Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 8, Cumulated No. 42, August 25, 2011

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0708

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Automatic Generation of Extended ER Diagram Using Natural Language Processing

 

Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz 1, Dr. Syed Ahsan 2, Muhammad Shaheen 3, Rao Muhammad Adeel Nawab4, Syed Athar Masood 5

1,2,3,4. University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Punjab Pakistan

5Department of Engineering Management, NUST College of E&ME, Rawalpindi Pakistan

1 m.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, 2 ahsancs@hotmail.com, 3 shaheen@uet.edu.pk, 5 atharmasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Extended Entity Relationship Diagrams are an important step in information system design and software engineering. In the early seventies Peter Chen developed an efficient database management system, the ERD. Later on, ERD was enhanced to Extended ERD by adding new concepts like generalization and specialization. The inspiration of EERD emerged from the common need to many organizations to have a unified methodology for file structure and database design. To meet the demands of users, to interpret problem statements in English, applying all the rules and generating an EERD. The structural approach is used to parse the sentences and tag them into different parts of the speech. This is because a belief has been developed that semantics can be completely represented in structures. The structural approach is used to map the tagged words into entities, attributes and relationships. [Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz, Dr. Syed Ahsan, Muhammad Shaheen, Rao Muhammad Adeel Nawab, Syed Athar Masood. Automatic Generation of Extended ER Diagram Using Natural Language Processing. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):1-10]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.01

 

Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), Usability, Interactivity, Human-GIS Interaction, Positional Accuracy, Hydrocarbon Exploration, Backpropogation Neural Network

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2

STYX: A CML based chem.-informatics facility

 

1 Syed Ahsan, 2 Muhammad Shahbaz, 3 Syed Athar Masood

 

1,2 Department of Computer Science

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

3 Department of Engineering Management, NUST College of E&ME, Rawalpindi Pakistan

1 ahsancs@hotmail.com, 2 m.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, 3 atharmasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Developing countries such as Pakistan lose out the benefits of global cheminformatics research unless immediate actions are taken to strengthen the infrastructure for their participation. They rely on dry labs because they don’t have the wet labs. They need infrastructure so that cure can be found of the diseases and infections which attack the local human, animal and plant population as international pharmaceutical companies are less interested in these “poor man “ diseases for lack of financial turnover. We feel that instead of supplying disease information and data to the foreign companies, we would then use this information to discover new drugs.

[Syed Ahsan, Muhammad Shahbaz, Syed Athar Masood. STYX: A CML Based Chem-Informatics Facility. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):11-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.02

 

Keywords: STYX; CML based chem.-informatics facility

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Nurses’ related factors influencing the use of physical restraint in critical care units

 

1Tarek H. Al-Khaled, 2Eman M. Zahran, and 2*Azza H. El-Soussi

 

1Ministry of Health, Syria

2Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

* aelsoussi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Although physical restraints are used commonly to maintain the safety of critically ill patient, the use of physical restraints is associated with many adverse effects. Therefore, several attempts have been made to identify and control factors affecting restraint utilization in critical care units (CCUs). This study aims to identify nurses’ related factors influencing the use of physical restraints in CCUs. This study was conducted in three of the CCUs of Alexandria Main University Hospital. Fifty critical care nurses, working in the above mentioned settings, who apply physical restraints, were recruited sequentially in this study. Fifty patients who were restrained and assigned to the observed nurses were included in this study. Patients who were restrained for a period of less than two hours were excluded. Two tools were used to collect the required data; nurses’ restraint performance checklist, and nurses’ related factors influencing the use of physical restraint questionnaire. It can be concluded from this study that older nurses and those with higher qualification and years of experience have better restraint related performance than others. Nurses’ knowledge and performance are in need for improvement. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct in-service training programs for nurses working in CCUs on restraint utilization and restraint alternatives. The hospital should develop evidence based guideline on physical restraining to be available for all nurses and physicians in order to follow.

 [Tarek H. Al-Khaled, Eman M. Zahran, and Azza H. El-Soussi. Nurses’ related factors influencing the use of physical restraint in critical care units. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):13-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.03

 

Keywords: Nurse; factor; physical restraint; critical care unit

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4

Tracheal suctioning with versus without saline instillation

 

1*Eman M. Zahran and 2Ahmed A. Abd El-Razik

 

1Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria,

2Critical Care Medicine Dep., Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt

*eman.zahran@alex-nursing.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The primary goal of tracheal suctioning to maintain a patent airway. It is considered as one of the most common procedure in critical care areas. Normal saline instillation into an artificial airway prior to suctioning is utilised by many health practitioners. However, there are conflicting views about its safety. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase “1” aims to determine how often normal saline is used during tracheal suctioning, and determine nurses and physicians’ knowledge regarding advantages and disadvantages of normal saline instillation (INS) before suctioning. Phase “2” aims to compare between the effects of suctioning with saline versus suctioning without saline on a number of physiological response parameters. This study was conducted at Causality Care Unit, and General Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Main University Hospital, University of Alexandria; including;. Ninety two nurses and 16 physicians working in the previously mentioned settings were included in the first phase of the study, while 26 adult critically ill patients were included in the second phase of the study. Two tools were used to collect required data; tool (I) tracheal suctioning questionnaire used to collect data for phase “1” and tool (II) physiological response parameters assessment sheet used to collect data for phase “2”. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that nurses and physicians frequently use saline before suctioning. A considerable number of them recognize the most common advantages and disadvantages to the INS. In relation to the comparison between suctioning with and without INS, this study shows that INS carries out several risks, including; significant elevation in PaCO2 immediately after suctioning and reduction in oxygen tension and saturation, 5 minutes after suctioning. So, nurses and physicians have to be aware on these disadvantages of INS. In addition, alternative measures facilitating liquefying secretion and its removal have to be utilized instead of INS.

[Eman M. Zahran and Ahmed A. Abd El-Razik. Tracheal suctioning with versus without saline instillation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):23-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.04

 

Key words: instillation of normal saline, suction, physiologic response to suction.

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Spatio-temporal Variations in Phytoplankton Biomass and diversity in a Tropical Eutrophic Lagoon, Nigeria

 

1Paul Chuks Onuoha, 2Dike Ikeagwu Nwankwo, 3Lucian Obinna Chukwu and 4Vyverman, Wim.

 

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria.

E-mail- hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Department of Marine Sciences University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Ghent, Belgium

 

Abstract: Taxonomic inventorisation and spatio-temporal variations in the phytoplankton species biomass and diversity, in relation to environmental parameters at the Ologe lagoon, Lagos were investigated from February, 2002 to January, 2004. The annual rainfall, concentrated in one season, initiated increased total solids and nutrient values whereas low dissolved oxygen, conductivity, transparency, and cation concentrations were recorded. The phytoplankton species biomass, composition and water quality indices exhibited seasonal changes closely related to the pattern of rainfall. Estimation of phytoplankton biomass by cell count showed a range of 849 to 1771707 cells/ml with mean value of 44052cell/ml. The phytoplankton flora of the lagoon belonged to five main algal phyla, namely Bacillariophyta (84%), Cyanophyta (15.92%), Chlorophyta (0.06%), Euglenophyta (0.018%) and Prryophyta (0.002%). One hundred and nineteen species belonging to forty-nine genera were observed, with diatoms forming the most abundant and diverse. A total of forty-eight species belonging to eighteen genera was found in diatoms. This was followed by green algae, with thirty-two species from fourteen genera, Cyanobacteria, with twenty-three species from eleven genera, euglenoids with seventeen species from five genera, while the dinoflagelates had one species. Nine phytoplankton species were reported to be potentially harmful/toxic bloom species. 57 bio-indicator species were recorded during the period of study. With regard to existing checklist of phytoplankton species, 10 new species are the first reports for Lagos lagoon complex, south-western Nigeria.The centric diatom Aulacoseira and cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated the phytoplankton community spectrum and their dominance in the Lagoon in both seasons suggests a single floristic grouping. The observed range of bio-indicator species within Ologe lagoon showed that the lagoon is eutrophic. Co-efficient of similarity index indicated that stations close to each other are more similar, than stations further apart.

[Paul Chuks Onuoha, Dike Ikeagwu Nwankwo, Lucian Obinna Chukwu and Vyverman, Wim. Spatio-temporal Variations in Phytoplankton Biomass and diversity in a Tropical Eutrophic Lagoon, Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):33-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.05

 

Key words: Seasonal changes, phytoplankton composition, cell number, bio-indicator, diversity, eutrophic, rainfall.

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Self-esteem and quality of life among visually impaired children in Assiut City, Egypt

 

Safaa A. M. Kotb1; Marzoka A. Gadallah2and Salwa A. Marzouk2

 

1Community health Nursing, 2 Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing. Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

 

Abstract: Nowadays, quality of life is one of the important aspect in programming and giving service to disabled and blindness is one of the most important and common kinds of physical handicaps. This study aimed to: determine Self-esteem & quality of life among visual impaired children in Assiut City. Descriptive cross sectional research design was used in this study. The studied children were 100 children from El-Noor School, Assiut City, 22 children from last two years of primary school, 44 children from preparatory school, 34 children from secondary school with age ranged from 12 to 18 years and both sex. This study is divided to four tools; the first tool was structured interview sheet included biosocial data of children, time and causes of disability, second tool to assess social class by using Abd-El-Twab scale 1998. The third tool - Self-esteem scale, it includes 10 items., the final tool to assess quality of life data, it consists of 68 items. Following approval for the research, personal meetings were held with each child in school sitting. Data was collected during the period from first of September 2009 to the end of April 2010. Obtained results revealed that more than two-thirds of studied children aged between 12-18 years. The mean age of studied children is 15.87 ± 3.03 and more than half of them were males. Nearly three quarters of studied sample had low social class (72%). In addition; nearly half of children with high total quality of life score were come from high social class compared with 8.3% from low social class children with highly statistically significant difference. Also, it was found that 40% of studied children with high total quality of life scores were outdoor school residence compared to only 8.2% of indoor school residence (pـ value 0.003). Further, more than half of studied children with low social class had low self-esteem compared to more than three ـ quarters of normal self ـ esteem children were come from high social class. 71.4% of normal self-esteem children were present in small family compared by two third of low self-esteem score were present in large family. It is concluded that children from high social class had higher quality of life and normal self esteem than other children. It is recommended that multicomponant intervention with a focus on the children and their families are needed to improve self esteem and quality of life of visually impaired children. Designing and implementing of a psychological counseling program for visually impaired children to improve their emotional statues and help them to coping effectively.

[Safaa A. M. Kotb; Marzoka A. Gadallah and Salwa A. Marzouk. Self-esteem and quality of life among visually impaired children in Assiut City, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):47-57].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.06

 

Key words: Visually impaired, Self-esteem, quality of life, school age children

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A Newly Developed Exercise Program for Treatment of Mechanical Low Back Pain Associated with Accentuated Lumbar Lordosis

 

Fatma A. El-Hamalawy

 

Musculoskeletal Dept., Misr University for Science and Technology, El motamyez District, 6th October, Egypt

Fatma_therapy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The relationship between low back pain and lumbar lordosis has been studied extensively with many contradictory conclusions. The already existing exercise programs to correct the accentuated lumbar lordosis have got many disadvantages. Objectives: Introduce newly developed exercise program to verify the relationship between mechanical low back pain and increased lumbar curve. A new program of exercise has been designed to alleviate the disadvantage of the previous programs. Study design: experimental, one group. Twelve patients with average age 39.3±4.5 years were included in the study, all have chronic low back pain over one year with lordotic angle over 50 degrees. Lateral X ray-films were taken before, after one and two months of treatment. A metal frame was designed to facilitate the use of plumb line, also a wedged pillow with an angle of 115˚ and stretch tool was designed for the execution of the exercise program. The patients did not receive any source of heat or medication throughout the treatment. The results revealed to a significant reduction of pelvic inclination, lumbosacral angle and lumbar curve were 5.4˚, 2.6˚ and 3.00˚, respectively after the end of the second month of treatment. There is gradual and complete relief of pain without recurrence. It is concluded that this new program alleviated the disadvantages of the previous programs. It confirm the relation between low back pain and accentuated lumbar lordosis.

[Fatma A. El-Hamalawy. A Newly Developed Exercise Program for Treatment of Mechanical Low Back Pain Associated with Accentuated Lumbar Lordosis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):58-70].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.07

 

Keywords: lordosis, lumbosacral angle, pelvic inclination, X-ray measurements, accentuated, correction, William’s exercises, mechanical low back pain

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Forward Head Correction Exercises For Of Management Myogenic Tempromandibular Joint Dysfunction

 

Fatma A. El-Hamalawy

 

Musculoskeletal Department, Misr University for Science and Technology, 6 October City- 2nd Districts – 1st area 198 / 2; Fatma_therapy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effect of independent forward head postural exercise on myogenic tempromandibular joint dysfunction. Methods: The study included fifteen females, diagnosed as myogenic TMJ dysfunction with limited mouth opening aged between 20-40 years(27.1± 4.6 years). TMJ pain was Persistent for at least six months(12.3±5.3) and Patients were observed to have a forward head posture. The measurements included vertical mouth opening measured in millimeters by Standard ruler, pain intensity using visual analogue scale and craniocervical posture on lateral cephalometic. Each patient received exercise program consisting of 1-strengthening exercise of deep cervical flexors and scapular retractors 2- stretching exercise of the suboccipital muscles and pectoralis muscles. Results: The result showed significant decrease in crainocervical angle and lower cervical curvature. Also there was a significant increase in vertical active mouth opening (P=0.000) and decreased pain level of masticatory system (P=0.000). The correlation between mouth opening and the Craniocervical angle was found to be significant. No significant correlation was found between upper and lower cervical. Independent forward head correction exercise program was found to be effective in improving myogenic TMJD and support the relation between forward head posture and TMJD.

[Fatma A. El-Hamalawy. Forward Head Correction Exercises For Of Management Myogenic Tempromandibular Joint Dysfunction. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):71-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.08

 

Keywords: Myogenic; tempromandibulr joint dysfunction; myofascial pain; forward head posture; posture exercise.

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Inhibition Effect Of Some Cationic Gemini Surfactants For Carbon Steel In Sea Water
 

Nessim I.M.; Hamdy A.*; Osman M.M. and Shalaby M. N.

 

Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute; *amalhamdy66@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel alloy in sea water by different synthesized gemini surfactants {12-2-12, 14-2-14 and 16-2-16} have been investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and surface tension measurements. The data obtained from all the used methods are in good agreement with each other and ensure the excellent inhibition efficiency of the tested surfactants for carbon steel in sea water. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the concentration of the studied inhibitors. Also, the adsorption ability of the surfactant molecules on carbon steel surface increases with the increase in the hydrocarbon chain length of the surfactant molecule from 12 to 16 and through 14 C atoms; meanwhile, the isotherm of 16-2-16 declares the formation of multilayer onto the used metal surface. The inhibitive action of the studied surfactants follow the order: 16-2-16 > 14-2-14> 12-2-12. The morphological changes of carbon steel surface were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM].

[Nessim I.M.; Hamdy A.; Osman M.M. and Shalaby M. N. Inhibition Effect Of Some Cationic Gemini Surfactants For Carbon Steel In Sea Water. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 78-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.09

 

Keywords: Carbon steel, sea water, gemini surfactant, weight loss, potentiodynamic, adsorption onto Solid/liquid interface.

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Prophylactic and therapeutic evaluation of the phytobiotic (Orego-stim)® in chicken experimentally infected with E. coli

 

Naglaa Z. H. Eleiwa1*; E. M. El Sayed2 and A. A. Nazim2

 

1 Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2General Committee of Veterinary Service, Sharkia Governorate, Zagazig, Egypt

*eleiwa02@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of the phytobiotic (Orego-stim)®was evaluated in chicken experimentally infected with Novobiocin marked E. coli O78. Enrofloxacin (Opitryl(® was used as a standard. The obtained results demonstrated that, birds prophylactically received Orego-stim® showed more favorable clinical signs, mortality rate, P.M. lesions, recovery rate, bacterial reisolation results and growth performance. Both cellular and humeral immunity were enhanced. A decrease in the mean values of serum ALT & AST, albumin, uric acid and creatinine levels were recorded that may provide evidence for the hepato and renoprotective effects of the essential oils. It could be concluded that, Orego-stim® can be considered a promising mixture of essential oils due to its high efficacy (growth performance, antibacterial and immunomodulating effects) and positive impact on both liver and kidney functions. The study highly recommends the use of Orego-stim® as a prophylactic agent in dealing with E. coli infection in chicken however, its concurrent administration with enrofloxacin in treatment of such case revealed the most favorable outcomes.

[Naglaa Z. H. Eleiwa; E. M. El Sayed and A. A. Nazim. Prophylactic and therapeutic evaluation of the phytobiotic (Orego-stim)® in chicken experimentally infected with E. coli. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):91-102]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.10

 

Key words: Orego-stim®, essential oils, E. coli, efficacy, side effects, chicken

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Assessment of female adolescent Reproductive health needs in Assiut city

 

Ragaa A. Hassanain1, Sahar N. Mohamed2, Nadia H. Ahmed2 and Mohamed S. Abdel Rahim3

 

1Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Institute of Nursing, Asuit, Egypt

2Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Asuit Univ. Asuit, Egypt

3Obstetric and Gynecological Dept., Faculty of Medicine Assiut Univ., Asuit, Egypt

 

Abstract: Adolescents around 17million in Egypt (2005) have different needs and require different counseling approaches and more information. Adolescence is a critical stage for risk-taking because adolescents are moving toward independence and tend to experiment and test limits. Aim of this study: was to determine the problems of female adolescents, and provide information about reproductive health. Subject and methods: Cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in nursing secondary schools and technical institutes in Assiut city in Upper Egypt with total number of 514 adolescent female students which are recruited. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire sheet and a physical assessment sheet. Results: The study revealed that 94.6% of the girls were circumcised, and 98.2% had their menarche. Overall, 65.5% had satisfactory knowledge, and 81.5% had positive attitude. The main sources of information were classroom whereas parents, newspapers, and magazines were less reported. There was a statistical significance difference between knowledge and had circumcision (p=0.002), also, between knowledge about reproduction and their related attitudes and beliefs (p<0.001). Conclusion: unmet information needs were related to female genital mutilation, family planning, pregnancy and labor, and the preferred sources are school book, media, and parents. Recommendations: It is recommended that the unmet needs identified should be used for development of educational programs for adolescents. The role of the parents, as well as health care providers needs to be fostered through using of multimedia as television and radio.

 [Ragaa A. Hassanain, Sahar N. Mohamed, Nadia H. Ahmed and Mohamed S. Abdel Rahim.Assessment of female adolescent Reproductive health needs in Assiut city. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):103-115].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.11

 

Key words: Adolescents, reproductive health, knowledge, attitude.

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Ameliorative Effect of Aqueous Leave Extract of Ocimum Basilicum on Ccl4 - Induced Hepatotoxicity and Apoptosis in Albino Rats

 

Saber A. Sakr*1, Sabah F. El-Abd2, Mohamed Osman2, Asmaa M. Kandil 3, Mona S. Helmy

 

1. Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt

2. Molecular Biology Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufia University, Sadat City, Egypt

3. National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Cairo, Egypt

*sabsak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chemical-induced liver injury depends mostly on the oxidative stress. Basil or sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is known to have numerous pharmacological activities. The present study aims to investigate the effect of basil on Ccl4-induced hepatotoxicity and apoptotic in albino rats. The result showed CCl4 caused impairment of the normal structural organization of the hepatic lobules, congestion and dilatation of blood vessels, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty degeneration. The biochemical results showed that there was an increase in serum level of ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL. Moreover, CCl4 induced hepatic apoptosis. Treating animals with CCl4 and aqueous leaves extract of O. basilica led to an improvement, in both histopathological and biochemical alterations induced by CCl4. Also, apoptosis was repaired by shared administration with both O. basilicum and CCl4. These results proved that O. basilica had an ameliorative effect against liver injury produced by CCl4 due to its antioxidant activity.

