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Science Journal

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The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 9, Cumulated No. 43, September 25, 2011

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0709

 

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

MIMO – OFDM WIMAX for Commercial Networks in Urban Environment

 

1Syed Ahsan, 2Muhammad Shahbaz, 3 Sajid Mehmood, 4Syed Athar Masood

 

1,2,3Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

4Department of Engineering Management, NUST College of E&ME, Rawalpindi Pakistan

1 ahsancs@hotmail.com, 2 m.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, 4 atharmasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The demand for global connectivity and seamless data and voice services on-the-go has increased the requirements for all data-centric applications and accessibilities irrespective of geographical location. New systems and standards are in a phase of continuous evolution. They will finally bring the information services provided by the Internet and the World Wide Web to mobile users, together with a variety of new multimedia entertainment services. Mobile Communication Technology 1st Generation (AMPS), 2nd Generation (GSM), even 2.5 Generation (GPRS & EDGE) could not fulfill the rising need for greater data rates to support real-time applications. Even 3rd Generation (UMTS) which is currently being roll-out in most of the world does not provide data rates high enough to support real-time applications. Need for 4th Generation Mobile Communication (LTE & WiMAX) is growing resulting into new standards being set for Mobile Communication Evolution for complete IP-Based network support. In this paper we explore the possible suitability of implementing and applying MIMO-OFDM in an urban environment.

[Syed Ahsan, Muhammad Shahbaz, Syed Athar Masood. MIMO-OFDM WIMAX for Commercial Networks in Urban Environment. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.01

 

Keywords: global connectivity, data-centric applications, 4 th generation mobile communication

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2

Effect of Low herbicides use on weed control in sustainable agriculture

 

Einallah Hesammi

Faculty member, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch. Iran

a.hesami@iau-shouhtar.ac.ir and ainellah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The To consider and study four types of dual herbicides with minimum and maximum values in controlling wheat herbicides in different tillage systems enrolling in stability and protecting environment to avoider from soil erosion, a test was done. This test was run in three certs. Randomly. The test timers included min common tillage systems and herbicides content Mesosulfuron with 350 and400 gram associated to Sorefketant Sitogate, Sulfosulfuron26.6 and31 gr per hectare. With Sorefketant Sitogate, Assert 25%, 2and3 liters/hectare and Metribozine 70%, 200 and 300gr/hectare. Results showed that the common Tillage system has a role in decreasing herbicides globosity better than minimum Soil seeking; and application of Sulfosulfuron herbicide with 31gr/hectare value in common tillage and Mesosulfuron with 400gr value in minimum tillage are harmful in control of herbicides. On the Other hand Mesosulforon Methyl 30%-Iodosulforon Methyl 30%, 350 and 400gr trade, Sulfosulfuron 26.6 and 31gr effective matter, Assert 2 and 3 liter effective matter were more appropriate in controlling type of herbicides for each two tillage system.

[Einallah Hesammi. Effect of Low herbicides use on weed control in sustainable agriculture.Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):5-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.02

 

Keywords: dual herbicide, weed, wheat

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3

Phytoremediation of Soil Heavy Metals by Some Fast Growing Halophytes and Maize Plants

 

 Eid, M.A.

Soil Science Departments, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Hadayek Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt; mohamedabceid@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Phytoextraction of heavy metal from contaminated soils is promising remediation technology. Till now, more than several hundreds of plant species have been used. However, phytoextraction using halophytes is still not extensively researched. This work was carried out to evaluate of phytoextraction potential for three fast growing halophytic grasses Leptochloa fusca, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens vs Zea mays plants. The highest values of shoot accumulation were found in Leptochloa fusca to record 335 and 45 mg kg-1 DW for Zn and Ni compared with 103 and 16 mg kg-1 DW in maize plants. However, the value of Zn concentration in shoot of maize surpassed those found in Sporobolus virginicus (85 mg kg-1 DW) and in Spartina patens (43 mg kg-1 DW). Only the halophytic species succeeded to translocate Cu into their aerial parts. The highest Cu accumulation value was achieved by Sporobolus virginicus (25 mg kg-1 shoot DW) followed by Leptochloa fusca (21 mg kg-1 shoot DW) and Spartina patens (17 mg kg-1 shoot DW) while, Zea mays accumulated 7 mg kg-1 shoot DW. The capacity of Ni accumulation in shoot of tested plants was ranked in descending order Leptochloa fusca, Sporobolus virginicus, Spartina patens and Zea mays. Despite of Z. mays had completely failed to translocate Cu into shoot but, it had the greatest phytostablisation potential, recording the lowest values of extractable metal in contaminated soil.

[Eid, M.A. Halophytic. Phytoremediation of Soil Heavy Metals by Some Fast Growing Halophytes and Maize Plants. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 8-16].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.03

 

Key words: Leptochloa fusca, Sporobolus virginicus, Spartina patens, Zea mays, Heavy metals, Phytoextraction, Phytoremediation.

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4

Fuzzy TM-ideals of TM-algebras

 

Samy M. Mostafa1, Mokhtar A. Abdel Naby2 and Osama R. Elgendy3

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Eduction, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt

dr_usamaelgendy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The fuzzification of TM- ideals in TM-algebras is considered, and several properties are investigated. Characterizations of a fuzzy ideal are provided. Mathematical Subject Classification: 06F35, 03G25, 08A30.

[Samy M. Mostafa, Mokhtar A. Abdel Naby and Osama R. Elgendy, Fuzzy TM-ideals of TM-algebras. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 17-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.04

 

Keywords: TM-algebra, TM-ideal, fuzzy TM-ideal, homomorphism of TM-algebra.

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A Comparative Clinical Study Between Bone Onlay Graft And Connective Tissue Graft In Reconstruction Of Interdental Papillae Between Two Implants

 

Ahmed Dardir Mohamed 1 ; Omnia Abo Ul-Dahab 2 ; Khaled Abuo-Elfadl 3 ; Reda Abd El Rahman 4 and Mona Shoeib 2.

 

1. Lecturer, Oral Medicine and Periodontal Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr University for Science and Technology.

2. Professor, Oral medicine and Periodontal Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

3. Professor, Oral medicine and Periodontology. Vice president of Nahda University.

4. Professor, Oral medicine and Periodontology. Dean, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Future University.

 Corresponding author: ahmed_derro@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Gingival esthetics has become a decisive factor in the overall success of an implant-supported restoration, Successful implant therapy is no longer judged by whether or not the implant simply osseointegrates. The aim of the present study was to clinically evaluate and compare between bone graft and connective tissue graft in reconstruction of inter-implants papillae.Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 16 patients; (all male) with a mean age of 34 years (25-44). Each patient received two adjacent implants placed in the anterior esthetic zone. The sixteen patients were divided into two groups: Group (A): spongy bone sheets were used in reconstruction of the papilla. Group (B): connective tissue graft was used in reconstruction of the papilla. Results: The comparison between spongy bone sheets (group A) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (group B) in reconstruction of inter-implants papillae showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the clinical soft tissue height at two, four and six months follow-ups, however in comparing between percentage increase in clinical soft tissue height, Group A showed statistically significantly higher mean % increase in clinical soft tissue height than Group B from 4 months to 6 months and after 6 months.Conclusion: Osteoplant Flex bone sheets and Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft can be successfully used in reconstruction of inter-dental papilla between two implants. However, Successful interimplant papilla reconstruction depends on a lot of variables that have to be in mind beside proper treatment plane which is the key for favorable esthetic results.

[Ahmed Dardir Mohamed; Omnia Abo Ul-Dahab; Khaled Abuo-Elfadl; Reda Abd El Rahman and Mona Shoeib. A Comparative Clinical Study Between Bone Onlay Graft And Connective Tissue Graft In Reconstruction Of Interdental Papillae Between Two Implants Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 22-32](ISSN: 1545-1003) http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.05

 

Keyword: Bone Onlay Graft And Connective Tissue Graft In Reconstruction Of Interdental Papillae.

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Effect of apical patency apically extruded debris during canal enlargement using hand or rotary instruments

 

Manar Mohamed Galal Hamouda, Hossam Mohamed Essam El-Din Tawfik, Ahmed Fawzy Abou Elezz, Dalia Yehia Ibrahim

 

Department of Operative, Endodontic and Dental materials National Research Center

Department Faculty of Dentistry- Ain Shams UniversityLecturer in Department of Operative dentistry

Faculty of Dentistry- Suez canal University

Department of Orperative, Endodontic, and Dental materialsOral and dental medicine DivisionNational Research Center

 

Abstract:The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris of Protaper, HeroShaper and RT file. A sixty freshly extracted mandibular molars with root canal curvature angulation between 17 and 35 degree were used in this study. The experimental samples were divided into three equal groups according to the instrument used. Group one was instrumented using rotary hand NiTi Protaper, while group two was instrumented using NiTi HeroShaper. The third group was instrumented using StSt RT hand file. The effect of apical patency was evaluated by subdividing each group into two subgroups, one prepared with apical patency while the other prepared without using it. The amount of apically extruded debris was evaluated using electric microbalance. The result showed that the tested NiTi systems extruded apically more debris than the StSt file. The incorporation of apical patency in enlargement of root canal resulted in increase of the amount of extruded debris in all groups.

[Manar Mohamed Galal Hamouda, Hossam Mohamed Essam El-Din Tawfik, Ahmed Fawzy Abou Elezz, Dalia Yehia Ibrahim. Effect of apical patency apically extruded debris during canal enlargement using hand or rotary instruments. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):33-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.06

 

Keyword: apical patency apically extruded debris during canal enlargement using hand or rotary instruments.

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Histological And Ultrastructural Changes In Mammalian Testis Under The Effect Of Hydrocortisone

 

Waslat W. Elshennawy* and Hanaa R. Abo Elwafa

 

Biology and Geology Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*dr-waslat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid currently utilized in the medical fields for the treatment of various types of diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the histological and ultrastructural changes induced in mammalian testis under the effect of hydrocortisone. Twenty adult male rats weighing 150-200g were divided into two groups; group I, injected i.m. with hydrocortisone sodium succinate (30mg/100g b.wt.), daily for 15 days. Whereas, group II were kept as control. (injected with 0.6ml of bacteriostatic water). Histologically, testes of treated rats displayed thickening of tunica albuginea, disruption of spermatogenesis evident, marked reduction in germ cells caused dilatation of intercellular spaces, detachment of Sertoli cells from the irregular basal lamina, in addition to necrotic Leydig cells with infiltration of the interstitial tissues. Ultrastructurally, treated testes showed thickening and irregularity of the surrounding basal lamina, cytoplasmic vacuolation of atrophied Sertoli cells, shrinkage and pyknotic nuclei of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes, condensed Golgi apparatus and detachment of the acrosomal granule from the anterior hemisphere of the nucleus of rounded spermatids, and disappearance of elongated spermatids and spermatozoa. Also, necrotic Leydig cells were observed in interstitial tissue. In conclusion, hydrocortisone administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on testicular structure and ultrastructure, which leads to much deficiency in their performance. So, it should be utilized under restricted precautions in the medical fields to protect the human health from its hazardous impact.

[Anas Ezz, Eman Mohamed Zahran, and Azza Hamdi El-Soussi. Barriers and facilitators to research utilization in critical care settings. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):38-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.07

 

Key words: glucocorticoids, histology, hydrocortisone, rat, testis, ultrastructure

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Investigation to Production Machinable Austempered Ductile Iron (MADI)

 

Najmeddin Arab

 

najmarab@iau/saveh.ac.ir
 Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Iran

 

Abstract: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) are materials which have attractive properties such as ductility, high strength, hardness and good wear resistance. These properties can be achieved by proper chemical composition, heat treatment and adequate microstructure. The main barrier in progress application of ADI, is low machinability. In this paper, an investigation has been conducted on ADI Alloys with different heat Traetment times and temperatures and measuring of hardness as a criteria for machinability. It was shown that by increasing in Austenizing and austempering temperatures, the hardness decrease, which it is benefit to increase machinability. Based on these results an optimal processing window has been established.

[Najmeddin Arab. Investigation to Production Machinable Austempered Ductile Iron (MADI). Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):49-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.08

 

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron, Machining ADI, MADI, Heat Treatment

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Effect of Conservative Measures in Improving Hemorrhoid Stages and Relieving Symptoms among Patients with Hemorrhoid

 

Zeinab H. Ali1 ; Nessrien O. El-Sayed2; and *Nadia M. Taha3

 

Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan1, Ain Shams2, and Zagazig3 University

*dr_nadya_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins at or near the anus, normally asymptomatic. They do not constitute a disease, unless they become symptomatic. Symptomatic hemorrhoids affect at least 50% of the American population at some time during their lives, with around 5% of the population suffering at any given time, and both sexes experiencing the same incidence of the condition. In Egypt, hemorrhoid is considered one of the most frequent diseases of the anal region with high prevalence (nearly 50% of proctological visits in a colorectal unit) involving any age and affecting both males and females equally. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of conservative measures in improving hemorrhoid stages and relieving symptoms among patients with hemorrhoid. Hypothesis were; Patients who received conservative measures (diet & hygienic care) will be having better improvement in hemorrhoid stage and symptom scores post intervention and one month later as compared to prior intervention. Patients who received conservative measures and Kegel exercise will be having better improvement in hemorrhoid stage and symptom scores post intervention and one month later as compared to prior intervention. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at outpatient surgery clinics in El-Naser Insurance Hospitals in Helwan City, El-Demerdash Hospital affiliated to Ain Shams University, and Ahmed Maher Educational Hospital, in Cairo, on a consecutive sample of 90 adults complaining of stage one or two of hemorrhoid. Four tools were used for data collection; namely an interview form, hemorrhoid symptoms, assessment sheet, hemorrhoid stages, assessment sheet and observational checklist about kegel exercise for hemorrhoids. An individualized conservative measure was developed based on the findings of the assessment, and in the light of related literature, it was implemented, and evaluated. Results revealed severity of the hemorrhoid symptoms and stages among the studied sample in the pre-intervention stage with statistically significant improvements at the post-intervention phase (p<0.001). As well, there was some improvements in hemorrhoid stages in the two studied groups as compared to the control group (p<0.001). There were improvements in the hemorrhoid stages and symptoms among patients in the study group (1) as compared to study group (2) (p<0.001) as a result of kegel exercise provided to patients in the study group (1). These results revealed that, conservative measures provided to the patients in the studied groups (1, 2), as well as the provided Kegel exercise followed by patients in the study group (1) were effective in improving their hemorrhoid's symptoms and stages. It is concluded that conservative measure has highly statistically significant positive effect in improving the hemorrhoid stages and symptoms of patients used diet and hygienic care or kegel exercise It is recommended to generalize such conservative measures in hospitals for teaching hemorrhoid patient hygienic care, diet, and application of the instructions regarding nutrition, voiding habit and hygienic care in addition to exercise.

[Zeinab Hussein Ali ; Nessrien Ossman. El-Sayed; and *Nadia Mohamed Taha. Effect of Conservative Measures in Improving Hemorrhoid Stages and Relieving Symptoms among Patients with Hemorrhoid. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 53-65].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.09

 

Key words: conservative measures, kegel Exercise, hemorrhoid stages, hemorrhoid symptoms.

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The Relation between some Immunosuppressive Agents and Widespread Nature of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Post Vaccination

 

A. M. Hegazy1, F. M. Abdallah2, L. K. Abd-El Samie3, and A. A. Nazim4

 

1 Avian & Rabbit Med. Dept., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

2 Virology Dept., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

3 Avian & Rabbit Dis., Vet. Hospital, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

4 M. V. Sc., Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig Univ. Zagazig, Egypt.

lamsamie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) and mycotoxicosis on immune response of chicken after vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza. Sixteen chicken flocks (4 broiler flocks ranged between 4 - 6w old and 12 layer flocks ranged between 12 - 57w old), vaccinated against HPAI once in case of broiler flocks and three times in case of layer flocks showed non protective titer by HI and ELISA tests, were tested for the presence of Anti-CIAV antibody using commercially available ELISA kit and the flock's rations were examined for the presence of aflatoxin and ochratoxin using HPLC. All tested flocks were seropositive against CIAV in both broiler flocks (with percentage of 70% & ELISA titers ranging from 2105 to 3728) and layer flocks (with percentage of 71.67% & ELISA titers ranging from 2007 to 3194) of different ages, breeds, and localities in Sharkia province, Egypt. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of aflatoxin & ochratoxin residues in rations despite using antimycotoxin feed additives. The study revealed that CIAV infection and mycotoxicosis might be the cause of vaccination failure against AIV and so the repeated occurrence of AIV infection even in the vaccinated flocks in Sharkia province, Egypt.

[A. M. Hegazy, F. M. Abdallah, L. K. Abd-El Samie and A. A. Nazim, The Relation between some Immunosuppressive Agents and Widespread Nature of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Post Vaccination. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):66-72] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.10

 

Key words: HPAI, CIAV, HI, ELISA, mycotoxins, GMT.

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Biochemical Alterations Induced by Subchronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Effect of Zinc 

 

Suleiman Folorunsho Ambali1, Ahmad Tijanni Abubakar2, Mohammed Umoru Kawu1, Chidiebere Uchendu1, Muftau Shittu1, and Suleiman Olawoye Salami3 

 

1Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology

2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Kwara State Minisry of Agriculture, Ilorin, Nigeria, Corresponding author: Dr. S.F. Ambali Toxicology Unit, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; E-mail- fambali2001@yahoo.com; atunluse@gmail.com; Tel No: +234 8037015411

 

Abstract: Studies have shown that oxidative stress is partly involved in the molecular mechanism of chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of zinc on alterations in biochemical changes induced by subchronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in Wistar rats. Forty adult Wistar rats of either sex used for the study were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1 was administered soya oil (2 ml/kg) while group II was given zinc gluconate (50 mg/kg). Rats in group III were administered chlorpyrifos (10.6 mg/kg~ 1/8th LD50) only while those in group IV were pretreated with zinc gluconate (50 mg/kg) and then administerd with CPF (10.6 mg/kg), 30 min later. The regimens were administered orally via gavage for 8 weeks. The rats were evaluated for toxic signs, weekly body weight changes and death. The sera obtained from blood samples were analysed for the levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-), total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, urea, alanine aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase and malonaldehyde (MDA). The liver was also examined for MDA concentration. The result showed that CPF caused alterations of these biochemical parameters, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with zinc.

[Suleiman Folorunsho Ambali, Ahmad Tijanni Abubakar, Mohammed Umoru Kawu, Chidiebere Uchendu, Muftau Shittu, and Suleiman Olawoye Salami. Biochemical Alterations Induced by Subchronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Effect of Zinc. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):73-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003)

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.11

 

Key words: Organophosphate, chlorpyrifos, biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, amelioration, zinc

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An etiological study of the laryngeal cancer in the patients admitted in Imam Hospital of Urmia, Northwestern Iran

 

Hassan Latifi 1, Peyman Mikaili 2*, Majid Kassiyanzadeh 3, Kaveh Latifi 4

 

1. Department of Otolaryngology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical sciences, Urmia, Iran

2. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3. Student of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical sciences, Urmia, Iran

4. Student of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Teheran Azad University, Tehran, Iran

peyman_mikaili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Laryngeal cancer accounts for 2% of total human cancers and also 30-35% of cancers of head and neck. Before 1860s, laryngeal cancer was rarely recognized. Different types of neoplasms involve laryngeal region, including sarcoma, adenocarcinoma, cylindroma, lymphoma, histiocytoma etc. Although the laryngeal cancer seems to be common in the northwestern Iran, to our best knowledge, it has been poorly documented. The aim of this study is evaluating the clinical and statistical profile of laryngeal cancer in northwestern Iran in detail, including information about etiology, clinical manifestations and usual treatment methods in a three year long study. Subjects and Methodology: This study was performed in the period of three years on the all referred patients (n=50, male to female ratio: 48:2) with laryngeal cancer, accepted in the major state Imam hospital of Urmia. The medical documents of all accepted patients were completely recorded. They all underwent laryngoscopy and biopsy samples were collected. Their laryngeal cancer was approved by pathological tests in the medical center. Of all 50 patients, 46 cases (92%) underwent surgery and/or radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (8%) after primary diagnosis discharged or transferred to other medical centers, thus, we missed them and we could not follow them up anymore. Results: Almost all of 50 studied patients (m=48, f=2) were in 7th and 8th age decades. The average of malignancy occurrence age was 65.5 years for female and 62.3 for male patients. In the drawn age graph, 31 cases are located above and 17 cases below the average value. Regardless the gender, the average age of malignancy occurrence is 62.5. The results showed that 90% of the patients were smokers and only the rest 10% had no smoking history. More than the half of the patients had signs of voice changes. 98% (n=49) of pathological lesions of laryngeal cancer were detected as SCC and only one case (2%) was as adenocystic carcinoma. The results of our study showed the incidence of cancers of glottis origin are 56% and the suprepiglottic, was 40%, with no cases (0%) of infraglottic origin. In our study, 90% of the cases were smokers and 70% of latter had 20-year long smoking history. Statistically, there was a significant relation between smoking and laryngeal cancer (r > 0.89; p< 0.01). Conclusion: For about 90 percents of the patients, we may consider a survival of 5 years. But if the cancer spread to the infraglottic or inner posterior parts of the larynx, the five-year survival decreases to 70 percents of them. The patients should be educated so that they do the follow-up visits, although the surgery has been successfully done. This is because, sometimes the tumor, even after a radical excision, may proliferate and remised, and then the common therapy will fail. We propose educational programs for the patients after laryngeal cancer surgery.

