Particular Reference to Robustness versus Forecasting Errors of Demand)

 

Mohammed Ali Yari1 Sara Heidari2 Hadi Ahmadi 3

 

1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Payam-e-noor University of Gorgan, Iran

M.Yari@gmail.com

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Payam-e-noor University of Gorgan, Iran

 3 Department of Industrial Engineering, Payam-e-noor University of Gorgan, Iran

 

Abstract: This article investigates robustness for supply chain. After reviewing the supply chain, and the basic concepts of supply chain robustness, we survey the uncertainty descriptions considered in the Model Predictive Control (MPC) literature, and the methods proposed for robust constraint handling, stability, and performance. The article concludes with some comments on future research directions as input to robustness and Model Predictive Control module.

[Mohammed Ali Yari, Sara Heidari, Hadi Ahmadi. Models for Controlling and Replenishing of Inventories in a Supply Chain (With Particular Reference to Robustness versus Forecasting Errors of Demand). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):871-877]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.121

 Keywords: supply chain, Controlling, Inventories, Robustness and Forecasting.

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Terrorism political development and national security

 

Ahmad saii1, Majid Masomi2

 

1. Associate Professor, Department of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. PhD student, Department of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

majid.masumi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: As, the terrorism, nowadays, is an important and effective matter that affects different problems especially national security, it is tried to study an important aspect of interaction fields between national security and political development in developing countries and Iran. An important point in this study is to consider terrorism as an strategic phenomenon that follows the procedures including three operational phases (creating mental agitation by frightening people-encouraging governor system to responding and transferring legitimacy) to obtain their owns aims and affect on countries national security. They administer a space interaction and oppositional in related to the people and political governor system so that they can get to their own political aims, too.

[Ahmad saii, Majid Masomi. Terrorism political development and national security. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):878-885]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.122

 

Keywords: Security; national security; terror; terrorism; political development

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The human factors of sustainable design in urban constructions (With emphasize on Residents' psychological Behaviors)

 

Saeid Yasinian

 

Department of Architecture, Hamedan branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran

syasinian@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The intention of sustainable design is to "eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design". Manifestations of sustainable design require no non-renewable resources, impact the environment minimally, and relate people with the natural environment. This manuscript highlights the human factors of sustainable design in urban constructions. While numerous technical progressions have allowed for the reduction of resource consumption, not much study have addressed the reaction of occupants to these appliances, or the degree to which prosperity in achieving sustainability objectives is dependent upon user behavior. This manuscript reviews investigation in related fields and recommends ways in which psychological, behavioral and social issues might be significant to sustainable design, as same as how ways attending to psychological requirements could enhance the success of meeting these and other objectives. Applied behavior and social psychological analytical approaches are surveyed as methods to answer to conservation and recycling objectives. The physiological and psychological profits that green constructions confer on their inhabitants are also notified, as are fields for future investigation, and steps that the building industry could take to develop more sustainable and holistic building practices which incorporate inhabitant behavioral requirements.

[Saeid Yasinian. The human factors of sustainable design in urban constructions (With emphasize on Residents' psychological Behaviors). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):886-891]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.123

 

Keywords: Human Factors, Sustainable Design, Constructions, Residents, Psychological Behaviors.

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Investigating the Aspects of Urban Tourism in Developing countries (With particular reference to Kohgoliyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in Iran)

 

Abdolkarim Azizi

 

Ph.D. student, Department of geography and urban planning, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Azizi456@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Tourism industry puts a lot of influence on the development of cities. The experts of European society emphasizes that because of an increase in the speed of information, an increase in culture level of citizens, and an increase in their level of living, the tourism in next years will belong to urban tourism. Based on a principle and a general definition, urban tourism is a kind of tourism which takes place in geographical limit of the city. Urban tourism is one of the most important sections in tourism industry which attracted the attention of tourisms and travelers. In this article, the position of tourism in developing countries is investigated with particular reference to the tourism aspects in Kohgoliyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in south-west Iran.