[Saber A. Sakr, Sabah F. El-Abd, Mohamed Osman, Asmaa M. Kandil, Mona S. Helmy. Ameliorative Effect of Aqueous Leave Extract of Ocimum Basilicum on Ccl4 - Induced Hepatotoxicity and Apoptosis in Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 116-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.12

 

Key words: CCl4 – Hepatotoxicity- rat- O. basilicum - Apoptosis

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The enhancement anti inflammatory effect of Caffeine on Green tea extract and EGCG on obese rats

 

Amany SE. Elwakkad*,Diaa. B Elazhary**,Saadia A.Mohamed*, Salwa R.Elzayat*, Mohamed Abd allah*

 

*National Reasearch Center, Medical physiology Departement. ** Zoology department, Faculty of science, EL-Minia University.

as.elwakkad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obesity is linked directly with the increased acute phase protein like c-reactive protein (CRP)and increased production of some cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a result of an inflammatory signaling pathway. The health benefits of green tea are related to its catechins particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallatel (EGCG). Green tea contains caffeine which stimulate thermogenesis and fat oxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on EGCG –and green tea extract–administered obese rats induced by high-fat diet. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group served as healthy control group. The second group was fed high fat –diet for 8 week and was divided into 6 subgroups. IL-6, CRP and TNF-α showed a high significant (p<0.01) increase at zero level and after 5 and 9 weeks of obesity induction as compared to control group. The results showed a decrease in proinflammatory cytokines effect of EGCG, green tea extract and caffeine on TNF-α after 5 weeks (P<0.051, P<0.039, P0.2), for IL6were(P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.000), and for CRP(P<0.066, P<0.007, P<0.002) respectively The 9 weeks treatment by EGCG, Green tea extract and caffeine on TNF-α (P<0.312, P<0122, P<0.057), on IL-6 (P<0.155, P<0.029, P<0.033), on CRP (P<0.387 P<0.168, P<0.088). The addition of caffeine to green tea showed enhancement of the effect with decrease of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP after 5 weeks (P<0.03, P<0.001 P<0.034) respectively where after the 9 weeks all the parameters reversed back to normal. The addition of caffeine to EGCG after 5 weeks showed enhancement of the effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP |(P<0.04, P<0.011, P<0.066) respectively, at the end of the 9 weeks all the inflammatory parameters return to normal levels. As conclusion, the addition of caffeine to EGCG or green tea extract enhance their anti-inflammatory effects on the low grade inflammation state a combined obesity by decreasing the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and CRP.

[Amany SE. Elwakkad, Diaa. B Elazhary, Saadia A.Mohamed, Salwa R. Elzayat, Mohamed Abd allah. The enhancement anti inflammatory effect of Caffeine on Green tea extract and EGCG on obese rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 128-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.13

 

Keywords: green tea, EGCG, Caffeine

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Effects of Prenatal Phenytoin Toxicity on the Expression of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in the Developing Rat Cerebellum

 

*Sahar Youssef; Olfat A. Abd-El- Aty; Halla H. M. Mossalam and Amina M. A. Tolba

 

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*sahar_sayed @ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Cerebellum is a highly organized structure and its postnatal development was characterized by cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Phenytoin is a primary antiepileptic drug used for all types of epilepsy except absence seizures. Even with the newer antiepileptic drugs, phenytoin continues to serve as a reference point and many epileptic women received phenytoin during pregnancy. The mechanism of teratogenicity by phenytoin is still under investigation. So, the present study was designed to clarify the effect of prenatal phenytoin on the cerebellar development in rat offspring using the immunohistochemical distribution of glial marker. The pregnant rats were received phenytoin 35mg/ kg body weight once a day from gestational days E5 to E20. In H and E stained sections, the Purkinje cells in the treated group (PD7) had poor and immature arbors and partially showed an irregular arrangement. There is dispersal of the internal granular cell layer and the white matter with the presence of vacuolations, dilated capillaries and extracellular oedema. The marker of radial glia, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has been used to describe phenytoin induced alteration in the morphology and reactivity of Bergman glial cells and their fibres that are the guide substrate of granule cells. The feature of these fibres gives information on the proper granule cell migration. GFAP positive immunoreactivity was first detected at postnatal day one (PD1). Thin glial positive fibers had a regular feature running in parallel in the molecular layer and in the external granular layer of controls at postnatal day seven (PD7). In contrast, in the treated rats, the glial fibers appeared twisted, thickened with an uneven course and strongly labeled end feet. GFAP immunoreactivity in the white matter astrocytes was highly detected in both the control and the treated PD7. From the previous findings, it could be concluded that phenytoin has degenerative changes on the cerebellar development. These changes can lead to extensive neurological poor health effects later in life.

[Sahar Youssef; Olfat A. Abd-El- Aty; Halla H. M. Mossalam and Amina M. A. Tolba. Effects of Prenatal Phenytoin Toxicity on the Expression of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in the Developing Rat Cerebellum. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8) 139-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.14

 

Keywords: Cerebellum; Phenytoin; Purkinje cells; Bergman glial fibers; Astrocytes; GFAP

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Stability Measurement Of Immediate Dental Implants During Healing Process Using Resonance Frequency Analysis

 

Gamal M. Moutamed

 

* Lecturer, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.; Corresponding author: gamalmoutamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Primary implant stability has been iden­tified as a prerequisite to achieve osseointegration. Recently, Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) has been introduced to provide an objective measurement of implant primary stability and implant stability over the healing period. It was hypothesized that determination of a primary stability threshold, provided in terms of a defined Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) value, might be relevant to predict the osseointegration of a given implant. The purpose of the current study was directed to evaluate the Osstell ™mentor (Integration Diagnostics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) as a diagnostic tool capable of discriminating between stable and mobile implants and to evaluate cut-off threshold ISQ value at implant placement that might be a predictive of osseointegration and up to 6 months post placement. Moreover, a correlation between ISQ values and the implants-mesial and distal bone density was carried out. Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) required extraction of maxillary anterior or premolar teeth and planned for immediate dental implants were accepted. A total of 12 Implant Direct's Screw Plant ™ implants (www.implantdirect.com) were placed immediately after extraction of teeth in the selected patients (one implant for each patient and only one patient received three implants). All implants were placed using a non-submerged technique.Immediately after placement of the implant, the Osstell ™ mentor was used for direct measurement of implant stability. Then RFA measurements were recorded at one, two, four and six months postoperative. Periapical digital radiographs were taken postoperatively at the predetermined time intervals. The ISQ values over time intervals, as well as, bone density in the mesial and distal sides of the implants were presented as means and standard deviation (SD) values. Paired t-test was used to study the changes by time. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine significant correlations between ISQ values and the implants bone density %. The means ± SD of the ISQ at implant placement was 52.2 ± 5.2. The means of ISQ values at 1, 2, and 4 months after implants insertion were 58.3, 66.3, and 75.2 respectively, and at 6 months was 86.7. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean ISQ values through all periods (P<0.001). The lowest ISQ obtained at implant placement that might be predictive of osseointegration was 49. The results showed a positive correlation between ISQ values and mesial and distal bone density percentage. In conclusion, RFA with the Osstell monitor has been claimed to be useful for monitoring implant stability and osseointegration during the healing phase. The RFA method, as a diagnostic tool, was reliable in identifying implant stability and successful osseointegration for implants with an ISQ ≥ 49. The ISQ values increased gradually with time in correlation with the increased mesial and distal bone density percentage.

 [Gamal M. Moutamed. Stability Measurement Of Immediate Dental Implants During Healing Process Using Resonance Frequency Analysis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8) 153-164](ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.15

 

Key words: Clinical study, immediate dental implants, ISQ, implant primary stability, Resonance-frequency analysis

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Photodegradation of o-cresol by ZnO under UV irradiation

 

Yadollah Abdollahi1, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,2, Zulkarnain Zainal, Nor Azah Yusof

 

1Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

yadollahabdollahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effective removal of o-cresol is currently both an environmental problem. This paper shows how degradation of o-cresol was carried out, in the presence of UV; by ZnO as photocatalyst. To measure the efficiency of photodegradation, the different variables studied included amount of photocatalyst, concentration of o-cresol and pH. The results showed photodegradation was favorable in the pH 6-9 range with amount of photocatalyst 2.5g/L, and o-cresol concentration 100ppm. The detected intermediates were 2-methylresorcinol, 2.5-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde. TOC studies show that 94% of total organic carbon is removed from solution during irradiation time. This study indicates the great potential of ZnO to remove aqueous o-cresol under UV irradiation.

[Yadollah Abdollahi, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Zulkarnain Zainal, Nor Azah Yusof. Photodegradation of o-cresol by ZnO under UV irradiation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):165-170]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.16

 

Keywords: Photodegradation, o-cresol, Photoexcited, ZnO, Photocatalyst, UV-Irradiation

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The Cooperation Acid Rains Effect on to Historical Monuments, a Case Study from Canakkale Province; West Anatolia

 

Rüştü ILGAR

 

Deparment of Geography Education, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Merkez, Canakkale 17100, Turkey; ilgar@mail.com

 

Abstract: Canakkale Monuments Observing data presented that the acid rains effect to in which has main CaC03 structure Apollo Smithion, Parion and Alexandria Troas according to particular by DTA graphics. The main reason of standing up of historical monuments in the region is caused by resistant greywacke structure, existence of quartz as a thermodynamically decisive form of SiO2 has increased the resistance to time and acid rain in the region. Getting originated from industry and transportation which give rise to SOx and NOx inputs into the atmosphere on to Canakkale’s historical monuments. Water loss coming out or high Uv energy which depends on temperature rise. Preserving measures maximum wet sediments in the seasons of autumn and winter rains effect coming from Balkans to study area, as a result to the density reach to the maximum level.

[Rüştü ILGAR The Cooperation Acid Rains Effect on to Historical Monuments, a Case Study from Canakkale Province; West Anatolia, Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):171-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.17

 

Keywords: Acid rain, historical monument, environment, Canakkale, Turkey

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Sustainable Agriculture in Malaysia: Implication for Extension Workers

 

Neda Tiraieyari and Jegak Uli

 

Institute for Social Science Studies (IPSAS). University Putra Malaysia.

ntiraie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A global survey revealed that at present sustainable agriculture is implemented on only 3 percent of the total farming land in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers reported some obstacle to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices such as information on sustainable practices, economic factors, education and information, resistance to change, barriers related to sustainable agriculture technologies, social context, financial and material infrastructure and land tenure constraints. One of the main barriers to adoption of sustainable agriculture reported by farm producers and extension workers is lack of available information. Hence agricultural extension workers as information provider play a vital role for achievement of sustainable agriculture. The challenge extension workers faces are that of promoting sustainable agriculture to encourage farm producers adopt the program. The success of sustainable agricultural program depends on training and education of farm producers. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether extension workers have been sufficiently oriented themselves to their responsibility on sustainable agriculture or not.

[Neda Tiraieyari and Jegak Uli. Sustainable Agriculture in Malaysia: Implication for Extension Workers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):179-182]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.18

 

Keywords: Agricultural extension. sustainable agriculture. extension workers.

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Ginger Administration has a Protective Effect on the Liver of Albino Rats Treated with 6-Mercaptopurine Drug

 

1Olfat A. Abd-El Aty and 2Enas N. Morgan

 

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar –University (girls)

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig - University

*Olfat_fair@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The leukemia is considered to be one of the most frequent tumors in childhood. The first line of its treatment is 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). There are many recorded cytotoxic effects for 6-mercaptopurine on tissues such as liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Nowadays the needs for administration of cytotoxic drugs are increased as the incidence of malignancies increases. So we have to search for a safe method that can minimize the side effects of these cytotoxic drugs. The ginger has many benefits as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant substance. Some indicated as a protective effect for ginger on the radiotherapy treated rats and also a protection from the hepatotoxic and gonado-toxic drugs were recorded. This work amid to investigate the protective effects of ginger on liver of rats treated by cytotoxic drug (6-mercaptopurine), a drug of choice in maintenance therapy for leukemia in adult and children. Our hope is to minimize the side effects of the cytotoxic drugs with simple and available procedure. Material The current study had been carried on 40 white albino rats that divided into four equal groups. Group I: was served as control group. Group II: was given ginger extract only. Group III: was given 6- MP. Group IV: was given 6-MP + ginger extract. The following parameters were examined in all groups: 1- The serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspirate aminotransferase (AST). 2- The cell morphology and histo-pathological changes in the liver. The results of the present study showed that treatment with 6-MP alone caused marked signs of cellular degeneration and necrosis of the hepatic tissues, significant increase in the serum levels of ALT (P<0.001) and AST (P<0.001) enzymes when compared with control group. However, the treatment by ginger along with 6-MP showed marked regeneration and improvement in the hepatic tissues and significant decrease in the serum levels of liver enzymes; ALT (P<0.001) and AST (P<0.001) when compared with 6-MP treated group. Conclusion: These findings indicated that ginger has protective effect against 6-MP induced hepatic toxicity.

[Olfat A. Abd-El Aty and Enas N. Morgan. Ginger Administration Has a Protective Effect on The Liver Of Albino Rats Treated with 6-Mercaptopurine Drug. Journal of American Science 2011;7 (8):183-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.19

 

Keywords: Ginger, 6-MP, hepatic toxicity.

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Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation: A Case Study on Hand Dug Wells in Hantebet Catchment, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

 

1* Abraham Bairu Gebrehiwot; 2 Nata Tadesse; 2 K. Bheemalingeswara; and 1 Mokennen Haileselassie

 

1Research and Technology Development Directorate, Tigray Science and Technology Agency, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia

2Department of Geology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia

abrahambairu@ymail.com or AbrahamBairu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted in Hantebet catchment area which has a total area of 24.5 km2. The major objective of the study was to assess the suitability of the groundwater quality for irrigation purpose through hydrochemical investigation of the different hand dug wells in the watershed. Having classified the hand dug wells, using the stratified and random sampling techniques, a total of 20 water samples were selected and collected. Water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbonate (CO32-), sulphate (SO42--S), and nitrate (NO3--N) in Water Works Design and Supervision Enterprise Laboratory Service, Addis Ababa. pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) was computed using sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) concentrations in meq/lit. Chemical data of groundwater samples as plotted in trilinear diagram indicated eight water types, Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3, Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3, Na-Ca-HCO3-SO4, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Na-HCO3-SO4. Most of the water samples plotted in the Wilcox plot fall in the zone designated C2-S1 and C3-S1 indicating that the groundwater samples generally have low sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and medium to high salinity hazard associated with them. In terms of salinity, eight samples were excellent for irrigation use and twelve samples were with slight to moderate degree of restriction on the basis of ECw. In terms of infiltration, on the basis of ECw and SAR value, eleven samples pose slight to moderate degree of restriction on irrigation. However, nine samples pose none degree of restrictions to its use for irrigation due to its effect on soil infiltration rates. Groundwater in the study area is suitable for surface and sprinkler irrigation use with no chloride toxicity, and with respect to sodium toxicity. Only one sample shows SAR values above 3 (3.095).

[Abraham Bairu Gebrehiwot, Nata Tadesse, K. Bheemalingeswara, Mokennen Haileselassie. Suitability of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation: A Case Study on Hand Dug Wells in Hantebet Catchment, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):191-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.20

 

Keywords: Groundwater, Salinity, SAR, Toxicity, Water quality, Hantebet

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Direct shoot regeneration from leaf, root and stem internode segments of male poplar trees and the molecular analysis of variant regenerated plants

 

Fadia El Sherif and Salah Khattab

 

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia- Egypt

 

Abstract: A regeneration protocol has been developed by using thidiazuron (TDZ) with a high frequency of in vitro leaf, root and stem internode induction in male (Populus alba, Populus tremula L. and Populus tremula L. x Populus. tremuloides "Michx"). There were differences in average number of shoots among the different sources of explants, the stem internode explants regenerated shoots more effectively than leaf and root explants. In contrast to root and stem internode explants, leaves had poor regeneration abilities in the case of P. tremula and P. tremula x P. tremuloides "Michx". The highest frequency of adventitious shoot formation was (8.2, 39.2 and 38.3 shoots /explant) for Populus alba, Populus tremula L. and Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides "Michx" respectively on a medium containing 0.02 μM TDZ when stem internode explants were cultured. Higher TDZ concentrations significantly stimulated further elongation in the newly formed shoots on the three Populus species. In vitro regenerated plants were genetically analyzed using RAPD fingerprints. The presence of specific loci in the regenerated plants indicated that no genetic variation existed in the regenerated plants.

[Fadia El Sherif and Salah Khattab. Direct shoot regeneration from leaf, root and stem internode segments of male poplar trees and the molecular analysis of variant regenerated plants. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):200-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.21

 

Key words: In vitro regeneration, Populus alba, Populus tremula, Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides "Michx", male trees, TDZ, RAPD.

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Assessment of female adolescent Reproductive health needs in Assiut city

 

Ragaa A. Hassanain1, Sahar N. Mohamed2, Nadia H. Ahmed2 and Mohamed S. Abdel Rahim3

 

1Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Institute of Nursing, Asuit, Egypt

2Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Asuit Univ. Asuit, Egypt

3Obstetric and Gynecological Dept., Faculty of Medicine Assiut Univ., Asuit, Egypt

 

Abstract: Adolescents around 17 million in Egypt (2005) have different needs and require different counseling approaches and more information. Adolescence is a critical stage for risk-taking because adolescents are moving toward independence and tend to experiment and test limits. Aim of this study: was to determine the problems of female adolescents, and provide information about reproductive health. Subject and methods: Cross-sectional analytic study was conducted in nursing secondary schools and technical institutes in Assiut city in Upper Egypt with total number of 514 adolescent female students which are recruited. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire sheet and a physical assessment sheet. Results: The study revealed that 94.6% of the girls were circumcised, and 98.2% had their menarche. Overall, 65.5% had satisfactory knowledge, and 81.5% had positive attitude. The main sources of information were classroom whereas parents, newspapers, and magazines were less reported. There was a statistical significance difference between knowledge and had circumcision (p=0.002), also, between knowledge about reproduction and their related attitudes and beliefs (p<0.001). Conclusion: unmet information needs were related to female genital mutilation, family planning, pregnancy and labor, and the preferred sources are school book, media, and parents. Recommendations: It is recommended that the unmet needs identified should be used for development of educational programs for adolescents. The role of the parents, as well as health care providers needs to be fostered through using of multimedia as television and radio.

[Ragaa A. Hassanain, Sahar N. Mohamed, Nadia H. Ahmed and Mohamed S. Abdel Rahim.Assessment of female adolescent Reproductive health needs in Assiut city. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 207-220].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.22

 

Key words: Adolescents, reproductive health, knowledge, attitude.

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Geoelectrical investigation of external corrosion of earth buried pipeline in the coastal area of Gulf of Guinea

 

1Okiwelu, A. A., 2Evans, U. F., and 1Obianwu, V. I.

 

1 Geophysics Unit, Department of Physics, University of Calabar, Nigeria. 2 Department of Science, Maritime Academy, Oron, Nigeria, Corresponding author: okiwelu2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Earth buried transmission pipeline which is coated and protected by impressed current cathodic protection system have been noted to show evidence of external corrosion in its segment buried within low resistivity geomaterials. The resistivity of the geomaterials within the pipeline environments was investigated using electric drilling technique set-up in Schlumberger array. The earth resistivity measured at Ikot Abasi showed low resistivities (12.41-520Ωm), while the geomaterials at Ikot Osuteng produced high resistivity values (1616-15272Ωm). Potential profiling employing close interval potential survey was used to determine extent of the external corrosion as well as the effectiveness of the cathodic protection system. The potential at Ikot Abasi ranges between 331-910mV while that of Ikot Osuteng ranges between 1117-1811mV. The standard practice protective criteria (SP0169) of -850mV showed that the pipeline segment at Ikot Abasi is under severe corrosion while the segment at Ikot Osuteng is well protected by the cathodic protection system.