[Hassan Latifi, Peyman Mikaili, Majid Kassiyanzadeh, Kaveh Latifi. An etiological study of the laryngeal cancer in the patients admitted in Imam Hospital of Urmia, Northwestern Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):82-86]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.12

 

Keywords: Laryngeal cancer, incidence, occurrence, etiological study, Northwestern Iran

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Common Iranian traditional herbal medicine with cold nature used as infusion

 

Peyman Mikaili 1*, Jalal Shayegh 2, Mohammad Hossein Asghari 3, Shadi Sarahroodi 4, Massoumeh Sharifi 5

 

1. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

3. Student of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

4. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

5. M.Sc. Student of Nursing of Intensive Care, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

peyman_mikaili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Herbal therapy in Iran dates back to a long time ago and a number of writings regarding this issue are left by great physicians e.g. Avicenna and Rhazes. Today, in spite of remarkable advances in modern medicine, we are confronted with an increasing tendency towards herbal remedies among those seeking for traditional therapies. But according to our knowledge, there is no report about the plants used in Iranian herbal medicine with cold nature. Materials and Methods: The junior medical students were grouped into several groups. Then, the information gathered from ethno-pharmacologists, herbal-drug sellers and rural native-healers, from different regions of Iran, especially Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northern provinces. All data collected, were summarized for every species. For each repeated report of a certain indication we added “a point” to the specification of that plant. If the number of every reported indication was more than 7-15 times we reported that indication or pharmacological effect in our final report in this article. We thought that, the higher frequency of the reports of an activity or indication, may mean the most reliable applications of that plant in Iranian traditional medicine. Results: 17 species received the higher points as cold plants in Iranian traditional herbal medicine. These herbs are presented here with their specifications. We have summarized the collected data as Scientific name, Family names, English name, Persian name, therapeutic nature (cold, hot or balanced), suggested actions and pharmacology, indication and usage, used parts/preparation, mode of administration. Other comments are added in the end of the represented data. Conclusion: According to the data of this study, we did not find any direct relationship between the pharmacological properties and the cold or hot nature of the studied plants. This report, according to our best knowledge, was the first specific one describing the plants with cold nature in Iranian herbal medicine. But, for recognizing the exact relationship between cold nature and the pharmacological activities of the plants, other extended studies should be performed.

[Peyman Mikaili, Jalal Shayegh, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Shadi Sarahroodi. Common Iranian traditional herbal medicine with cold nature used as infusion. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):87-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.13

 

Keywords: Herbal medicine, Iranian traditional medicine, cold nature of herbs, a field study

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The etiological evaluation of the nasal bone fracture in the patients admitted in Imam Hospital of Urmia, Northwestern Iran

 

Hassan Latifi 1, Peyman Mikaili 2*, Reza Samarei 1, Dawood Nasr-Arkan 3, Kaveh Latifi 4

 

1. Department of Otolaryngology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical sciences, Urmia, Iran

2. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

3. Student of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical sciences, Urmia, Iran

4. Student of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Teheran Azad University, Tehran, Iran

peyman_mikaili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Nasal bone fracture is one of the most common fracture in the maxilla-facial region of the head. Almost the facial traumas in the adults occur in car accidents due to the trauma to the face. The familial struggles or fracas also account for other types of these injuries, which occur more commonly in the urban regions and big cities. The diagnosis of nasal bone fracture is usually complicated by ecchymosis and swelling of the traumatic site. Since the nasal bone fractures are the most common facial fractures, and due to the esthetic importance for the patients, it cause a great deal of costs and social and psychological complications. Regarding the local and cultural factors in these conditions, we designed this study to elucidate more clearly the exact influencing factors and causes in nasal bone fracture in northwestern Iran. Methodology: All patients with nasal bone fractures to the main state hospital (Urmia Imam Khomeini), were included in the study during 2000-2007. All necessary information were recorded, including the gender, age, etiology of nasal bone fracture, occupation, urban or rural residency, and the type of nasal bone fracture, including lateral or frontal. The data were tabulated and analyzed by SPSS version 17. The p-value more than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of total 350 patients, 38 patients were in age group 1 month to 10 years old, 142 cases in 11-20, 96 cases in 21-30, 41 cases in 31-40, 18 cases in 41-50 and 15 cases had more than 50 years old. In the age group of less than 1 month, there were no nasal bone fractures. The patients were according to the occupation as 27 soldiers (7.7%), 117 school pupils (33.4%), 41 farmers (11.7%), 28 workers (8%), 57 housekeeping wives (16.3%), 25 students (7.1%), 55 businessmen (15.7%). The fractures were 280 cases of lateral (80%) and 70 cases (20%) of frontal type. There were no significant difference in urban (n=212) and rural (n=138) nasal bone fracture (p> 0.05). In urban pattern 171 cases (80.6%) lateral and 41 (19.3%) frontal and in rural regions 109 cases (78.9%) and lateral cases 29 (21.01%). Conclusion: According to the findings of our study, the followings are suggested: instructing the people to enhance the cultural level to improve the interpersonal and individual interactions through mass media; enhancing the safety of pedestrian ways and crowded public places; instructing people to observing the traffic rules to decrease the accident dangers; obligation of using the safety cap for motor-cyclists; and observing the safety codes high risk sport fields.

[Hassan Latifi, Peyman Mikaili, Reza Samarei, Dawood Nasr-Arkan, Kaveh Latifi. The etiological evaluation of the nasal bone fracture in the patients admitted in Imam Hospital of Urmia, Northwestern Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):92-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.14

 

Keywords: Nasal bone fracture, facial fractures, incidence, occurrence, Northwestern Iran

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“Achieving Optimum Scientific Standards for Designing and Producing Fabrics Suitable for Ultraviolet Protective Clothing”

 

G., E., Ibrahim

 

Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Dept, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

ghalia1980@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This research is mainly concerned with producing woven cotton fabrics used in Ultraviolet Protective Clothing. The produced fabrics were treated with U.V. Fast AO. Different parameters were studied including, fabric structure (plain weave 1/1, twill 3/3 and satin 6), Three weft sets were also used (24,30 and 36 pick/cm) and using two yarn counts (30/1 and 40/1 English ).Their influence on the performance of the end-use fabric and the achieved properties were studied. On the other hand physic-chemical properties including, U.V resistance, air permeability, water permeability, handle, thickness and weight were evaluated according to the final product needs. Some more results were reached concerning structures and materials. Most samples have achieved the expected results.

[G., E., Ibrahim. Achieving Optimum Scientific Standards Fabrics Suitable for Ultraviolet Protective Clothing. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 97-109].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.15

 

Keyword: Achieving Optimum Scientific Standards Producing Fabrics Suitable for Ultraviolet Protective Clothing.

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Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Management Guideline: Comparison between Intensive Care Unit and General Word at Mansoura University Hospital 

 

*Amira Ahmed Hassanin and Nayra Mohamed Tantawey

 

Adult Care Nursing, and Critical Care Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; *dr_amira_ahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pressure ulcer (PU) is areas of localized damage to the skin, which can extend to underlying structures such as muscle and bone. Damage is caused by a combination of factors including pressure, shear, friction and moisture. Pressure ulcers can develop in any area of the body, but generally occur over areas of bony prominences. Pressure ulcers occur in approximately 17-20 % of hospitalized patients(1). Patients with stroke in intensive care units and ward are particularly at risk because they are relatively immobile. Therefore, the best treatment for pressure ulcers is to prevent their development. Prevention depends on excellent nursing care that concentrates on meticulous skin care and relief of pressure (2). The aim of this study to determine the effectiveness of nursing care for prevention and management of pressure ulcer in the intensive care unit and comparison with care in general medicine wards. The sample of this study consisted of 50 adult patients from both sexes admitted to the ICU during nine months and complain from stroke, the patients were included if they stayed for at least 5 consecutive nights in intensive care unit and transport to medical general word to stay another five nights or more.

[Amira Ahmed Hassanin and Nayra Mohamed Tantawey, Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Management Guideline: Comparison between Intensive Care Unit and General Word at Mansoura University Hospital. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 110-117]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.16

 

Keywords: Pressure ulcers, prevention, pressure ulcer management.

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Innervation of the Olfactory Apparatus of Varanus Niloticus (Squamata– Lacertilia-Varanidae)

 

Ahmed Imam Dakrory

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University; dakrory2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The olfactory apparatus of Varanus niloticus niloticus includes the main olfactory organ and the vomeronasal organ or organ of Jacobson. The vomeronasal organ is innervated by two associated nerves: the terminal and the vomeronasal nerves. They arise from the sensory epithelium in combination. The terminal nerve carries a terminal ganglion. The nervi terminalis and vomeronasalis combine together as one separate nerve which leaves the cavity of the nasal capsule together with three bundles of the olfactory nerve through the fenestra olfactoria advehens. The main olfactory organ is innervated by the olfactory nerve which arises from the sensory olfactory epithelium and leaves the capsular cavity through the fenestra olfactoria advehens as separate bundles. The three nerves enter the cranial cavity through a large fenestra olfactoria evehens. They connect separately the anterior part of the brain. The nervi terminalis and vomeronasalis enter the accessory olfactory bulb whereas, the nervus olfactorius enters the main olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb has a long olfactory peduncle. The three nerves carry pure special sensory fibres.

[Ahmed Imam Dakrory, Innervation of the Olfactory Apparatus of Varanus Niloticus (Squamata– Lacertilia-Varanidae)]Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):118-125].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.17

 

Key words: Varanus niloticus niloticus, olfactory apparatus, Nervi vomeronasalis- terminalis, Nervus olfactorius.

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Reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis in assessment of Bell’s palsy

 

Nevein M.M. Ghariba,*, Sahar M. Adelb, and Nirmeen A. Abdel-Ghaffarc

 

a Department of Physical Therapy for Neuromuscular Disorders and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

b Department of Physical Therapy for Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

c Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

*neveinmohammed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective analysis of facial movements forms an important consideration in the assessment and outcomes of several medical disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of the three- dimensional (3-D) motion analysis system as a method for assessment of Bell’s palsy quantitatively. Sixty female patients suffered from Bell's palsy; their ages ranged from 25-40 years, participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion analysis by Qualisys motion capture system was used to analyze facial movements by measuring specific facial angles. Measurements were taken for both the affected and non-affected sides to measure the facial asymmetry (from both contracted and relaxed positions). The intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability of the measurement were examined. The measured angles were correlated with the manual muscle testing (MMT) of the corresponding muscles. Facial Disability Index was also used to assess facial function. Statistical analyses revealed that there was a statistical non-significant difference in the angles recorded between both examiners. The intra examiner and inter-examiner reliability of the measured angles were highly accurate with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) between 0.88 and 0.97. Qualisys motion capture system proved to be strongly correlated with the grades of MMT of the corresponding muscles (Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient [r] ranged from 0.61 to 0.81). It was concluded that 3-D motion analyses by Qualisys motion capture system can be considered as a reliable method for assessment of Bell’s palsy and can detect and characterize a wide range of clinically significant facial functional deficits.

[Nevein M.M. Gharib, Sahar M. Adel, Nirmeen A. Abdel-Ghaffar, Reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis in assessment of Bell’s palsy] Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):126-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.18

 

Keywords: Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis; Bell's palsy; Reliability; Manual muscle testing; Facial Disability

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Effects of vitamin K on ruminant animal: A Review

 

Hamed AminiPour1*, Naser Maheri Sis2, Saeid Najafyar Razlighi1, Mohammad SalamatAzar1, MohammadHasan Babazadeh1, Mohammad Taher Maddah1, Navid Reazei1, Mojtaba Namvari1

 

1. Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University Sarab Branch, Sarab, Iran.

2. Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University Shabestar Branch, Shabestar, Iran.

h.aminipor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat soluble vitamins that are needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation but also involved in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. They are 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone derivatives. This group of vitamins includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is also known as vitamin Kj, phylloquinone or phytomenadione (also called phytonadione). Plants synthesize vitamin K1 while bacteria can produce a range of vitamin K2 forms, including the conversion of K1 to K2 by bacteria in the small intestines. No known toxicity exists for vitamins K1 and K2. Three synthetic types of vitamin K are known: vitamins K3, K4, and K5. Although the natural K1 and K2 forms are nontoxic, the synthetic form K3 (menadione) has shown toxicity. Vitamin K was identified in 1929 by Danish scientist Henrik Dam when he investigated the role of cholesterol by feeding chickens a cholesterol-depleted diet.[2] After several weeks, the animals developed hemorrhages and started bleeding. These defects could not be restored by adding purified cholesterol to the diet. It appeared that—together with the cholesterol—a second compound had been extracted from the food, and this compound was called the coagulation vitamin. The new vitamin received the letter K because the initial discoveries were reported in a German journal, in which it was designated as Koagulationsvitamin.

[Hamed AminiPour1, Naser Maheri Sis2, Saeid Najafyar Razlighi1, Mohammad SalamatAzar1, MohammadHasan Babazadeh1, Mohammad Taher Maddah1, Navid Reazei1, Mojtaba Namvari1. Effects of vitamin K on ruminant animal: A Review. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):135-140]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.19

 

Keyword: Effects of vitamin K on ruminant animal: A Review

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Effect of polarity on control based power supply

 

Afshin shaabany 1, Fatemeh Jamshidi 2

 

1, 2 Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

afshinshy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In order to ensure the weld seam more beautiful in welding process, a variable polarity power supply is designed based on 80C196KC control technology. The main circuit of the power supply contains the first inverter circuit and the second inverter circuit. The first inverter circuit uses the soft-switching control technique and realizes the inverted closed-loop constant current control; the second inverter circuit realizes the output waveform control and the variable polarity control.

[Afshin shaabany, Fatemeh jamshidi. Effect of polarity on control based power supply. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):141-143]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.20

 

Keywords: Control; inversion; Pulse width modulation; Variable polarity power supply.

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Management Software for Stratospheric Airship

 

Afshin shaabany 1, Fatemeh Jamshidi 2

 

1, 2 Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

afshinshy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper a management software for avionics system of stratosphere airship is introduced that is sufficiently accurate and reliable. This paper introduces the object-oriented design of the management software based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML). First, the UML notation used in this paper and modeling steps is introduced. Then, the avionics system of stratosphere airship is depicted. Moreover, requirement analysis is proposed. Finally, we present the framework of management software and the detailed design of the class model.

[Afshin shaabany, Fatemeh jamshidi. Management Software for Stratospheric Airship. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):144-148]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.21

 

Keywords: Management Software; Software Design; Stratosphere Airship

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Developing Standard Active Queue Management in MMPP

 

Afshin Shaabany, Fatemeh jamshidi

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran; afshinshy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Access to the large web content in wide computer networks such as the Internet engages many hosts, routers/switches and faster links and they may challenge the internet backbone to operate at its capacity and this may result in congestion and raises concerns over various Quality of Service (QoS) issues like high delays, high packet loss and low throughput of the system for various Internet applications. Thus, there is a need to develop effective congestion control mechanisms to meet Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper, our emphasis is on the Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanisms, a new analytical approach based on 4-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) is introduced.

[Afshin Shaabany, Fatemeh Jamshidi. Developing Standard Active Queue Management in MMPP. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):149-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.22

 

Keywords: AQM: Active Queue Management. MMPP: Markov Modulated Poisson Process. CT-MMPP: continues Time – MMPP.MQL: Mean Queue Length.

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Evaluation in E-learning: Case of IRAN

 

Mohammad Reza Sarmady, Mehran Farajolahi, Ardavan Mirzaie

 

Department of Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

aa_mirzaie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we describe about e- learning evaluation. In the first, a review of literature and clearing evaluation means are done and then describe about differences between e-learning and traditional instruction. Some approaches for evaluation orientations are proposed. Evaluation concept and difference between measurement, assessment and evaluation of e-learning become subsequent. In follow we explain about purpose and goal evaluation and then talk about evaluation criteria. Evaluation criteria are including navigation, screen design, instruction structure, content, interactivity and applicability. In the conclusion we discuss about heuristic evaluation.

[Mohammad Reza Sarmady, Mehran Farajolahi, Ardavan Mirzaie. Evaluation in E-learning: Case of IRAN. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):153-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.23

 

Keywords: Evaluation, education, assessment, measurement, e-learning

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Fire Temples at Sassanid Era

 

Dr. Zakarya Valaei

Tabriz municipality, Mayor‘s advisor in Regulatory Affairs of marginalization

E-mail: z_valai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fire temples mean different places and/or religious constructions in which all followers and believed people of Zoroastrian made fire and performed their religious ceremonies. Although there are some Zoroastrian temples belonging to pre-Sassanid period, but the formation of these centers returns back mainly to Sassanid time. The real goal of this research is to study any religious architecture of Sassanid time and why public beliefs in Zoroastrian had great effects in architecture and how the religious leaders made required situation for religious architecture such as temples and/or four-dams by inviting people to Zoroastrian ideas. Rather than booklet studies and benefiting from different books and translation, it has been used in this essay from field studies and also three important and official temples in Iran including: Azar Goshnasb, Azar Barzin Mehr and Azar Faranbagh. We have visited different temples at different states and then current temples at India at Pouna & New Delhi cities and Chinese temples as well. Generally we may say that all these temples are similar with each other of course with little differences. It seems that the fire place for followers to worship is similar. Different professors studied this item including Professor Schatzer and others. According to the researches of these people, we may find new information about the structure and architectural form of temples. Fire is holy in Zoroastrian believes and all followers have been instructed to worship it accordingly. All Zoroaster’s thoughts have been collected in a holy book under the title of “Avesta”. For this purpose, Sassanid kings managed to establish different temples and/or four-dam structure throughout their domain area with similar and harmonized architectural forms. But each temple was allocated to a special class of society from worshiping point of view and for maintenance of holy fire in it On the other hand, by studying and researching these places and religious structure we may find complete and new information in addition to make clear any religious and political relations and culture of Sassanid society accompanied with a new way for researchers to find historical works, classic architecture and cultural heritage of ancient Iran.

[Zakarya Valaei. Fire Temples at Sassanid Era. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):160-167]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.24

 

Keywords: Architecture, Temples, Sassanid, Azargoshnasb and Azar Barzin Meh

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[Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):168-176].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

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Pharmacological and Acute Toxicity Studies of some Synthesized Macrocyclic Bis-Schiff-Base Candidates

 

Hatem S. Alia*, Mohamed A. Al-Omarb and Abd El-Galil E. Amrc,d

 

a Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

b Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

c Drug Exploration & Development Chair (DEDC), College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

d Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

* hatemali888@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A series of macrocyclic Schiff-bases have been prepared via the cyclo-condensation of pyridine-2,6-dicarbonyl dichloride (1) with appropriate dibasic amino acids. The macrocyclic tricyclo-bis-acid hydrazide 3 was chemically synthesized, starting from the acid chloride 1 by coupling with L-ornithine methyl esters to afford the corresponding bis-ester 2, followed by coupling with hydrazine hydrate. Condensation of bis-hydrazide 3 with diacid anhydrides or aromatic aldehydes in refluxing acetic acid or ethanol gave the corresponding macrocyclic bis-imides 4, 5 and macrocyclic bis-hydrazones 6a-j, respectively. The pharmacological screening showed that many of these newly synthesized compounds have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities comparable to diclofenac potassium and valdecoxib as reference drugs. The structure assignment of the new compounds was based on chemical and spectroscopic evidences.

 [Hatem S. Ali, Mohamed A. Al-Omar and Abd El-Galil E. Amr,Pharmacological and Acute Toxicity Studies of some Synthesized Macrocyclic Bis-Schiff-Base Candidates. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):177-184].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.26

 

Keywords: Macrocyclic candidates, amino acids, Schiff-bases, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

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Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New Tetrazole Derivatives from 1((1H-tetrazol-5-yl) methyl)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole as synthon

 

Omar M. Ali1,2, Abd El-Galil E. Amr3,4, Mahmoud M. M. Ramiz5, El-Sayed E. Mostafa6 and

Amira S. El-banna1

 

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia, Egypt

2 Taif University, Faculty of Medical and Applied Science, Turabah, Taif, KSA

3 Drugs Exploration & Development Chair (DEDC), College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

4 Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

5 Department of Physics and Mathematical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

6Department of Microbial Chemistry, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

*omali_66@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A series of benzotriazoles and tetrazole derivatives was synthesized using 1((1H-tetrazol-5-yl) methyl)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole 3 as starting material. Treatment of 3 with ethyl bromoacetate gave 4, which was treated with hydrazine hydrate to give the hydrazide 5. The hydrazide 5 was reacted with aromatic aldehydes or D-mannose and D-xylose to give the corresponding hydrazones 6 and 7a,b, which were reacted with acetic anhydride in pyridine at room temperature and with reflux to afford the corresponding per-O-acetyl derivatives 8a,b and cyclised products 9a,b, respectively. The antimicrobial screening showed that many of these newly synthesized compounds had good antimicrobial activities comparable to streptomycin and fusidic acid as positive standards.

[Omar M. Ali, Abd El-Galil E. Amr, Mahmoud M. M. Ramiz, El-Sayed E. Mostafa and Amira S. El-banna. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New Tetrazole Derivatives from 1((1H-tetrazol-5-yl) methyl)-1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole as synthon. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):185-191].(ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.27

 

Keywords: synthesis, triazoles, tetrazoles, sugars, antimicrobial activities

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SMART ACCESS CONTROL WITH FINGER VEIN AUTHENTICATION AND NEURAL NETWORK

 

Azadeh Noori Hoshyar1, Riza Sulaiman2, Afsaneh Noori Houshyar3

 

1Master of Computer Science, Department of Computer Science, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000, Malaysia. a_noori_h@yahoo.com

2Associate Professor in Industrial Computing, Department of Industrial Computing, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000, Malaysia. rs@ftsm.ukm.my

3Master of Industrial Computing, Department of Industrial Computing, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43000, Malaysia. a_nh86@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Biometrics systems for identification purposes have been developed for decades. Different methods include fingerprint, face, iris, retina, signature, gait, voice, hand vein, hand/finger geometry, DNA information have been proposed while fingerprint, face, iris and signature are considered as traditional identification methods. Each method has its disadvantages. Fingerprint systems usually have low security because they remain after touching a surface, hence patterns can be copied. Similarly, face and voice patterns can easily be cloned. Iris scanning reflects a light into eyes which make the system unfriendly. Contrasting with other biometrics, vein patterns makes the systems more secure and distinguishable because they are hidden inside the body and the situation of outer skin can not effect on that. This study investigated a Smart Access Control using Finger Vein authentication and Neural Network. Fourteen finger vein images collected from individuals by shining a near-infrared light through fingers. Automated image cropping was implemented. Image processing was done for reducing noise of finger vein images. The patterns of veins were extracted by combining two segmentation methods include: (i) Morphological Operation (ii) Maximum Curvature Points in Image Profiles. After extracting the vein image features, Neural Network was used to get the quality of training and testing. Neural Network was also applied for the purpose of recognizing individuals.