[Abdolkarim Azizi. Investigating the Aspects of Urban Tourism in Developing countries (With particular reference to Kohgoliyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in Iran). Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):892-895]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.124

 

Keywords: Iran, Developing Countries, Urban Tourism, Kohgoliyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province.

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Effect of condensed tannin on controlling faecal protein excretion in nematode-infected sheep: in vivo study

 

Shahin Hassanpour1, Mohammad Sadaghian2, Naser MaheriSis1, Behrad Eshratkhah2, Majid ChaichiSemsari1

 

1. Department of Animal science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran.

2. Department of Veterinary medicine, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran.

hassanpour.shahin@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main propose of this study was to investigating the short term effects of different levels of wattle tannin to protein excretion control during a naturally acquired nematode infection in Moghani sheep. Twenty Moghani ewes (aged 7-12 months and body weight 32±3 kg) were selected randomly and divided into 4 treatment groups. The animals of the experiment had not received any anthelmintic drugs for 4 month. During the study all animals fed ad libitum on Moghan plateau and free access to water. Group 1 received placebo. Animals in groups 2, 3 and 4, were drenched 1, 1.5 and 2 gr per kg body weight (BW) wattle tannin (WT) as water solution for one day, respectively. At 0, 24 and 48 hours after drenching WT from each animal faecal sample was taken and stored in individual containers less than 4°C carried out to laboratory as soon as possible. Faeces nitrogen (N), dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), Ash and Wet levels determined following the standard procedures. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design for repeated measurements using SAS (9.1) software and the least square means compared with Tukey multiple range tests. According to our result there was a significant difference between the groups. Twenty-four hours after drenching highest amount of faecal crude protein execration observed in group 4 (P< 0.0001). Additionally, Forty-eight hours after drenched WT there was a significant difference in Group 4 compare to the other groups which has lower FCP execration (P< 0.0001). There was no significant difference in faecal OM, DM, Ash and Wet content between groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion it is observed that administration of 2 gr WT per kg BW leads to decreasing faecal protein excretion and so resulted in nitrogen retention in animals.

[Shahin Hassanpour, Mohammad Sadaghian, Naser MaheriSis, Behrad Eshratkhah, Majid ChaichiSemsari. Effect of condensed tannin on controlling faecal protein excretion in nematode-infected sheep: in vivo study. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):896-900]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.125

 

Keywords Condensed tannin, Nematode, Faecal content, Moghani sheep

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Absorbing Foreign Investment in a Developing Country: an Application of Balanced Scorecard Model Case Study: Iran

 

1 Mohammad Doudangi, 2 Amir Mansour Tehranchian and 3 Masoud Behravesh

 

1 PhD Student of Economics, University of science Academy of Armenia. E-mail: mododangi@yahoo.com.

2 Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran. E-mail: a.tehranchian@umz.ac.ir.

3 (Corresponding Author), Economics Researcher, Department of Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran. *): E-mail: behravesh@bonabiau.ac.ir, behrawesh@yahoo.com. Cell Phone: +989192227434.

 

Abstract: Capital accumulation is one of the principle prerequisite in economical growth process. Theoretically capital injection is done through this idea, and the economists believe that capital is the engine of economy growth. Financial provision for capital is possible through two ways of internal resources and external resources. In twenty year vision and the absorption law and supporting foreign investment, the fifth laws of economy development and also cultural and social development in Iran for absorbing the foreign investment, suitable regulations have been devised for improving the business environment, and this case leads to suitable growth in absorbing foreign investment in recent years. But due to high potential and rich natural resources such as petrol and gas, expected economy growth in fifth program, there is an urgent necessity for absorbing foreign investment. Different econometric models have been processed in different studies for identifying the effective factors on investment and developing the investment, but the balanced Scorecard pattern has not been used. In this article, we try to suggest necessary measures and programs for development and absorbing foreign investment by using this method and designing suitable strategy and action plan, using SWOT method and also preparing action plan, that it has big effect on absorbing foreign investment and suitable development in country investment. [Mohammad Doudangi, Amir Mansour Tehranchian, and Masoud Behravesh. Absorbing Foreign Investment in a Developing Country: an Application of Balanced Scorecard Model Case Study: Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):901-906]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

JEL Code: O2, O16, O24.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.126

 

Key words: Absorbing Foreign Investment, Balanced Scorecard Model (BSc).