[Okiwelu, A. A., Evans, U. F., and Obianwu, V. I. Geoelectrical investigation of external corrosion of earthburied pipeline in the coastal area of Gulf of Guinea. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):221-226] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.23

 

Key words: Potential, Protection, Cathodic, Resistivity, Corrosion, Pipeline

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Economic Resource Situation of Future Researching (Income gained by females) in Middle East in 1404 (A.H.) Horizon

 

Omolbani Poulab

 

PhD Student, Department of Political Geography, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, omolbanipoulab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: From the beginning of 3rd millennium gender indices of strength could be expressive of capability of countries difference in the scale of development. Gender development of strength indices not only pays to rate of political and economical partnership of females, but also embraces the strength of economic resources which is measured by gained income by females and males. Structural change of labor force and entrancing females in various fields of labor and activity because of arising level of females education causes decreasing of gap of their partnership with male cause change of attitude relative to difference of level of incomes and wages between females and male. Achievable observations indicate that there is sexual income gap in all countries and can be very different and even in some cases conversely. However, for example in Brazil, females under 25 years have more average hour wage to their male partners. Since females mostly are working in occupations with low wages, naturally have lower income to the males. Average per capita income by share of wages and non-agriculture incomes for Net national production is lower than mails. But what separates developed and developing countries in the field of income between male and female is the rate of this gap.

[Omolbani Poulab. Economic Resource Situation of Future Researching (Income gained by females) in Middle East in 1404 (A.H.) Horizon. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):227-232] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.24

 

Keywords: Economic Resource, females, developing Countries

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Mathematical analysis of Solutions of Drug Models

 

M. M. A. El-Sheikh, S. A. A. El-Marouf, and E.M. Khalil

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Permanent Adress: Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Koom, Egypt.

 

Abstract: In this paper the behavior of solutions of permanent drug resistance model is discussed. The equilibrium points of two drugs resistance are computed. The local stability near equilibrium pionts is discussed. The boundedness, existance of periodic orbits, global stability of permanent drug resistance are studied. the probability generating function for two drugs resistance model in all possible cases is discussed. The obtained results improve and generalize some known results in the literature.

[M. M. A. El-Sheikh, S. A. A. El-Marouf, and E.M. Khalil. Mathematical analysis of Solutions of Drug Models. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):233-239]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.25

 

Keywords: Drug resistance; Local Stability; global stability; Periodic orbits; Probability generating functions.

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Body Mass Index as an Assessment Tool for Overweight and Obesity in School Children in El-Qalubia Governorate

 

Ahmed Mahmoud Ezzat1, Mahmoud Fawzy EL Gendy2, Doaa Refaey Soliman1, Ashraf Hassan Mohammed3 and Hazem Salem Abdel Azeem Abou Ghazy1

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

2Department of Community, faculty of medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

3Department of Physical therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University,

Cairo, Egypt;

 

Abstract: Aim of the study was to design BMI (Body Mass Index) charts to the studied group, to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the group and to provide suitable recommendations for prevention overweight and obesity. Methods: This was a cross sectional study that included 500 students collected from primary and preparatory schools, aged 7-15 years and living in El-Qalubia governorate through the academic year 2010/2011. A self administered questionnaire was used; it included some socio-demographic characteristics and measurements for weight and height of students. Data was collected, revised and entered using the statistical package SPSS. Results: Obese students represented 20.4% of students. Obesity increased in younger students with mean age 9.33±2.094 years and increased in male students (55% of all obese students), while overweight increased in female students (54.5% of all overweight students). Female students recorded higher values over males in weight during the first 5 years of age (7-11 years old) then, boys become heavier than girls. Moreover, there was a gradual increase in height of female and male students at age 7-15 years old. In addition, the current study indicated that female students have the higher values of BMI from age 7 to 15 years old than males.

[Ahmed Mahmoud Ezzat, Mahmoud Fawzy EL Gendy, Doaa Refaey Soliman, Ashraf Hassan Mohammed and Hazem Salem Abdel Azeem Abou Ghazy. Body Mass Index as an Assessment Tool for Overweight and Obesity in School Children in El-Qalubia Governorate. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):240-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.26

 

Keywords: BMI (kg/m2), obesity, and overweight.

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Comparative Histological and Ultrastructural Studies on the Stomach of Schilbe mystus and the Intestinal Swelling of Labeo niloticus

 

S. A. A. Naguib; H. A. EI-Shabaka and F. Ashour

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

Setaita_Sleem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation aims to illustrate the histological and ultrastructural differences of the stomach of a carnivorous fish, Schilbe mystus, and the intestinal swelling of a herbivorous fish, Labeo niloticus. The stomach of Schilbe mystus is morphologically divided into three portions: the cardiac, pyloric and fundic portions. However, the histological examination revealed that the stomach is actually divided into two portions: the cardio-fundic portion and the pyloric one. Moreover, the mucosa of the cardio­fundic portion of the stomach of Schilbe mystus revealed that it consists of two types of cells: the luminal and glandular cells. The luminal cells, which line the gastric lumen and gastric pits, are tall columnar with apically concentrated secretory granules that have a positive PAS reaction. In addition, the glandular cells, which line the bodies of the gastric glands, are pyramidal in shape and possess scattered secretory granules. The pyloric portion of the stomach has the same structure as the cardio-fundic portion, but the gastric glands are completely absent. The histological examination of the mucosa of the intestinal swelling of Labeo niloticus revealed that it is built up of a simple columnar epithelium that contains goblet cells. The ultrastructural examination of the gastric mucosa of the stomach of Schilbe mystus revealed three types of cells: the luminal, endocrine and exocrine (oxynticopeptic) cells. The luminal cells are tall columnar and are characterized by the presence of apically aggregated secretory granules and a prominent vesiculotubular system. The gastric endocrine cells are mainly pyramidal in shape and are characterized by numerous secretory granules, which exhibit various sizes and shapes. According to the dominant size of the secretory granules, the endocrine cells are differentiated into three types: type-I, type-2 and type-3 cells. Moreover, the gastric glands of Schilbe mystus are made up of a single type of exocrine cells, the oxynticopeptic cells. The oxynticopeptic cells are characterized by the combined features of the mammalian oxyntic and peptic cells. The oxynticopeptic cells have numerous apical microvilli, a well-developed vesiculotubular system, numerous mitochondria, a rough endoplasmic reticulum and numerous secretory granules.The ultrastructural examination of the mucosa of the intestinal swelling of Labeo ni/oticus revealed that the enterocytes are tall columnar and possess well­developed microvilli, numerous mitochondria, microtubules, a few endocytotic channels and aggregated chylomicrons.

 [S. A. A. Naguib; H. A. EI-Shabaka and F. Ashour. Comparative Histological and Ultrastructural Studies on the Stomach of Schilbe mystus and the Intestinal Swelling of Labeo niloticus. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):251-263]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.27

 

Keywords: Stomach histology, Stomach ultrastructure, Labeo nilotieus, Schilbe mystus, Teleost.

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Evaluation of Monosodium Glutamate Induced Neurotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rats

 

Marwa A. Abass 1 and Manal R. Abd El-Haleem2

 

 1Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology and 2Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

 

Abstract: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a food additive with a wide use in modern nutrition. The Current research concerned with studying the toxic effects of MSG on rats cerebrum and kidneys. Thirty six adult male albino rats were divided into three groups (each containing 12 rats); negative control group, positive control group (received 2 ml saline orally for 28 days) and MSG group (received 830 mg/ Kg. B. wt orally for the same period). Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, urine analysis for urinary albumin excretion and histopathological examination for cerebrum, kidneys were examined in all groups. The results showed marked increase in the serum creatinine, BUN levels in MSG group as compared to control group. These changes were accompanied with a significant increase in the urinary excretion of albumin. These alterations were accompanied by variable histopathological changes of the examined cerebral and renal tissues. There were neurogenerative changes in the form of vacuolization, pyknosis, satellitosis and chroidal plexus congestion in the cerebral cortex. The renal tissue showed swelling in the lining endothelium of the glomeruli associated focal areas of glomerular atrophy. There was also hydropic degeneration of the tubules with tubular dilatation and hyaline casts. The inter-tubular spaces showed dilatation and congestion of the cortical blood vessels with focal hemorrhage between the tubules. Moreover MSG treatment induced up regulation of Bax protein in all examined tissues as compared to control rats indicating that MSG induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the results confirmed the neurotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of MSG, where Bax protein appeared to have a pivotal role in MSG induced apoptosis in these organs.

[Marwa A. Abass and Manal. R. Abd El-Haleem Evaluation of Monosodium Glutamate Induced Neurotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):264-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.28

 

Keywords: Monosodium Glutamate; Food Additive; Cerebrum; Kidneys; Apoptosis and Bax immunostaining

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Technology of earthquake resistant solar systems used in solar earthquake parks

 

Akbar Toloian

Member of Iranian Solar Energy Society & The Responsible Expert of Technical Council of East Azarbaijan Province.

akbar_toloian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Earthquake is among the natural destructive catastrophes whose incidence imposes serious social and economical damages to human societies. The only way to save people is to pay attention to safety issues, providing the required facilities and equipments prior to earthquake occurrence. The first step is hence smoothing the way for establishing and equipping parks and places supplying the essential needs of people wherein the natural, permanent, and reusable energy is used for the purpose of providing light, air conditioning, cooking, and telecommunication requirements. Regarding such an approach, carrying out the project of solar park for earthquake in all regions of Iran with high probability of earthquake occurrence is of critical importance. The next step will be to use the technology of anti-earthquake solar systems in these parks, which paves the way for reaching the first objective. In order to supply the required energy for light, air conditioning, and also for preparing hot water for bath and washing in these earthquake solar parks, it is needed to install photovoltaic (PV) panels with essential equipments on floor or under the ceiling of the buildings which have been recognized to be resistant against earthquake in critical times. Accordingly, making use of the technology of solar systems and designing and making the buildings with maximum use from solar energy are of great significance.

[Akbar Toloeeyan. Akbar Toloeeyan. Akbar Toloian. Akbar Toloian Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):277-284]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.29

 

Keywords: Solar Park; Reproducible energies; Earthquake; Natural catastrophes; solar systems; Photovoltaic

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Comparative Studies on Some Factors Affecting Rooting Ability of Carob Stem Cuttings

 

Shereen, A. Shaheen and Aly A. A.

 

Olive & Semiarid Zone Fruits Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author: Sheerenatef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2007 and 2008 on 20 – years –old on a Carob (Ceratonia Silique L.), female tree which performed the best vegetative growth, yield and pod quality, grown in the experimental orchard station of Horticulture Research Institute at Giza, Egypt. The aim was to find out the effect of some factors (type of cutting, date of cutting preparation and hormone treatment) on vegetative propagation of Carob plants by stem cuttings. To achieve this work, two types of Carob stem cuttings (terminal and sub-terminal) were prepared from one- year- old branches. Monthly, on each collection date, cuttings were subjected to the hetero auxin (IBA) treatments by dipping the base of them 10 sec. in 3000, 6000 and 9000 ppm IBA solution, with or without wounding and with or without NAA at two concentrations 100 & 200 ppm. Cuttings were divided into two groups; first group was planted under intermittent mist, and the second group under white plastic tunnel. Results showed that rooting ability of carob, root length and dry weight, survival after 2 months and average number of roots increased by increasing concentration of IBA from 3000 to 9000 ppm with wounding and with NAA at 100 and 200 ppm in both April and May in both terminal and sub terminal cuttings, but decreased to the little extent in August and September. While, fluctuated greatly exhibiting very low values to zero during the period from October to March. Terminal cuttings were the best in the rooting ability, root length and survival after 2 months. Sub-terminal cuttings were the best in the average number of roots and dry weight of roots under mist and tunnel. The untreated Carob stem cuttings of two types appeared to be difficult or impossible to root in collection dates and different concentrations of hormone. In conclusion, vegetative propagation of Carob by cuttings under mist or under tunnel affected by many factors such as: time of preparing cuttings, type of cuttings and treated with growth regulators. Moreover, mist propagation technique costly where as in areas characterized by poor facilities, propagation under white plastic tunnels is cheaper and save the cost of electricity and can be used commercially.

[Shereen, A. Shaheen and Aly A. A. Comparative Studies on Some Factors Affecting Rooting Ability of CarobStem Cuttings. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):285-301] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.30

 

Key words: Carob tree,type of cutting, date of cutting preparation and hormone treatment, stem cutting types

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Sultanistic regimes, an appropriate model for leaving the problems of bilateral explanations of authoritarianism and totalitarianism

 

Shiva Jalalpour

 

PhD student, Department of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Shiva.jalalpoor@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reviewing the history for the structure of power in the 3rd world expresses the principles of long time existence of non-democratic systems in power. Hence we observe the establishment of Eastern despotic models, Eastern inheriting sultanistic regimes, Asian inheriting despotism and the theories of sultanate systems, expressing this type of structure of power. The theory of sultanistic regimes is a rather modern model, with numerous and different characteristics, than other views, benefiting more strong points and less errors. Therefore, this article is dealing with considering this theory.

[Shiva Jalalpour. Sultanistic regimes, an appropriate model for leaving the problems of bilateral explanations of authoritarianism and totalitarianism. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):302-307] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.31

 

Keywords: sultanistic regimes, authoritarianism, totalitarianism

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Synthesis and Biological evaluation of pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as antibacterial and antiviral

 

Khaled M. Hassan Hilmy*1, Mounir D. Elsafty2, Alaa Ramadan. I. Morsy2, Ghada M. Elsadek Aly2

 and Salah M. El-kousy1

 

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, El-Menofia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

2 Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Agricultural Research Center, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.

hilmykhaled@yahoo.com, khaledhilmy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A new class of pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidine derivatives has been designed and synthesized, then examined and evaluated for their antiviral and antibacterial activity. New prophylactic therapeutic tools are needed for the treatment of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and highly virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). 3a, 3b, 3g, 3h have shown to posses highly potent against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and 1a, 2a are shown highly potent against highly virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the compounds 1a-c, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3g, 3h are shown highly potent against enterobacteriases [Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium] strains. This study is the first record in Egypt and may be in the world concerning the activity of these new class of pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives against (HPAI) H5N1 and NDV.

[Khaled M. Hassan Hilmy, Mounir D. Elsafty, Alaa Ramadan. I. Morsy, Ghada M. Elsadek Aly and Salah M. El-kousy. Synthesis and Biological evaluation of pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as antibacterial and antiviral. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):308-314].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.32

 

Key words: Pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine derivatives, antibacterial, antiviral activity

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Perceived Self-efficacy and Commitment to an Exercise Plan in Patients with Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis

 

Hanan, S. A. and Sahar, Y. M

 

Dept. of Medical Surgical Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt

*saharyassien@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Exercise remains a central health behavior in improving osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. A convenience sample of patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis (75) and osteoarthritis (75) was recruited. Their mean age ±SD was 52.9±7.2 and 50.0±13.1, respectively. Obtained results revealed that osteoporotic patients had significantly higher mean scores of commitment to plan, and higher exercise self-efficacy, while the mean score of exercise benefit was higher in the osteoarthritis group. In addition; a significant positive correlations were found between commitment and perceived self-efficacy scores, and between self-efficacy and perceived lack of barriers and exercise benefits in both groups. In regression analysis, age was a negative predictor for commitment in osteoporosis group, while self-efficacy and lack of barriers were positive predictors. In osteoarthritis group, self-efficacy was the only positive predictor of commitment. Based on these results, it is recommended that the heath care professionals should adopt strategies for enhancing patient's self-efficacy, give special attention to perceived barriers to exercise, and tailor exercise interventions to the different needs and perceptions of the patients with osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to compare perceived self-efficacy, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and commitment to exercise between patients diagnosed with osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, and assessing the influence of perceived exercise self-efficacy, exercise benefits, and barriers on commitment.

[Hanan, S. A. and Sahar, Y. M., Perceived Self-efficacy and Commitment to an Exercise Plan in Patients with Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):315-323].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.33

 

Keywords: Osteoporosis; Osteoarthritis, Exercise, Self-efficacy, Commitment

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The impact of premenstrual syndrome on social Participation of the 25-35 year old female staffs of Baft city (Kerman Province) in 2010

 

Rahmatollah Dadvar, Farangis Dadvar, Maryam Habibi Fathabadiƒ

 

(PH.D. student of university sains Malaysia (USM) & academy member, Islamic Azad University, Baft branch –Kerman, Iran);

(women studies M.S. from Islamic Azad University- Baft branch – Kerman, Iran)

ƒ (women studies M.S. from Islamic Azad University- Baft branch and teacher of Baft education –Kerman, Iran)

Email: Rdadvar7@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Development is not materialized without the women’s contribution, so that preparing an appropriate ground for different activities of the women and fighting against all barriers of women participation in socio-economic and political activities is essential. One of the barriers is the existence of the Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) in women. PMS is a set of disturbing signs which are experienced by many people some days before menstruation. Many of pro-women thinkers believe that PMS is a psychological disturbance being created by medical science to treat a natural biologic process, so that to prevent of the women interference in heavy and strong activities in the society. In order to determine the existence of PMS and its consequences, a study was done on 130 women in 25 to 35 years old who were the female employed staff in the public offices in Bam city. It was a survey and in order to collect data, in addition to questionnaires, books and other documents were also used. The results show that the percentage of affliction with PMS was 94%. The affliction with depression resulting from the syndrome was reported in 70% of the individuals and those afflicted with agony were 64%. This high pain of PMS affliction along with the consequences resulting from the physical signs, distress and depression can have a threatening factor for the women’s health and a pretext to make employers disappointed of employing women. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):324-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.34

 

Key words: Women, Premenstrual Syndrome, Distress, Depression, Social Participation

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Experimental Equality and Under Determination

 

Ramin Seyedi

 

Islamic Azad University, Maragheh Branch, Iran

Ramin_Sayedi234@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During this century, there emerged from the philosophical analysis of scientific theories two results invested with broad epistemological signifi­cance By the 1920s, it was widely supposed that a perfectly general proof was available for the thesis that there are always empirically equivalent rivals to any successful theory. Secondly, by the 1940s and 1950s, it was thought that - in large part because of empirical equivalence - theory choice was radically underdetermined by any conceivable evidence. Whole theories of knowledge (e.g., W. V. Quine's) (Fraassen. 1976) have been constructed on the pre­sumption that these results were sound; at the same time, fashionable recent repudiations of the epistemic project (e.g., Richard Rorty's) have been based on the assumption that these results are not only legitimate, but laden with broad implications for the theory of knowledge. In this paper, we reject both the supposition of empirical equivalence and the inference from it to underdetermination. Not only is there no general guarantee of the possibility of empiricalk equiva­lent rivals to a given theory, but empirical equiva­lence itself is a problematic notion without safe application. Moreover, the empirical equivalence of a group of rival theories, should it obtain, would not by itself establish that they are underdeter­mined by the evidence. One of a number of em­piricalk equivalent theories may be uniquely preferable on evidentially probative grounds. Hav­ing, argued for these conclusions in the first two sections, respectively, we shall propose, in section III of this paper, a diagnosis of the difficult that has impeded their recognition, and extract in attendant, positive moral for the prospects of epistemology.

[Ramin Seyedi, Experimental Equality and Under Determination. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):329-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.35

 

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, Harmonic Analyses, Signal and Damage

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The evaluation of different levels of Manta pulagum on performance, and blood parameters of broilers

 

Navid Hosseini Mansoub

 

Islamic Azad University, Maragheh Branch, Maragheh, Iran

n.h.mansoub@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different levels of Menta pulagum on performance, carcass traits, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of broilers. At first 300 one day old broiler chicks were divided to 5 groups and five replicates of 12 chicks in each group. Experimental groups included T1, control group with no Menta pulagum supplementation, T2, T3, T4, and T5 received 0.75%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% Menta pulagum respectively. The results showed that the use of different levels of Menta pulagum has significant effects on performance and carcass traits of broilers (P<0.05). The highest level of weight gain was in group 5 also the highest percent of liver and breast were observed in group 5 but the greatest percent of thigh was observed in group 4. The results evidence that the using of Menta pulagum in broiler feeds have significantly effects on performance and blood biochemical and carcass traits without having any significantly effects on immunity parameters except the level of heterophile to lymphocyte.