[Azadeh Noori Hoshyar, Riza Sulaiman, Afsaneh Noori Houshyar. SMART ACCESS CONTROL WITH FINGER VEIN AUTHENTICATION AND NEURAL NETWORK. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):185-191]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.28

 

Keywords: Finger Vein authentication, Vein recognition, Verification, Feature extraction, segmentation

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[Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):201-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.29

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Organic Agriculture in Egypt: Production Economics and Challenges (A Case Study of Fayoum Governorate)

 

Enas E. Sadek * and Ayman A. Shelaby

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

* ess00@fayoum.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The organic agriculture is no more a phenomenon of developed countries. The organic agriculture is revolutionary hitting the agriculture sector in Egypt. Fayoum governorate is considered the third between the Egyptian governorates with regard to the organic agricultural land and many researchers considered developing research about. The profitability of organic production is high when targeting international markets as the awareness of using organic products in Egypt is still in progress. Years of experience, area cultivated, and the growing method are constraints for the productivity per feddan of the organic production.

[Enas E. Sadek and Ayman A. Shelaby. Organic Agriculture in Egypt: Production Economics and Challenges (A Case Study of Fayoum Governorate). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):208-215].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.30

 

Keywords: Organic -agriculture

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Assessment of Dysmenorrhea and Menstrual Hygiene Practices among Adolescent Girls in Some Nursing Schools at EL-Minia Governorate, Egypt

 

Neamat A. Abd El-Hameed 1, Maher S. Mohamed 2, Nadia H. Ahmed 3, and Eman R. Ahmed *3

 

1Nursing Technical Secondary School, El-Minia Governorate, Egypt, 2Obstetrics & Gynecological Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University, Egypt, 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assuit University, Egypt.

* emomedo2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Most females exhibit some degree of pain and discomfort during menstrual period, which can impact on their daily activities, and disturb their productivity at home or at their workplace. In our country many girls may lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding dysmenorrhea and menstrual hygiene, causing incorrect unhealthy behavior during their menstrual periods. This study was done for the adolescent girls to assess the prevalence & pattern of dysmenorrhea and to examine the menstrual hygiene practices among students in some Elminia nursing schools. This study conducted in some nursing school at EL-Minia governorate (Mallawy, and Abu- korkas) nursing schools. These schools were selected for data collection between the periods from Feb. 2009 to May 2009. The sample comprised 160 eligible female students according to the following criteria 14: 19 years of age, single female and free from medical & gynecological problems. The study applied a descriptive cross sectional design in which two tools were used for data collection. A special structured questionnaire was designed to assess sociodemographic characteristics, information about menstrual characteristics and practices related to menstrual hygiene and verbal multidimensional scoring system for assessment of dysmenorrhea was used to assess the severity of pain. This study was carried out in two phases; preparatory phase and the implementation phase. The present study reported a high prevalence rate of dysmenorrhea (94.4%) was categorized as (49.0%) for 1st degree of pain, (34.4%) for second-degree and (16.6%) for third-degree. Measures taken to relieve dysmenorrhea were found to be: intake of certain types of domestic hot drinks (43.0%), taking analgesics (22.5%), and (66.2%) Perform physical activities during menstrual period. All students (100.0%) took complete hot baths during menstruation. About one-fourth (26.9 %) of students just took rest and staying at home, who believed that physical activities will increase the menstrual pain and increase feeling of exhaustion. On conclusion the high prevalence of dysmenorrhea was observed and the useful measures mentioned and encouraged are: exercise practiced by (66.2%) of students and the entire students (100%) take hot bath during menstruation (76.8%) from them practiced hot bath as a management for dysmenorrhea, however the necessity to adopt a healthy behavior, which includes: appropriate nutrition and appropriate use of medications based on a physician's prescription was a very important issue.

[Neamat A. Abd El-Hameed, Maher S. Mohamed, Nadia H. Ahmed and Eman R. Ahmed, Assessment of Dysmenorrhea and Menstrual Hygiene Practices among Adolescent Girls in Some Nursing Schools at EL-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9)216-223].(ISSN:1545-1003)

.http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.31

 

Key Words: dysmenorrhea, menstrual hygiene, adolescent girls

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Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Table Hen's Eggs

 

Azza M. K. Sobeih*1 and Hanaa, M.R. Hegazy2

 

1Food Control Dep., Fac. of Vet. Med. Kafrelsheikh Univ. Egypt.

2Forensic Med. and Toxicology Dep., Fac. of Vet. Med., Kafrelsheikh Univ. Egypt.

dr.azzasobeih@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the content of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium and arsenic in table hen's egg samples (commercial, home produced and organic, 40 for each), in Egypt. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for analysis of metals. The mean of heavy metals levels (ppm fresh weight) for commercial, home produced and organic egg samples were 0.644 ± 0.02, 0.62 ± 0.03 and 0.436 ± 0.04 Cu; 53.35 ± 1.06, 60.56 ± 1.14 and 49.76 ± 0.6 Zn; 0.23 ± 0.08, 0.057 ± 0.02 and 0.096 ± 0.04 Pb respectively, while Cd and As could not be detected from any of the examined samples. The average daily intake (mg/kg/person) due to consumption of 100g eggs/day were calculated as 0.058 Cu, 5.52 Zn and 0.013 Pb while ADI (mg/70kg person/day) are 35,70 and 0.5 for the same metals respectively. It was concluded that eggs are poor source of Cu and Zn, but home produced and organic eggs (20% each) are less contaminated by lead than commercial eggs (40%). All the examined (100%) hen's eggs samples were within permissible limit (PL) for Cu, Cd and As but 85% of commercial, 100% of home produced and 90% of organic egg samples were within PL of Pb while all samples (100%) were higher than PL of Zn. It was concluded that indoor feeding of home reared hen in Egypt lower level of heavy metal contamination in eggs.

[Azza M. K. Sobeih and Hanaa, M.R. Hegazy, Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Table Hen's Eggs. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 224-229] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.32

 

Key words: Heavy metals, table hen's eggs, spectrophotometer.

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Actinomyces hyovaginalis: A novel bacterial isolate with transforming activity of vitamin D3 to 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

 

Ahmad M. Abbas; Khaled M. Aboshanab, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa * and Nadia A. Hassouna

 

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Organization of African Unity St., POB: 11566, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt; *maboulwafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total number of 180 bacterial isolated were recovered from various soil samples collected from different localities in Egypt using paraffin baiting technique. A screening program applied on the collected isolates scored five isolates coded A11-2; A13-4; A8-4; A26-7 and A26-8 with potential activity for vitamin D3 transformation. Preliminary analysis, using TLC, showed that the selected isolates were able to transform vitamin D3 into 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol) as an intermediate. Mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analyses of the produced calcidiol and calcitriol by the respective isolates showed that isolate A11-2 exhibited the highest product intensity of the m/z precursor ions of both calcidiol and calcitriol. The isolate A11-2 was selected and identified using microscopical, culture and biochemical characteristics as well as Biolog microbial identification system as Actinomyces hyovaginalis. This is the first report for vitamin D3 transformation into its biologically active forms by the genus Actinomyces.

 [Ahmad M. Abbas; Khaled M. Aboshanab, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa and Nadia A. Hassouna Actinomyces hyovaginalis: A novel bacterial isolate with transforming activity of vitamin D3 to 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 230-237]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.33

 

Keywords: vitamin D3 biotransformation, calcidiol, calcitriol, Actinomyces hyovaginalis.

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On Assessment of Brain Function Adaptability in Open Learning Systems Using Neural Networks Modeling (Cognitive Styles Approach)

 

H. M. Mustafa and Saeed M. Badran

 

Faculty of Engineering, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA

Mustafa_hasan47@yahoo.com, hhasan@bu.edu.sa, sbadran@bu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The piece of research presents a conceptual overview on diverse cognitive styles reflections in adaptable Open Learning systems. The main goal of this approach is quantitative forecasting the performance of adaptable Open Learning (equivalently e-learning) Systems using cognitive Neural Network modelling. Furthermore, analysis of interactive two diverse learners' cognitive styles with a friendly adaptable teaching environment (e-courses material). Consequently, presented paper provides e-learning systems' designers with relevant guide for learning performance enhancement. Additionally, it supports e-learners in fulfilment of better learning achievements during face to face tutoring. Accordingly, quantitative analysis of e-learning adaptability performed herein, via assessment of matching between learning style preferences and the instructor's teaching style and/or e-courses material. Interestingly, application of two realistic cognitive models using Artificial Neural Network gives an opportunity to experience well assessment of adaptable e-learning features. Such as adaptability mismatching, adaptation time convergence, and individual differences of e-learners' adaptability.

[H.M. Mustafa and Saeed. M. Badran, On Assessment of Brain Function Adaptability in Open Learning Systems Using Neural Networks Modeling (Cognitive Styles Approach). Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):238-247]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.34

 

Keywords: E-learning Systems; Cognitive Learning Style; Artificial Neural Networks; Learning performance parameters.

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“The Efficacy of Schema Therapy on Women Suffering from Dysthymia Disorder: Reduction of Depression Severity and Early Maladaptive Schema” (A single Case Study)

 

Seyed Mehdi HosseiniFard, Behroz Dolatshahi, Asghar Dadkhah, Parvane Mohamadkhani

 

University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR), Tehran, Iran;

mehdih6@gmail.com

 

Abstract:Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the efficacy of schema therapy in treatment of women’s dysthymia disorder. Method: Six women, who suffered from dysthymia disorder, were chosen based on structured diagnostic clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder i.e. DSM-IV (SCID). Subjects were chosen by purposive sampling and after being qualified in accordance with therapeutic conditions, they entered into treatment process. The study employed a single system multiple–baseline design. The schema therapy was given to six women over the course of 16 weekly sessions and the follow-up stage was pursued two months after the end of treatment. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI- II) and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF) were the research tools. Optical Analysis and Cohen’s Coefficient of Effect size were used for statistical significance. Recovery percentage was also applied to measure clinical significance. Findings: The schema therapy was effective on reduction of depression symptoms and early maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: Schema therapy has appropriate efficacy in treatment of women suffering from dysthymia disorder.

[Seyed Mehdi HosseiniFard, Behroz Dolatshahi, Asghar Dadkhah, Parvane Mohamadkhani. The Efficacy of Schema Therapy on Women Suffering from Dysthymia Disorder: Reduction of Depression Severity and Early Maladaptive Schema (A single Case Study). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 248-255].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.35

 

Keywords: Schema Therapy, Dysthymia disorder, Beck Depression Inventory

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Leptin and Thyroid Hormones as Endocrinal Biomarkers of Inflammation in End-Stage Renal Disease and Renal Transplant

 

Khadiga Abou Gabal*1; Khalid El-Hadidi2 and Tarek M.Aly3

 

1Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

2Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

3 Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

*kshadidi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Renal functions affect thyroid and adipocytokines as leptin in many ways. Low free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) are frequent alteration in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This derangement has been recently linked to inflammation in haemodialysis patients. Whether this association holds true in relation to other inflammation markers in hemodialysis patients and who undergoing kidney transplantation has been under our study. Methods: We investigated the relationship between low-grade inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin levels] and free triiodothyronine (fT3) in a cohort of 30 patients from different centers of hemodialysis: Faysal Kidney Dialysis Unit and Health Insurance Dialysis Units: [10 were under hemodialysis (HD group); 10 were with succeeded kidney transplant (ST group); and 10 with failed kidney transplant (FT group)] and all investigations and BMI were done for all patients, no inter-current illnesses was found] and a group of 10 healthy subjects. Thyroid hormones were measured using enhanced chemiluminescnce technique; serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); CRP and the other routine chemistry tests were done using the chemistry automation. Results: HD group had significant lower fT3 levels (2.3+21 pg/ml) than ST group (2.89+29 pg/ml); P<0.01, while had no significant difference in fT3 levels compared with FT group (2.34+21 pg/ml); P>0.05. The healthy subjects showed highly significant difference in fT3 levels (3.34+29 pg/ml) than in all HD, ST and FT groups; (P<0.01). In HD group, free T3 levels were inversely related to serum creatinine, cholesterol (R=-0.645; P<0.05 and R= -0.715; P<0.01 respectively) while were directly related to diastolic blood pressure (R=0.342; P<0.05). In FT group, serum leptin showed a direct correlation with CRP and serum creatinine (R= 0.725; P<0.01 and R=0.758; P<0.01 respectively) and an inverse correlation with hemoglobin (R=-0.747; P<0.01) while fT4 showed a direct significant correlation with serum albumin (R=0.651; P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between fT3, fT4, CRP and serum albumin suggests the inflammation– malnutrition involved in the low T3, low T4 syndromes in hemodialysis patients. Among patients with ESRD undergoing kidney transplantation, those displaying lower pretransplant serum fT3 and fT4 levels are at higher risk for subsequent graft failure. We need values of serum fT3 and fT4 levels for graft survival in a larger scale suggesting that measurement of pretransplant serum fT3 and fT4 levels might represent a clinically useful parameter to identify patients with increased risk for graft failure. A possible role of adipocytokines may be found in the metabolic disturbances that frequently accompany thyroid dysfunction in chronic renal failure.

[Khadiga Abou Gabal; Khalid El-Hadidi and Tarek M.Aly, Leptin and Thyroid Hormones as Endocrinal Biomarkers of Inflammation in End-Stage Renal Disease and Renal Transplant. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 256-262].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.36

 

Keywords: ESRD; hemodialysis; transplantation; inflammation; CRP; leptin; low T3 syndrome; low thyroxine.

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Evaluation of the Effect of Omega 3 Fatty Acid (N-3) on Socket Healing in Orchiectomized Rats

 

Heba M. Eltokhey and Dalia H. Zahran*

 

Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; *dhzahran@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Although osteoporosis has been long considered a disease of post-menopausal women, it is now increasingly being recognized among the growing population of elderly men as a source of substantial morbidity and even mortality in the aging male. It is firmly established that androgen withdrawal induced by orchiectomy (ORX) results in decreased bone mass in animal models especially in rodents that may be associated with an increase of bone resorption and fracture risk. The current research was aimed to determine the effect of fish oil supplementation on socket healing and bone structure and composition in orchiectomized rat model. Thirty male albino rats were randomized into two groups: sham-operated (Control) group (n=10) or bilaterally orchiectomized (ORX) group (n=20). The ORX groups were divided equally among the following treatment: orchiectomy and orchiectomy + 10% fish oil (omega 3). Four weeks after surgery, the right 1st molars were extracted. Twelfth weeks after surgery, rats were sacrificed and right mandibular bone was evaluated by light, scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis. Light microscopic examination of group II revealed osteoporosis that was evident as wide intercommunicating marrow spaces and many discontinuous trabeculae with an isolated trabecula were observed. Also, irregular, resorped outer cortical surface with many osteoclasts in their Howship's lacunae were observed. However, almost restoration of bone microarchitecture was observed in group III rats (Omega 3). SEM of group II showed significant morphological changes (pore formation, fissures, disintegrated bone architecture, reduced compactness and exposure of collagen fibers). However, in Group III sockets there were significant restoration of bone morphology. The X-ray microanalysis of Group II revealed a decrease in calcium ratio and an increase in phosphorous ratio as compared to Group I. However, Group III that received omega 3 showed higher calcium level and lower phosphorus level when compared to Group II. It is concluded that fish oil supplementation has a positive effect on socket healing and bone structure and composition in orchiectomized rats.

[Heba M. Eltokhey and Dalia H. Zahran, Evaluation of the Effect of Omega 3 Fatty Acid (N-3) on Socket Healing in Orchiectomized Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):263-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.37

 

Keywords: osteoporosis, orchiectomy, tooth extraction, socket healing, omega 3 fatty acids.

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The relation between fabric construction, treatments and sewability

 

F. Fathy Saied 1, Z. m.abdel-megeid2 and L.K. El Gabry2*

 

Academy of Specific Studies, Worker University1 and National Research Centre2, Textile Research Division, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. z_algory@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the effects of fabric construction and treatments on the sew ability of cotton/polyester woven fabric are investigated. Fabric mechanical tests are measured using FAST (Fabric Assurance by Simple Testing) system, for assessing aspects of the performance in garment manufacture and garment appearance after wear. The optimization construction are used to carry out treatments impart to improve pilling and antimicrobial activity. The effect of fabric construction and treatments on sewing needle penetration of untreated and treated fabric is measured for determine any damage which appears in garment. It was found that formability, bending rigidity and shear rigidity decrease with decrease the weft count, but extensibility increase consistently. Also, the construction of plain has count No.40/1 gave low force penetration.

[F. Fathy Saied, Z. m.abdel-megeid and L.K. El Gabry. The relation between fabric construction,treatments and sewability. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):272-280]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.38

 

Keywords: Construction, FAST, Cotton/polyester blend fabric, sewability, ant pilling and antimicrobial.

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Diagnosis of Breast Cancer and Clustering Technique using Thermal Indicators Exposed by Infrared Images

 

Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh 1, Iman Abaspur Kazerouni 1, Javad Haddadnia1

 

1. Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University/Department of Electrical Engineering, Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Iran

h.ghayoumizadeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we proceed breast cancer detection through thermal indicators at infrared images to be taken from the patient. The work is notably important according to non application of harmful radiations where are used to produce mammography images for instance. In this method it has been tried to provide people in general, easy detection of breast cancer by using image processing techniques along with computer artificial intelligence tools. In this paper we proceed Half technique to detach breast region out of thermal image and then we cluster detachments using Fuzzy K- Means method. The presented method is highly important in breast cancer detection through which, while applying the technique, there would be possibility to diagnose the cancerous region and cut it away within few seconds. In a better word, there have been used three assimilate procedures of asymmetry analysis, thermogrphy development and K- means clustering to minimize error occurrence. Since breasts with malignant tumors have higher temperature than healthy breasts and even breasts with benign tumors, in this study, we look for detecting the hottest regions of abnormal breasts which are the suspected regions.

[ Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh, Iman Abaspur Kazerouni, Javad Haddadnia. Diagnosis of Breast Cancer and Clustering Technique using Thermal Indicators Exposed by Infrared Images. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):281-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.39

 

Keywords: Breast cancer; Half Circular; k-means; Thermograph

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Application of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Comparison to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III) Score to Patients with Cancer Admitted to the Intensive Care Department: An Egyptian Experience

 

Mahmoud A Elbadry, Lamiaa Hamed, Akram Abdelbary and Awadh Bamakhramah

 

Critical Care Department, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Introduction: Prognostic models, such as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III were developed to quantify the severity of illness and the likelihood of hospital survival for a general intensive care unit (ICU) population. Little is known about the performance of these models in specific populations, such as patients with cancer. Objective: The aim of present study was to describe the utility of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score in assessing the severity of organ dysfunction compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III) in patients with cancer patient admitted to the intensive care unit.Methods Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighty patients (in Critical Care Department, Cairo University, Egypt) included in eight month (October 2009 to May 2010) for an acute medical complication. They were divided into two groups. Group (1) included 50 patients having malignancy and group (2) included 30 patients with no malignancy. All had eligibility criteria of multiorgan failure. Interventions: None. Measurements: the worst variables included in the APACHE III and SOFA scores were collected during date of admission and follow up in the first 24 hrs of the ICU stay. Discrimination was determined by computing the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Calibration was calculated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Results: In group (1); the main reasons for ICU admission were hepatic coma (28%), respiratory failure (18%), postoperative care (18%), and other (36%).The ICU mortality rates was 54%, that increased into 81.8% when mechanical ventilation was required. ICU length of stay (LOS) 4.56 ± 2.21, 5.33± 3.71 days in survivors and nonsurvivors, respectively. While in group (2); the main reasons for ICU admission were shock (26.7%), renal (20%), respiratory failure (16.7%), hepatic coma (16.7%), and other (19.3%).The ICU mortality rates was 26.7%,that increased into 61.5%. when mechanical ventilation was required. ICU length of stay (LOS) 12.04 ± 10.82, 9.62± 7.38 days in survivors and nonsurvivors, respectively. Discrimination was superior for APACHE III on 24hr (AROC = 0.95, 0.83). Calibration was better using APACHE III on 24hr, showed good calibration as indicated by hosmer –lemoshow (chi 5.275, 14.25 at df 7, 8, p: 0.626,0.075), in group (1) & (2) respectively. Conclusion: The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III) reported to have better discrimination ability than SOFA-based model at 24hour of admission and a better accuracy to predict ICU mortality in oncological and non oncological patients.