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Development Model Based on Value Chain in Bam’s Date Industrial Cluster

 

1 Setareh Rezaee, 2 Armin Rajabzadeh and 3Nayere Karegar

 

1 M.Sc of Economics, Department of Economics, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran. E-mail: rezaei_setareh@yahoo.com.

2 M.Sc of Management (MBA), lecturer of Management, Faculty of Social Science, Marketing Management Department, Payam Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran. E-mail: a_rajabzadeh@pnu.ac.ir.

3 (Corresponding Author), M.Sc of Economics, Department of Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran. E-mail: nayere.karegar@yahoo.com, nayere.karegar@gmail.com.

Abstract: In this study, we review the development of value chain of industry clusters. At first we benchmark Bam Date Industrial Cluster with sample firm of cluster. Then we benchmark Bam Date Industrial Cluster with Tunes as a successful country. As a result we observe pressure points of Bam Date Industrial Cluster; lack of pricing, lack of grading and undesirable packing. And finally we suggest obeying two strategies about market expansion and quality promotion.

[Setareh Rezaee, Armin Rajabzadeh and Nayere Karegar. Development Model Based on Value Chain in Bam’s Date Industrial Cluster. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):907-914]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.127

 

Key words: Value chain, Value chain analyze, Industrial cluster, Bam Dat.

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The Valid Derogation from a Fair Trial in States of Emergencies

 

Seyyed Hassan Hashemi1, Nasrin Mehra2

 

1 PhD Student, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of Criminal Law and Criminology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

hashemi600@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fair trial in the states of emergency especially after September 11, 2001 attacks is of a high importance. The goal of this article is to recognize the concept of the states of emergency and the determination of their applicability, the study of the mechanism of deviation from the principles and guarantees of fair trial under the said conditions and the recognition of the principles of deviation of the fair trial. For this purpose, the regional and international documents and the policy of control and legal institutions have been studied. Among, several international documents, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the protocols attached to the Geneva conventions and among the regional documents of the European convention of human rights has had the highest protection of the fair trial guarantees. The deliberative views of the International Court of Justice and the legal policy of the European court of human rights have allocated a special place for the reinforcement of fair trial in the states of emergency. The Human Rights Commission of The United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross have also played a strong supervisory role in this matter. The most important result of this article is that the minimum rules of fair trial should not be deviated from any states of emergency. On the contrary, it should be reinforced. Valid derogation of other rules of fair trial requires certain procedural and substantial standards.

[Seyyed Hassan Hashemi, Nasrin Mehra. The Valid Derogation from a Fair Trial in States of Emergencies. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):915-929]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.128

 

Keywords: Fair trial, Valid derogation, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the European Court of Human Rights, The Red Cross Committee, The Human Rights Commission, The International Criminal Court.

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The Contribution of Rural Cooperatives in Building Sense of Community in Rural Areas of Marvdasht, Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of rural cooperatives in building sense of community in Marvdasht, Iran. Capacity building for rural development requires a range of sense of community. Hence, it is expected that the rural cooperatives contribute to building sense of community. The paper is based on the survey questionnaire carried out among 250 rural cooperatives members in rural areas of Marvdasht, Iran. The findings revealed that rural cooperatives have a little contribution in building sense of community for rural development.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi. The Contribution of Rural Cooperatives in Building Sense of Community in Rural Areas of Marvdasht, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):926-929]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.129

 

Keywords: sense of community, participation, rural cooperatives, rural development

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The importance of lesson plan in adult education

 

1 Zeynab Behzadi, 2 Hamid Mohammadi

 

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Every good course design begins with a needs assessment. For our purposes here, we’re going to assume you’ve completed this assessment and you understand what your students need and what your objectives are for the course you’re designing. If you don’t know your objectives, you’re not ready to design your course. With your objectives in hand, course design can be easy. Like any gathering of people for any reason, it’s good to begin at the beginning and address who is there, why they’ve gathered, what they hope to accomplish, and how they’ll accomplish it. Design an activity that gives your students an opportunity to practice what they just learned. Activities that involve breaking into small groups to complete a task or to discuss an issue are good ways to keep adults engaged and moving. It is also a perfect opportunity for them to share the life experience and wisdom they bring to the classroom. Be sure to build in opportunities to take advantage of this wealth of relevant information. Activities can be personal assessments or reflections that are worked on quietly and independently; they can be games or role playing; or they can be small group discussions. Choose your activity based on the best way to provide the adults in your class with an opportunity to experience what you just taught.