[Navid Hosseini Mansoub. The evaluation of different levels of Menta pulagum on performance, and blood parameters of broilers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):338-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.36

 

Keywords: Blood parameter, Broiler, Performance, Menta pulagum

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Evaluating Competition of the Phalaric minor in Wheat

 

Einallah Hesammi

 

Faculty member, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch. Iran

a.hesami@iau-shouhtar.ac.ir and ainellah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: to competitive effects of wheat and p minor in densities and different use values of Nitrogen in plan frame of random blocks repeating 4 times perfectly. The test factorials included Nitrogen value in level (100,150 and 225 kg/ha) and p minor density in 5 levels (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 bones per square meter). Results of the test showed that height of p minor per three values of Nitrogen was less in initial processes of growth and more than wheat in final processes of growth. Increasing Nitrogen value has caused to increase leaf and biomass of p minor and increasing p minor density causes area of leaf and biomass of wheat to decrease. Time of closing canopy in p minor is more rapidly than in wheat. The most value of decreasing operation of wheat seed was about 48 percent while was observed in density of 160 bones of p minor in 225 kg/ha of Nitrogen. Average relative growth velocities of wheat and p minor were 0.073 and 0.028 g/dag during growth cycle, respectively. Little use value of Nitrogen fertilizer, reason of more decrease of wheat operation was existence of p minor grass.

[Einallah Hesammi Faculty member, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch. Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):342-346]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.37

 

Keywords: Wheat, p minor, Competition, Nitrogen, Density

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Heavy Metals Enrichement in Deposited Particulate Matter at Abu Zaabal Industrial Area –Egypt

 

Alia A. Shakour Ali1, Nadia M. El Taieb1, Ali M Ali Hassan2 Yasser H. Ibrahim1 and Sabry G. Abd El Wahab1

 

1National Research Centre Dokki Giza Egypt, 2Al Azhar University Nasr city Cairo Egypt

 

Abstract: This study aims to assessment the impact of two major polluted industries in Egypt located in Abu Zaabal industrial area. Deposited particulate matter was monitored at Abu Zaabal industrial area around Awadalla lead smelter and abu Zaabal phosphorus fertilizer plant. This study also provides information on the distribution of trace elements in dust fall during different times and areas. Dust fall was collected monthly from November 2008 to October 2010. Heavy metals were extracted by nitric acid and measured using Perkin Elmer 6100 ICP/MS. Dust fall (DF) results revealed that the annual mean rate of deposited dust collected during the year 2009 was 29.49, 33.54, 35.64, and 36.83 g/m2.30days for sites no. 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively while during the year 2010, the annual mean rate of deposited dust was 28.53, 34.40, 164.46 and 295.65 g/m2.30 days for sites no. 1, 2, 5 and 6, respectively. Sites no 5 and 6 recorded higher P2O5 concentration and deposition rate than sites 1 and 2 that is due to the impact of fertilizer plant. High enrichment factors for heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Ni) were found in dust-fall samples, while Zn, Co and Cr showed minimal to moderate enrichment.

[Alia A. Shakour Ali, Nadia M. El Taieb, Ali M Ali Hassan. Yasser H. Ibrahim and Sabry G. Abd El Waha. Heavy Metals Enrichement in Deposited Particulate Matter at Abu Zaabal Industrial Area –Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):347-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.38

 

Key words: Industrial area, Deposited particulate matter, Heavy metals.

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Polyamide 6.6 planed Polyester: A New Prosthetic Fabric for Repair of Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon Deficit in Equine

 

1*Inas N. El-Hussiney, 1Torad F.A., 1Ali K.M., 2Ali Marwa A. and 1Ibrahim.M.I.

 

1Department of Surgery, Anaesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

 2Textile Engineering dept. Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

*maroatf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A new prosthetic material polyamide 6.6 planed polyester was used for repair of lacerated and cut digital flexor tendons in equine especially those accompanied by deficits and gap formation. This work was done experimentally on 17 donkeys and applied on 5 clinical cases. The prosthetic material was placed and fixed between the two cut ends to reconstruct the tendinious defect. Clinical, ultrasonographic, histopathologic and biomechanical evaluations were performed to judge the efficiency of the prosthetic implant. Satisfactory results were obtained regarding healing of the affected tendons, the return of the animals to their normal ambulation and gait. Clinical cases showed good healing in extensor tendon lacerations and superficial digital flexor cuts. Complications were encountered in a case of deep digital flexor cut with large gap. It was found that, the new Polyamide 6.6\ Polyester fabric (1:1) proved to be strong and biocompatible in addition its low cost in comparison with other prosthetic material.

[Inas N. El-Hussiney, Torad F.A., Ali K.M., Ali Marwa A. and Ibrahim M.I. Polyamide 6.6\ Polyester: A New Prosthetic Fabric for Repair of Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon Deficit in Equine. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):353-361]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.39

 

Keywords: prosthetic material; polyamide; tendon; equine; Polyester; fabric

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Synthesis, Isomerization, and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some IndenothienoPyrimidine Derivatives

 

Nermin A. Marzouk1*, Ahmed H. Shamroukh2, Abeer H. Al-Saadny1, J. A. Micky1 and Farouk, M. E. Abd El-Megeid2

 

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al- Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*nerminam70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: 9-Hydroindeno[1¢,2¢:4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ylhydrazine(2)was used as a precursor for preparation of some novel 2-substituted [1,2,4] triazolo[1,5,-c]-9H-indeno [1¢,2¢:4,5]thieno[3,2-e]pyrimidine derivatives (5,6,8)and 9H-indeno[1¢,2¢,:4,5]thieno[3,2-e]tetrazolo [1,5-c] pyrimidine (10). Furthermore, the preparation of N-substituted-9-H-indeno [1¢,2¢: 4,5]thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-yl) amine derivatives(11-14) were described. Also, thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-yl-isothiourea derivatives 15 was obtained from reaction of 1 with thiourea. Selected members of the prepared compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

[Nermin A. Marzouk, Ahmed H. Shamroukh, Abeer H. Al-Saadny, J. A. Micky and Farouk, M. E.Abd El-Megeid Synthesis, Isomerization, and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some Indenothieno Pyrimidine Derivatives. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):362-369]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.40

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial evaluation; 4-substituted indenothieno-pyrimidines; rearrangement; thienotriazolopyrimidines; thienotetrazolopyrimidine

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Economic Analysis of Foreign Trade between Egypt and countries of the Great Arab Free Trade Agreement

 

Eman Abd-Elghafour Ahmed

 

Agricultural Economics Department, National Research Center, Egypt

 

Abstract: Establishment of Great Arab Free Trade Agreement (GAFTA) is considered one of the most important economic achievements among Arab countries, where the declaration of GAFTA is an important factor to accelerate the process of canceling of tariff and non-tariff barriers on trade among Arab countries. The research problem is concerned with the volume of trade between Egypt and GAFTA countries is relatively small, so the object of this research is to try to access how to increase the volume of trade between Egypt and country members in the GAFTA, and to identify the most important variables affecting Egyptian exports and imports with GAFTA, and to identify the most important countries that are expanding or limiting in imports from Egypt. The results showed that Saudi Arab was ranked as the first in the list of Egyptian exports, which ranged between 21.7%, 20.4% during 2005, 2009. As it turns out that Kuwait was as the ranked first in the list of Egyptian imports in 2005 by 33.6% of the total value of Egyptian imports from these countries. Exports of Saudi Arab to Egypt were in the first rank during the period (2006-2009) by 37.8%, 48.4%, 44.3%, 42.3%, respectively. The results of the gravity model showed that an increase in per capita GDP in each of Egypt and GAFTA countries lead to increase exports and imports, while increasing the geographical distance between Egypt and GAFTA countries lead to a decrease both of them. Gravity model for exports showed that to Sudan and Syria response to the demand for Egyptian exports at high levels of income of individuals, while the gravity model for imports showed the Egypt response to import from Saudi Arabia, UAE, Libya, and Kuwait. The study therefore recommended the need to develop joint infrastructure projects, and improve the means of transport, particularly two states, with neighboring Libya and Sudan, and export of good and services take into account consumer taste and quality requirements.

[Eman Abd-Elghafour Ahmed. Economic Analysis of Foreign Trade between Egypt and countries of the Great Arab Free Trade Agreement. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):370-376]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.41

 

Key Words: Great Arab Free Trade Agreement (GAFTA) Gravity Model Egyptian Exports, Egyptian Imports, open door policy.

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Halophytic Plants for Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil

 

Eid, M.A.

 

Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Hadayek Shobra, Cairo, Egypt

mohamedabceid@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Using of halophyte species for heavy metal remediation is of particular interest since these plants are naturally present in soils characterized by excess of toxic ions, mainly sodium and chloride. In a pot experiment, three halophyte species viz. Sporobolus virginicus, Spartina patens (monocotyledons) and Atriplex nammularia (dicotyledon) were grown under two levels of heavy metals: 0 level and combinations of 25 mg Zn + 25 mg Cu + 25 mg Ni/kg soil. The three species demonstrated high tolerance to heavy metal salts in terms of dry matter production. Sporobolus virginicus reduced Zn, Cu, and Ni from soil to reach a level not significantly different from that of the untreated control soil. Similarly, Spartina patens significantly reduced levels of Zn and Cu but not Ni. Atriplex nummularia failed to reduced Zn, Cu and Ni during the experimental period (two months). Only Sporobolus virginicus succeeded to translocate Zn and Cu from soil to the aerial parts of the plant. The accumulation efficiency of Zn and Cu in aerial parts of Sporobolus virginicus was three and two folds higher than Spartina patens and around six and three times more than Atriplex nammularia for both metals, respectively.

[Eid, M.A. Halophytic Plants for Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):377-382]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.42

 

Key words: Spartina patens, Sporobolus virginicus, Atriplex nummularia, Zn, Cu and Ni, Phytoremediation

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Effects of Chronic Exposure to Static Electromagnetic Field on Certain Histological Aspects of the Spleen and Some Haematological Parameters in Albino Rats

 

Mervat S. Zaghloul

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha Egypt

mervat2009@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Over the past few years, our environment has become seething electromagnetic smog that bombards our bodies every second of every day. Because electro-magnetic fields are invisible, we do not even realize they are there, although they are battering us mercilessly. Special attention has been given to the biological effects of magnetic fields. Thirty six male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were utilized in the present work to study the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) equaling 2 ml tesla on the spleen and some haematological parameters. Magnetic exposure was applied for 60 minutes for 3 days per week for two weeks. One day following magnetic exposure, the spleen showed congestion in the splenic sinusoids accompanied with thickening of the splenic capsule. A significant increase in the white blood cells and blood platelets was accompanied by enlargement of the white pulp were detected. Seven days following magnetic exposure, an increase of haemoglobin concentration; haematocrit and red blood cells was recorded accompanied with a highly significant decrease in blood iron. Later on, such increase was followed by a significant decrease in most haematological parameters after fifteen days of magnetic exposure. Hemosiderin granules were observed in the dilated splenic sinusoids at the areas of congestion. The splenic tissues and the haematological parameters appeared almost normal and manifested a tendency towards recovery after thirty days following magnetic exposure.

[Mervat S. Zaghloul. Effects of Chronic Exposure to Static Electromagnetic Field on Certain Histological Aspects of the Spleen and Some Haematological Parameters in Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):383-394]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.43

 

Keyword: Static Electromagnetic Field Histological Aspects Spleen Haematological Parameters in Albino Rats

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ETFRC: Enhanced TFRC for Media Traffic over Internet

 

Mohammad A. Talaat 1, Magdi A. Koutb 2, and Hoda S. Sorour 1

 

1. Department of Computer Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Menoufiya, Menouf, Egypt

2. Professor of Department of Control, Faculty of Electronic of Engineering, University of Menoufiya, Menouf, Egypt

moadly@tedata.net.eg

 

Abstract: The evident increase in media traffic over Internet is expected to worsen its congestion state. TCP-friendly rate control protocol TFRC is one of the most promising congestion control techniques developed so far. TFRC has been thoroughly tested in terms of being TCP-friendly, responsive, and fair. Yet, its impact on the visual quality and the peak signal-to- noise ratio PSNR of the media traffic traversing Internet is still questionable. In this paper we aimed to point out the enhancements required for TFRC that enables producing the maximum PSNR value for Internet media traffic. Firstly, we suspected the default value of n that represents the number of loss intervals used in calculating the loss event rate in the TFRC equation. This value is recommended to be set to 8 according to the latest RFC of TFRC. We investigated the effect of modifying the TFRC mechanism on the resulting PSNR of the transmitted video over Internet using TFRC via switching n across the values from 2 to 16. We investigated the effect of such variation over a simulated network environment to study its effect on the resulting PSNR for a number of arbitrary video sequences. Our simulations results showed that running TFRC with n=11 led to reaching the maximum PSNR values among all the examined values of n including its default value. Secondly, we tested the impact on the PSNR of another modification in the TFRC mechanism via switching both values of n and Nfb which is frequency of feedback messages sent by TFRC receiver to its sender every round-trip time RTT. The default value of Nfb is 1; hence we scanned every possible combination of n and Nfb ranging from 2 to 16, and from 1 to 4, respectively and recorded the produced PSNR. It was obvious that several other combinations of n and Nfb produced higher PSNR values other than their default values in the request for comment RFC of TFRC. We hereby suggest using an enhanced TFRC that we abbreviated as ETFRC which has the values of n and Nfb value set to 4 and 11 respectively as a replacement for the traditional TFRC to enable reaching higher PSNR for media traffic over Internet.

[Mohammad A. Talaat, Magdi A. Koutb, and Hoda S. Sorour. ETFRC: Enhanced TFRC for Media Traffic over Internet. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):395-402]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.44

 

Keywords: TFRC, Congestion Control, PSNR

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Combination toxicity effects of heavy metals on terrestrial animal (Earthworm- Eisenia andre)

 

1Paul Chuks Onuoha, 2Worgu, D.C.

 

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria. E-mail- hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: Combination toxicity of heavy metals to earthworms has been studied for the first time. Three metals, namely Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were used as toxicants. The study was carried out in line with the OECD recommended procedure for ecotoxicology tests of chemical substances to soil. Hence, the OECD approved earthworm species Eisenia Andrei was used as biological test organism. OECD artificial soil was used as test substrate. The parameters of interest in the study were the effect of logarithmically increasing concentrations of single, and finally of combinations of metals, to reproduction and body growth of earthworms. These parameters were chosen for the study since sublethal effect on growth and reproduction are of more ecological relevance than an acute toxicity effect studying mortality. Growth was measured as the increased in body weight of the worms in time. Reproduction was estimated based on the number of cocoons produced per worm and the number of emerged juveniles produced per cocoon. The EC50 values of the effect of the toxicants to the organisms were estimated by an extended logistic model which is able to take into account the presence or absence of hormesis in calculating EC50 values. The EC50 values after three weeks of the three metals to growth and cocoon production were first determined singly. Cocoon production and juvenile numbers appeared to be more sensitive parameters than growth. A continuous increase in weight was observed in almost all tested concentrations of each metal except at the highest concentration of lead. Cd appeared to have the strongest adverse on cocoon production, followed by Zn, and then Pb. This is judged from the observed EC50 values of each of the metals on cocoon production. The observed EC50 values were 104.0mg/kg (1.076 mmol/kg), 418.3mg/kg (6.398 mmol/kg), 1570.3mg/kg (7.578 mmol/kg) for Cd, Zn and Pb respectively. Based on the observed EC50 values of the single toxicity tests, combination toxicity tests were carried out for Zn & Cd, Cd & Pb and Pb & Zn. Zn & Cd were found to be antagonistic (less than concentration additive) other tests where not interpretable. The ecological implication of the result of combination toxicity test of Cd & Zn is that single toxicity test alone may not indicate the fate of earthworms exposed to sites polluted with combinations of metals.

[Paul Chuks Onuoha, Worgu, D.C. Combination toxicity effects of heavy metals on terrestrial animal (Earthworm- Eisenia andre). Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):403-415]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.45

 

Keywords: toxicity; heavy metal; terrestrial animal; Earthworm; Eisenia andre

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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin versus Gemcitabine for Intravesical Therapy in Intermediate and High-Risk Superficial Bladder Cancer

 

1Ahmed M. Abd-Alrahim and 2*Hoda H. Essa

 

1Urology Department, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 2Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University

*hodahassanessa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) has been the mainstay of intravesical treatment, however, its clinical effectiveness is accompanied by a wide range of adverse events. Gemcitabine has a good safety profile with promising features for the use against intermediate risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). It can be a potential chemotherapeutic drug for high- risk patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjuvant intravesical gemcitabine versus BCG in the treatment of intermediate and high -risk NMIBC. Patients and methods: Between May 2006 and April 2008, a total of 57 patients were randomized into 2 groups; group I: 28 patients, were treated with six weekly intravesical instillation of BCG and group II: 29 patients, received six weekly intravesical grmcitabine. Patients were evaluated for response, at 8 weeks, then every 3 months. Outcome measures were response rate, overall recurrence rate, progression rate, median recurrence free period, median progression free period and 1-year recurrence free survival. Treatment related complications were also evaluated. Results: For intermediate risk patients, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the complete response (CR) rate (93.3% vs. 87.5%), the overall recurrence rate (33.3%vs.25%), the progression rate (6.7% vs. 6.2%), and the median progression free period (13 vs. 16 months). However, the median recurrence free period was longer for group I compared to group II (18.5 vs. 15 months) and the difference was statistically significant. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in the 1-year recurrence free survival (95.3% vs. 98.7%) and the median recurrence free survival (22 vs.18 months). For high risk patients there was no significant difference between the 2groups in CR rate (61.5% vs. 76.9%), the progression rate (15.4% for both groups) the median recurrence free period (15 vs. 14 months) and the median progression free period (17 vs. 15 months). However, the overall recurrence rate of group I was lower than that of group II (7.7% vs. 30.8%) and the difference was statistically significant. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in the 1-year recurrence free survival (76.9% vs. 69.2%) and the median recurrence free survival (18 vs.15 months). The adverse events of group I were more marked than that of group II. Conclusion: Gemcitabine is active and well tolerated for intravesical instillation.It is considered to be an efficient treatment for intermediate risk NMIBC. However, for high- risk group, it is inferior to BCG, but owing to its favorable toxicity profile, it may be useful for patients intolerant to BCG.

[Ahmed M. Abd-Alrahim and Hoda H. Essa, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin versus Gemcitabine for Intravesical Therapy in Intermediate and High-Risk Superficial Bladder Cancer]. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):416-426]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.46

 

Keywords: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; Gemcitabine; Intravesical Therapy; Bladder Cancer

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Effect of a Rehabilitation Program on the Knowledge, Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Patients with Burns

 

Mohamed Radwan1, Salwa Samir2, Ola Abdel Aty*2 and Salwa Attia3

 

Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University1, Medical Surgical Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Ain Sham University2, Mansoura University Hospital3

*ola.ahmed22@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Burns injuries may be severe enough to restrict daily activities in the home, school, and workplace. The nurse has a crucial role in implementing strategies for relevant effective care of patients with burn. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a rehabilitation program on the knowledge, physical and psychosocial functions of patients with burn. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the burn units of the Main University and Emergency Hospital in El-Mansoura on a convenience sample of 100 burn patients who were divided randomly into two equal groups: a study group for application of the intervention, and a control group to receive the routine management of the hospital. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire form and the Brief Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B). A rehabilitation program with a booklet was developed after reviewing related literature to cover burn definitions, causes, types of burn, complications, proper diet, exercise, wound care, stress management. A booklet containing all the program materials was prepared in Arabic language. The program was provided to the study group patients, while the control group received the routine hospital's nursing management. The program effectiveness was evaluated through a posttest done for both groups. The study was implemented during the period from November 2006 to November 2007. Patients in the two groups had similar demographic as well as burn injuries characteristics. After implementation of a rehabilitation program, the knowledge scores were statistically significantly higher among study group patients in all areas as burns definition (p<0.001), treatment (p=0.022), exercise (p<0.001), and diet (p< 0.001). They also had significantly better scores of the Brief Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B). The scores of knowledge and BSHS-B improved in both groups; however, the magnitude of the change was much lower in the control group compared to those in the study group. The study concludes that inclusion of the information needed by patients with burn in a rehabilitation program improves their knowledge, with consequent positive impact on their physical and psychosocial status. Therefore, the study recommends implementation of this rehabilitation program for all patients with burn injury. Nurses should be trained in patient education in order to be able to successfully implement such program.