[Mahmoud A Elbadry, Lamiaa Hamed, Akram Abdelbary and Awadh Bamakhramah Application of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Comparison to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III) Score to Patients with Cancer Admitted to the Intensive Care Department: An Egyptian Experience. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 289-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.40

 

Keyword: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Comparison to Acute Physiology

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Identification of Factors Affecting Complications of Chest Drains in Menoufia University Hospital

 

Neama Ali Riad and *Amina Ebrahim Badawy

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University

*deanmahmoud@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A chest tube or chest drain is an essential life saving measure for the management of pneumothorax, hemothorax and hemopneumothorax developed as a consequence of chest trauma. Despite the enormity of its clinical utility, this procedure carries considerably significant preventable morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting complications of chest drains. Prospective observational study was carried out in Menoufia university hospital on 52 patients in the emergency department, ICU and cardiothoracic surgical department. Data were collected at the time of drain insertion and continued until drain removal. The period of data collection was 12 months from January 2010. Two structured format were used to collect data pertinent to the study. Sociodemographic and medical data sheet and Patient assessment sheet. The results indicated that the mean (± SD) drain size was (16.2±.83 F), The most common indications for drain insertion were heamothorax ( 28.8% ), for empyema mean tube size (15.28 ± 1.38 ) was lesser than other conditions but the mean tube duration/days was longer than other conditions (11 ± 3.4 ). In relation to complications (28.8%) of the sample had no complications, only(3.8%) of the sample had pneumothorax as secondary to chest drain insertion, while (7.7%), (7.7%), (7.7%), and (9.6%), developed pain, cough, bleeding(minor), surgical emphysema respectively. 4 cases of empyema were recorded (7.7%), this occurred following chest drain insertion into heamothorax and pleural effusion. 6 drains (11.5%) were dislodged through tube management which were draining primary pneumothorax, and 8 drains ( 15.4 %) were blocked which were draining empyema. less successful resolution occurred with empyema 1(11.1%). The more complications occurred with the more junior nurses (diploma) and less experienced but the more successful rate occurred with nurses with higher education and more experienced (post graduate (master).

[Neama Ali Riad and Amina Ebrahim Badawy Identification of Factors Affecting Complications of Chest Drains in Menoufia University Hospital. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):297-303]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.41

 

Keyword: Identification of Factors Affecting Complications of Chest Drains in Menoufia University Hospital

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Pediatric Nurses' Stresses in Intensive Care Units and Its Related Factors

 

Fatma A. Mohamed1; Yousr A. Gaafar*2 and Wafaa M. Abd Alkader2

 

1Faculty of Nursing, Tishreen University.

2Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

*dr_yousr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Stress is an important psychological concept that can affect health, it can cause significant problems. Stress response may be psychological, spiritual, and environmental. This study aimed to identify pediatric nurses’ stresses in Intensive Care Units “ICUs” and its related factors. The study was conducted on 135 nurses in the ICUs at Children’s University Hospital at El-Shatby. Two tools were used to collect necessary data. Tool 1 Nurses' stresses related factors structure questionnaire. Tool 2 Nursing Stress Scale (NSS). The results revealed that the most common source of nursing stress was death and dying, uncertainty about treatment, conflict with other nurses, and workload. Also, nurses are faced with multiple stress factors which are personal, interpersonal relationship, health care system, occupational and environmental stress factors. The study concluded that the neonatal intensive Care Unit “NICU” was the most stressful area for nursing staff. The present study clarified that there was a statistically significant relation between nurses’ stress and their age, unit, and work schedule.

[Fatma A. Mohamed; Yousr A. Gaafar and Wafaa M. Abd Alkader. Pediatric Nurses' Stresses in Intensive Care Units and Its Related Factors. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):304-315]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.42

 

Keywords: stress, stressors

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Maternal Versus Pediatric Nurses Attitudes Regarding Mothers’ Participation in the Care of Their Hospitalized Children

 

Mohamed Abdulkader Abdulbaki, Yousr Abd Elsalam Gaafar* and Omnia Galal Waziry

 

1 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tishreen University.

2Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

*dr_yousr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Family-centered care (FCC) emerged as an important concept in health care at a time of increasing awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children, in addition to stressing the role of families in promoting the health and well-being of their children. This study aimed to identify maternal versus pediatric nurses attitudes regarding mothers’ participation in the care of their hospitalized children. The study was conducted on 100 pediatric nurses who are working in three medical units of Children’s University Hospital at El-Shatby in Alexandria, and 100 mothers who are accompanying their children in medical units for at least 48 hours. Two tools were used in order to collect the necessary data about the study subjects as following: Tool I: Maternal attitude structured interview schedule. Tool II: Pediatric nurses’ attitude questionnaire, the results revealed that the majority of both mothers and pediatric nurses reported positive attitude towards mothers’ participation in children’s hygienic and feeding care as physical care activities. On the other hand pediatric nurses had less positive attitude towards mothers’ participation in: certain nursing care activities, some aspects of child’s psychological care activities, child’s moral support activities, supporting the child during investigation and management, and spiritual care activities of hospitalized children compared to the majority of the studies mothers who reported more positive attitude regarding their participation in the previous activities.

[Mohamed Abdulkader Abdulbaki, Yousr Abd Elsalam Gaafar and Omnia Galal Waziry. Maternal Versus Pediatric Nurses Attitudes Regarding Mothers’ Participation in the Care of Their Hospitalized Children. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 316-327]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.43

 

Keywords: family centered care, parental participation (PP).

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Evaluation of the Health Value of some Beverages Prepared from Vegetable and Fruit Wastes

 

Seham S. Kassem, Maha, H. Mahmoud, Madiha M. Abdel- Kader and El-Shobaki, F. A.*

 

Food Science & Nutrition Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*elshobaki2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the health value of some beverages prepared from the wastes of fruits and vegetables. Artichoke leaves, Pomegranate peel, and orange peel were used to prepare beverages that were proved to be palatable and accepted by panel testing. An experiment was done on rats fed on high cholesterol diet without or containing 20% of the dry matter of each of these fruits or vegetable wastes alone or in combination for 6 weeks followed by 2 weeks on the water extract. The health value was evaluated through determination of parameters that express the oxidation state such as plasma molondialdehyde, antioxidants enzymes and nitric oxide, lipid pattern as total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides (TG). The liver and kidney functions were assessed by determination of the activities of AST, ALT, urea and creatinine. The results showed that the level of plasma malondialdehyde of rats fed on the high cholesterol diet significantly increased and returned back to near normal control value when the vegetable or the fruits wastes were added. The activities of each of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase and glutathione peroxidase were all decreased due to consumption of the high cholesterol diet. When vegetable or the fruit wastes were added, the activities were within the normal control range. Plasma nitric oxide level of control rats was 14.76 ± 0.64 µmol/L and changed to 18.99 ± 0.72 µmol/L for rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Addition of fruits or vegetable wastes did not correct this change. The value of TC of rats fed on the high cholesterol diet was remarkably increased from a value of 94.8 ± 4.03 to 262.78 ± 8.99 mg/dl. The LDL-C, TG were increased. The high density lipoprotein was decreased. Addition of fruit or vegetable wastes powder to the diet lowered the increase in the plasma cholesterol. The values obtained were 141.35 ± 5.96, 159.26 ± 6.51, 150.53 ± 5.75, 169.79 ± 5.44, 162.02 ± 6.53 mg/dl for rats given each of pomegranate peel, orange peel, pomegranate +orange peel, artichoke leaves, or artichoke leaves + orange peel, respectively. The change in parameters denoting the liver and kidney functions were corrected by addition of fruit and vegetable wastes to the diets. The conclusion is that the natural phytochemicals present in these fruit or vegetable wastes that have antioxidant properties succeeded to protect against oxidative free radicals and in turn prevent chronic diseases. It is recommended to use the beverages prepared from these wastes to make use of their health vlue and palatability.

[Seham S. Kassem, Maha, H. Mahmoud, Madiha M. Abdel- Kader and El-Shobaki, F. A. Evaluation of the Health Value of some Beverages Prepared from Vegetable and Fruit Wastes. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 328-339]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.44

 

Key words: Pomegranate peel, Artichoke, Orange peel, Beverages, Health, Oxidation stress, Hypercholesterolemia

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Evaluation of the Effect of Feeding Rats by Iron Fortified Processed Cheese on Calcium and Iron Absorption

 

*Maha, H. Mahmoud1; Hayam, M. Abbas2; A. G. Mohamed2 and Hala, M. Bayoumi2

 

 1Food Science and Nutrition Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

 2Dairy Science Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*mahahanafymahmoud@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This study aims to evaluate the effect of feeding rats with processed cheese fortified with iron in two concentrations and to what extent iron status in the body is improved and calcium absorption is altered. Two different iron concentrations were used depending on the Recommended Dietary Intake of Nutrients for Rats as 3 and 5 times of that dose which were equivalent to 10.5 and 17.5 mg elemental iron per 100 g diet, respectively. Processed cheese was manufactured at the Pilot Unit, National Research Centre and fortified with these two iron concentrations during processing. Then, it was dried and added to the normal balanced semi-synthetic diet as 35% dry matter to each of the control diet and the two treatments. A feeding experiment was done on rats of both sexes and lasted for four weeks. Six groups were included in this experiment as three male groups, one control and two treatments, and three similar female groups. The food intake of each of the groups of treatments was more or less similar to that of the control. The body weight gain of the female group receiving the first treatment was significantly changed compared to the corresponding control. After the end of the feeding period blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum total calcium and serum ionized calcium were analyzed. Blood hemoglobin was slightly increased compared to the control in all treated groups but this increase was not significant. Serum iron was increased non-significantly compared to the control, while TIBC was decreased in almost all groups non significantly compared to the control. A very slight decrease was noticed in serum total and ionized calcium in all treated groups, but this decrease was not significant. It can be concluded from this study that, fortification of processed cheese with iron does not affect negatively on the quality of this cheese. It improves iron status in the body, although non-significantly, when fed to experimental animals. Also, it has no significant effect on calcium absorption.

[Maha, H. Mahmoud; Hayam, M. Abbas; A. G. Mohamed and Hala, M. Bayoumi. Evaluation of the Effect of feeding rats by iron fortified processed cheese on calcium and iron absorption. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9): 340-348].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.45

 

Key words: Iron fortification, processed cheese, calcium, iron, absorption

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Perception of Nursing Staff about Obstacles to Nursing Research in Al- Jouf University

 

Eman S. Ahmed

 

Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University; emansayed44@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was to investigate the obstacles to conducting as well as applying nursing research in Al- Jouf University. It conducted on five main areas at Al-Jouf University which are Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences male and female sections, Faculty of Health Sciences male and female sections at Sakaka city and Faculty of Health Sciences at Al- Qurrayat. All nursing staff in the university was included in this study. A structured questionnaire sheet was developed by the researcher. Results revealed a number of obstacles to conducting nursing research as limited time ( 24% & 52% strongly agree and agree respectively, P ≤ 0.02 and reduced numbers of demonstrators or clinical instructor (56% & 24% strongly agree and agree, respectively, P ≤ 0.003. Administrative constrains as lack of time, money, and clinical equipments, inability of nurses' to deduce clinical research problems represented the most important obstacles to applying results of nursing research in Al- Jouf University. The study concluded that there are a number of obstacles to conducting nursing research at Al – Jouf University among which of statistically significant are: limited time, reduced number of demonstrators or clinical instructors, lack of a library for postgraduate, lack of centers for certain diseases, and absence of postgraduate affairs besides other obstacles to conducting nursing research at Al- Jouf University. Moreover, the study concluded that the most important obstacles to applying results of nursing research are administrative constrains as lack of time, money and clinical equipments and inability of nurses to deduce clinical research problems. The study recommended the necessity of postgraduate library, training of nursing staff on using digital library and educational programs for the public to use local health resources at Sakaka.

[Eman S. Ahmed. Perception of Nursing Staff about Obstacles to Nursing Research in Al-Jouf University. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 349-357]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.46

 

Key words: Nursing research, obstacles, conducting, applying

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Can residential pesticides be one of the risk factors for developing diabetes in infants?

 

1Zienab M Mohy El- Dien 2Marzoka A Gadallah, 2*Eman S Ahmed and 2Assmaa A Hussien,

 

1Pediatrics Dept,. Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

2Pediatric Dept,. Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

*emansayed44@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Exposure to pesticides may result in abnormal glucose metabolism, increasing risk of diabetes. The study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and infants residential pesticides exposure and the onset of diabetes in these infants. Both the diabetic infants and the control groups were recruited from the Outpatient Clinic for Diabetic children and Well Baby Clinic, Assiut University Children Hospital. The study included 72 infants divided into 2 groups study group (40 diabetic infants) and the control group included (32 infants). A structured questionnaire sheet was designed to collect data about mothers and their infants. The study showed that there was statistically significant difference considering the items of no consanguinity among parents of infants in the study group compared to those in the control group (52.5 % Vs. 40.6%, respectively P ≤ 0.02.). The percentage frequency of maternal exposure to residential pesticides was significantly higher for the patients group in comparison to the control group. (65% Vs. 31.2%, respectively, P- value 0.0001).Similarly, the percentage frequency of the diabetic infants exposed to residential pesticides was significantly higher than that for the control group. (47% Vs. 28.1%, respectively, P – ≤ 0.01). Moreover, the percentage frequency of exposure of infants to residential pesticides per week was significantly higher among the study group in comparison to their partners in the control group. P- ≤ 0.0001. In conclusion: Exposure of infants to residential pesticides both during pregnancy and after birth may be considered as a risk factor for developing diabetes mellitus in these infants. The study recommended that, further studies are needed to study the relationship of exposure to residential pesticides for developing diabetes by using the biochemical markers to detect the level of metabolites of these pesticides in these populations.

[Zienab M Mohy El- Dien, Marzoka A Gadallah, Eman S Ahmed and Assmaa A Hussien, Can residential pesticides be one of the risk factors for developing diabetes in infants?. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 358-365]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.47

 

Key words: residential pesticides, diabetes, infants

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Evaluation of Serum Leptin and Androgens Levels in Preeclampsia: Relation with Disease Severity

 

Naglaa Ghanayem1, Ashraf Dawood*1, Rania Azmy1and Alaa El Halaby2

 

1Medical Biochemistry, and 2 Obstetric and Gynecology Departments, Menofia University

*kingashrafdawood@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Preeclampsia along with its complications seems to be one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the pathology of preeclampsia has not yet been fully elucidated. Serum leptin levels are increased in normal pregnancies and are more elevated in preeclampsia. Also, many studies have concluded that high levels of blood androgens have been observed in preeclamptic women and may implicate the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study aims to evaluate total maternal serum leptin and androgen levels in preeclampsia and to evaluate whether these levels are affected by the severity of the disease and if other factors such as BMI and these hormonal factors have a role in the overall regulation of leptin production. The study included a total numbers of 60 cases. Divided into 3 groups: Group I (mild preeclampsia): included 20 pregnant females suffering from mild preeclampsia. Group II (severe preeclampsia): included 20 pregnant females with severe preeclampsia and Group III (controls):- included 20 healthy pregnant females with comparable maternal and gestational age. Total serum Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) Dehydroepiandesterone-sulphate(DHEA-S), leptin, Estradiol, free and total testosterone levels were measured in all subjects. The result indicated that Leptin, E2 and testosterone are significantly increased in preeclampsia than control (p <0.0001) and correlates with severity (p <0.0001). SHBG levels are significantly (p <0.0001) higher in preeclampsia while the level of DHEA-S is not statistically different when compared to normal pregnant group (>0.05). The elevated leptin levels are not associated with preeclampsia independently from BMI and estradiol levels. The study concluded that the levels of serum leptin are higher in women with preeclampsia than controls and that elevation could possibly be related to the underlying relationship between leptin levels and BMI and estradiol level.

[Naglaa Ghanayem, Ashraf Dawood, Rania Azmy and Alaa El Halaby, Evaluation of Serum Leptin and Androgens Levels in Preeclampsia: Relation with Disease Severity. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 366-372].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.48

 

Key words: Leptin, androgens, preeclampsia

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The Role of Oxidative Stress and NADPH Oxidase P22phox Polymorphism in Acute Kidney Injury Patients

 

Ashraf Dawood*1, Rania Azmy1and Mahmoud Omara2

 

1Medical Biochemistry, and 2 Internal Medicine Departments, Menofia University, Egypt

*kingashrafdawood@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Although several studies have been done to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of kidney injury. Results were static over the last 30 years. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is though to play a major role in the pathogenesis of AKI and its complications. The NADPH oxidase complex is an important source of ROS in AKI. Its p22 subunit is polymorph with a C242T variant that changes histidine-72 for a tyrosine in the potential heme binding site. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of this polymorphism in 75 patients with AKI and correlate the genotype to the extent of the load of the circulating ROS and its association with the unfavorable course of the disease. This study included 75 hospitalized patients in the Internal Medicine Department Menofiya University Hospital with established AKI. We done genotyping for the C242T polymorphism of the p22 subunit of the NADPH oxidase gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. The extent of the ROS load was estimated by measuring the level of plasma nitrotyrosine level and then correlation to the severity of the course of the disease and its outcome was made. The results revealed that, compared to CC group, the T- allele carrier was associated with higher levels of serum urea, creatinine and plasma nitrotyrosine (p<0.01) and the levels of plasma nitrotyrosine are correlated with age of the patient and length of hospital stay. Also the T- allele carries (CT and TT groups) showed higher cumulative probability of remaining hospitalized, while there was no significant difference concerning requirement for dialysis, for TCU admission and dialysis dependency. It is concluded that the polymorphism C242T in the gene encoding p22phox of NADOH oxidase is associated with the severity of the course of the disease and the adverse outcome in cases with AKI.

[Ashraf Dawood1, Rania Azmyand Mahmoud Omara, The Role of Oxidative Stress and NADPH Oxidase P22phox Polymorphism in Acute Kidney Injury Patients. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 373-380]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.49

 

Key words: NADPH oxidase, Acute kidney injury, Oxidative stress

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Microtensile Bond Strength of Two Adhesives Bonded to Laser Treated Dentin.

 

A. HAFEZ1, A. ABO EL NAGA2, O. BARAKAT2, and H. EL-SHENAWY3

 

1Ass. Prof. Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.

2Ass. Prof. of operative Dentistry, Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

3Lecturer and Researcher in Medical & Biological Application of Laser Science.National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. Corresponding author: Olarhm@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Evaluation of the effect of laser and etching time on the microtensile bond strength of two adhesives applied to dentin surfaces. Methods: Occlusal surfaces of forty molars were ground to obtain flat dentin surfaces. The teeth were divided into two groups (n=20 in each). One group subjected to Er.YAG laser. Each group was divided into four subgroups according to the used adhesive system and the etching time: 1) Prime &Bond NT etched for 15 seconds. 2) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus etched for 15 seconds. 3) Prime &Bond NT etched for 60 seconds. 4) Adper Scotchbond-Multi-Purpose Plus etched for 60 seconds. For each treated specimen, Feltik Supreme Plus composite was incrementally applied to form composite build up. After 24 hours distilled water storage at 37°C, the bonded specimens were vertically sectioned into 0.8mm2 sticks. Two central sticks were randomly chosen from each specimen forming a total of 10 sticks per subgroup. The sticks were subjected to a tensile load using Lloyd universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The data were statistically analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (P≤ 0.05). Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the mean microtensile bond strength values between subgroup 2 of non laser treated dentin (39.62 MPa) and subgroup 4 of Laser treated dentin (41.54 M Pa). This was followed by subgroup 1 for non Laser treated dentin which showed lower values (30.39). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean microtensile bond strength values between subgroups; 1 (11.97 MPa), 2 (14.59 MPa) and 3 (14.62 MPa) for laser treated dentin surfaces. Conclusion: Both tested adhesives showed decreased bond strength when the dentin surfaces were laser treated and etched for 15 seconds. Etching of laser treated dentin surfaces for 60 seconds improved microtensile bond strength.

[A. HAFEZ, A. ABO EL NAGA, O. BARAKAT, and H. EL-SHENAWY. Microtensile Bond Strength of Two Adhesives Bonded to Laser Treated Dentin. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 381-386]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.50

 

Key words: adhesive system, Laser, microtensile bond

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Dielectric Properties of Carbon Black Loaded EPDM Rubber Based Conductive Composites: Effect of Curing Method

 

F.S. Shokr

 

Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul–Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA; f.s.shokr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Different construction of high abrasion furnace black (HAF) have been dispersed in ethylene propleyene diene monomers (EPDM) composites and vulcanized by different methods. The dielectric properties of the elastomer crosslinked by gamma irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical vulcanization were compared. The frequency response of dielectric behavior has been studied for all prepared samples using LCR meter in the frequency range 100- 105 Hz. The results are explained on the basis of proposed model. It is observed that the ac. conductivity increases with increase in HAF-bulk contents passing through a percolative threshold. The percolation threshold for EPDM– HAF black composites vulcanized by chemical or γ – irradiation dose and by laser beam was found to be around 20 phr. Both the quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) of electrons through the barrier separating localized states and the classical happing over the same barrier were elucidated through the study of the frequency dependence of the ac. electrical conductivity of much EPDM composites.

[F.S. Shokr. Dielectric Properties of Carbon Black Loaded EPDM Rubber Based Conductive Composites: Effect of Curing Method. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 387-397]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.51

 

Key words: EPDM; Radiation; Dielectric Prosperities, Percolation threshold; Quantum mechanical tunneling

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Investigation of the Genetic Toxicology of Dill and Fennel Extracts and Cyclophosphamide in Male Rats by RAPD-PCR Assay

 

Saleha Y. M. Alakilli

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia; salakilli@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Volatile compounds from the phenylpropanoid pathway represent an interesting class of extremely bioactive that have been found in a number of genera or families especially in the Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Apiaceae families. Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) seeds were studied using random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) method in male rats in vivo. Sixty adult male albino rats were classified into 6 groups and treated orally daily for 30 days. RAPD analysis was performed on DNA extracted from liver of animals after treatments with single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. of cyclophosphamide as a positive control, and fennel or dill extract using two doses, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg b.wt., respectively comparing with the negative control. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD) showed that Feeding of animals with low dose (0.3 mg/kg b.w) of dill and fennel extract did not cause any damage on the DNA. In addition, feeding of animals on dill at the high dose (0.6 mg/kg b.w ) induced slightly DNA damage in the rat samples. On the other hand, most DNA of the samples treated with cyclophosphamide revealed polymorphic bands including appearance on new bands, which did not appear in the DNA samples of control or dill and fennel treated rats. These new bands could be considered as “genus diagnostic” markers which attributed to cyclophosphamide treatment.