[Zeynab Behzadi, Hamid Mohammadi. The importance of lesson plan in adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):930-934]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.130

 

Keywords: lesson plan, adult learning

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Adult learning: Features and functions

 

1 Azam Ghaffari, 2 Abbas Emami

 

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: khodamoradi121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A distinguishing characteristic of adult education programs is that program content and language must be suitable and respectful of adult clients. For example, instead of using the word “student” which may imply a traditional teacher/student relationship where a student is subservient to the teacher, all state program materials use the word “learner” or “customer.” Using this type of language acknowledges the adults’ existing knowledge and real-world experience and makes them the focus of the program. The Pennsylvania Adult Basic and Literacy Education Indicators of Program Quality emphasize the importance of customer satisfaction and learner progress on individualized goals. One quality area explicitly states that “program staff and learners jointly develop, regularly evaluate, and update an instructional plan that incorporates the individual’s learning styles and preferences”. This is just one example of how learners and staff are equals and collaborate on the learners’ participation in the program. Successful adult education programs recognize that adult learner needs and learning styles may require non-traditional methods of teaching and accommodate them whenever possible. This means holding classes and sessions outside of typical working hours for adults that work, providing one-on-one tutoring, group classes, and other methods of delivering services that are flexible. It is also important to hold the classes where it is convenient for adult learners to attend, such as local houses of worship, residential facilities, libraries, or other community centers. Understanding this key principle is difficult sometimes for organizations that have worked in child education, but not in adult education.

[Azam Ghaffari, Abbas Emami. Adult learning: Features and functions. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):935-939]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.131

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, rural

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Importance of women’s participation in rural programs especially micro-credit

 

1 Mohammad Reza Rezaei, 2 Hamid Mohammadi

 

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

Abstract: One of the raised strategy, in order to accelerate investment process and reinforcing financial foundations, and saving, at deprived and rural areas, has been empowering and eradicating poverty of rural societies through efficiency with emphasize on applying micro-credits. Micro-loans as useful tool to fight against poverty and starvation, has proven its capabilities and values to develop these areas. These tools have ability to change and improve human’s life, especially poor peoples. Micro loans, saving accounts, and giving various bank services, cause this belief in low income and poor family that, by accessing to these services, their income will increase, so they can protect themselves against barriers of unexpected problems and their current level of life and also invest on nutrition, housing and their children’s education. Accessing to these conditions is among main goals of third millennium program.

[Mohammad Reza Rezaei, Hamid Mohammadi. Importance of women’s participation in rural programs especially micro-credit. Journal of American Science 2011;7(5):940-944]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070511.132

 

Keywords: participation, micro-credit, rural women

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Utilization Information and communication technologies (ICT) in rural people education

 

1 Hamid Mohammadi, 2 Azam Ghaffari

 

1, 2 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An important factor influencing the adoption of any new technology is an individual's perception of that technology. It is hypothesized by this research that one of the key perception aspects influencing the adoption of IT is the level of trust that the potential adopter has in the IT system and in those who use IT. Trust can be defined as “an individual’s optimistic expectation about the outcome of an event” (Hosmer 1995). There are different aspects of trust related to IT. An individual must first trust that information technologies will work and that IT will be beneficial in accomplishing his/her goals and in completing his/her tasks. An individual must also trust that the information they obtain via IT is accurate and the information they send via IT will not be tampered with and privacy levels will be maintained.

[Hamid Mohammadi, Azam Ghaffari. Utilization Information and communication