[Mohamed Radwan, Salwa Samir, Ola Abdel Aty and Salwa Attia Effect of a Rehabilitation Program on the Knowledge, Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Patients with Burns. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):427-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.47

 

Key words: Burn, rehabilitation program, nursing

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Detection of Genetic Variation Among Three Isolates of R. leguminosarum Using Protein, Isozyme and DNA Fingerprints

 

Mohamed, H.F.1, Nor El Din, T.A.2, Abdel-Shakour E.H.3 and El-Dougdoug K.A.4*

 

1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (For Girls), Cairo, Egypt

2. Crop Physiology Department, Field Crop Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center (ARC), Egypt

3. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (For Boys), Cairo, Egypt

4. Agric. Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*drdougdoug@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Molecular markers, protein and DNA fingerprints were used to analyze the genetic variations among three Rhizobium leguminosarum. The frequency of genetic variability was detected in three isolates of R. leguminosarum. Variation in protein contents (89.25, 92.27 and 90.75 mg/g), protein banding pattern (10, 12 and 11 polypeptide bands) was observed for the three isolates of R. leguminosarum M, IS and F, respectively, with 40% polymorphic bands. The variation in peroxidase isozymes was 4, 6 and 5 bands, respectively, with polymorphic bands of 37.5%. Variation in each of protein banding pattern and peroxidase isozymes among the three isolates suggest that DNA fingerprint analysis could be used to show rapid and precise information about genetic variability. Ten arbitrary base primers were successfully used to amplify DNA fragments from three isolates. Three arbitrary 10 base primers (OP07, OP12 and OP18) revealed characteristic fragments where as 20% polymorphic fragments related to total amplified DNA fragments. Monomorphic 48% common amplified fragments as well as unique (genetic markers) 32% for the three R. leguminosarum isolates. The frequency of genetic variability (polypeptide, isozymes and DNA) was detected among 3 isolates of R. leguminosarum dependent somaclonal variation.

[Mohamed, H.F., Nor El Din, T.A., Abdel-Shakour E.H. and El-Dougdoug K.A. Detection of Genetic Variation Among Three Isolates of R. leguminosarum Using Protein, Isozyme and DNA Fingerprints. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):435-440]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.48

 

Keywords: R. leguminosarum; Peroxides isozyme (PRX); SDS-PAGE; RAPD- PCR; Genetic markers

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Geochemical Systematic Exploration of Stream Sediments in Shurchah Area (SE Zahedan)

 

Mohammad G. Kahrazeh 1, Hamidoddin Yousefi 2

 

1. Department of Geology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

m.kahrazeh@srbiu.ac.ir

2. Sistan and Baluchistan Mining Engineering Organization, Daneshgah St. Zahedan, Iran

hamidoddiny@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Shurchah area is located 60 kilometers to the southeast of Zahedan. Zahedan granitoides and dioritic dykes have intruded in flysches of Eocene age. According to factors such as stratigraphy, lithology, tectonics and topological gravity of drainage patterns, 82 stream sediment samples have been taken from streams. Samples were analyzed using ICP-MS and AAS analytical methods. For eight elements Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Sb and Hg factors such as error, frequency distribution, amount of sensored, background, threshold, anomaly, mean, mode and standard deviation, calculated individually. Among these elements, Sb with an average value of 10 ppm has been considered as anomaly regarding the spatial situation of the anomaly; it was determined to be in the central part of the study area. In addition, strong positive correlation was observed between gold- arsenic and gold- antimony.

[Mohammad G. Kahrazeh, Hamidoddin Yousefi. Geochemical Systematic Exploration of Stream Sediments in Shurchah Area (SE Zahedan). Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):441-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.49

 

Key words: frequency distribution, antimony, anomaly, positive correlation

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The effect of Justice in attraction of customer and for compensate of incomplete services

(Case study: Hotels of Shiraz City)

 

Ahmad Askari1, Farideh Askari2

 

1-Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Lamerd Branch, Lamer, Iran

2-Researcher in Business Management

ahmad.askari64@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Successful companies know that right now low price strategy could not provide any guarantee for market leading. Customer satisfaction with regard to high services and supportive strategies are important tools for pay attention to the requests of customers. It is a need for all companies to focus on customer. Although prevention is so much better than treatment, but receiving no claims is inevitable. Since providing incomplete services is inevitable but pay attention to this matter is so much important for service providers. The present paper intends to consider how much compensate of incomplete services would be effective on customer satisfaction for considering its claim and finally its support of company. Perhaps it is possible to apply it as a marketing tool as well. For this purpose we appointed relevant customers of Shiraz hotels and distributed a questionnaire in order to have the idea of 140 guests who had different claims to the chairman of the hotel. The result was positive effect of justice on prevention from negative consequences of incomplete services.

[Ahmad Askari, Farideh Askari. The effect of Justice in attraction of customer and for compensate of incomplete services (Case study: Hotels of Shiraz City). Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):450-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.50

 

Key words: Betterment of Services Process, Procedural justice, Interactional justice, Distributive justice

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Bioaccumulation, Fate and Toxicity of Two Heavy Metals Common in Industrial Wastes in Two Aquatic Molluscs

 

Moloukhia, H.1 and Sleem, S. *2

1 Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*setaita_Sleem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Accumulation of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) by the bivalve Caelatura (Caelatura) companyoi and the gastropod snail Cleopatra bulimoides was determined. The fate of these metals through soft parts and shells of the molluscs was investigated. Toxicity studies of different concentrations of Cr and Cd on the survival of these organisms were performed. Results showed that both molluscs could accumulate both metals to a large extent and could tolerate their toxicity to high limits, as these metals were accumulated mainly in their soft parts, while small amounts were absorbed by their shells. It could be concluded that the investigated molluscs can be used as bioindicators for pollution of aquatic ecosystems by such heavy metals.

[Moloukhia, H. And Sleem, S., Bioaccumulation, Fate and Toxicity of Two Heavy Metals Common in Industrial Wastes in Two Aquatic Molluscs. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):459-464].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.51

 

Key words: Heavy metals, Bioaccumulation, Bivalves, Gastropod snails, Toxicity.

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Comparative Study on the Intestine of Schilbe Mystus and Labeo Niloticus in Correlation with their Feeding Habits

 

Fawzy I. Amer; Suzan A. A. Naguib and Fawzia A. Abd El Ghafar

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

Setaita_Sleem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation aims to illustrate the morphological, histological and ultrastructural differences in the intestine of a carnivorous fish, Schilbe mystus and a herbivorous fish, Labeo niloticus, in correlation with their feeding habits. The histological examination of the mucosa of the intestine of both studied species revealed that it is built up of a simple columnar epithelium that contains goblet cells. Though these, are generally more numerous in the intestine of Schilbe mystus than in that of Labeo niloticus. The ultrastructural investigation of the mucosa of the duodenum and ileum of Schilbe mystus revealed that the enterocytes are tall columnar cells and possess well-developed microvilli, numerous mitochondria, microtubules and numerous lipid droplets. The ultrastructural examination of the mucosa of the ileum of Labeo niloticus revealed that the enterocytes are tall columnar and possess well-developed microvilli, numerous mitochondria, microtubules, a few endocytotic channels and aggregated chylomicrons. The enterocytes of the rectum of both studied species are tall columnar and are characterized by the presence of short and well-spaced microvilli, a well-developed vesiculotubular system, numerous microtubules and mitochondria. In addition, the rectal enterocytes of Schilbe mystus contain endocytotic vesicles. The intestinal muscularis of both studied species is well-developed and built up of unstriated muscle fibres, which are arranged into two layers: an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal one. The rectal muscularis of both studied species is thicker than that of the rest of the intestine.

[Fawzy I. Amer; Suzan A. A. Naguib and Fawzia A. Abd El Ghafar. Comparative Study on the, Intestine of Schilbe Mystus and Labeo Niloticus in Correlation with their Feeding Habits. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):465-484].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.52

 

Key words: Schilbe mystus, Labeo niloticus, feeding habits, intestine light and ultrastructure.

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Fuzzy Ideals in CI-algebras

 

Samy M. Mostafa1, Mokhtar A. Abdel Naby2 and Osama R. Elgendy3

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt

dr_usamaelgendy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The fuzzification of ideals in CI-algebras is considered, and several properties are investigated. Characterizations of a fuzzy ideal are provided. Mathematical Subject Classification: 06F35, 03G25, 08A30.

[Samy M. Mostafa, Mokhtar A. Abdel Naby and Osama R. Elgendy, Fuzzy Ideals in CI-algebras. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):485-488].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.53

 

Keywords: Transitive, Self distributive, fuzzy ideal, Upper set.

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Investigating the Role of Total Quality Management Eminence Pattern in Strategic Evolution of Organizations

 

Lena Yasinian

 

School of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; lenayasinian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research has been performed in purpose of definition and explanation of Total quality management advanced model and investigating its role in organizations’ strategic evolution. This article is in type of developmental researches and its performance method is survey and library studies. Moreover information collecting tool is taking notes. In literature of subject of this article initially the principles of total quality management has been discussed, so that we can obtain better perception in order to applying this system in business and improvement of organizations’ performance. In order to apply total quality management in organizations strategically, we have examined TQM movement in Japan and some cases about using of this method have been mentioned. In fact, in this article the model which has been named Total Quality Management Advanced Model (TQMEX) is based on TQM facts and has been modeled according to instructions of this model. A referendum which has been done in Japan, Hong Kong and South Korea indicates the importance of Japanese system of total quality management advanced model in order to implement total quality management system in organizations. Finally, results and information obtained from this research provide criteria and methods for which are the result of the large organizations’ experiences that not only have passed two world’s oil crisis and Asian financial crisis successfully, but also have continued their growth while these two crises.

[Lena Yasinian. Investigating the Role of Total Quality Management Eminence Pattern in Strategic Evolution of Organizations. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):489-495] (ISSN: 1545-1003).http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.54

 

Keywords: Total quality management, change management, strategic evolution, financial crisis

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Motivating Lecturers in Iran Teacher Education Centers

 

Zohreh Mirsepasi 1, Saeed Sanei 2, Mona Mirsepasi 3

 

1. PhD in pedagogy, Department of Physical Education, Nasibeh Center of higher education and teacher training, Tehran, Iran

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Imam Hossein university, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Physical Education, Nasibeh Center of higher education and teacher training, Tehran, Iran; Z.Mirsepasi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Motivated, healthy, happy, productive, knowledgeable and skillful lecturers increase efficiency in Teacher Education Centers. The main purpose of this research is to survey and represent methods of motivating lecturers. The goal of this study is to examine and to improve method of motivation. Also correlation and comparison are used to indicate rate of links and differences between study variables.The statistical society of this study was all teachers of Teacher Education Centers. Samples were selected non-randomly from each state, which 30% of this sample was examined randomly. Tools for this study were Mazlow's Hierarchy Questionnaires, Maslach Exhaust Questionnaire, and teachers' poll. An ordinal scale was used. The questionnaires were distributed in Teacher Education Centers by the executer et al. Also related documents were used. Descriptive and inferential analysis were used for data analysis. Regarding to five levels of Mazlow's Needs, average of 3.13 was obtained for motivation. This means that lecturers mostly desired “social belong.” Average of motivation rate (exhaust rate) was 55.47 (31.69%). This means that lecturers exhaust rate is good with respect to maximum exhaust of 175 (100%). There is no difference for inferential analysis of data between male and female lecturers’ view. Motivation level difference between men and women is meaningful, and difference of needs between skillful and unskilled lecturers is meaningful. There are correlations between age and record, age and education, age and exhaust, and record and education. Proposed strategies to improve lecturers’ motivation are: 1. increment of salary (15.5%), 2. meritocracy (11%), and 3. appending Teacher Education Center to Ministry of Sciences, Researches, and Technology (10.8%).

[Zohreh Mirsepasi, Saeed Sanei, Mona Mirsepasi. Motivating Lecturers in Iran Teacher Education Centers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):496-503]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.55

 

Keywords: Motivation; Integral system of Teachers Education; Lecturers

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A review of the validity and reliability of assessment instruments for the final examination for the midwifery students of nursing and midwifery faculty of Mashhad

 

Nahid Jahani Shoorab 1, Nahid Golmakani 1, Seyed Reza Mazluom 2, Kobra Mirzakhani 1, Sedighe Azhari 1, Afsaneh Navaiyan 1

 

1. MSc of midwifery, Lecturer and faculty member of Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran

2. PhD student of Nursing, Lecturer and faculty member of Department of Nursing, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran

MirzakhaniK@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: According to WHO, the annual mortality rate for mothers is 515000 cases in the world. Most of these deaths can, however, be prevented when skills and knowledge are enhanced in the delivery ward. The poor performance of the delivery supervisors in Iran can be held accountable for most of the mother deaths. The lack of an objective tool reduces the possibility of a systematic and valid evaluation of the clinical examinations particularly at postgraduate programs. Therefore, the present research was conducted to investigate the validity and reliability of assessment instruments for the final comprehensive examination for the midwifery students. In this study, based on the checklist available at the faculty, the students’ skills were studied in four test fields (delivery room, clinical gynecologic unit, parental care unit, and mother and children health). Thirty one students (22 from term eight and 9 students from term six) were selected in five consecutive days by two examiners (one of the examiners had no knowledge about the educational level and scientific knowledge of the students). For the face validity and content validity, the experts in the field were consulted. In addition, the criterion validity (the correlation between the score means in the clinical and theoretical courses and the students’ total average from the final comprehensive examination) and the construct validity were separately calculated. To calculate the internal consistency, the Chronbach’s alpha coefficient and the equivalence reliability (the correlation between the scores was separately reported by the two examiners) were used. The correlation coefficient in the final comprehensive examination of the midwifery program with an average score of 0.22 and 0.52 (p=0.01) for theoretical and clinical courses, respectively proved to be the desirable criterion validity in the assessment forms. Besides, the face validity and the content validity with a high reliability index (0.6-1) were confirmed. The occurrence of high to middle Alpha coefficient reliability (0.51-0.83) in every field of the examination showed an internal consistency in the available checklist. Following the definition of the criteria for the values of the scores, the lowest, and the highest reliabilities were determined to be 0.82 and 73.5%, respectively. This study concluded that the assessment instruments of the final comprehensive examination at the bachelor degree for the midwifery students at the nursing and midwifery faculty in Mashhad, Iran, are recommended as the valid and reliable forms for the assessment of the students at their educational career.

[Nahid Jahani Shoorab, Nahid Golmakani, Seyed Reza Mazluom, Kobra Mirzakhani, Sedighe Azhari, Afsaneh Navaiyan. A review of the validity and reliability of assessment instruments for the final examination for the midwifery students of nursing and midwifery faculty of Mashhad. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):504-510]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.56

 

Keywords: Reliability; Assessment instruments; Clinical skills validity

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Evaluation of Euphorbia Aphylla, Ziziphus Spina-Christi and Enterolobium Contortisiliquum as Molluscicidal Agents

 

Abdalla A. Hassan, Abeer E. Mahmoud, Rasha A. Hassan and Enas A. M. Huseein

 

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

*ennn181079@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activities of ethanoic extract of three medicinal plant species namely Euphorbia aphylla, Ziziphus spina chriti, and Enterolobium contortisiliquum against Biomophalaria alexandrina and Lymnaea cailliaudi (nalatensis) snails the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis respectively.the experiments were conducted in accordance with WHO guidelines. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 and LC90 after 24 hours exposure. The highest molluscicidal potency was recorded for E. aphylla. It exhibited significant molluscicidal activity on both snails’ species. The LC50 and LC90 of this extract against Lymnaea cailliaudi were 0.66 and 0.88 ppm respectively and 87.6 and 142.5ppm against B. alexandrina followed by Ziziphus spina- chriti which showed molluscicidal activity against L. cailliaudi with LC50 311ppm and LC90 500 ppm and caused no mortality of B. alexandrina up to1000 ppm. The least active was Enterolobium contortisiliquum which gave negative results against both snail species up to1000 ppm. Further purification of active compounds present in Euphorbia aphylla and Ziziphus spina- chriti may eventually be of great value for the control of snails’ intermediate hosts of fascioliasis and schistosomiasis.

[Abdalla A. Hassan, Abeer E. Mahmoud, Rasha A. Hassan and Enas A. M. Huseein. Evaluation of Euphorbia Aphylla, Ziziphus Spina-Christi and Enterolobium Contortisiliquum as Molluscicidal Agents]. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):511-520].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.57

 

Key words: Plant molluscicides- Biomphalaria – Lymnaea- fascioliasis - schistosomiasis -Egypt.

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Perilesional Enhancement Assessment of Hepatic Metastases by Dynamic MRI

 

Yasser Mohamed Fekry

 

Radiodiagnosis Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls Branch) Alazhar University, Egypt

Dr.yasser_fekry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Evaluation of liver metastases is one of the most common indications for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the liver. In an era when contrast-enhanced CT and MRI are widely used for the assessment of focal liver lesions, peripheral rim enhancement of lesions on early phase images has been recognized as one of the characteristic findings of metastatic tumors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether perilesional parenchymal enhancement of hepatic metastases was correlated with the degree of tumoral enhancement on arterial phase images or tumor size using dynamic MRI. 67 hepatic metastases lesions in 33 patients were studied for perilesional enhancement and the study findings were high percent of perilesional enhancement at metastases compared to other histologic types of hepatic tumors like hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma. In addition, perilesional enhancement patterns observations showed it was the main component of rim enhancement rather than tumor hypervascular periphery that its size showed inverse correlation with the size of perilesional parenchymal enhancement. Characterizing the metastases from other hepatic tumors as well as different features of perilesional rim enhancement can influence therapeutic planning and an expectation of a better prognosis.

[Yasser Mohamed Fekry. Perilesional Enhancement Assessment of Hepatic Metastases by Dynamic MRI. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 521-525].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.58

 

Key words: perilesional • enhancement • MRI • dynamic • metastases

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59

 

Abstract: The ethmoidal ganglion of three lizards belonging to three different families is described. Such ganglion is represented by one part in both Uromastyx aegypteus (Family: Agamidae) and Varanus griseus griseus (Family: Varanidae) and by two parts in Sphenops sepsoides (Family: Lacertidae). In Uromastyx and Varanus the ganglion lies on the ramus palatinus of the nervus facialis. In Sphenops, a small (ventral) part of the ganglion is located on the ramus palatinus while its main (dorsal) part is found on the anastomosing branch between the rami palatinus facialis and nasalis of the nervus trigeminus. In the present study, the ganglion is found at an anastomosing branch between the ramus palatinus of the nervus facialis and the ramus nasalis of the nervus trigeminus in Sphenops. In Varanus it is found where the ramus palatinus becomes very close to the ramus nasalis, whereas, in Uromastyx the ganglion is located posterior to the origin of the anastomosing branch.

[Ahmed Imam Dakrory, and Alaa El-Din Shamakh. The Ethmoidal Ganglion and its Anatomical Relations in Lacertilia (Squamata: Reptilia). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):526-532].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.59

 

Keywords: Ethmoidal ganglion – Uromastyx, Varanus and Sphenops.

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Patient Education: its Effect on Qualiy of Life of Patients with Cancer on Chemotherapy

 

Abeer William Aziz

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

abeer.william99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Cancer is a devastating disease that can negatively affect a patient's quality of life. Treatment for malignancies in particular, frequently involves complex, intense, and prolonged chemotherapy regimens. Aim of the Work: to assess the effect of educational intervention on quality of life for patients with cancer on chemotherapy. Subjects and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Department affiliated to Ain-Shams University Hospitals, on a purposive sample of fifty patients recruited into this study. The inclusion criteria were adult patients, their age ranged between 20-50 years, on chemotherapy; received at least 2-3 sessions of chemotherapeutic agent. The tools included interviewing questionnaire sheet and Quality of Life Index Scale consisting of four dimensions: Physical, psychological, social and spiritual. The educational intervention was conducted through five sessions each one lasted from 30-45 minutes. Effects of the educational intervention on patient's condition investigated done through comparing the pre, post one month and post six months assessment of the patients regarding their level of knowledge and quality of life. Results: There is highly statistically significant difference in patient's level of knowledge pre, post one month and post six months from implementation of the educational intervention about cancer regarding to all items. Comparison of patient's quality of life dimensions pre, post one month and post six months from implementation of the educational intervention revealed there is highly statistically significant differences among them (77.78 ±6.54, 63.54 ±7.85& 50.24±5.47 respectively at p<0.001).