[Saleha Y. M. Alakilli, Investigation of the genetic toxicology of dill and fennel extracts and cyclophosphamide in male rats by RAPD-PCR assay. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):398-408]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.52

 

Keywords: Dill, fennel, cyclophosphamide, male rats, RAPD-PCR

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Effect of Inoculating New Born Lambs with Fresh or Lyophilized Rumen Fluid on Rumen Activity and Lamb Performance

 

Abo-Donia, F. M1.; Ghada, S. Ibrahim2; Safaa Nadi1, and M. S. Sayah1

 

Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

National Research Centre, Microbial Biotechnology Department; *framsis2nd@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fresh or lyophilized digesta collected from mature Ossimi ewes fed berseem hay (Triforum alxanderinum) used to inoculate new born lambs. Nine ewes born twins (female and male) were assigned into three equal groups. The first one was left to suckle their dams until 12 weeks of age (natural rearing) as a control group. Lambs from 2nd group were inoculated with fresh rumen liquor (FRL) and the 3rd group inoculated with lyophilized rumen liquor (LRL). Three male lambs of each group fed berseem hay (BH) were chosen to apply digestibility trials and to collect ruminal ingesta from each group separately to determine in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDFD) and crud protein disappearance (CPD). There weren’t differences in total bacterial or protozoal number for either FRL or LRL groups. Daily milk consumption and feed conversion were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by male and female inoculated with FRL or LRL except females in group received LRL. Final body weight, total gain and average body gain increased with LRL or FRL inoculum. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, ADF and hemicellulose for berseem hay were significantly (P<0.05) increased for lambs inoculated by either FRL or LRL compared to control. No significant (P>0.05) differences were found between either inoculated or control group for digestibilities of CP, EE, NFE, NDF and ADL. The values of TDN were significantly (P<0.05) increased with either FRL or LRL inoculum, while no significant (P>0.05) differences for DCP or nitrogen balance. The values of pH lowered (P<0.05) significantly with inoculated lambs, while the concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA’s), acetate (Ac), propionate (Pr) and butyrate (But) and NH3-N were higher (P<0.05) significantly. The total count of bacteria and protozoa were higher (P<0.05) significantly with either FRL or LRL inoculum than control. Ruminal Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (10-5) count were higher (P<0.05) with both inoculum than control. On the other hand, some species such as Clostridium lochheadii and Clostridium longisporum weren’t detected in the rumen for all groups. Enoploplastron triloricatum and Eudiplodinium maggii count were higher (P<0.05) than another species of protozoa with either FRL or LRL inoculum. While, Diploplastron afine (10-3/ml) was not detected in the control group. Positive improvement of NDF and CP disappearance for berseem hay was detected when in rumen liquor of new born lambs inoculated with FRL or LRL. Ruminal disappearance kinetics a, b, ED and PD for NDF and CP of BH for different groups showed similar trend. Concentration of SCFA’s, Ac, pr and But significantly (P<0.05) increased except acetate at 24h incubation. The values of total nitrogen were significantly (P<0.05) increased at 48h of incubation than that control one. Microbial protein nitrogen and NH3-N in incubated media was significantly (P<0.05) higher

[Abo-Donia, F. M.; Ghada, S. Ibrahim; Safaa Nadi, and M. S. Sayah. Effect of Inoculating New Born Lambs with Fresh or Lyophilized Rumen Fluid on Rumen Activity and Lamb Performance. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 409-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.53

 

Keywords: Rumens inoculate; feed intake, digestibility and rumen degradability

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Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Biomarkers in Non-Diabetic Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

 

Enas M. Elsherbiny1 and Samar M. Sharaf2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background: Chronic kidney disease is well established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, because of multifactors such as disturbance of mineral metabolism, fluid over load, insulin resistance, and disturbance of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, these factors are not totally corrected by initiation of dialysis, even though peritoneal dialysis may add further risk due to great glucose absorption from peritoneal dialysis fluids. The aim of our study is to compare the biomarker of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in non diabetic peritoneal and hemodialysis patients and its impact on cardiovascular system. Patient and method: Forty patients with end stage renal disease treated with HD or PD for more than six months. The PD patients were using glucose- based solution. blood concentration of insulin, glucose, glycosated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c, LDL-c, albumin, intact PTH, calcium, phosphorus, hemoglobin and serum homocysteine level were measured, homeostasis model assessment index was calculated and. Carotid Doppler was performed and measured carotid intima media thickness was used as a sign of early atherosclerosis. Results: Forty patients (55 % males, mean age 42±15 ), 25 were on HD and 15 on PD. There were significant high systolic blood pressure in HD patients (p<0.01). Albumin level was significantly higher in HD group (p<0.01). Also S.P was higher in HD patients (p<0.01), serum homocysteine level was higher in HD patients (p<0.05) and a significantly higher m-CIMT (p<0.01) in HD patients with no significant difference between the two groups in SCa, intact PTH and hemoglobin, PD patients have a significant higher level of fasting glucose (p<0.05). HbA1c (p<0.05), also higher fasting insulin is observed in PD patients (p<0.05), also PD patients had significant lower insulin sensitivity HOMA index (p<0.05), also cholesterol was significantly higher in PD patients (p<0.01), also LDL-c was higher in PD patients (p<0.01), HDL-c was higher in PD patients (p<0.01), triglycerides also were significantly higher in PD patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: PD patients have a worse profile of lipid and glucose metabolism than HD patients, however there is an increased risk of atherosclerosis in HD patients due to more inflammatory process induced by HD. PD could be safer if measure was taken to reduce the glucose load including the use of glucose sparing solution.

[Enas M. Elsherbiny and Samar M. Sharaf, Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Biomarkers in Non-Diabetic Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):423-429].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.54

 

Key words: Lipid Biomarker, ESRD, HOMA-IR, Atherosclerosis, Homocysteine

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Mega Doses of Resveratrol Enhance Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Accelerate Inflammations in Glycerol-Rat Model

 

Rasha H. Mahmoud

Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Women College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

dr.rasha.asu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that possesses some antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. It can cause a significant effect on the inflammatory process seen in glycerol-induced renal injury. Renal injury associated with an increase of oxidative stress has been reported in the clinical and experimental use of some therapeutic agents (such as glycerol). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementing different doses of resveratrol on overcoming acute renal failure induced by glycerol injection in rats, and the possible mechanism by which resveratrol exerts its protective effect in ameliorating glycerol-nephrotoxicity. Five groups of rats were used: a normal control group treated with normal saline solution (10 ml/kg) and four groups injected intramuscularly with 1:1 (v/v) solution of glycerol and saline (10 ml/kg), then three groups of them were dosed orally once daily with 200, 1000, 3000 mg/kg, b.wt/day resveratrol in DMSO for 28 days by gavage.Results of the present study revealed that, glycerol injection deteriorated renal function as evidenced by significant increase in hematological measurements, serum urea, creatinine, Na+ and K+ levels. In addition, glycerol treated rats exhibited a significant increase in serum and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite / nitrate (NOx) levels as well as renal myoloperoxidase (MPO), with a significant decrease in sodium, potassium adenosine triphosphate activity (Na+, K+- ATPase) in renal tissues. Concurrent administration of resveratrol in doses 200, 1000 mg/kg, bwt/day with glycerol significantly reduced the increased MDA and NOx and MPO in renal tissue, restored the altered antioxidant enzyme activities and hematological parameters, and normalized activity of (Na+, K+- ATPase) in renal tissues. Administration of resveratrol at a dose of 3000 mg/kg, bwt/day, increase nephrotoxicity and inflammation as assessed by different hematological and enzymatic parameters. These findings imply the potential usefulness of resveratrol in low and medium doses as a protective agent to guard against renal injury induced by glycerol injection. Generally, resveratrol can have a significant effect on the inflammatory process seen in glycerol-induced renal injury.

 [Rasha H. Mahmoud, Mega Doses of Resveratrol Enhance Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Accelerate Inflammations in Glycerol-Rat Model Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):430-437]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.55

 

Key words: Resveratrol - Glycerol- Renal injury –inflammation –oxidative and nitorsative stress.

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The use of L-carnitine in diabetes: a novel strategy for combating its complications

 

Hanan, A. Soliman *1; Azza Araffa2 ; Mahmoud El-sherbiny2 and Hany M. Hassan3

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Bani Seuif Univ. Bani Seuif, Egypt

2Therapeutic Chemistry Department., National Research Centre- Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3 Immunology Department, Animal Reproduction,Research Institute( ARRI), Giza, Egypt

*hanan_abdelhameid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a severe, chronic form of diabetes caused by insufficient production of insulin and resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus and L-carnitine on albino rates, to achieve this target, forty adult albino male rats were classified into 4 equal group. The 1st group serve as control, while 2nd group received Streptozotocin for induction diabetes.The 3rd group was treated with L-carnitine and the 4th group administrated with Streptozotocin and L-carnitine and regard as diabetic - L-carnitine treated group. Blood samples were collected to determine blood glucose, IL2, IL6, TNF-α, Troponin T, CRP, VEGF and LT index in. Diabetic group showed significant elevations of blood glucose level, IL2, IL6, TNF-α, Troponin T and CRP. On the other hand, VEGF and LT index display significant reductions in compare with control group. L-carnitine treatment of diabetic group induced significant decreases of blood glucose level, IL2, IL6, TNF-α, Troponin T and CRP in compare with diabetic group. Conversely, VEGF and LT index recoded remarkable elevations in compare with diabetic group. The counter effect of L-carnitine may be attributed to its antioxidant mechanism. The current investigation presents L-carnitine as a solution to overcome the deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus in albino rats.

[Hanan, A. Soliman; Azza Araffa ; Mahmoud El-sherbiny and Hany M. Hassan. The use of L-carnitine in diabetes: a novel strategy for combating its complications]. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 438-442]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.56

 

Keywords: L-carnitine; diabetes; combating; complication

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Effect of composition of alginate impression material on “recovery from deformation”

 

 Saniour S.H.S1, Abd El-Ghaffar M.A.2, Fath El-Bab I.I1 and Saba D.A.*1.

 

1Dental Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Chemistry and Technology of Polymers Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*daliasaba@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various alginate impression materials compositions on the recovery from deformation property. Experimentally alginate mixtures; Alg I, Alg II, Alg III, Alg IV, and Alg V and Alg VI, were prepared showing various composition regarding the concentration of the sodium alginate, calcium sulphate dehydrate, containing traces of calcium sulphate hemihydrates or calcium sulphate dihydrate of high purity were used. Five specimens for each experimentally prepared alginate mixture were made. The "recovery from deformation" of the specimens was evaluated according to the ANSI/ADA specification no.18 for dental alginate impression material. The obtained values of the recovery from deformation for all the materials tested were subjected to One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for comparison between groups. The results revealed that Alg I showed the lowest statistically significant mean recovery from deformation (89.8%). There was no statistically significant difference between Alg II (93%), Alg III (93.9%), Alg IV (94.3%), Alg V (94.3%) and Alg VI, which showed the highest statistically significant mean recovery from deformation (95.3%). It is concluded that the concentration of the sodium alginate chemical did play a major role in the preparation of the experimental alginate mixtures. Experimentally prepared alginates containing calcium sulphate dihydrate rather than those containing mixtures of hemihydrate and dihydrate, showed higher “recovery from deformation”.

[Saniour S.H.S, Abd El-Ghaffar M.A., Fath El-Bab I. I. and Saba D.A. Effect of composition of alginate impression material on “recovery from deformation. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):443-448]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.57

 

Key words: Alginate impression material, recovery from deformation, sodium alginate, calcium sulphate dihydrate

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Occurrence of some Zoonotic Vibrios in Shellfish and Diarrheic Patients with Regard to Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

 

Merwad, A. M. Amin* 1; El-Ghareeb, W. Rizk 2 and Taisir, S. Mohamed.3

 

1Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Department of Food Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt; *abdallamerwad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Shellfish is a food substrate for some zoonotic vibrios of which these microorganisms, cause food poisoning and diarrhea in human. A total of 245 samples including white shrimps (75), blue crabs (50), oysters (50), water samples from Suez Canal (20) and fecal swabs from diarrheic patients (50) were collected from different localities in Ismailia province and subjected for bacteriological examination. The overall prevalence of Vibrio spp. was 57.3% in shrimps, 48% in crabs, 54% in oysters, 25% in water samples and 18% in human stool. Eight Vibrio spp. were identified from shrimps with different percentages: V. parahaemolyticus (2.6%), V. vulnificus (6.6%), V. fluvialis (12%), V. hollisae (2.6%), V. furnissii (6.6%), V. mimicus (6.6%), V. alginolyticus (10.6%) and V. damsella (9.3%). Also, five Vibrio spp. isolated from crabs were belonged to V. vulnificus (2%), V. fluvialis (14%), V. hollisae (4%), V. alginolyticus (12%) and V. damsella (16%). Moreover, oysters showed higher infection rate of V. fluvialis (16%) followed by V. mimicus (12%), V. alginolyticus (10%), each of V. furnissii and V. damsella (6%) and each of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (2%). From water samples; each V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, V. alginolyticus showed a similar infection rate of 5%, while for V. damsella was 10%. In addition, five Vibrio spp. identified from diarrheic patients were belonged to V. parahaemolyticus (4%), V. vulnificus (2%), V. fluvialis (8%), V. hollisae (2%) and V. furnissii (2%). Thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) was positive in 50% and 100% of V. parahaemolyticus isolates from human stool and oyster, respectively; where this gene was negative in these isolates from shrimp. Also, tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus was indicated by presence of 269 bp using PCR. This study throw light on the necessasity of adequate cooking of shellfish, better postharvest handling and monitoring of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus to protect human health.

[Merwad, A. M. Amin; El-Ghareeb, W. Rizk and Taisir, S. Mohamed,Occurrence of some Zoonotic Vibrios in Shellfish and Diarrheic Patients with Regard to Vibrio Parahaemolyticus. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 449-459]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.58

 

Keywords: Shellfish; Vibrios; Zoonosis; Diarrhea; patients; Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

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Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Improving Chest Airways among Infants with Pneumonia

 

Hewida Ahmed Hussein and Gehan Ahmed Elsamman

 

Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

dr_didi2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and death in many of developing countries. The aim of this study was to construct, implement and evaluate the effect of an intervention of chest physiotherapy (CPT) on improving chest airways of infants suffering from pneumonia. A quasi experimental design was utilized. The study conducted at 3 medicine floors at New Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University (NPHCU). A total of 60 infants (divided equally and randomly into 30 in study and 30 in control group) were recruited according to the inclusion criteria. The following tools were utilized to collect the required data which were a structured interview questionnaire schedule and medical history questionnaire schedule and infant’s medical records. The mean age of infants was 4.93±2.99 months for study group and 5.13±2.92 months for control group. There were statistically significant differences between study and control groups regarding frequency of oxygen therapy and suctioning /day after applying intervention than before (p<0.05). The current study concluded that CPT was effective in improving chest airways in infants with pneumonia in the form of decreasing oxygen requirement and frequency of suctioning. CPT should apply for infants with pneumonia whose condition required.

[Hewida Ahmed Hussein and Gehan Ahmed Elsamman, Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Improving Chest Airways among Infants with Pneumonia. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):460-466]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.59

 

Keywords: Pneumonia; infant; chest physiotherapy; postural drainage; percussion

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Retail Sales Chain: A Study of Human Resource Management Actions in Iranian Cosmetics Retail Chains

 

M. Abolhasanpour1, M.M. Seyed Esfahani1, A. Afrazeh1, M. Ansari2, A. Abolhasanpoor3, M. Tajalli3

 

1. Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Iran

2. Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Iran

3. Asia Pacific International College, Sydney, Australia

m.abolhasanpour@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper how four sales retail chains in the Iranian cosmetics industry attempt to make low-payment, low-status sales force-level retail sales jobs respect to employee satisfaction rates discussed. Both retailer and employee sales force viewpoints considered. Base on the social and commercial context of Iranian cosmetics industry, five types of sales force jobs identified (Temporary sales forces, permanent sales forces, career seekers, shopkeepers and networkers as independent representatives) in which each of them has its own motivators and driven forces to work in the cosmetics retail sales chain. The principal challenge that considered in this paper is how to make retail sales work more interesting. Study shows that cosmetics retailers companies in Iran concentrate their focus on just a few motivators and driven forces regardless to their employee categories while there are significant differences between retail sales job types that requires different contingency based combinations of motivators and driven forces. However for all types of the retail sales jobs a variety of different actions recognized that could improve retail sales force satisfaction and performance respect to main HRM activities. Finally we discussed employee satisfaction rates in four cosmetics retailers companies as our case study findings.

[M. Abolhasanpour, M.M. Seyed Esfahani, A. Afrazeh, M. Ansari, A. Abolhasanpoor, M. Tajalli. Retail Sales Chain: A Study of Human Resource Management Actions in Iranian Cosmetics Retail Chains. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):467-479]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.60

 

Key words: Cosmetics retail sales chain; Human resource management; Sale force job types; employee motivators and driven forces

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Analytical Study of Intelligent Assistants to Help Blind People in Avoiding Dangerous Obstacles

 

Aslam Muhammad1, Muhammad Umair Ahmad Khan2, Haseeb Azhar3, Ali Masood4, Maliha Saleem Bakhshi5

 

1Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

 2,3,4,5 Department of Mechatronics & Control Engineering, University of Engg. & Tech., Lahore, Pakistan

1maslam@uet.edu.pk, 2umairsiyal@gmail.com, 3hasibmir@gmail.com, 3alimasood_205@yahoo.com, 5maliha.bakhshi@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of already developed devices for helping the blind or visually impaired people in obstacle avoidance. Different technologies are described on the basis of certain parameters. Although many gadgets are currently available to help blind people like GuideCane, NavBelt, Tom Pouce, Ultra Cane, etc. but in this paper we have analyzed four gadgets from which an optimal one is recommended for use, keeping in view the parameters. A system based on smart phone uses the camera as eyes and sends vibration and audio signal as feedback to user. The Ultracane being an advance form of white cane has ultrasonic sensors and avoids the obstacles by steering action of the cane. The Stereo Vision based Electronic Travel Aid uses a stereo camera for obstacles detection and stereo sounds through headphone are used to intimate the user. The Wearable Jacket uses the sonar technique for obstacle detection and warns the user by vibro-tactile force. After analyzing all the gadgets on the selected parameters, wearable jacket for obstacle avoidance is the preferable option, because it satisfies most of the parameters as compared to other gadgets. It is ultra-portable, low power, user friendly, medium range, and non-invasive. The main focus of this work is to formulate a guideline for blind people by using of which they can select an intelligent assistant for themselves according to their economy, environment, and liking. [Aslam Muhammad, Muhammad Umair Ahmad Khan, Haseeb Azhar, Ali Masood, Maliha Saleem Bakhshi. Analytical Study of Intelligent Assistants to Help Blind People in Avoiding Dangerous Obstacles. Journal of American Science. 2011;7(9):480-485]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.61

 

Keywords: Obstacle avoidance, Blind assistance, Electronic Travel Aids.

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An introduction with space charge limited conduction in organic light emitting diodes

 

Masoud Shafiee 1, Seied Salaman Norazar 2, Vahid Yazdanian 3

 

1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran

va.yazdaniyan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In all previous research about organic light emitting diodes, have studied the mobile ion movement in an externally applied electric field. In those researches also used a simple model to calculate the induced voltage shifts. The simple model assumes a constant electric field and only considers a direct contribution from the redistribution of mobile ions on the operating voltage. In a real OLED, the injected electrons and holes are also charged particle. When the mobile ions are introduced, the distribution of electrons and holes as well as the potential profiles can be perturbed in a more complicated way than what has been discussed on those researches which is observed in our experiments. As a matter of fact, the two transport problems, namely, that of the mobile ions and that of the current carriers (electron and hole), are coupled together and needs to be solved self-consistently. Because the time scaled of the two problems are orders of magnitude different, we can treat the case in a quasi-static way, namely, by considering the mobile ions to be stationary when we solve the carrier transport problems. Before taking that task, we first consider the current carrier (electron and hole) transport problem in this paper. We will then propose numerical solution based on finite difference method and discuss about it.

[Masoud Shafiee, Seied Salaman Norazar, Vahid Yazdanian. An introduction with space charge limited conduction in organic light emitting diodes]. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):486-493]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.62

 

Keywords: Organic Light Emitting Diode; Space Charge; Mobile Ion; Diffusion; Boundary Condition

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Mentha extract consumption (Mentha piperita L) reduced blood iron concentration and increased TIBC levels in broiler chickens

 

Rahim Abdulkarimi 1, Amir Abdullahi 2, Mandana Amini 1

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Boukan Branch, Boukan, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Maku Branch, Maku, Iran

Rahim.Abdulkarimi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Mentha extract (Mentha piperita) on Blood Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), Red Blood Cell (RBC), Iron and TIBC (total iron binding capacity) in broiler chickens. A total of 160 one-day old Ross (308) broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 10 chicks each were fed a same starter and grower diets. From 1 to 42 d of age, broiler drinking water supplemented with 0 (ZM), 0.2 (LM), 0.4 (MM) and 0.6% (HM) Mentha extract. No significant differences in blood Hb, HTC and RBC between the treatments were observed, but blood iron concentration of 0.4 and 0.6 (%) Mentha extract received birds were lower as compared to that of control birds (ZM) at day 42 of age (P<0.05). The HM birds had the lower blood iron than all of treatments (P<0.05). Blood TIBC of the Mentha extract received birds was higher (P<0.05) as compared to that of ZM birds. Furthermore, HM birds had the higher TIBC value (P<0.05) as compared to LM and MM birds. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01) was found between Mentha extract supplementation and blood iron, and positive correlation (P<0.01) between Mentha extract supplementation and blood TIBC. A negative linear regression (P<0.0003) existed between Mentha extract consumption with blood iron concentration and a positive linear regression (P<0.0001) between the Mentha extract consumption and blood TIBC at whole of experiment period.

[Rahim Abdulkarimi, Amir Abdullahi, Mandana Amini. Mentha extract consumption (Mentha piperita L) reduced blood iron concentration and increased TIBC levels in broiler chickens]. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):494-500]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.63

 

Keywords: Broiler chickens, Iron status, Menthe piperita, TIBC.

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Effect of Using Olive Vegetation Water (OVW) on Growth, Flowering and Yield of Manzanillo Olive Trees

 

Shereen. A.shaheen; El – Taweel.A. A, and Al-Khateeb. A.

 

 Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

 Corresponding author: Sheerenatef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This investigation was carried out during two growing seasons 2009 and 2010 to investigate the effect of using olive oil vegetable water (VW) with farm fertilization on morphological and productive characteristics of Manzanillo olive trees grown in a sandy soil under drip irrigation system in a private orchard.A total of four application of the olive oil vegetable water including 0 (control), 24, 48,72 litre /tree were added in the end of canopy shad each two weeks during the period from the first of January till the end of fruit set15th May. Results showed that on applying VW, there was a considerable increase in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium content of the soils.Its increased was related to used doses.There was a decrease in sodium, iron and cupper, but chloride was only decreased with VW at 24 &72 litre /tree. With the treatment at 48 litre/ tree, there was a decrease in HCO3, an increase in organic matter occurred by the application of 24&48 and 72 litre of VW. The highest shoot length was obtained at the rate of 72 litre of VW/tree in the first season, while no difference between other treatments, in the second season. VW at the rate of 72 litre/ tree showed better effects for number of leaves per meter, length of inflorescences, flowering density, percentage of perfect flowers, leaf area in the first season.While there was no difference between treatments with 24 and 48/tree in leaf area in the second season. The results showed that the leaves of control trees gave the highest percentage of leaf nitrogen in the first season, while the trees treated with 24 litre of VW were the best in the second season. There was no considerable increase in P content of the leaves after application in both seasons, treatment with (VW) at72 litre/ tree which gave the highest leaf K, Ca and Mn contents in both seasons and highest leaf Zn content in the first season.The highest Cu leaf content was observed in control treatment.Regarding to flowering behaviour, all the investigated trees bloomed at the same date with no difference between treatments in both studied seasons, except control ;it was earlier 4 days in the first season and 2 days in the second season. The blooming duration was about 11 days in control and 9 days in other treatments in the first season, but the blooming duration in the second season was11 days in all treatments.Treated trees with (48 litter of VW) induced an apparent significant increase in sex expression fruit set, yield, stone weight and percentage of oil in dry weight of Manzanillo trees. The maximum fruit length, diameter, weight, Flesh weight, Flesh/fruit weight percent and flesh/stone ratio associated with (V W) at 24 litre/tree, and no significance between treatments and control with regard for both stone length and width, while control treatment gave the highest fruit moisture content(%)

[Shereen. A.shaheen; El – Taweel.A. A, and Al-Khateeb. A. Effect of Using Olive Vegetation Water (OVW) on Growth, Flowering and Yield of Manzanillo Olive Trees.] Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):501-510]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.64

 

Keywords: Olive tree, Manzanillo, vegetable water (VW)

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Effect of growth regulators on Carpobrotus edulis rapid micropropagation and molecular analysis

 

Salah Khattab and Fadia El Sherif

 

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Khattabfar@yahoo.de

 

Abstract: Knowledge concerning in vitro regeneration and developmental responses of Carpobrotus edulis is limited. Adventitious shoots were regenerated from leaf explants on MS media supplemented with (0.05) μM TDZ. Aseptic seedlings were successfully raised on MS medium containing half strength salts. MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mg/L 2iP proved to be the best for multiple shoot induction. MS supplemented with 0.4 mg/L NAA was found suitable medium for root induction in excised micro-shoots. The plants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse at 100% survival rate. In vitro derived plants were analyzed using SDS-PAGE of soluble protein extracts and RAPD fingerprints. SDS-PAGE protein and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis confirmed that all the regenerated plants from leaf and shoot tip were genetically identical to their donor plants, suggesting the absence of detectable genetic variation in the regenerated plants.

[Salah Khattab and Fadia El Sherif. Effect of growth regulators on Carpobrotus edulis rapid micropropagation and molecular analysis. [Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):511-520]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.65

 

Keywords: Carpobrotus edulis, Benzyladenine, In vitro micropropagation, genetic variation, TDZ, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophesis and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

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Wind Turbine Performance – The Betz Limit and Other Factors Nnorom ACHARA

 

MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield, Braintree, United Kingdom

nnoromeluwa@btinternet.com

 

Abstract: The power available from the wind has long been recognised and exploited in various ways including powering the sailing ships and wind mills. The Danes are regarded as the pioneers in wind turbine development. Although most studies on wind turbine losses found in the literature deal with tip losses and wake eddies especially in the wind farm environment, other losses relating to mechanical and electrical devices do exist in the system. The maximum energy that can be derived from the wing is given as 59% of the free stream value as established by the Betz limit. It is necessary that wind speed is of the appropriate order before choosing a site. Where this data is not available, the mean annual wind speed together with the Rayleigh Distribution function may be used to calculate the values. Obstacles in the wind route in a site will adversely affect the wind turbine performance. Performance is also affected by tower height. Losses occur in the bearings and the gear trains connecting the turbine and the generator. There are losses that are attributable to the diodes in converting the wild AC to DC for storage in the batteries and in the inverters if the power is used in an AC wired property and some of the energy generated may be used in running the battery bank.

[MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield, Braintree, United Kingdom. Wind Turbine Performance – The Betz Limit and Other Factors Nnorom ACHARA. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):521-526]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.66

 

Key Words: harvesting the wind, tail-vane, cut-in speed, furling, tip-losses, gear train, interference factor

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Utilization of an Industrial Waste Product in the Preparation of Low Cost Cement

 

H. El-Didamony1, I.M. Helmy1, H. Moselhy2 and M.A Ali2

 

1 Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2 Higher Institutes of Engineering, El-Sohrouk Academy, El-Sohrouk City, Egypt

*drhosam61@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Blast−furnace slag is a by−product of the manufacture of pig iron. There are huge amounts of this material produced annually; therefore, the utilization of this solid waste in the production of any industrial product leads to money saving keeps the area of this factory in a cleaner state and prevents atmospheric pollution. There are strong environmental and energy reasons for developing a wide range of pozzolanic cements. The aim of this work is to study the effect of substitution of cement with granulated slag by the determination of water of consistency, initial and final setting times, combined water and free lime contents, bulk density, total porosity, and compressive strength. The results show that the addition of granulated slag increases the water of consistency, initial and final setting times, compressive strength as well as total porosity, whereas the free lime and combined water decrease with granulated slag content.

[H. El-Didamony, I.M. Helmy, H. Moselhy and M.A Ali, Utilization of an Industrial Waste Product in the Preparation of Low Cost Cement. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):527-533]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.67

 

Keywords: Blast−Furnace Slag, Atmospheric Pollution, Pozzolanic Cements

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Anti-Alzheimer Activity and Structure Activity Relationship of Some Synthesized Terpinoidal Oxaliplatin Analogs

 

Hatem S. Alia*, Mohamed A. Al-Omarb, Abdel Rahman S. Al-Khalifaa, Mohamed M. Abdullac, Essam Ezzeldind and Abdel-Galil E. Amre,f

 

a Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food Science and Agriculture, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

b Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

c Research Unit, Saco Pharm. Co., 6th October City, Giza, Egypt

d Drug Bioavailability Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University.

e Drug Exploration & Development Chair (DEDC), College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

f Applied Organic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*hatemali888@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The terpenoidal oxaliplatin derivatives 6 and 12 were synthesized previously using 2β,3α-di- hydroxy-11-oxo-18β-olean-12-ene-30-oic acid (1) and 2α,2β-dihydroxy-18β-ursan-12-ene-28-oic acid (7) as starting materials. Also, some of the previously synthesized compounds exhibited better cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities than Oxaliplatin® and vitamin C as positive controls. Herein, these compounds were evaluated for their anti-alzheimer activities and were compared to Fluriprofen® as positive control. The detailed pharmacological screening and acute toxicity (LD50) for these compounds were reported.

[Hatem S. Ali, Mohamed A. Al-Omar, Abdel Rahman S. Al-Khalifa, Mohamed M. Abdulla, Essam Ezzeldin and Abdel-Galil E. Amr, Anti-Alzheimer Activity and Structure Activity Relationship of Some Synthesized Terpinoidal Oxaliplatin Analogs. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):534-542]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.68

 

Keywords: Synthesized terpinoide derivatives, oxaliplatin analogs, anti-alzheimer activity, structure activity relationship

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Preparation and Characterization of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) for Encapsulation of Harmful Waste

 

W. A. Ibrahim, H. A. Sibak and M. F. Abadir*

 

Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

*magdi.abadir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic material has been prepared for the sake of encapsulating lead battery waste. In this paper the optimum conditions for the preparation of magnesium potassium phosphate compacts are determined and the formation of the final product assessed using XRD. The effect of applied pressure and pressing duration as well as the Mg: K molar ratio on the porosity and permeability of compacts was studied. It was found that a minimum porosity was achieved by using a molar ratio of Mg:K = 1:1 and that a pressing time of 10 minutes is sufficient to reach compacts of reasonably low permeability. Also, the compressive strength of compacts was found to increase linearly with curing time and to be much more affected by pressing time duration than by the magnitude of the applied pressure.

[W. A. Ibrahim, H. A. Sibak and M. F. Abadir, Preparation and Characterization of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) for Encapsulation of Harmful Waste. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):543-548]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.69

 

Keywords: Phosphate Bonded – Ceramics – Magnesium – Potassium

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Improvement effect of tomato seeds and vitamin C on potassium bromate induced renal injury in rats

Nawal.A. Al Badr

 

Food Sciences and Nutrition Dep, Faculty of Food Sciences and Agriculture, King Saud

nawalbdr@yahoo.com

 

Abastract : Fifty-four adult male of white albino rats (Sprague Dawley Strain) were injected with a single intra-peritoneal dose of potassium bromate at level 125 mg /kg body weight to induce renal injury. Rats classified into non treated positive control group and five treated groups that were tomato seeds powder, tomato seeds extract, vitamin C, tomato seeds powder with vitamin C and tomato seeds extract with vitamin C groups. The study was conducted for ten weeks. The results revealed that, the treatment of renal injured rats with tomato seeds powder or extract with or without vitamin C showed improvement of nutritional results as a significant increase in final weight, weight gain and food intake compared to positive control group. The value of Food efficiency ratio (FER) was significantly increased in tomato seeds powder, tomato seeds extract, tomato seeds powder with vitamin C and tomato seeds extract with vitamin C groups compared to positive control group. Values of blood hemoglobin (HB), packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cells; serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), glutathione transferase (GST), catalase & superoxide dismutase (SOD), and kidney glutathione peroxidase (GPX) & glutathione transferase (GST) were significantly increased in all treated groups compared to positive control group. The values of serum cholesterol, cholesterol/HDLc ratio, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), creatinine, uric acid, urea & nitric oxide (NO) and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased compared to positive control group. White blood cells was significantly increased in tomato seeds powder with vitamin C and tomato seeds extract with vitamin C groups while the value of serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) was significantly decreased in tomato seeds powder, tomato seeds extract, tomato seeds powder with vitamin C and tomato seeds extract with vitamin C groups compared to positive control group.

[Nawal.A. Al Badr. Improvement effect of tomato seeds and vitamin C on potassium bromate induced renal injury in rats. [Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):549-555]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.70

 

Key wards: Renal injury - Potassium bromate- Tomato seed -Vitamin C-Rats.

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Synergistic effect of cocoa and choline consumption on injured liver in experimental rats

 

Huda Ahmad AL-amer


Nutrition and Food Science Dep. Princess Nora Bint Abdul-Rahman University, Riyadh
huda.a.a@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted on seventy Sprague Dawley strain male rats, weighting 154 ±10 g. 10 rats served as control (-ve) group while 60 rats were subcutaneously administered a single dose of CCl4 in paraffin oil in dose 1ml/kg for two days from the start of the experimental period for inducing rat liver injury.The CCl4 rats were reclassified into control (+ve) and five treated rat groups which were cacao powder, cacao extract, choline, cacao powder with choline and cacao extract with choline. The study period was 8 weeks. In compared with control (-ve) group, the results revealed that the values of food efficiency ratio (FER), glycogen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly decreased but alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were significantly increased in all treated rat groups. Final body weight, body weight gain, protein efficiency ratio(PER), albumin, total protein, albumin/ globulin ratio, liver triglyceride and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were significantly decreased but the values of ALT, AST, creatinine, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and liver total lipid were significantly increased in control (+ve) and rat groups which treated with cacao powder and cacao extract. On the other side, final body weight, body weight gain, (PER), albumin, GPX were significantly decreased but serum ALT, AST, creatinine, LDLc, liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in rat group which treated with choline. The values of hemoglobin (Hg) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly decreased in control (+ve) group. ALT and creatinine values were significantly increased in rat group which treated with cacao powder with choline while glutathione (GSH) was significantly decreased but serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, liver cholesterol were significantly increased in control (+ve) and rat group which treated with cacao powder. These results indicate that dietary intake of both cocoa and choline prevents CCl4 induced liver injury.

[Huda Ahmad AL-amer. Synergistic effect of cocoa and choline consumption on injured liver in experimental rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):556-563]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.71

 

Key word: liver injury –CCl4-cacao –choline.

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Influence of TOMOKO® (Direct-Fed Microbials) on Productive Performance, Selected Rumen and Blood Constituents in Barky Finishing Lambs

 

Khaled, N. F.a* and Baraka, T. A.b

 

a Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, b Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 12211, Giza, Egypt.

*fahmy66@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A feeding trail of six weeks was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation of direct-fed microbials (TOMOKO) on productive performance, selected rumen and blood constituents. Twenty four Barky finishing lambs of 30 kg average body weight were divided into 2 equal groups. Group one (G1) was fed on basal diet (60 % concentrate mixture and 40 % good quality hay) and used as a control. Group two (G2) was fed basal diet fortified with 500 grams of TOMOKO per ton of feed. Body weight, average daily body weight gain (ADG), feed consumption and feed efficiency were recorded at 0, 21 and 42 days of experiment. Rumen juice samples; rumen pH, total protozoa count, total volatile fatty acid concentrations (TVFAs), ammonia nitrogen, urea and total protein were investigated, while serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulin and urea-nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Lambs fed TOMOKO dietary supply showed significant (p<0.05) increased body weight and ADG. Significant differences (p<0.05) in rumen pH, total protozoa count, total volatile fatty acids, urea and total protein and serum total protein, globulin and urea nitrogen levels were recorded. Dietary supplementation of TOMOKO to fattening lambs increased body weight gain, feed efficiency rate and improved the rumen fermentation pattern and health status.

[Khaled, N. F. and Baraka, T. A. Influence of TOMOKO® (Direct-Fed Microbials) on Productive Performance, Selected Rumen and Blood Constituents in Barky Finishing Lambs. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 564-570].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.72

 

Key words: Fattening lambs, TOMOKO, Rumen and serum constituents.

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Ultrastructural study on the body surface of Porrorchis indicus (Acanthocephala: Plagiorhynchidae) from the Egyptian cuculus, Centropus senegalensis aegyptius (Aves : Cuculidae)

 

S. M. Abd- El-Moaty and *A. A. Taeleb

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of science, Zagazig University, Egypt

*dr_azza2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Porrorchis indicus (Das, 1957) Schmidt and Kuntz, 1967 is recovered from the small intestine of the Egyptian cuculus, Centropus Senegalensis aegyptius in Egypt. This acanthocephalan was identified and described by using light and scanning electron microscope for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy of the proboscis hooks, provide additional data about the surface of these taxonomic relevant structures. The proboscis in both sexes carries 20-24 vertically oriented rows each of 8 or 9 hooks which vary in length and size in relation to their position. The study revealed the striated nature of the proboscis hooks of P. indicus, a characteristic only reported in two acanthocephalan species. Scanning electron microscopy documented the elevated slit-like female gonopore, the ribbed surface of the eggs and the spoon-like shape of male bursa.

[S. M. Abd- El-Moaty and A. A. Taeleb Ultrastructural study on the body surface of Porrorchis indicus (Acanthocephala: Plagiorhynchidae) from the Egyptian cuculus, Centropus senegalensis aegyptius (Aves : Cuculidae). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):571-577].(ISSN: 1545-1003).http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.73

 

Keyword: Ultrastructural, Porrorchis indicus, Acanthocephala, Plagiorhynchidae.

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Immunohistochemical Study of Survivin in Psoriasis

 

Fatma A. Abd Rabou1, Amal A. El- Ashmawy*1 and Maha M. Shamloula2

 

Departments of 1Dermatology and Venereology, and 2Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

amged1963@yahoo.com gheidas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis (Ps) is one of the most frequent skin diseases world-wide, with severe impact on the quality of the patient's life. Genetics and environmental factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Suppression of apoptosis is generally one of the accepted pathogenetic mechanisms of Ps and any epidermal hyperproliferative states. Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family proteins, it mediates its apoptosis suppressive function by the inhibition of caspase pathway. It is a bifunctional protein that functions as a key regulator of mitosis and inhibitor of programmed cell death. Aim of the Work: The aim of this study was to explore the role could be played by survivin in the pathogenesis of Ps. Patients and Methods: 10 cases of plaque Ps, 10 cases of erythrodermic Ps, (in both types lesional, prelesional skin were taken), and10 control specimens from normal skin were studied by immunohistochemical method for expression of survivin. Results: Survivin was detected in psoriatic lesions both plaque and erythrodermic distributed in epidermis, endothelium, and inflammatory cells with different levels. Also it was detected in the prelesional skin in both plaque and erythrodermic Ps, also in the epidermis, endothelium, inflammatory cells, but with lesser ratios, and focal expression. In the control specimens, survivin was confined to basal layer of epidermis, and significantly up regulated in Ps in comparison with the prelesional, and the control skin, but there was no significant difference between different types of Ps.

[Fatma A. Abd Rabou, Amal A. El- Ashmawy and Maha M. Shamloula, Immunohistochemical Study of Survivin in Psoriasis. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 578-583].(ISSN:1545-1003).http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.74

 

Keywords: Psoriasis, survivin, apoptosis and caspase.

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Factors Affecting the resolution of SPECT Imaging

 

H. E. Mostafa*1, H. A. Ayoub2 and Sh.Magraby1

 

1Kasr El-Ini Center for Oncology, Cairo University, 2Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University

hayamayoub@yahoo.com h. ayouob@uoh.edu.sa

 

Abstract: SPECT technique provides 3D view of the organ/structure (depth information), which facilitates the quantification and the improvement of the contrast and resolution of output images. Because of the importance of spatial resolution in SPECT studies, it is essential to periodically verify that there has been no deterioration in this parameter. Spatial resolution is commonly quantified from the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the line spread response function. Many acquisition factors degrade SPECT images both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present work was done by using the performance Jasezczak and Resolution phantoms filled with a 99mTc solution to simulate the tumor (lesion) and calculate its spatial resolution (FWHM). The image acquired by using different acquisition matrices, mode of rotation, radius of rotation, number of projection, time per projection and type of collimator. The reconstruction of image was done by filter back projection method where Butterworth filter used with cutoff frequency 0.40 at order 5. The performance phantoms and imaging process were done by founding of the attenuation and scattering media (water). The earned results indicated 60 views which gave the best image quality rather than 30 or 45 views. Smaller pixel size 128 x 128 can display more image details and good resolution than the 64 x 64. Time per view (TPV) 30 or 40 s is lead to improved image quality (resolution). Image quality is being worse by inhancement the radius of rotation for gamma camera. Ultra high-resolution collimator is recommended to provide good spatial resolution rather than the general all purpose collimator.

[H. E. Mostafa, H. A. Ayoub and Sh.Magraby, Factors Affecting the resolution of SPECT Imaging. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):584-591].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.75

 

Keywords: radionuclide imaging/ SPECT/ contrast.

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 Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in Secondary Immunocompromised Children

 

Amal M Abd El-Latif*1, Adel SA Ali1, Mohammad Abdel-Hady1, and Maher BM Borai2

 

Departments of Pediatrics1 and Clinical Pathology2, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

*zakila1999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a worldwide problem, more than half of the world's population in both developed and developing countries are infected with this organism. Studies which estimated H. pylori infection in immunocompromised children have been done in developed countries. Objective: Evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in secondary immunocompromised children, admitted to the Pediatric Hematology and Oncology and Nephrology Units of Zagazig University Hospitals, during the year 2010, using a non-invasive test. Study design: Sixty newly diagnosed secondary immunocompromised children (25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia-ALL, 15 nephrotic syndrome, 10 acute myeloblastic leukemia-AML, 5 T-cell lymphoma and 5 rhabdomyosarcoma), of ages ranging from 3 to 12 years (mean ± standard deviation, X ±SD = 7.51 ± 2.6 years), who received corticosteroids, immuno-suppressive drugs, or both were enrolled consecutively into the study. In addition, thirty age-and sex-matched healthy children served as a control group. Written consents were obtained from the parent (s) of all children. All children were subjected to history-taking, clinical examination, and routine investigations (CBC, liver and kidney function tests), as well as, serum ELISA for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific for H.pylori antigens. Results: The prevalence of H.pylori seropositivity accounted for 60% in secondary immunocompromised children versus 37% in control children, with significant difference. In patients, the seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori antibody was non-significantly higher among children with malignancy than that in children with nephrotic syndrome. The prevalence rates of seropositivity were significantly higher in females than in males and in neutropenic children than in non-neutropenics, with nonsignificant differences in various age groups. The sensitivity and specificity of seropositivity, in all studied children accounted for 77% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: 1) Helicobacter pyloi infection is common among patients suffering secondary immunodeficiency, and 2) testing of immunocompromised children, consuming the non-invasive ELISA serologic assay is a good negative test (specificity 100%) of Helicobacter pylori infection. Recommendations:1) routine serologic assay is essential for follow-up of these patients, 2) a large –scale study with more selection criteria of immunocompromised children is advised.