Conclusion and Recommendations: Education has highly statistically significant positive effect in increasing the level of patients' knowledge and improving their quality of life. Further investigation could be undertaken to document the cost effectiveness of educational effects in reducing hospital stay, decreasing readmission, improving the personnel quality of life and minimizing complications of illness and therapies.

[Abeer William Aziz, Patient Education: its Effect on Qualiy of Life of Patients with Cancer on Chemotherapy]. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):533-544]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.60

 

Key word: Cancer, quality of life, educational intervention

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Characterization of Phospholipase C Productivity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus isolates

 

Nooran Sh. Elleboudy, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa*, Nadia A. Hassouna

 

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*maboulwafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Of 205 bacterial isolates, 28 have shown high phospholipase production. Three isolates, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus, have shown the highest PLC productivity compared to isolates from the same morphological class and were selected for characterization of enzyme production. PLC production by these isolates took place in phosphate starved media (PS-TMM). For Pseudomonas aeruginosa D183, PS- TMM supported maximum PLC production. Replacing glucose with other carbon sources at different concentrations, increasing glucose concentration, adding organic proteins (except for peptone at 0.5% and BSA at 1.5%), or replacing metal salt components of PS-TMM, inhibited PLC production. PS- TMM, to which BSA (1 or 1.5%) or sodium cholate (0.05%) was added, supported maximum PLC production by Bacillus cereus D101. PLC production by this isolate was increased with increasing glucose concentration in PS-TMM, while replacing glucose with other carbon sources either decreased or abolished PLC production. Adding BSA, triton X-100, sodium cholate (at 0.05 and 0.1%), tween 20, or tween 80 to PS-TMM or removing CaCl2 from it increased PLC production by this isolate. Production of PLC by Staphylococcus isolate in PS-TMM occurred only when glucose concentration was increased to 110 mM, when BSA (0.5, 1 or 1.5%) or sodium cholate (1.25 or 2.5%) was added. PLC production by all three isolates was growth associated. Optimum pH for PLC production by the three isolates was pH 7-8 while optimum temperatures were 37˚C (Pseudomonas aeruginosa D183), 30˚C (Bacillus cereus D101) and 25-37˚C (Staphylococcus aureus D173).

[Nooran Sh. Elleboudy, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa, Nadia A. Hassouna, Characterization of Phospholipase C Productivity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 545-566]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.61

 

Keywords: Phospholipases C, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Production, Characterization

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Structural And Ultrastructural Alterations In Mammalian Adrenal Cortex Under Influence Of Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Drug

 

Waslat W. Elshennawy* and Hanaa R. Aboelwafa

 

Department of Biology and Geology, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*dr-waslat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The risk of adverse human health effects due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals is of growing concern. In recent years, ketoconazole, an imidazole derivative has been developed and currently used in the medical fields as an anti-fungal and steroidogenesis inhibitor drug. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of ketoconazole in the structural and ultrastructural characteristics of albino rat adrenal cortex. Twenty adult male rats weighing 150-200 g. were divided into two even groups; group I were i.p. injected with 10mg/100g.b.wt. of ketoconazole dissolved in 1ml physiological saline solution in a daily manner at 9am for 15 days. Whereas, group II were injected with 1ml saline solution in the same manner. Histologically, adrenal cortex of treated rat displayed hypertrophy. Glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis cells were loaded with lipid droplets of variable sizes, occupying almost the cytoplasm thus displacing the nuclei eccentrically, which showed signs of pyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Ultrastructurally, the three cortical zones displayed the presence of hypertrophied mitochondria filled with tightly packed tubular cristae, whereas the others having cavitaion results in a complete loss of cristae, and mitochondria are identified by the remainder cristae adjacent to the inner boundaries of the limiting membrane, in addition to extensive accumulation of variable sized lipid droplets and nuclei showing pyknosis and karyolysis. In conclusion, it is noticed that the destructive impacts of ketoconazole on the adrenocortical cells reflected on their functions leading to much deficiency in their performance. So, it should be taken in consideration and great concern that this drug must be utilized under restricted precautions in the medical fields to protect the human health from its hazardous impact.

[Waslat W. Elshennawy and Hanaa R. Aboelwafa. Structural And Ultrastructural Alterations In Mammalian Adrenal Cortex Under Influence Of Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Drug. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):567-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.62

 

Key words: adrenal cortex, histology, imidazole, ketoconazole, rat, steroidogenesis, ultrastructure.

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Inflammatory Allergic Immune Response in Scabies Pyoderma

 

Mohamed A. Elmaraghy1 and Abeer M. El Meghawry2

 

1Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

2Community health nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

eldeeb1973@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Scabies is a highly pruritic disorder induced by an immune allergic response to infestation of the skin by the mite sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the stratum corneum of the skin. Scabies persists despite the availability of topical insecticides because the disease is transmitted before it is diagnosed and treated and significant resistance to insecticides has developed. The aim of this study was to investigate immunobiochemical response of the host's inflammatory/immune response to scabies during infestation in schoolchildren at rural areas. The number of eosinophil, neutrophil, serum IgE and serum interleukin (IL)-5 were assessed in 21 patients with 20 healthy control subjects. In the present study significantly higher number of eosinophil (11.90 ± 2.0 %vs. 4.12 ± 1.75 %; p<0.001) and highly significant elevation in neutrophil (%) in the scabies group compared to the healthy controls (39.9 ± 5.2%vs. 23.5 ± 2.0%, p<0.001). There was a highly significant elevation in serum IgE in the scabies group compared to the healthy normal controls (150 ± 58 IU/ml vs. 36.7 ± 18.0 U/ml p<0.001). As regards serum IL-5, there was a highly significant elevation in Interleukin-5 in the scabies group compared to the healthy normal controls (44.0 ± 15.3 ug/l vs. 12 ± 3.6 ug/l p<0.001).The results of this study suggest that there is a potent inflammatory immune response during the infestation of sarcopties scabiei. In conclusion, scabies is a dangerous disease affecting the immune system and should be treated once discovered to prevent the hazards of being epidemics.

[Mohamed A. Elmaraghy and Abeer M. El Meghawr,y. Inflammatory Allergic Immune Response in Scabies Pyoderma]. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):577-582].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.63

 

Key Words: Scabies; Eosinophil; IgEl; Interleukin (IL)-5; risk factors of scabies; epidemics.

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Oriented Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

 

M.O. Abou-Helal

 

Solid State Physics Dept., National Research Center, El-Behoos str., 12311Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

osamah4@hotmail.com, osamah4@tedata.net.eg, mabouhelal@mailer.scu.eun.eg

 

Abstract: Spray pyrolysis technique has been proved to be an effective tool to produce well oriented undoped and indium doped zinc oxide thin films onto glass substrates. The correlation between the main preparation parameters such as: substrate temperature (673-873 K), spraying time (10-50 min.) and doping concentration (0-3%) and the structural and optical properties of the films, have been discussed. The alignment of the crystals has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared ZnO:In films are generally homogeneous, have smooth surfaces and low sheet resistance values Rs in kW range\SONDZEICHEN SYMBOL \f "Symbol" \s 12W. The doping with Indium decreased the sheet resistance of ZnO films by about two orders of magnitude\SONDZEICHEN SYMBOL \f "Symbol" \s 12W.

 [M.O. Abou-Helal, Oriented Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Technique]. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 583-587].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.64

 

Keywords: Zinc oxide, Indium, Spray Pyrolysis, Mono-crystals, Single-crystals.

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Histological, Histochemical and Biochemical Studies of the Effect of Chronic Exposure of Noise Stress on the Kidney of Albino Rats

 

Mervat S. Zaghloul

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University Benha-Egypt

Mervat2009@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty-five adult male albino rats were utilized to study the effect of noise stress for short and long durations on the kidney structure and functions of albino rats. After one week (short duration) of noise exposure, the biochemical data revealed a significant increase in serum albumin accompanied by a significant increase of body and kidney weights. A significant decrease of urine output was also detected. The renal tufts of the glomeruli were enlarged with increased cellularity filling the Bowman's space. The lining epithelium of the convoluted tubules was slightly swollen. After two weeks of rest, most of the glomeruli and the tubular elements were more or less like those of the control group. After two weeks (long duration) of noise exposure, the biochemical data revealed the same results as those shown in the animals which were exposed to noise for a short duration. However, the body weight of the animals revealed a highly significant increase accompanied by a highly significant decrease in the urine output. The glomerular capillaries of renal corpuscles were swollen, lobulated with increase of the mesengial matrix. The epithelial cells lining renal tubules exhibited cloudy swelling and vacuolar degeneration. After two weeks of rest, the majority of renal glomeruli revealed extensive glomerular retraction and degeneration. The epithelial cells lining the renal tubules showed necrotic changes and their lumina appeared packed with renal casts and cell debris. The thickened basement membranes surrounding both the Bowman's capsules and renal tubules exhibited an intense PAS reaction in rats exposed to long duration of noise stress. After one week of noise exposure, mercury-bromophenol blue staining of the kidney revealed a high protein content in the form of an intense blue colouration of the intact brush borders of the proximal convoluted tubules.

[Mervat S. Zaghloul. Histological, Histochemical and Biochemical Studies of the Effect of Chronic Exposure of Noise Stress on the Kidney of Albino Rats]. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8): 588-598].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.65

 

 Key words: Histological, Histochemical, Biochemical Studies, Noise Stress, Kidney, Albino Rats.

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Field Efficiency and its Use for Energy Coefficient Determination

 

Mansoor Behroozi Lar1, Zahra Khodarahm Pour2, Gholam Reza Bamimohammadi3

 

1Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. behroozil@yahoo.com

2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran.

3M.Sc. Student in Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran.

bamimohamadir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Field efficiency is the most used factor in determining the effective field capacity but yet not known for Iran. This figure for different machines and field conditions are tabulated in ASBAE standards and cited in many publications as a range for different speeds but; they may not hold true for different conditions in different areas. The field efficiency is also needed for converting fuel used in field operation from l/h into l/ha and many more of the kind. Field experiments were run to determine the field efficiency (FE) by measuring wasted time as well as running time for a moldboard plough, chisel packer, tandem disk, mechanical row planter and pneumatic row planter. The energy coefficient for these implements were also obtained and compared. A mean FE of 73.16%, 75.33, 73.5, 68.16, 73.8 and 64.4 and energy coefficient of 26.36, 14.06, 12.19, 6.64, 4.96 and 7.10 l/ha were obtained for moldboard plough, chisel packer, chisel, tandem disk, mechanical planter and pneumatic planter respectively.

[Mansoor Behroozi Lar, Zahra Khodarahm Pour, Mohammad Reza Bamimohammadi. Field efficiency and its use for energy coefficient determination. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):599-603]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.66

 

Keywords: Field efficiency, moldboard plough, chisel packer, tandem disk, energy coefficient

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Effect of Forward Speed, Load and Cabin on Tractor Noise and the Health of Drivers

 

M. Payandeh1, M. Behroozi Lar2, J. Bagheri3, Z. Khodarahm Poor4

 

1M.Sc. Student in Agricultural Mechanization, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch, Shoushtar, Iran.

Payandeh.mehrzad@hotmail.com

2Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. Email:

behroozil@yahoo.com

3Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. Email:

moghaddas74@yahoo.com

4Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran.

Email: Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Noise has caused hearing problems to many drivers in the world. It has been investigated that 30 percent of Sweden’s farmers suffer from hearing loss. Similar results to those from Sweden were found in a study conducted by University of Iowa in the United States, indicating that American farm workers are faced with the same noise problems in their daily work. A MF399 tractor without cabin and a Valtra 170 with open cabin were tested for noise level at the driver as well as the bystander ear for no load and loaded cases. Comparison were made between noise level in different forward speeds for each tractor with no cabin and open window cabin on driver's ear and bystander for no load and loaded cases. Also Comparison between no cabin and open cabin in each forward speed for no load and loaded tractor at driver's ear as well as at bystander. The noise level at 2.9 km/h for no load open cabin as well as for loaded no cabin and open cabin at driver's ear was significantly greatest among the related speed ranges. It looked like the 2.9 km/h speed with one exception was a threshold after which the SPL (Sound Pressure Level) dropped. For no load no cabin case at the driver ear with a mean value of 87.72 dB(A) no significant difference was observed at 1% level for speeds up to 3.7 km/h; but the SPL for 6.1 km/h was significantly higher. The permissible exposure time was calculated as 4 h/day and 1.9 h/day respectively. For no load open cabin case no significant difference in SPL between SPL at speeds 1.9, 2.2 and 6.1 km/h with a mean value 83.1 dB(A). However significant difference was observed between 2.9 km/h and 3.7 km/h speed. For loaded no cabin, no significant difference was observed between SPL of 1.9, 2.9 and 3.7 km/h with mean value 93.5 dB(A) and 1.1 h/day permissible exposure time. For loaded open cabin. No significant difference between SPL for 3.7 and 6.1 km/h with mean 89.2 dB(A) and permissible exposure time of 5.4 h/day. Also no significant difference between the SPL for 1.9 and 2.2 km/h with mean 83.7 dB(A). Bar graph for all exposure times are shown. The same comparisons were made at bystander's ear and between no cabin and open cabin in each forward speed.

[Mehrzad Payandeh, Mansoor Behroozi Lar, Jahangir Bagheri and Zahra Khodarahm Pour. Effect of Forward Speed, Load and Cabin on Tractor Noise and the Health of Drivers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):604-609]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.67

 

Keyword: sound level, noise measurements, tractors, cabin, driver's ear

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The influence of stitch length of weft knitted fabrics on the sewability

 

Z. M. Abdel Megeid1, M. Al-bakry2 and M. Ezzat1

 

1Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2 Faculties of Specific Education, Home Economics, Mansoura University

Z_algory@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The sewing needle penetration force, the feed of the sewing material, sewing needle size are very important parameters during the sewing of knitted fabric. This paper is studying the effect stitch length, yarn count, and needle size on the penetration force which indicates the fabric sewability. Some physical and mechanical properties of these fabrics were also tested. From the results of this study obtained, we can conclude that, the sewability (which is indicated by penetration force) of 100% cotton single jersey fabric is inversely proportional to its stitch length. In the same time the fabric with coarser yarn count gives the higher penetration force. Also we can conclude that, fabrics with coarser yarn counts and shorter stitch length have better functional performance characteristics.

[Z. M. Abdel Megeid, M. Al-bakry, and M. Ezzat, The influence of stitch length of weft knitted fabrics on the sewability. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):610-617]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.68

 

Key Words: stitch length-weft knitted fabric-sewability- abrasion resistance- Air Permeability

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Considering the effect of globalization on ethnic identity of Kurd identity at Sanandaj city in 2010

 

Robabe pourjabali & Chonoor Mehdizadeh

Department of Social Science, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan,Iran

 Pour_13@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research intends to study any effects of globalization on ethnic identity of Kurd identity at Sanandaj City in 2010. The statistical population of this research is all people more than 15 years old and residing at Sanandaj city (223675) in 2010. We appointed 767 persons as the statistical sample and in accordance with Kukran formula. In theoretical basics of this research we have ethnic identity theory and globalization attitude and any effects of globalization on ethnic identity. The general result is a reduction in any dependency and interests in personal ethnic identity by globalization and obtaining the responses. The result of regression analysis shows that globalization indexes and absorption in world nature (Common royalty, Common interests & Social relations preference) may specify about %.531 of tribal nature variance in this function.

[Samad Abedini. Considering the effect of globalization on ethnic identity of Kurd identity at Sanandaj city in 2010. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):618-626]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.69

 

Keywords: Globalization, Ethnic identity, Common land, Common ceremonies, Common living place, Common language and Common name

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Gastroduodenal Masses: Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Findings And Differential Diagnosis With Pathologic Correlation

 

Mohammed T. Abdel Hak, *Yasser M. Fekry and Alya Elnaggar

 

Radiodiagnosis Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls Branch), Alazhar University, Egypt

*Dr.yasser_fekry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To study the role of multidetector CT for the evaluation of gastroduodenal masses and differential diagnosis. All patients in the present study (25 patients) were examined with dual slice CT GE using diluted gastrografin oral intake and IV contrast injection of non-ionic contrast agent. The study was included 25 patients suffered from gastroduodenal masses undergoing abdominal US, endoscopic examination, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as well as biopsy and histopathological examinations. 20 patients were diagnosed as gastric lesions and 5 patients were diagnosed as duodenal lesions. The patients examined were 17 males and 8 females with the age ranging from 32 to 79 years and the mean age 55 years ± 2SD. Conclusion: Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) has a great value for evaluation and differential diagnosis of gastro duodenal masses with well correlation with histopathological findings.

[Mohammed T. Abdel Hak, Alya Elnaggar and Yasser M. Fekry. Gastroduodenal Masses: Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Findings and Differential Diagnosis with Pathologic Correlation. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(8):627-632].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.70

 

Key words: MDCT • pathology • correlation

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Application of Health Belief Model in Prevention of Breast Cancer among female staffs of Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon branch in Iran

 

Afsaneh Gity 1, Davood Shojaeizade 2, Abas Rahimi Froshani 2

 

1. Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Tonekabon branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Mazandaran, Iran

2. Health Research Institute, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran afsaneh.giti@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Objectives: Nowadays, malignancy is considered as one of the most important health burden in the world. In this study, with respect to the importance of training in order to promote preventive behaviors, the application of a training program based on health belief model was surveyed. A semi–experimental study was conducted on 100 female staffs of Islamic Azad university-Tonekabon branch, Mazandaran, Iran. Samples were randomly collected and classified as intervention (case) and control groups by interviewing using a health belief model–based questionnaire. Both groups completed the questionnaire twice within a three months period of time before and after training of intervention group. Data was analyzed by statistical tests and SPSS software (versions 11.5 and16). Based on results obtained by this study, two groups had no significant difference in terms of demographic variables. However, a significant difference was observed among scores of different constructs of this model such as perceived severity, benefits, and barriers before intervention, and scores of knowledge, attitude, perceived benefits and barriers, and act guidance after intervention (p<0.05).The findings of this study imply that the present HBM based intervention has had a positive effect on increasing women’s knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding breast cancer.

[Afsaneh Gity 1, Davood Shojaeizade 2, Abas Rahimi Froshani. Application of Health Belief Model in Prevention of Breast Cancer among female staffs of Islamic Azad University-Tonekabon branch in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):633-640]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.71

 

Keywords: Health Belief Model, Prevention, Breast cancer, Attitude

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MORBIDITY AFTER CHIN GRAFT HARVESTING USING PIEZOSURGERY VERSUS CONVENTIONAL OSTEOTOMY TECHNIQUES

 

Gamal M. Moutamed

 

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Corresponding author: gamalmoutamed@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Augmentation of the resorbed site using chin bone graft is a common method. However, it involves donor site morbidity. Chin graft morbidity involves impaired sensibility in the mandibular anterior teeth, the gingival and chin–lower lip area postoperatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the morbidity at the donor site following harvest of chin bone using piezosurgery versus conventional bone cutting tools. In addition, distances between the bone harvest defect and anatomical structures such as apices of lower anterior, premolars and mental foramina were analyzed. A group of 20 patients (16 men and 4 women) who had undergone chin bone harvesting for alveolar ridge augmentation or sinus floor elevation procedures were selected. Patients were equally divided into two groups according to the cutting tools used for chin graft harvesting. Group I (piezosurgery group); piezosurgery was used for chin graft harvesting. Group II (conventional group); conventional cutting tools used for chin graft harvesting. The True distances between the donor defect and the apices of the adjacent mandibular teeth were measured on a digital panoramic radiograph. The distance from the lateral margins of the donor defect to the right and left mental foramina (RMF and LMF) was recorded. Sensibility of the lip, teeth, and gingiva was registered one week, one, three, six and 12 months post-operatively. A total of six (30%) patients experienced anaesthesia of the gingivae immediately postoperatively and had full recovery when reviewed at 3 month follow up. Three (15%) of these patients experienced paraesthesia of the chin and lower lip, however full recovery had occurred at the 6- month follow-up. None of the patients reported altered contour or change in profile of the chin area as well as dehiscence of the incision. Three patients experienced pain at the graft site for up to three months postoperatively. Nine patients showed a negative pulp sensitivity reaction in their lower teeth to ethyl chloride at one week postoperatively; this further improved to 5 patients at the 6-month follow-up and to 2 patients at the 12-month follow-up. Parameter comparisons between both piezosurgery and conventional groups showed no statistically significant difference. However, parameters comparisons across each group showed statistically significant difference between different parameters in teeth with and without negative response to thermal pulp testing regarding mean volume of the chin bone defect (P-value < 0.001), mean distance of the defect to mental foramen of both sides (P-value < 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicated that chin graft donor site showed some post-operative morbidity. The most frequent disturbance was impaired teeth sensibility. The lower lip and chin region showed fewer disturbances. However, by correctly placing mucoperiosteal incisions and bone cuts, the risk of sensitivity changes can be minimized. Surgical control for the piezosurgery was easier than conventional methods for mobilizing a chin bone block graft. The force necessary to produce a cut was much less compared to rotational burs. Increased temperature during bone cutting with piezosurgery was avoided which reduces the risk of bone damage as a result of overheating.