[Amal M Abd El-Latif, Adel SA Ali, Mohammad Abdel-Hady, and Maher BM Borai. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in Secondary Immunocompromised Children. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):592-595]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.76

 

Keywords: sensitivity-specificity-ELISA-Immunodeficiency - seropositivity

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Prediction of Garment Drapability Based on Fabric Properties

 

F.Fathy.Saied.Ebrahim¹’²

 

1Academy of Specific Studies, Worker University

2Home Economic Dept., Faculty of Science &Education, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia.

f_wutext@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The fabric drape represents indication of garment appearance properties when fabric orients itself into folds in more than one plane under its own weight. For many years textile researchers studied this fabric attribute in order to evaluate the drape quality, improve and design the drape ability of garments. The fabric drape represents indication of garment appearance properties when fabric orients itself into folds in more than one plane under its own weight. The color, tone, luster and surface roughness of fabric have their it's own importance and play a crucial role in contributing to the beauty of external appearance of the fabric such as the aesthetic appearance and dynamic drape. The paper investigates the effect of FAST (Fabric Assurance by Simple Testing System) mechanical properties on drape coefficient for cotton fabrics. Results obtained show that the drape properties of the fabric can be connected to various fabric structure parameters. The greatest correlation is obtained between fabric drape and bending stiffness, warp formability, fabric weight and shear rigidity.

[F. Fathy.S aied. Ebrahim, Prediction of Garment Drapability Based on Fabric Properties. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 596-603]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.77

 

Key words: woven fabric, drapeability, bending stiffness, fabric weight, shear rigidity.

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One-pot Synthesis of Novel α-Aminophosphonate Derivatives Containing a Pyrazole Moiety

 

Ibrahim El Sayed1*, Salah M. El Kosy1, Mohamed F. Abdel Magied2, Mohamed A. Hamed2, Ahmed Abdel Aleem El Gokha and Mostafa.M.Abd El-Sattar

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, El Menoufeia University, Shebin El Koom, Egypt

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

ibrahimtantawy@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Synthesis of novel N-protected α-aminophosphonates 6 were achieved with high yields through copper (II) triflate catalyzed one-pot three component reaction process. It involves the reaction of aryl substituted pyrazolaldehydes, methylcarbamate and trimethylphosphite or triphenylphosphite using copper (II) triflate as lewis acid catalyst in dry dichloromethane at room temperature. A mechanism for this condensation reaction is proposed. Cleavage of the N-methyloxycarbonly group under acid hydrolysis afforded the free α-aminophosphonates 8 in quantitative yields. The structures of all new compounds were established by elemental analysis IR, ¹HNMR and mass spectral data.

[Ibrahim El Sayed, Salah M. El Kosy, Mohamed F. Abdel Magied, Mohamed A. Hamed, Ahmed Abdel Aleem El Gokha and Mostafa. M. Abd El-Sattar. One-pot Synthesis of Novel α-Aminophosphonate Derivatives Containing a Pyrazole Moiety. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):604-608]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.78

 

Key words: α-aminophosphonates, carbamates, Lewis acid, Pyrazolaldehydes.

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Mechanical Properties of WC-12Co HVOF Coatings

 

M. Jalali Azizpour1 S. Norouzi 2 H. Mohammadi Majd3

 

1, 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahwaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Iran

2Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Mahdi.jalali.azizpour@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, Agglomerated WC-12 Co powder was coated on AISI1045 steel using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) method and its microstructure, residual stress, bonding strength and fatigue behaviour were evaluated. The results have shown that the developed coating has more than 64.55 MPa adhesive strength and 156-257 MPa compressive residual stresses. The S-N curves of the coated and un-coated samples revealed a good agreement. Morphological and crystallographical studies were conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction respectively to evaluate the powder and coating characteristics.

 [M. Jalali Azizpour, S. Norouzi, H. Mohammadi Majd. Mechanical Properties of WC-12Co HVOF Coatings. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):609-614]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.79

 

KeywordsHVOF, Residual stress, WC-12Co, Fatigue

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Characteristics, of Pumpkin and Bottle Gourd in Egypt and Potentially their Contamination by Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi

 

Eman M. Hegazy*1 and Omaima S. El Kinawy2

 

1Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Fats and Oils Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

eman_hegazy@hotmail.com am_am_ar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria specie) seed, tissue and some physical, chemical, antifungal activity of their oil. The results showed that the value of moisture content of seed was ranged between 6.88-8.43%.The fatty acid compositions consist mainly unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid). The saturated fatty acids palmitic and stearic acid present at lower levels. The free fatty acid percentage of pumpkin oil was 1.6 % and 1.05% for bottle gourd oil which suggests their use as edible oil. They have higher saponification values (186.00 and 194.10 mg KOH/gm oil, respectively) indicate that both oil has high molecular weight fatty acid and therefore provides good feedstock for lubricants, candles and soap production. The iodine values of pumpkin oil and bottle gourd oil were 100.6 and 102.65 gm/100 gm fat, respectively suggesting a high degree of unsaturation which makes both oil good for cooking and suitable for margarine production. All samples were free from aflatoxins and zearalenone. Aspergillus niger was the predominating fungal. Both pumpkin and bottle gourd (seed or tissue) was not a suitable subsutrate for toxic Fusarium graminerum R2118 to growth and produce zearalenone. Oilseed of both pumpkin and bottle gourd hadn’t antifungal effect.

[Eman M. Hegazy and Omaima S. El Kinawy,Characteristics, of Pumpkin and Bottle Gourd in Egypt and Potentially their Contamination by Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):615-622]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.80

 

Keywords: Pumpkin, bottle gourd, fatty acid, oil, mycotoxin, fungi, antifungal

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Fecal Shedding of Non-typhoidal Salmonella Species in Dairy Cattle and their Attendants in Alexandria Suburbs

 

Osama N. Mohamed1, Adel F. Farid2, Amani F. Abaza*1, and Rania F. Faltas2

 

1Microbiology Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

 2Department of Bacteriology, Animal Health Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt

*amani_abaza@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Salmonella infections in dairy cattle continue to be a major worldwide problem. Substantial economic losses were manifested through mortality and poor growth of infected animals as well as the hazard of transmission to humans either through food chain or direct animal contact. Our objective was the isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. shed in feces of dairy cattle and their attendants, together with the determination of their serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Fecal samples were cultured on non selective pre-enrichment broths, and selective enrichment broths and agar media. Serotyping of Salmonella spp. isolates was performed by slide agglutination tests and then screening for their antibiotic susceptibility. Seven Salmonella spp. (1.56%) were isolated from the 450 examined dairy cattle, while no Salmonella spp. were isolated from any of the examined attendants. Salmonella isolates were classified as serogroups B, C1, D1 and E1, with C1 as the most commonly observed serogroup (57.1%). Five different Salmonella serotypes were identified (Typhimurium, Anatum, Concord, Montevideo and Enteritidis). The 7 isolated Salmonella spp. showed no resistance to all tested antimicrobial agents except for trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and gentamycin. Application of optimal hygienic conditions and management strategies minimize the occurrence and spread of the Salmonella infections on dairy farms, as no Salmonella spp. were isolated from farm C, which had the proper hygienic conditions and management practices.

[Osama N. Mohamed, Adel F. Farid, Amani F. Abaza, and Rania F. Faltas. Fecal Shedding of Non-typhoidal Salmonella Species in Dairy Cattle and their Attendants in Alexandria Suburbs. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):623-631]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.81

 

Keywords: Salmonella, dairy cattle, fecal shedding, serotyping

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Synthesis and Application of Eco-Friendly Natural-Printing Paste For Textile Coloration

 

J.I. Abd –El Thalouth

 

Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

jackyibm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Both eco-friendly galactomannan gum and safety natural dye could be isolated simultaneously in one step process from Locust bean (carob) seeds. The obtained colored paste is regarded as natural-printing paste. It was assessed for rheological properties and evaluated in printing cotton, wool and silk in presence and absence of different mordants. The influence of chemical modification of cotton fabrics via: (a) cyanoethylation, (b) reaction with reactive cyclodextrin and (c) cationization on their printability was also investigated. The isolated paste was characterized by a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior, its viscosity decreased by increasing the rate of shear. The colored printing paste isolated from carob seeds, could successfully be used in printing of cotton, wool and silk. Mordants enhance printing and create different colors. Chemical modification of cotton fabrics via: (a) cyanoethylation, (b) reaction with reactive cyclodextrin and (c) cationization, improved the printability of cotton fabrics with natural dye extracted from carob seeds, irrespective of the nature of modification. As the extent of modification increased the color strength (K/S) of the printed good increased. In all cases the overall color fastness properties was ranged from good to very good.

[J.I. Abd –El Thalout, Improving the Printability with Natural-printing paste via Chemical Modification and Mordanting. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):632-640]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.82

 

Keywords: Natural dye, printing paste, mordanting, cyanoethylation, reactive cyclodextrine, cationization.

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Effect of Nursing Care Guidelines on the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection among Patients with Urinary Catheter

 

Ola Abd El Aty Ahmed*1 and Samir Azazy2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing, Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Surgical Urology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*ola.ahmed22@gmail.com

Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common and important complication of the use of indwelling catheters. Implementation of nursing care guidelines might help to minimize the risk of this complication. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nursing care guidelines on the incidence of UTI among catheterized patients. The study was carried out at the internal medicine moderate care unit of Ain Shams University Hospital using a quasi-experimental research design. The study included 60 adult patients in need for urethral catheterization for more than seven days, and free from any manifestations suggestive of UTI on admission. They were equally divided into a study group for implementation of the developed nursing care guidelines, and a control group receiving the unit routine care. A patient assessment sheet was used for data collection; it included patient socio-demographic data, medical history, patient assessment, and laboratory investigations. The nursing care guidelines were developed after reviewing related literature, and implemented to study group patients. Patients were followed-up daily for assessment of any manifestations of UTI, vital signs, catheter care, and one week of follow-up culture sensitivity testing. The results demonstrated similarity of the two groups in all characteristics. Post guidelines hematuria was higher in the control group compared to the study group (p=0.002). They also had higher mean temperature and respiration (p<0.001). Positive urine culture was higher in the control group (86.7%) compared to 43.3% in the study group (p<0.001). The study concludes that the incidence rate of UTI among patients with urinary catheterization can be decreased through application of nursing care guidelines. Therefore, it is recommended to implement these developed guidelines in the study setting and in other similar settings. Further study with larger sample size is proposed to assess the impact of the guidelines on recovery, mortality, and length of hospital stay.

[Ola Abd El Aty Ahmed and Samir Azazy. Effect of Nursing Care Guidelines on the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection among Patients with Catheter. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):641-648]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.83

 

Keywords: Nursing Care; Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection; Patient; Urinary Catheter

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Immunohistochemical Study of Survivin in Psoriasis

 

Fatma A. Abd Rabou1, Amal A. El- Ashmawy*1 and Maha M. Shamloula2

 

Departments of 1Dermatology and Venereology, and 2Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

amged1963@yahoo.comgheidas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis (Ps) is one of the most frequent skin diseases world-wide, with severe impact on the quality of the patient's life. Genetics and environmental factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Suppression of apoptosis is generally one of the accepted pathogenetic mechanisms of Ps and any epidermal hyperproliferative states. Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family proteins, it mediates its apoptosis suppressive function by the inhibition of caspase pathway. It is a bifunctional protein that functions as a key regulator of mitosis and inhibitor of programmed cell death. Aim of the Work: The aim of this study was to explore the role could be played by survivin in the pathogenesis of Ps. Patients and Methods: 10 cases of plaque Ps, 10 cases of erythrodermic Ps, (in both types lesional, prelesional skin were taken), and10 control specimens from normal skin were studied by immunohistochemical method for expression of survivin. Results: Survivin was detected in psoriatic lesions both plaque and erythrodermic distributed in epidermis, endothelium, and inflammatory cells with different levels. Also it was detected in the prelesional skin in both plaque and erythrodermic Ps, also in the epidermis, endothelium, inflammatory cells, but with lesser ratios, and focal expression. In the control specimens, survivin was confined to basal layer of epidermis, and significantly up regulated in Ps in comparison with the prelesional, and the control skin, but there was no significant difference between different types of Ps.

[Fatma A. Abd Rabou, Amal A. El- Ashmawy and Maha M. Shamloula, Immunohistochemical Study of Survivin in Psoriasis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):649-655]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.84

 

Keywords: Psoriasis, survivin, apoptosis and caspase.

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Serum Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in Atopic Dermatitis

 

Tarek E.Amin*, Shereen F. Gheida*1and Jehan A. EL-Sharnouby2

 

Departments of 1Dermatology &Venereology and 2Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

*gheidas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which occurs most frequently in children but can occur in adults following a relapsing course, characterized by intense pruritus with marked exacerbation and remission. Chemokines have been proposed to play a role in pathogenesis of AD. Thymus and activation- regulated chemokine (TARC⁄CCL17) has been suggested to be a pivotal mediator in the inflammatory reaction as AD. Aim of work: The aim of this study is to determine serum level of TARC in AD patients in order to evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Subjects and methods: This study included 20 patients with AD in addition to 10 healthy subjects of matched age and sex who served as a control. Serum samples were taken from all patients and controls for detection of serum TARC level by Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: A highly significant increase was found in the mean serum TARC level in AD patients compared to controls. Serum TARC level was statistically correlated with severity of the disease as determined by six- area, six- sign atopic dermatitis (SASSAD) severity score to playis of AD.. Also, a significant correlation was demonstrated between serum TARC level and age of AD patients as well as duration of the disease.nificant correlation was demonstrated between serum TARC level Conclusion: TARC has been implicated as an important chemokine in the pathogenesis of AD. TARC can be used as a useful marker for assessing AD severity and open the way for a further therapeutic approach.

[Tarek E.Amin, Shereen F. Gheida and Jehan A. EL-Sharnouby. Serum Thymus and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in Atopic Dermatitis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):656-662]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.85

 

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, TARC

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Detection of Salmonella and Vibrio species in some seafood in Alexandria

 

Wafaa MK Bakr 1, Walaa A Hazzah1, Amani F Abaza 1*

 

1Microbiology department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, El-Horreya Avenue, Alexandria, Egypt

*amani_abaza@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sea foods are prone to bacterial contamination and could cause health risk to consumers. The present work aimed to study the occurrence of Salmonella and Vibrio in some seafood from different markets in Alexandria. The study was carried out on 150 seafood samples (shrimp, oyster (Gandofli) and mussel (Om El Kholoul)). For detection of Salmonella; samples were cultured on CHROM agar Salmonella Plus medium and Xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar plates. Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar was used for Vibrio isolation. Salmonella was isolated from 10.0% of samples, distributed as 7 (14.0%), 4 (8%) and 4 (8%) from shrimp, oyster and mussel respectively. Vibrios were isolated from 52.0% of tested seafood with the highest percentage (88.0%) from oyster. The most frequently isolated Vibrio spp. were V. alginolyticus (52.5%), V. parahaemolyticus (14.1%) and V. mimcus (11.5%). Seven different Salmonella serotypes were identified (Typhimurium, Derby, Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Infantis, and Abortus equi). Our results confirm that bacterial contamination in seafood products is common, and suggest that routine examination of such products for pathogenic agents would be advisable.

[Wafaa MK Bakr, Walaa A Hazzah, Amani F Abaza. Detection of Salmonella and Vibrio species in some seafood in Alexandria. Journal of American Science 2011;7 (9):663-668]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.86

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The Comparison of Life Satisfaction, Happiness and Self-Esteem between Men and Women undergone Rhinoplasty in City of Ahvaz

 

Alireza Hydari, Parviz Askary, Afsanh Eizadi

 

Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

 

Abstract: Introduction: Nowadays, people not only want to feel good inside, but are also demanding a good external appearance. Beautiful and desirable faces, makes people feel better about themselves, give them confident and have effects on their life satisfaction, happiness and self esteem. The purpose of resent study was comparison of life satisfaction, happiness and self-esteem between men and women undergone rhinoplasty in city of Ahvaz.Method: This study was a causal comparative research and population was all people undergone rhinoplasty in city of Ahvaz. Participants were 212 people (101 men and 111 women) which selected through available sampling in 1388. Oxford Happiness Inventory, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale were used for collecting the data. Results: MNOVAs Analysis results indicated that there are significant differences between men and women in happiness. But there were no significant differences between them in self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusion: There was a difference among men and women, who had rhinoplasty in terms of happiness, but the amount of self esteem and life satisfaction, were similar in both genders.

[Alireza Hydari, Parviz Askary, Afsanh Eizadi. The Comparison of Life Satisfaction, Happiness and Self-Esteem between Men and Women undergone Rhinoplasty in City of Ahvaz. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):669-673]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.87

 

Key words: Happiness, life satisfaction, self-esteem and rhinoplasty, Listen, Read phonetically

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Legal Responsibilities of Inheritors about Legator Obligations and Issues Relevant to Inheritance or Patrimony in Rules of Islamic Republic of Iran and Religious and Rules of Some Countries

 

Nader Fulad panjeh1, Rasoul Abafat2, Ali Abbasi3

 

1Legal Counselor, Tabriz, Iran

2PHD Student of Legacy

3MA student of private law at International University of Are, Iran

NaderFu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The most important issues of society, which create complicate questions one problems due to legator commitments about inheritors. By supposing that, all claims during legator life, can be said to inheritors in tribunal, after his / her death most of problems have clear answer by thinking about religious law and Islam rule. So, in this paper, claims and winning or loosing parties of legator, legator claims during life, patrimony and legal will are bases of research in order to consider the legator responsibilities about commitments. Finally, all claims or commitments of legator during his/ her life can be perused after his/ her death and inheritors must obey them canonically and legally in addition to commitments, inheritance or patrimony have their own problems and finally judgment of court will follow probate up to action of any claim of pro or con. So, the best supporter of inheritors is legator's will which probably states the root of problems. So, this paper speaks about three main indexes as foundations of solving inheritors problem in claims.

[Nader Fulad panjeh, Rasoul Abafat and Ali Abbasi. Legal Responsibilities of Inheritors about Legator Obligations and Issues Relevant to Inheritance or Patrimony in Rules of Islamic Republic of Iran and Religious and Rules of Some Countries. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):674-678]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.88

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Comparative Studying of Budgeting System of Eeast Azerbaijan Municipalittes of Iran and Some Other Cities

 

Mir Siavash Asbaghi1, Seyyed Jamal Hosseini2

 

1PHD student of Azerbaijan science on city economical and social management, Baku, Azerbaijan

2The head master of zonoz payam – noor university, Zonuz, Iran

1asmir49@yahoo.com, 2pnu_zonoz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today parit of duties and reconstructive – executive and service of governments is implemented by authorities or local governments, the some as Islamic city councils. This strategy depends on this opinion that citizens should be participated in decisions relative to themselfes and affect their life. Municipalities one the most basic unit of local government system and national authority of different are as of a government system and notional authority of different areas of a government is done by them. Municipalities receive legal based tates from citizens in order to implement national authority in national domain and instead, it provide some services for them municipalities receive taxes and other local and national resources and integrate and collate with relative decisions for implementing part of national authority in order to reach certain aims or certain production. This process which is called budgeting, is the most important decision made in municipalities. So, budget of municipalities contains policies, planning and actions which are necessary to implement national authority in cities. So in this paper, in addition to analyse scientific methods and to provide exact and clear planning and budgeting, we consider trade of typical cities specially about allocation of investment (reconstructing credits and we compare their budgeting with Iran's municipalities budgeting in Eeast Azerbaijan.

[Mir Siavash Asbaghi and Seyyed Jamal Hosseini. Comparative studying of budgeting system of Eeast AzerbaijanMunicipalittes of Iran and some other cities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):679-690]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.89

 

Keywords: budgeting, budget process, credits allocation, comparative studying.

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Can HCV RNA Be Detected in Saliva of Egyptian Children Receiving Frequent Blood Transfusions?

 

Eman Serry1, Mariana Ghabrial2, Shereif El-Kafrawy2, Amal El-Beshlawy3, Ibrahim Zeid2 and Ahmed Raouf4

 

1Departments of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine. 2Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University. 3Pediatric Department (Haematology Unit), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

4National Liver Institute.

mariana_ghabrial@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a major public health problem allover the world, especially Egypt. Blood is almost the only route for HCV diagnosis. It has been reported that HCV could be detected in body fluids including saliva which represents an easier route than blood especially in infants and children. This study aimed to: 1) Assess the prevalence of HCV infection among high risk group of Egyptian children. 2) Evaluate the detection of HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and HCV RNA in saliva against their detection in serum among HCV positive children. Patients and methods: this study included 200 children (92 males and 108 females) who were attendants of Haematology Clinic at Abu El-Reish Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, they were receiving frequent blood transfusions during their treatment. Serum and saliva samples were analyzed for detection of anti-HCV by ELISA technique and for HCV RNA by a home made RT-PCR method. Liver function tests were performed also. Results of serum samples revealed that 134/200 (67%) children were anti-HCV seropositive, out of them 79/134 (59%) children had HCV RNA in their sera. Saliva samples of HCV infected children (n=79) showed that 53/79 (67.1%) and 31/79 (39.2%) were anti -HCV and HCV RNA positive respectively. Prevalence of HCV infection was 39.5% of 200 studied children. We can conclude that: 1) Prevalence of HCV infection among the studied children is considered high. 2) Saliva could play a possible role of biological fluids as a non parenteral route of intrafamilial spread of HCV infection. 3) More sensitive techniques could be developed to use saliva as a reliable route for HCV detection.