[Gamal M. Moutamed. MORBIDITY AFTER CHIN GRAFT HARVESTING USING PIEZOSURGERY VERSUS CONVENTIONAL OSTEOTOMY TECHNIQUES. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):641-652]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.72

 

KEY WORDS: autogenous bone, chin bone graft, morbidity, piezosurgery, bone augmentations, sinus floor elevation

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Deformation of Circular Holes at Flanging Process of Thin Sheets

 

Najmeddin Arab

 

 Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Iran

najmarab@iau/saveh.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The theoretical analysis of flanging process of circular holes in thin plates taking into account the interconnected changes of a thickness and deformation hardening is carried out. Possibility of definition of current values of strains in non-stationary processes of forming is shown. In process of flanging the co-ordinate of the material element differentiating area of compression and a stretching in meridinal direction is defined.

Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):653-657]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.73

 

Key words: Sheet Metal Forming, Thickness Changes, Work Hardening, Flanging

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Toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin associated to nuts in Saudi Arabia

 

Mohamed Deabes 1 and Roquia Al- Habib 2

 

Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt 1 and Department of Biology, College of Arts and Science, Buraydah, Qassim University, king of Saudi Arabia2.

mydeabes@yahoo.com and d.r.s.alhabib@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A survey was carried out in July-Sept., 2009 to obtain data on the occurrence of aflatoxin and the aflatoxins-producing potential of fungi isolated from nuts (almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts, pistachio nuts, Walnut and Cashew) in region of Qassim in Saudi Arabia. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins by immune affinity column (IAC) clean-up with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Percentages of positive samples with aflatoxins were 80, 80, 60, 40, 40, 20 % for pistachio, peanuts, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts and cashews. Concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were ranged between (38- 45, 11- 90, 41 -90, 0.3-3.6, 62-120 and 70-140 " µg/kg") respectively.100% of samples showed variable incidence of fungal contamination. Fungi present in samples were Penicillium spp, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Rhizopus spp. Results showed that isolates of A. flavus were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2. The purpose of the survey was to determine levels of aflatoxins and to monitor the effectiveness of the controls in place to limit consumer exposure to aflatoxins.

 Keywords: exposure to carcinogens, aflatoxins, nuts, HPLC, Fungi, food contaminants.

[Mohamed Deabes and Roquia Al- Habib. Toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin associated to nuts in Saudi Arabia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):658-665]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.74

 

Keywords: Toxigenic; fungi; aflatoxin; nut; Saudi Arabia

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Locating Input/ Output point in Facility Design

 

Hossein Shahbazi

 

Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch

shahbazi.hossein1368@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Input and output points location problem is an NP-Hard combinatorial problem with many applications. We consider location of input and output points on perimeter of shortest single loop path. In this paper, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve input and output points location problem. Parameter setting is one of the most important issues of research in Genetic Algorithms (GAs). An efficient experimental design method for parameter optimization in a genetic algorithm was carried out using the Taguchi method. Genetic parameters including the population size, the crossover rate, the mutation rate, gene mutation rate and the stopping condition are considered as design factors. We investigate effect of number of AGV vehicles and their capacity on total time of AGV systems in the uncertain environment. Using simulation based optimization, we determine a robust solution and numerical results show efficiency of our solutions comparing with the result of deterministic approach.

[Hossein Shabazi. Stochastic Location Distribution Problem in A Supply Chain System Locating Input/Output point in Facility Design. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):666-670]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.75

 

Keywords: Input/Output points location; Genetic algorithm; Queuing theory; Simulation optimization; Taguchi method.

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Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Assessment of Railroad Projects; a Case Study: Gorgan- Mashhad Railroad (Iran)

 

Saeed Arabtaheri

 

Department of Economic, Payam-e-Noor University, Gorgan, Iran

arabtaheri@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The history of growth and development in developed countries indicate that transportation has an important role in economic growth of these countries, such that most scientists and specialists of economic affairs believe that the transportation industry is the axis of growth and development in Europe and America. In Iran, also, transportation has been introduced as the key to development, and among the different routes of transportation, railroad has an important role in this respect. Considering the large volume of required investment for railroad projects, it is evident that scientific studies are needed to evaluate whether or not these project are economical. In this study, we have used the method of cost-benefit analysis and concluded that establishment of Gorgan-Mashhad railroad is economical.

[Saeed Arabtaheri. Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Assessment of Railroad Projects; a Case Study: Gorgan- Mashhad Railroad (Iran). Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):671-678]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.76

 

Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis; transportation; economic; development

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Phonetic Processes in Ruini Dialect

 

Mohammad-Hasan Hatami

 

Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, named as Tajikistan Science Academy, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

m.hatami1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The article, after introducing the consonants and vowels, discusses the impacts of them on each other as a result of collocation and subsequent changes. The research not only introduces a vanishing dialect, but also it is surely a step forward to protect the cultural heritage of the Persian language. The research method is field-library, in which the researcher has done conversations with different native speakers and residents of Ruyin village. The language corpus consists of native morphemes belonging to the dialect and those items with different pronunciation in contrast to standard Persian.

[Mohammad-Hasan Hatami. Phonetic Processes in Ruini Dialect. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):679-682]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.77

 

Keywords: Ruyin; consonant; vowel; phonetic process

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The jurisdiction and discretion challenge of International Court of Justice in Kosovo opinion

 

 Soheyla Koosha

 

Department of International Law, Payame Noor University, Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

s.koosha1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The advisory opinion of the international court of justice (here after ICJ or the court) is a legal constitute which comes from common law system. It is established to aid other bodies of united nation and specialized organizations in their activities according to their statutes. This paper is about to analyses the reasoning of the court on establishment of its jurisdiction and discretion in Kosovo opinion. In this respect, it will consider the question raised by General Assembly or (GA), the articles of charter and statute of the court in this issue, the reasoning of the court and declarations of the judges in favor or against the court reasoning, and the effect of this opinion on development of international law. It seems, this is the first time that the court does not deal with the conduct, rights and obligations of states or international organizations, but rather deals with an action of non- state entities which the legality of their action on issuing the declaration of independence according to international law must be determined.

[Soheyla Koosha. The jurisdiction and discretion challenge of International Court of Justice in Kosovo opinion. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):683-687]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.78

 

Keywords: International Court of Justice; jurisdiction; discretion; Kosovo opinion; advisory opinion

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Change in intramuscular and intermuscular neural adaptation after resistance training in trained college athletes

 

Mansoure Shahraki

 

Department of Body Building & Sport Sciences, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran

shahraki1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the intramuscular and intermuscular neural adaptation after resistance training in trained college athletes. The results indicated that, progressive resistance training significantly (P<0.01) increased MVC and integrated electromyography (IEMG) of MG muscle. There were, however, a significant decrease (P<0.01) in integrated electromyography (IEMG) of TA muscle. It was concluded that, with strength improvement in trained limb agonist muscle activation increased whereas antagonist muscle coactivation decreased. Consequently intermuscular neural adaptation (decrease of muscle coactivation) and intramuscular neural adaptation include increase of motor unit recruitment, firing rate and firing duration, does occur in trained athletes when a new training stimulus is implemented.

[Mansoure Shahraki. Change in intramuscular and intermuscular neural adaptation after resistance training in trained college athletes. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):688-693]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.79

 

Keywords: Strength training; electromyography; gastronomies 

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The aerial parts of Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn. as hydroalcoholic extract has antibacterial Activity on Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Isolates in Comparison to Ciprofloxacin

 

Peyman Mikaili 1, Nima H. Jazani 2 *, Jalal Shayegh 3, Negar Haghighi 4, Negar Aghamohammadi 4, Minoo Zartoshti 5

 

1. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2. Center for food sciences and nutrition, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

4. Students Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

5. Dept. of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

n_jazani@umsu.ac.ir, n_jazani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Several Stachys species have been used traditionally for their health benefits in various countries. About 34 species of Stachys are found in Iran. This plant possesses various medicinal properties, but there have been performed a few studies on the antibacterial effects of Stachys schtschegleevii. The aim of the present study was evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Stachys schtschegleevii on 100 Multi Drug Resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli. Stachys schtschegleevii samples were collected from the fields of northwestern Iran. The flowering aerial parts of the plant were cut, and powdered, and then extracted by maceration at room temperature for 72 hours. Bacterial isolates were collected from clinical specimens from several wards of educational hospitals in Urmia, Iran during a 12 months period. The susceptibility of isolates to Stachys schtschegleevii extracts was determined using a broth microdilution method. Considering the wide application of ciprofloxacin in treatment of bacterial nosocomial infections, the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin on isolates was also determined. All the multi-drug resistant bacterial isolates were sensitive to different concentrations of Stachys schtschegleevii hydro-alcoholic extract. The most sensitive bacterial isolates to Stachys schtschegleevii extracts were P.aeruginosa, however, 69% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrated that this herbal drug could represent a new source of antimicrobial agents, for the control of hospital acquired infections. However, more adequate studies must be carried out to verify the possibility of using it for fighting these bacteria in human body infections. Additionally, antifungal activity of this plant must be studied along with its antibacterial effect.

[Peyman Mikaili, Nima H. Jazani, Jalal Shayegh, Negar Haghighi, Negar Aghamohammadi, Minoo Zartoshti. The aerial parts of Stachys schtschegleevii Sosn. as hydroalcoholic extract has antibacterial Activity on Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Isolates in Comparison to Ciprofloxacin. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):694-699]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.80

 

Keywords: herbal medicine, ciprofloxacin, resistant bacteria, antimicrobials, hospital acquired infections

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Weather types, their frequency and relation with rainfall in west of Iran

 

Ramin Beedle

 

Scientific member of Researches Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kermanshah – Watershed Management Research Section

ramin.bidel@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Over time, various places experience different weather; there is even possible and quite tangible some different kinds of weather in a season. In this study, an automated synoptic classification (T S I) with meteorological data of six synoptic stations in the west of Iran has been used, which are exposed to Mediterranean and Sudan systems, in different seasons of the year to categorize each day by its particular category. The used variables include cloudiness (12GMT), maximum and minimum daily temperature, Dew point (12GMT), maximum and minimum daily humidity, dry temperature degree (12GMT), daily rainfall, and u and v components of wind in 1961-2004 periods. After elimination of days lacking data, by creating a P-type matrix, the correlated variables were identified and selected in form of independent components as an objective technique by analyzing principal components, and then a homogeneous collection was extracted from days of record periods in each station under name of weather types by hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). Afterwards, through evaluating rainfall amount in every weather type and its related days using cluster analysis (CA), isohyets types were identified in west of Iran. Accordingly, 4 isohyets groups were identified in 26 weather types, including high rainfall, very high rainfall, medium rainfall, and very low rainfall. Occurrence time frequency of weather types in stations of the region was studied in terms of presence number of each weather type throughout the each year and as repeated occurrence in each individual day of statistical year (number of presence of each weather type in 1 Jan of all years then 2 Jan and so to 29 Dec) and subsequently their seasonal activity was determined.

[Ramin Beedle. Weather types, their frequency and relation with rainfall in west of Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):700-707]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.81

 

Keywords: Weather type; rainfall; Iran; climate; meteorological

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Considerations over the Biostratigraphy of Jeirud Formation

 

Mostafa Yousefirad 1, Hamideh Noroozpour 2

 

1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Payam-e-Noor University, Arak Center, Arak (Corresponding Author)

M_Yousefirad@pnu.ac.ir

2 Young Researchers Club, Department of Geology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Hamideh.Noroozpour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them. Usually the aim is correlation, demonstrating that a particular horizon in one geological section represents the same period of time as another horizon at some other section. In location of Type section (Jeirud village – north east of Tehran), There are four members (A, B, C and D) and they are with a thickness of 760 meters. Among four members in Jeirud Formation, only member A is pertaining to late Devonian which has been separated, with a clastic unit, with a thickness of 20 meters from other member (B, C and D) in early Carboniferous. Lower boundary of member A is type of parallel unconformity with lilthostraigraphic units (Mila Formation) and is very index but there is no equal opinion about upper boundary. Also, based on advice from national stratigraphy committee in Iran, Jeirud Formation word is only equivalent to member of type section at the present which is representative of upper Devonian rocks in Central and western Alborz B, C, D members in Carboniferous can be compared with Mobarak Formation hence they do not have utility. This article aims to investigate the Considerations over the Biostratigraphy of Jeirud Formation, in addition to the use of basic biostratigraphy in different sediment types.

[Mostafa Yousefirad, Hamideh Noroozpour. Considerations over the Biostratigraphy of Jeirud Formation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):708-712] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.82

 

Keywords: Biostratigraphy, Jeirud Formation, Sediment Types, Index Fossils.

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The Study of Some Cognitive and No cognitive Variables as Predictors of School Success and Unsuccessful in the First Year Male High School Students of Ramhormoz

 

M. Rashidi, J. Haghighi, M. Shahni Yiylagh, S. S. Hashemi-Sheykhtabatabaei

 

Department of Psychology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran

mrashidi1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate intelligence, emotional intelligence, academic self-concept, locus of control and social-economic status as the predictors of academic success and failure of first year high school male students in Ramhormoz. Thus, from all successful students and unsuccessful students 160 persons selected randomly. The materials used in this research are as follows: Petrides & Furnham Emotional Intelligence Inventory, Delavar Academic Self-concept Inventory, Rotter Locus of Control Inventory and a researcher-made Social-Economic Status Inventory. Also Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices score were used from the students personal files. In order to analyze the data both discriminate analysis and descriptive statistics were used. Findings revealed that except component social skills concerned to variable emotional intelligence that was not a predictor of academic success and failure, other variables confirmed the hypotheses of this study and revealed that success or failure male students can be predicted from the variables intelligence, emotional intelligence, academic self-concept, locus of control and social-economic status. The obtained results and the model presented in this study are discussed in detail.

[M. Rashidi, J. Haghighi, M. Shahni Yiylagh, S. S. Hashemi-Sheykhtabatabaei. The Study of Some Cognitive and No cognitive Variables as Predictors of School Success and Unsuccessful in the First Year Male High School Students of Ramhormoz. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):713-723]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.83

 

Keywords: Intelligence; emotional intelligence; academic; self-concept; locus of control and social–economic status

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Evaluation of Imprisonment, Good or Bad?

 

Habib Asadi

 

Ph.D. Candidate in Criminal Law, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan and Academic Member, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran 

Asadi.habib@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, imprisonment is exerted for the delinquent who commit crimes and do not observe the social, human and moral values throughout the world. It can, without exaggeration, be said that there is no country in the world that has not anticipated the imprisonment in its statutory and does not have prisons and prison wardens because the penal role of the prison is undeniable, and it is impossible for a society to survive and continue without the existence of the prison. Since the late middle ages and renaissance, prison has been used as a punishment. Consequently its usage has reached its peak and has had a very long record in the history. Its history is really deplorable because the prison has been considered as a place so exert a series of punishing measures and/or as a detention house for the accused. But it is different from the organized form of these punishments in the current era because the prisons had not had favorable conditions in the past, and the prisoners were kept in dungeons, castle undergrounds and in the dark and humid places. Thus, many prisoners died of the unfavorable environment of the prisons during their imprisonment.

[Habib Asadi. Evaluation of Imprisonment, Good or Bad? Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):724-737]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.84

 

Keywords: Imprisonment, Law, Punishment

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Measuring Islamic-Driven Buyer Behavioral Implications: A Proposed Market-Minded Religiosity Scale

 

Mariam Abou-Youssef1; Wael Kortam2 Ehab Abou-Aish2 and Noha El-Bassiouny1

 

1German University in Cairo; 2Cairo University

wakortam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Islam is one of the major monotheistic religions in the world. Its importance is growing as the number of Muslim adherents is increasing, currently around 1.57 billion worldwide. The wealth of Muslim Arab countries is affecting the global economy as well as the international trade. Since religiosity has a major impact on consumer behavior, it was paramount to have an Islamic Behavioral Religiosity scale, measuring the degree of Muslims’ religiosity from the behavioral perspective. The Islamic Behavioral Religiosity Scale (IBRS) could be used by marketers to assess the degree of consumers’ religiosity and it could be linked to consumer behavior and work as a predictor to purchase patterns. The scale presented in this paper is a modification to the Islamic religiosity scale presented in 2007 by Chang-Ho C. Ji and Yodi Ibrahim. The scale was modified to include all divisions of Islam; belief, worship, legislation, and morality as well as behavior measurement. The modified scale was evaluated twice. First time was using a sample of 284 Muslim respondents in May and June 2010 and the second time was using 400 Muslim respondents in November and December 2010.

[Mariam Abou-Youssef; Wael Kortam; Ehab Abou-Aishand Noha El-Bassiouny, Measuring Islamic-Driven Buyer Behavioral Implications: A Proposed Market-Minded Religiosity Scale.Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):728-741].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.85

 

Key words: Religion,Religiosity, Islamic religiosity scale, Islam

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A study of the effects of an aerobic training program on the social maturity of male non-athlete students: the case of an Iranian experience

 

Mahdi Majlesi1, Gholamreza Shabanibahar2, Elahe Azadian1

 

1.Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran

2. Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Buali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran;

Corresponding author: Mahdi Majlesi, e-mail: majlesi11@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an aerobic training program on the development of social maturity of non-athlete male students. The research method is semi-experimental. Sixty subjects participated in this study, and were assigned to two groups (test and control). Then by applying a training program (in test group) for a period of 12 weeks, the effect of training program on social maturity was studied. To collect data, a questionnaire which is based on Rao's Social Maturity Scale was distributed before and after the course. The results showed that social maturity rate of the participants was significantly different before and after the training program. Also, it was found that there was a significant difference between control and test groups after training program. A specific sport program can be effective in raising the social maturity level and its triple dimensions.

[Mahdi Majlesi, Gholamreza Shabanibahar, Elahe Azadian.A study of the effects of an aerobic training program on the social maturity of male non-athlete students: the case of an Iranian experience. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):742-747]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.86

 

Keywords: Social maturity; Physical activity; Male students; Exercise plan; Aerobics

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Nature and Domain of Islamic Education

 

Masumeh Alinejad

 

Assistant of Nassibe College, Tehran, Iran; Alinejad15@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There are three attitudes toward the Islamic education. In the first attitude, the Islamic education is considered as a descriptive system which can be achieved through studying the works of Islamic scholars. In the second attitude, it is an inferential system based on which replies can be provided for all educational problems using the religious texts. In the third attitude, the Islamic education is considered as an inferential-institutional system in which some problems and discussions related to education are extracted from the Islamic texts and some other items are obtained based on empirical methods and religious presuppositions. With a short glance at nature and history of the Islamic education as an academic discipline, this writing tries to survey its research methods and its achievements. (Bagheri, Khosro, 2000)

[Masumeh Alinejad. Nature and Domain of Islamic Education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):748-752]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.87

 

Keywords:Islamic education (existing attitudes in the Islamic education), Islamic education history, research methods in the Islamic education, the relationship of the Islamic education with other educational sciences disciplines

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EAPHRN: Energy-Aware PEGASIS-Based Hierarchal Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

 

Hasan Al-Hasan1, Mohammad Qatawneh2, Azzam Sleit2, Wesam Almobaideen2

 

2Department of Computer Science, KASIT, University of Jordan, P.O. Box 13047, Amman 11942, Jordan

1HAlHasan@irc.gov.jo, 2{mohd.qat, asleit, wesmoba @ju.edu.jo}

 

Abstract. Power management is considered as one of the most critical researching issues in the area of wireless sensor networks (WSN), as it plays the main role in increasing the sensor nodes life time. This paper proposes a new hierarchical routing protocol for stationary wireless sensor networks, called EAPHRN Energy-Aware PEGASIS-Based Hierarchal Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (EAPHRN). The proposed scheme attempts to increase both the lifetime and the throughput of the wireless sensor network. The efficiency of proposed protocol is evaluated. The simulation results showed that the EAPHRN protocol can solve the main problems in PEGASIS since it uses a new chain construction algorithm that is completely different that the PEGASIS and is more efficient. It also uses a new chain leader election method that plays a very critical role in the energy saving.

[Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):753-758]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.88

 

Keywords: Sensor networks, Routing, Lifetime, Energy

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Effect of Forward Speed, Load and Cabin on Tractor Noise and the Health of Drivers

 

M. Payandeh1, M. Behroozi Lar2, J. Bagheri3, Z. Khodarahm Poor4

 

1M.Sc. Student in Agricultural Mechanization, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch, Shoushtar, Iran.

Payandeh.mehrzad@hotmail.com

2Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. Email:

behroozil@yahoo.com

3Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. Email:

moghaddas74@yahoo.com

4Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran.

Email: Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Noise has caused hearing problems to many drivers in the world. It has been investigated that 30 percent of Sweden’s farmers suffer from hearing loss. Similar results to those from Sweden were found in a study conducted by University of Iowa in the United States, indicating that American farm workers are faced with the same noise problems in their daily work. A MF399 tractor without cabin and a Valtra 170 with open cabin were tested for noise level at the driver as well as the bystander ear for no load and loaded cases. Comparison were made between noise level in different forward speeds for each tractor with no cabin and open window cabin on driver's ear and bystander for no load and loaded cases. Also Comparison between no cabin and open cabin in each forward speed for no load and loaded tractor at driver's ear as well as at bystander. The noise level at 2.9 km/h for no load open cabin as well as for loaded no cabin and open cabin at driver's ear was significantly greatest among the related speed ranges. It looked like the 2.9 km/h speed with one exception was a threshold after which the SPL (Sound Pressure Level) dropped. For no load no cabin case at the driver ear with a mean value of 87.72 dB(A) no significant difference was observed at 1% level for speeds up to 3.7 km/h; but the SPL for 6.1 km/h was significantly higher. The permissible exposure time was calculated as 4 h/day and 1.9 h/day respectively. For no load open cabin case no significant difference in SPL between SPL at speeds 1.9, 2.2 and 6.1 km/h with a mean value 83.1 dB(A). However significant difference was observed between 2.9 km/h and 3.7 km/h speed. For loaded no cabin, no significant difference was observed between SPL of 1.9, 2.9 and 3.7 km/h with mean value 93.5 dB(A) and 1.1 h/day permissible exposure time. For loaded open cabin. No significant difference between SPL for 3.7 and 6.1 km/h with mean 89.2 dB(A) and permissible exposure time of 5.4 h/day. Also no significant difference between the SPL for 1.9 and 2.2 km/h with mean 83.7 dB(A). Bar graph for all exposure times are shown. The same comparisons were made at bystander's ear and between no cabin and open cabin in each forward speed.

[Mehrzad Payandeh, Mansoor Behroozi Lar, Jahangir Bagheri and Zahra Khodarahm Pour. Effect of Forward Speed, Load and Cabin on Tractor Noise and the Health of Drivers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):759-765]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.89

 

Keyword: sound level, noise measurements, tractors, cabin, driver's ear

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Investigation of Micro Facies and Renovation of Old Formation Environment in Central Iran

 

Mostafa Yousefirad 1, Hamideh Noroozpour 2

 

1 Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Payam-e-Noor University, Arak Center, Arak (Corresponding Author)

M_Yousefirad@pnu.ac.ir

2 Young Researchers Club, Department of Geology, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Hamideh.Noroozpour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The formation of Central Iran includes sequences of Dolomite, Dolomite ironstone and ironstone to upper Sanpaleosen-Ethosen in Zagros Mountains. For identification of micro facies of this formation from 216 m of its thickness in Dodaj Cutting (West of Shiraz) 120 thin sections was investigated. Performed desert and laboratory studies resulted to recognition of 7 micro facies and since this deposition is formed of benthic foraminifers, therefore by using of these suitable indices as a valuable tool, we can determine old environments of these deposits. Lack of turbidity, damming and reify and other studies show that Jahrom is formed in an ideal carbonate ramp. Because of high variety and plentifulness of benthic foraminifers, also this carbonate ramp is known as "Carbonate ramp system with plentifulness of benthic foraminifers".

[Mostafa Yousefirad, Hamideh Noroozpour. Investigation of Micro Facies and Renovation of Old Formation Environment in Central Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):766-768] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.90

 

Keywords: Micro Facies, Central Iran, Old Formation Environment, Renovation.

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Investigation of Effective Factors on Audit Committee Effectiveness from Perspective of Independent Auditors and Board Members

 

1Mehdi BaharMoghaddam, 2Tabandeh Salehi

 

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management and Economy, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran

 2 M.Sc. Student, Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management and Economy, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran; tabandehsalehi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The mere presence of the audit committee does not necessarily translate into an effective monitoring body. As a result, the search for mechanisms to enhance corporate governance and increase the quality of financial reports has mostly focused on the structure of audit committees. The purpose of this research is an investigation of effective factors on audit committee effectiveness from perspective of independent auditors and board members. The statistical survey of two groups of independent auditors and board members of companies listed on the stock exchange. Data was collected using a questionnaire. 269 questionnaires from the independent auditors and board members of 347 questionnaires were analyzed. Results of this study showed that independence, activity, financial expertise, size, chart, support of board of director and experience caused the audit committee effectiveness.

[Mehdi BaharMoghaddam, Tabandeh Salehi. Investigation of Effective Factors on Audit Committee Effectiveness from Perspective of Independent Auditors and Board Members. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):769-775] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.91

 

Keywords: Audit committee, Effectiveness, Independence auditor, Board of director

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SOCIAL CAPITAL DIMENSIONS AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

 

ONI, Omobowale Ayo

 

SALIMONU, Kabir Kayode, IDOWU, Babafunke Olumayowa. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

 

ABSTRACT: Despite an annual 2.5% growth in food production in Nigeria, food insecurity at the national and household level is dismal and on the increase from 18% in 1986 to 40% in 2005. With several studies on social capital and welfare in Nigeria, there is a dearth of information on the role that social capital plays in mitigating food insecurity. This study examined effects of social capital on food security among farming households in Odeda LGA of Ogun state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 116 households in the study area in 2010. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Probit regression. The food security line was N2,155.74 per month per adult equivalent. Based on this, 45% of the total sampled households were food secure while 55% were food insecure. Food secure households exceeded the calorie requirements by 19% while food insecure households fell short of calorie requirements by 28%. A unit increase in social capital (p<0.01) increases the probability of household to be food secure by 0.0991 while a unit increase in household size (p<0.01) and level of education of household head (p<0.01) decreases the probability of household to be food secure by 0.3482 and 0.1367 respectively. Disaggregation of social capital into its dimensions shows that cash contribution positively and significantly affects food security of farming households. Consistent with our prior expectation, households with higher levels of social capital are less likely to experience hunger.

[ONI, Omobowale Ayo. SOCIAL CAPITAL DIMENSIONS AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):776-783] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.92

 

Keywords: Social Capital, Food Security, Farming Households, Ogun State

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Explaining the Implications of Climate Change and the Associated Farmers’ Risk Preferences in Nigerian Agricultural Economy

 

Salimonu, K.K

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

E-mail: k_salimonu@yahoo.com (+2348078497716)

 

Abstract: Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. Agriculture however, is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields of desirable crops while encouraging weed and pest proliferation. Managing climate risk is especially important in agriculture not only for the direct impact that climate has on production, but also because most farmers tend to be risk averse. The fore knowledge that farmers’ are mostly risk averse therefore calls for re-opening of an enabling policy environment that effectively considers the farmers perception of risk. This therefore provides a basis for making policy option towards adaptation to climate change given their characteristic socio-economic environment.

[Salimonu, K.K. Explaining the Implications of Climate Change and the Associated Farmers’ Risk Preferences in Nigerian Agricultural Economy. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):784-787] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.93

 

Keywords: Implication; Climate; Farmer; Nigerian; Agricultural Economy

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94

Frequency of Distribution of Interleukin 6 Gene 174G/C Polymorphism in obese Egyptian Cohort

 

Riham G. Mahfouz 1, Azza M. Abdu Allah*1, Seham A. Khodeer2, Waleed F. Abd Elazeem2, Mostafa Al Nagar3 and Walid A.Shehab-Eldin3

 

1Dept. of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufya University, Egypt

2Dept. of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufya University, Egypt

3Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufya University, Egypt

*ommiar_2003@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Elevated IL6 level is documented in obesity. 174G/C polymorphism in the promoter area of IL6 gene may alter its expression or its effect. Aim: Finding the frequency of IL-6 174G/C polymorphism, its sex distribution and its association with obesity and dyslipidemia. Subjects and methods: This study included 74 apparently healthy subjects (45 men and 29 women). BMI was calculated. Lipid profile was assessed by specific colorimetric assays. Serum IL6 level was measured by ELISA. IL6 genotyping was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: According to IL6 polymorphism, subjects were classified into 3 groups; CC, GC and GG. 71.42% of the GG group and 68.97% of the GC group were male. Similarly, 78.57% of the GG group and 72.41% of the GC group were obese. No significant difference as regarding sex or BMI was found in the CC group. No significant difference was found among the 3 groups as regarding IL6 level. According to BMI subjects were further classified into Obese (more than 25Kg/m2) and Non obese (less than 25Kg/m2). IL6 and triglyceride levels were higher in the obese group while HDL cholesterol was higher in the non-obese group. Both GG and GC genotypes showed significant positive correlation of IL6 with BMI (P=0.024 & P=0.012 respectively). Moreover, the GC group showed a significant positive correlation between IL6 and LDL cholesterol (p=0.022). CC genotypes didn't show any correlation of IL6 with either BMI or any measure of the lipid profile. Conclusion: The G containing alleles, GG & GC carriers are prevalent in male Egyptians which make them more vulnerable to obesity and its deleterious outcome than CC carriers.

[Riham G. Mahfouz, Azza M. Abdu Allah, Seham A. Khodeer, Waleed F. Abd Elazeem, Mostafa Al Nagar and Walid A. Shehab-Eldin, Frequency of Distribution of Interleukin 6 Gene 174G/C Polymorphism in obese Egyptian Cohort. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):788-794] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.94

 

Keywords: Interleukin 6, Polymorphism, Obesity, Dyslipidemia.

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95

BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF WATER HAWKED IN SOME PARTS OF MUBI METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

Mienda Bashir Sajo

 

Department of Biological Sciences Adamawa State University, PMB 25 Mubi, Nigeria

bashirsajomienda@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Investigation of bacteriological quality of drinking water hawked around five different areas in some parts of Mubi town in Adamawa state, Nigeria was conducted, using most probable number (MPN) technique and standard plate count methods. Two samples were collected from each site (one at the source and the other from hawkers at the point of delivery to house holds) which was repeated weekly for a period of one month. Mesophilic counts for the samples at the point of collection had values> 103 cfu/ml. whereas only two samples (Shuware and Lokuwa at the point of delivery) showed values = 103 cfu/ml. However, neither at the source nor at the point of delivery showed MPN values within acceptable range of <1O/IOOml. Therefore, the findings recommend improvement in sanitary quality at the source and enlighten the hawkers on measures that reduce microbial contamination during handling.

[ Bashir sajo mienda. Bacteriological Quality Assessment of Water Hawked in some parts of Mubi Metropolis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):795-797]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.95

 

Key words: Bacteriology; water; quality; hawkers; Mubi

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96

Designing Reinforced Concrete Frames with Earthquake Damage Control

 

Mehrdad Dorvaj1, Mahdi Eezadpanah2

 

1M.Sc. in Earthquake engineering, Building and Houses Research Center, Tehran, Iran

2M.Sc. in Civil engineering, Kordestan University, Kordestan, Iran

Mahdi.Civil1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Controlling the amount of structural damage is one of the most important issues in new design methods such as performance-based design. The purpose of present research is to present a new design method with damage control for reinforced concrete bending frames. For this purpose, at first a static damage standard is developed and then suggested method is applied to design a 7 store frame. Then in order to assess suggested method accuracy, non-elastic damage analysis is performed on mentioned frame. The results show that suggested method is effective on designing reinforced concrete bending frames, with damage control.

[Mehrdad Dorvaj, Mahdi Eezadpanah. Designing Reinforced Concrete Frames with Earthquake Damage Control. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):798-803] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.96

 

Keywords: Damage, performance-based design, Bending frame, Reinforced concrete, non-elastic analysis.

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97

Mechanical Properties of Acrylonitrile butadiene/ Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Blends: Effects of Blend Ratio and Filler Addition

 

S.A. AL-Gahtani

 

Faculty of science for Girls, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA

salgahtani2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Blends based on acrtlonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was prepared with different fast extrusion furnace black (FEF) concentrations. The effect of blend ratio and FEF contents on the mechanical properties, such as stress-strain behavior, tensile strength and elongation at break have been investigated. Tensile and elongation at break showed synergism for the blend containing zero NBR/100EPDM and 80 phr FEF-content. The experimental data have been compared with the relevant theoretical models.

[S.A. AL-Gahtani, Mechanical Properties of Acrylonitrile butadiene/ Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Blends: Effects of Blend Ratio and Filler Addition. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):804-809] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.97

 

Keywords: NBR; EPDM; Rubber blend; mechanical properties

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Reducing the Amount of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizers for Red Globe Grapevines by Using Different Sources of Organic Fertilizers

 

Abd El-Wahab, M.A.

 

Viticulture Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author: mohamedabdelaziz2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This investigation was conducted for three successive seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) in a private vineyard located at El-Khatatba, Menoufiya governorate; on mature Red Globe grapevines to study the possibility of reducing the amount of mineral nitrogen fertilizers for Red Globe grapevines by using different sources of organic fertilizers. The chosen vines were five years old, grown in a sandy loam soil, spaced at 2 X 3 meters apart, irrigated by the drip system, and cane-pruned and trellised by the Spanish Parron system. Ammonium sulphate 20.5% was added as a source of mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers (compost and chicken manure) were applied either in the form of individual or mixed at 1:1 ratio on the basis of organic manure content of nitrogen. Thirteen treatments were applied as follows: 100%mineral nitrogen (control), 75% mineral nitrogen+ 25% compost, 75% mineral nitrogen + 25% chicken manure, 75% mineral nitrogen + 25% mixed manure, 50% mineral nitrogen + 50% compost, 50% mineral nitrogen + 50% chicken manure, 50% mineral nitrogen + 50% mixed manure, 25% mineral nitrogen + 75% compost, 25% mineral nitrogen + 75%chicken manure, 25% mineral nitrogen + 75%mixed manure, 0% mineral nitrogen + 100%compost, 0% mineral nitrogen + 100% chicken manure and 0% mineral nitrogen + 100% mixed manure. The results revealed the possibility of using organic nitrogen fertilizers as a partial substitute of mineral nitrogen fertilizers. This study indicated that application of 50% mixed manure included compost and chicken manure combined with application of 50% mineral nitrogen fertilizer was the best management system for achieving the best yield with its components as well as the best physical properties of bunches, improving the physical and chemical characteristics of berries, reducing nitrate and nitrite content of berries and ensuring the best vegetative growth parameters, leaf chlorophyll and leaf mineral content of Red Globe grapevines.

[Abd El-Wahab, M.A. Reducing the Amount of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizers for Red Globe Grapevines by Using Different Sources of Organic Fertilizers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):810-819] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.98

 

Keywords: Grape, Red Globe, Mineral, Nitrogen, Fertilizer, Compost, and Chicken manure

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99

Power, Cooperation, Trust and Commitment in Supplier-Buyer Relationships

 

M. Abolhasanpour1, M.M. Seyed Esfahani1, M.A. Kimiagari1, A. Abolhasanpoor2, M. Tajalli2

 

1. Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Iran

2. Asia Pacific International College, Sydney, Australia

m.abolhasanpour@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Facing rapid changes in technology and globalization of markets, firms become very difficult to live alone. The cooperation between buyer-supplier helps to improve the efficiency of the supply chain as a whole for the mutual benefits of both parties involved. Supplier’s exercising power is a critical factor that influences cooperation. This study aims to investigate how supplier’s use of power affects cooperation climate between a buyer and a supplier, buyer’s trust in the supplier, and buyer’s commitment from buyer’s perspective. Their relationships are hypothesized and investigated based on the empirical data collected from companies in the Iran Cosmetics industry. The results demonstrate that use of non-coercive power improve cooperation and trust between the buyer and supplier. The buyer is inclined to make commitment to the supplier when cooperation and trust exist. Practical insights are provided accordingly in this paper to achieve closer buyer-supplier relationships in nowadays highly competitive environments.

[M. Abolhasanpour, M.M. Seyed Esfahani, M.A. Kimiagari, A. Abolhasanpoor, M. Tajalli. Power, Cooperation, Trust and Commitment in Supplier-Buyer Relationships. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):820-826] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.99

 

Keywords: exercised power, cooperation, trust, commitment

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100

Multiagent Architecture for Management of Milk Tankers in Dairy Industry

 

Aslam Muhammad1, Ahmad Zargham2, 3Martinez-Enriquez A. M.

 

1Department of CS & E, U. E. T. Lahore, Pakistan (maslam@uet.edu.pk)

2Department of Mechatronics & Control Engineering, U. E. T. Lahore, Pakistan (engrzargham@gmail.com)

3Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F., Mexico (3ammartin@cinvestav.mx)

 

Abstract: In the business sector there has been and always will be a demand for a single master mind or an expert which can look after the crucial business activities round the clock throughout a year. This is not possible for any single human being as the business activities are either controlled by more than one human in the form of a team or by a single human in a discontinuous manner. This introduces an inconsistency in the decision making process. There has always been search for artificial methods to perform the same task in a consistent manner. This research paper has explored the way how intelligent multiagent system can be used to look after such activities in real time. In this paper the architecture of MAS for the management of milk tankers for a milk processing company is discussed. It involves a combination of knowledge base deduction methods with multi agent techniques, working together to accomplish this task. The financial aspects of the project are not included in the scope of this research. [Aslam Muhammad, Ahmad Zargham, Martinez-Enriquez A. M., Multiagent Architecture for Management of Milk Tankers in Dairy Industry. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):827-832] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.100

 

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Multiagent system

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Intelligent Assistant to Help Blind people for Selecting Wearable Items

 

Farzana Jabeen1, Aslam Muhammad2, Maliha Saleem Bakhshi3, Martinez-Enriquez A. M.4

 

1,2Department of CS & E, U. E. T. Lahore, Pakistan (1farzanajbn@yahoo.com, 2maslam@uet.edu.pk)

3Department of Mechatronics & Control Engineering (maliha.bakhshi@uet.edu.pk)

4Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F., Mexico (4ammartin@cinvestav.mx)

 

Abstract: We introduce intelligent assistant for the blind people that support them in selecting wearable items. Many intelligent systems have been developed for the people with impaired vision. These systems help them to deal with daily life problems like avoiding obstacles, face recognition, reading, and writing. However, blind persons still have to face a lot of problems in choosing their daily commodities. Therefore a system is needed for such people that can assist them in selecting their accessories. Our proposed system that is using text to speech technology for direct communication is intelligent enough to facilitate blind people in choosing their wearable items like dresses, shoes, hair styles, jewelry, and glasses according to the causal or formal events. The main purpose of this assistant is to make blind persons more independent and more confident so that they can enjoy life like healthy persons. The system’s objectives are achieved with the unification of artificial intelligence particularly knowledge based system and image processing. We validate our system on various blind persons and get satisfactory results. [Farzana Jabeen, Aslam Muhammad, Maliha Saleem Bakhshi, Martinez-Enriquez A. M. Intelligent Assistant to Help Blind people for Selecting Wearable Items. Journal of American Science 2011;7(8):833-840] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070811.101

 

Keywords: vision impaired, text to speech technology, Blind assistance

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 15, 2011. 
 
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