 [Eman Serry, Mariana Ghabrial, Shereif El-Kafrawy, Amal El-Beshlawy, Ibrahim Zeid and Ahmed Raouf. Can HCV RNA Be Detected in Saliva of Egyptian Children Receiving Frequent Blood Transfusions?. Journal of American Science, 2011;7(9):691-697]. (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.90

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Curcumin Protection against Nicotine Induced Histological Changes of the Chromaffin Cells of Adrenal Medulla in Mice

 

Hekmat O. Abdel-Aziz*1 and Sanaa A. Ahmed2

 

Department of Histology1 and Department of Pharmacology2 Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

*hekmatosman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Smoking can affect hormone secretion; some of these effects are associated with important clinical implications. These effects are mainly mediated by the action of nicotine. Curcumin is a well known antioxidant agent. Aim of the work: To study the protective role of curcumin against nicotine induced toxic effects on the adrenal medulla. Methods: Thirty adult male mice were used and were divided into three groups (10 animals each): The first group (Group I) served as control group. The second group (Group II) received nicotine (2.5mg/kg b.wt., by subcutaneous injection, daily for 4 weeks) of. The third group (group III) received curcumin (80 mg/kg b.wt) by intragastric intubation simultaneously along with nicotine for 4 weeks. Specimens of adrenal gland were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes. Results: In nicotine treated mice, the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla showed increase in the cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial degeneration and decreased secretory granules. The nuclei showed abnormalities in the form of shrinkage, pyknosis and marked extended chromatin. These cellular changes have been found to be attenuated by curcumin. Conclusions: Curcumin administration may be protective for the chromoffin cells of the adrenal medulla against the toxicity of nicotine.

[Hekmat O. Abdel-Aziz and Sanaa A. Ahmed. Curcumin Protection against Nicotine Induced Histological Changes of the Chromaffin Cells of Adrenal Medulla in Mice. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 698-703].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.91

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Effect of Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy versus Traditional Wound Care on Diabetic Foot Ulcer

 

Ola Abdel Aty*, Sahar Yassien, and Abeer William

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*ola.ahmed22@gmail.com saharyassien@yahoo.com

Abstract: Foot ulcers are significant sources of mortality, morbidity and diminished the quality of life for patients with diabetes. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been proposed as a possible treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy on diabetic foot ulcers, and comparing the adjunction of this form of therapy to traditional ulcer care alone. A comparative randomized clinical research design was utilized. The study was conducted in Naser Health Institute. Seventy two patients were recruited in this study conveniently, with grade I or II of foot ulcer. They were randomized into two equal groups, study group mean age 52.89±3.75; they were subjected to traditional ulcer care plus hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. The control group mean age was 54.44±5.50; they were subjected to traditional ulcer care. The results revealed statistically significant differences between study and control groups regarding the process of wound healing, ulcer size and depth after intervention. This concludes that hyperbaric oxygen therapy HBOT could be used as adjunctive therapy for healing of diabetic foot ulcer, so it is recommended to increase the number of specialized center, Evidence-based guidelines should be used to aid the clinician in determining which patients are suitable candidate for HBOT.

 [Ola Abdel Aty, Sahar Yassien, and Abeer William. Effect of Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy versus Traditional Wound Care on Diabetic Foot Ulcer. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 704-713].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.92

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Impact of Obesity on Selected Parameters among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

 

Hoda E. Abdel Raouf, and *Hanan A. Al Sebaee

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

*Sibaae@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity is increasing dramatically throughout the world. Obesity frequently coexists with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) although obesity is not a risk factor for COPD. Both of these common health problems have been studied extensively in isolation, the impact of their combination is largely unknown. Aim of the study was to explore the effect of obesity on pulmonary functions, dyspnea, and fatigue among patients with COPD. Design: Comparative descriptive design was used in carrying out this study. Setting: Kasr Al Aini Hospital for Medical Diseases affiliated to Cairo University. Sample: A total of 40 adult male patients with COPD, age range between 40-60 years old, admitted from October 2009 to February 2010 were assigned into two groups according to their BMI; obese (BMI=30-34.9 kg/m2) and normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Patients with continuous oxygen therapy, presence of other co-morbidities that could contribute to the studied variables were excluded. Tools: Structured Interviewing Questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale for Dyspnea, Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue, Parameters Record Sheet, Medical Record and Simple Spirometer were used to collect the related data. Results: There was no statistical significant difference between the obese and the normal weight patients with COPD as regards respiratory rate, dyspnea scores, and fatigue scores but there was a statistical significance difference (p≥5%) between obese and normal weight patients with COPD as regards blood gases and lung capacity results on admission. While there was a statistical significance difference (p≥5%) between obese and normal weight as regards all the selected parameters prior to discharge. Conclusion: Obesity decreases pulmonary functions measured by arterial blood gases and lung capacity. Dyspnea, and fatigue among patients with COPD are not affected by body weight.

[Hoda E. Abdel Raouf, and Hanan A. Al Sebaee. Impact of Obesity on Selected Parameters among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 714-725].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.93

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Stressors and Positive Coping Strategies among Patients with New Limb Amputation

 

Hanan A. El Sebaee* and Labiba A. Mohamed

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

*sibaae@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background. Amputation is a profound loss that affects both the individual and family on all levels. Amputation poses challenges on many levels: physical, emotional, social, and financial. How people cope with their amputation depends upon their unique make-up, previous life experiences, support systems, and the meaning they give to their amputation. Aim of this study was two folds: firstly, identify the stressors and coping strategies among patients with new limb amputation, secondly, examines the relationship between stressors and coping strategies among patients with new limb amputation. Design a descriptive correlation research design was selected to fulfill the aim of the study and answer the research questions. Setting was the general surgery, orthopedic and/or vascular disorder departments at El Manial University Hospital. Sample a total of convenience of fifty limb amputated patients were recruited in this study. Tools, data were collected utilizing the following tools: 1) Structured Interviewing Questionnaire, 2) Amputation Related Stressors Questionnaire, and 3) Ways of Coping Questionnaire. Results of the study findings revealed that the new limb amputated patients facing different stressors related to, firstly social life, followed by nature of illness, work situation, body image changes, while hospital stay perceived as the least source of stress. The most common way of positive coping strategies that amputated patients used was minimize the situation followed by active coping strategy. There were statistically significant differences among the study subjects in relation to different coping strategy postoperatively. Recommendations. Comprehensive nursing management protocol dealing with amputation related stressors should be available to help such patients for adjustment.

[Hanan A. El Sebaee and Labiba A. Mohamed. Stressors and Positive Coping Strategies among Patients with New Limb Amputation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):726-736].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.94

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Impact of Health Education Intervention on Knowledge and Practice about Menstruation among Female Secondary School Students in Zagazig City

 

*Eman shokry Abd Allah and Eman Elsayed Mohammed Elsabagh*

 

1Community Health Nursing, 2Obstetric and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University

*emanmmn@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The onset of menstruation is part of the maturation process. It is part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty. Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. The aim: This study aimed to improve the impact knowledge level and practices after health education on “menstruation and healthy menstrual practices” among female secondary school students in Zagazig city Research design: A quasi-experimental design was used in the intervention phase of the study to evaluate the impact of health education intervention about menstrual knowledge and hygiene among female secondary school students in Zagazig city. Setting: The study was conducted in one governorate and one private female secondary school in Zagazig city. Subjects: The study comprised of 150 students was chosen from the above mentioned setting. Methods data were collected by using a structure interview questionnaire sheet which covers all items related to menstrual knowledge and hygiene among female secondary school students in Zagazig city. Results: There was a significant improvement in girl’s knowledge about nearly all menstruation relevant items in pre-test compared to post-test. In the pre-test period, only 65 (43.33%) girls reported that they wash their genitalia with soap and water whenever they change their cloths/sanitary pads whereas in the post-test period, significant improvement was observed in their menstrual practice (p<0.01). Conclusion The present study had revealed unhealthy menstrual practices, low level of knowledge and various misconceptions among adolescent school girls regarding menstruation. The study also clearly pointed out the impact of health education in improving their knowledge and practice. Recommendation: School education program should be imparted to the students. Further, emphasis also needs to be given through workshops and seminars on “Adolescent Reproductive Health”.

[Eman shokry Abd Allah and Eman Elsayed Mohammed Elsabagh. Impact of Health Education Intervention on Knowledge and Practice about Menstruation among Female Secondary School Students in Zagazig City. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9): 737-747].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.95

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Comparative Study between Enoxaparin and Unfractionated Heparin on Septic Renal Deterioration Induced by Escherichia coli: Their Impact on Protein C and Expression of iNOS and TLR4

 

1Omnyah Ali El-Kharashi and 2*Enas Samir Nabih

 

1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*enassamer@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Acute renal injury is an important cause of mortality in a significant proportion of patients with severe sepsis. We have investigated in the current study the possible protective effects of unfractionated heparin vs the low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) in an Escherichia coli induction model of renal sepsis in rats. Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were divided into normal control and septic group receiving Escherichia coli suspension which was further subdivided into non treated (control) and two septic groups pretreated with either enoxaparin (1.5 mg/kg b.wt. I.P.) or unfractionated heparin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt. I.P.). All groups were sacrified after 3hrs. Our results demonstrated that the perfusion flow rate significantly increased (p<0.05) by both enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin, while the basal perfusion pressure significantly improved (p<0.05) only by enoxaparin. Biochemical analysis revealed that mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and Toll like receptor 4 quantified by real-time PCR and assessment of renal function through measurement of serum urea and creatinine significantly decreased only in enoxaparin pretreated group (p<0.05). Unfractionated heparin and enoxaparin significantly improved protein C level (p<0.05), however, there is significant difference between enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (p<0.05). Histological examination showed that enoxaparin induced marked attenuation of renal inflammation as compared to unfractionated heparin. Therefore, it is regarded that the use of enoxaparin has a renoprotective beneficial benefit over unfractionated heparin in septic condition through its direct effect on protein C level and the expression of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and Toll like receptor 4.

[Omnyah Ali El-Kharashi and Enas Samir Nabih. Comparative Study between Enoxaparin and Unfractionated Heparin on Septic Renal Deterioration Induced by Escherichia coli: Their Impact on Protein C and Expression of iNOS and TLR4. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):748-754]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.96

 

Keywords: enoxaparin, unfractionated heparin, iNOS, TLR4, protein C, renal sepsis

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Applying fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS to Machine Selection

 

Hossein Safari 1, Mohammad Reza Fathi 2, Alireza faghih 2

 

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.S. Candidates of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: reza.fathi@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Machine selection is a multi-criteria decision problem and has a strategic importance for many companies. The conventional methods for Machine selection are inadequate for dealing with the imprecise or vague nature of linguistic assessment. To overcome this difficulty, fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods are proposed. The aim of this study is to use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods for the selection of Machine. The proposed methods have been applied to Machine selection problem of an electerofan company in Iran. After determining the criteria that affect the decisions, fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods are applied to the problem and results are presented.

[Hossein Safari, Mohammad Reza Fathi, Alireza faghih. Applying fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS to Machine Selection. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):755-765]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.97

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Keywords: Machine selection, Fuzzy logic, Multi-criteria decision-making, Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS

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A fuzzy VIKOR approach for plant location selection

 

Mansour Momeni 1, Mohammad Reza Fathi 2, Mojtaba Kashef 2

 

1 Associated Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.S. Candidates of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: reza.fathi@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Plant location selection is a multi-criteria decision problem and has a strategic importance for many companies. The aim of this study is to propose a fuzzy approach for Plant location selection. This paper is based on a fuzzy VIKOR (Serbian: Vlsekriterijumsko Kompromisno Rangiranje) method. In this method, the ratings of various alternatives versus various subjective criteria and the weights of all criteria are assessed in linguistic variables represented by fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy numbers try to resolve the ambiguity of concepts that are associated with human being’s judgments. By using fuzzy VIKOR, uncertainty and vagueness from subjective perception and the experiences of decision maker can be effectively represented and reached to a more effective decision.

[Mansour Momeni, Mohammad Reza Fathi, Mojtaba Kashef. A fuzzy VIKOR approach for plant location selection. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):766-771]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.98

 

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, multi-criteria decision making, fuzzy VIKOR, plant location selection

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Comparison of PCR and SD Bioline malaria Antigen test for the detection of malaria in Hadramout Governorate

 

1 Albadr, A; 1*Almatary, A.M; 1 Eldeek, H.E and 2 Alsakaf. A

 

1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

2 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ministry of Health, Yemen

*amalalmatry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This investigation was conducted to compare the performance of nested PCR and SD Bioline malaria Antigen test with light microscopy test as a means of detecting Plasmodium parasites during active malaria surveillance in Almukalla Hadramout in Yemen. The study was performed during period from years 2009-2010 in the Almukalla malaria centre. Plasmodium vivax (PV) and Plasmodium falciparum (PF) are the predominant parasite species in this village, followed by Plasmodium malariae (PM) and Plasmodium ovale (PO), venously blood samples were taken from each participating individual and used to prepare microscopic slides, SD Bioline malaria Antigen test and for PCR analysis. Obtained results revealed that PCR was sensitive (100%) and specific (92%) for malaria at low parasite densities; 54% (27/50) of P. falciparum- and 0% (0/50) of P. vivax. All positive cases detected by PCR were detected positive by microscopic examination except two cases which found to be negative microscopically. however, SD Bioline malaria Antigen test sensitive (56%) and specific (96%), only 10% (5/50) for P. falciparum and 10% (5/50) for P. vivax, and (10%) (5/50) for mixed infection at low parasitic densities. Conclusion: PCR appears to be a useful method for detecting Plasmodium parasites during active malaria surveillance in Yemen. SD Bioline malaria Antigen test appear as a poor test for detecting malaria parasites at low parasitic densities in spite of having the ability to differentiate between the species of malaria.

[Albadr, A; Almatary, A.M; Eldeek, H.E and Alsakaf. A. Comparison of PCR and SD Bioline malaria Antigen test for the detection of malaria in Hadramout Governorate. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):772-778]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. #99

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.99

 

Key words: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, PCR, SD Bioline

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Using Knowledge-Based Marketing as a framework for Managing Intellectual Marketing Capital in Higher Education Institutions

 

Wael Kortam1 and Maha Mourad2

 

1Cairo University, Egypt 2American University in Cairo, Egypt

wakortam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to use the new paradigm of knowledge-based marketing to improve the academic understanding and managerial practice of the processes of creating and sustaining intellectual capital within the boundaries of the marketing function and activities in Egyptian universities. The objective of the research is to help in developing a conceptual framework of knowledge based marketing with especial focus on the Higher Education marketing. This is done through a comprehensive literature review in conjunction with two phases of exploratory studies. The first phase includes ten in-depth interviews with university policy makers, entrepreneurs and marketers that represent the institutional role in the proposed framework. The second phase includes ten in-depth interviews with managers responsible for designing and running the IT-Based knowledge management systems to represent the technical role in the proposed framework.

[Wael Kortam and Maha Mourad. Using Knowledge-Based Marketing as a framework for Managing Intellectual Marketing Capital in Egyptian Universities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):779-786]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. #100

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.100

 

Keywords: Knowledge-Based Marketing, Marketing Higher Education, Intellectual Marketing Capital, Egyptian Higher Education

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Structural Changes in the Chorionic Villi of Placentae of Arabic Patients with Preeclampsia: An Electron Microscopic Study

 

Sami Algaidi*1, Hazem A. Sayed 1, Moustafa Abu Alnaja2

 

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Taibah, Saudi Arabia

2 Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia

*algaidi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Genetic variations between different races play a major role in the susceptibility of some races to specific diseases. There are western studies on the structural changes in the placenta in cases of preeclampsia. However, there is no similar study on Arabic patients from the Middle East. Furthermore, very few studies correlate histological changes and the severity of the disease. The present study aims at throwing a light on the structural changes in the chorionic villi of placentas in Arabic patients with preeclampsia using electron microscope to compare the changes with other international studies. Electron microscopic examination of preeclamptic placenta revealed multiple chorionic infarcts with many abruptions and intervillous adhesions. The nuclei of the chorionic vascular endothelium showed deep indentations with interrupted intercellular junctions and thickened folded basement membrane. Also the trophoblastic cytoplasm of the affected villi showed many secondary lysosomes and vacuoles of different shapes and sizes. No difference was found between these changes and other studies. However, further studies are required to investigate the correlation between these changes and the severity of the disease.

[Sami Algaidi, Hazem A. Sayed, Moustafa Abu Alnaja, Structural Changes in the Chorionic Villi of Placentae of Arabic Patients with Preeclampsia: An Electron Microscopic Study. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):787-793]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.101

 

Keywords: Histopathology, fibrosis, trophoblasts

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The acute effects of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom on some clinicalpathological parameters in Guinea pigs

 

Muhammad M. A. Salman

 

Zoology department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt

salman2_2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Scorpions are venomous arthropods of the Arachnida class and are considered relatives of spiders, ticks and mites. The venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus is responsible for a number of deaths of infants, children and adults in tropical and subtropical countries. There have been few studies on the clinical and biochemical effects of Leiurus quinquestriatus venom. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess the toxicity of Leiurus quinquestriatus crude venom and its effects on the biochemical parameters in serum of Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Adult male Guinea pigs (600 ± 30 g body weight) were divided into three groups (15 each). In the control group, Guinea pigs were interaperitoneally injected with 50 µL saline solution. The second and third groups were. injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mg/kg body weight and 0.2 mg/kg body weight of crude venom, respectively. The crude venom was diluted in 50µL saline solution. Blood samples were taken after 1, 2 and 4 hours. Serum biochemical parameters, the levels of total proteins albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid increased significantly in envenomed animals within 1, 2 and 4 hrs. post-injection, compared to controls. The levels of total serum protein, albumin globulin and triglycerides were significantly decreased within 1, 2 and 4 hrs. post-injection. Hence, it can be conclude that, Leiurus quinquestriatus crude venom caused alterations in the investigated biochemical arameters.

[Muhammad M. A. Salman. The acute effects of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom on some clinicalpathological parameters in Guinea pigs. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(9):794-801]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.102

 

Keywords: Scorpion venom, Leiurus quinquestriatus, biochemical parameters, clinical pathology and Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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HEAVY METAL LEVELS OF SOME EDIBLE SHELLFISH FROM KALARUGBANI CREEK IN RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

 

Odu NN, Igwiloh NJPN, Okonko IO, and Njoku HO

 

Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, P.M.B, 5323 Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria

odungozi@yahoo.com; +2348064341944

 

ABSTRACT: Heavy metals present in high concentrations in the aquatic habitants are bioaccumulated within the tissue of intertidal organisms. The chemical analysis of animal tissues, river and sediment provides an indication of the bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment. Monitoring of the coastal pollution using organism is widely practiced all over the world. Chemical analysis of the tissue of oyster, periwinkle, sediments (mudflat) and river were used to monitor the environmental concentration of Copper, Zinc, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Iron of Kalarugbani creek in River state for a period of seven months. Oyster had a higher accumulation of these metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn) than periwinkle which had higher concentration of Fe and Cr. The concentration of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Cr were higher in the sediments than the overlying water for the various month sampled. The results showed that oyster accumulated more of these heavy metals than periwinkle, while these shellfishes accumulated more heavy metal than the sediments and the river which had the least metal concentration. However, the observed heavy metals concentrations in these animals are below the recommended limits for human consumption. This study therefore advocates environmental surveillance of this creek in order to achieve good sediment quality and contaminant-free periwinkles and oyster for safe human health.

[Odu NN, Igwiloh NJPN, Okonko IO, and Njoku HO. HEAVY METAL LEVELS OF SOME EDIBLE SHELLFISH FROM KALARUGBANI CREEK IN RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):802-809]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. #103

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.103

 

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, heavy metals, river, sediment, periwinkle, oyster Kalarugbani Creek.

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Response of Fasciola free and infected buffaloes to CIDR OvSynch treatment during summer season with emphasis on sex hormone and biochemical changes

 

Hammam A.M. 1; Rabab M. El Khateeb2; Hany A. Amer1; Sanaa K.A. Abou-El-Dobal2 ; Khalied H. El Shahat3 and Scott W. 4

 

1Animal Reproduction and A.I. Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Parasitology and Animal Diseases Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and A.I., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

4Animal Science Depart. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, USA. hammam56@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Improvement of buffalo fertility during summer season was our goal. One hundred and sixty three buffalo-cows were examined for parasitic infection using coprological and serological methods. All animals were subjected to gynecological examination, through rectal palpation and using ultra sonic examination to detect the ovarian and genital tract condition. Thirty one non-pregnant buffalo-cows (18 healthy and 13 infected) were selected for treatment with CIDR OvSynch protocol. Blood samples were collected from animals before, during and after treatments. Serum samples were assayed for estradiol and progesterone using RIA technique. GPT,GOT, ALP, total and direct bilirubin, T. protein and glucose were measured. The percentage of infected buffaloes in the herd was 25.77% (42/163 animal), the prevalence of Fasciola Spp. infection among buffaloes was 6.75%. In Fasciola infected buffaloes, estradiol levels were decreased and progesterone concentration was increased significantly (p<0.05). Treatment with CIDR OvSynch protocol, elevated significantly both estradiol and progesterone levels in infected animals than healthy one, elevated direct bilirubin and total protein and decreased significantly ALP and glucose in infected animals. CIDR OvSynch regimen increased the pregnancy rate in both healthy (55.6%) and infected (30.8%) buffaloes. It is concluded that infection with Fasciola had adverse effects on some sex hormone and liver enzymes imbalance and animal fertility represented in decreasing response to synchronizing agents and lowering pregnancy rate.Treatment with CIDR OvSynch protocol improved buffalo fertility and resumed ovarian activity of buffaloes during summer season.

 [A.M. Hammam; Rabab M. El Khateeb; Hany A. Amer; Sanaa K.A. Abou-El-Dobal; and Scott W. Response of Fasciola free and infected buffaloes to CIDR OvSynch treatment during summer season with emphasis on sex hormone and biochemical changes. Journal of American Science 2011;7(9):810-820] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. #104

doi:10.7537/marsjas070911.104

 

Key words: Buffalo - Fasciola - CIDR – OvSynch -GPG - Fertility.

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Tourism among Indigenous Communities

 

Abrisham Aref

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad Univ