Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Special Issue 1 (Supplement Issue 1), December 25, 2012

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0801s

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

page

 

1

Meta-analytic Approach towards Financial Limitation in Using Educational Technology

 

Marzieh Ghobadi pour

 

Research scholar, Department of Studies in Education, University of Mysore, Manasangotri, Mysore, India. No 192, D block, 3rd stage, Vijanagar, Mysore, India. Pin code 570017

Email: marzieh_q@yahoo.com.  Tel: 00919620008071

 

Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between financial limitation and using Educational technology by Iranian teachers through meta-analysis. This paper will contribute to the body of knowledge regarding to the studies on Obstacles in Using Educational Technology in the process of teaching and learning in the Education Systems of Iran. An extensive search for relevant published and unpublished studies found 51 studies from 1993 to 2009. 8 research studies with inferential statistics were chosen. The results indicated that financial limitation had a lot of influences on not using educational technology and it was a big obstacle for using it. The findings suggest that the use of educational technology should be given greater consideration than it currently receives in the teaching and learning process.

[Marzieh Ghobadi pour. Meta-analytic Approach towards Financial Limitation in Using Educational Technology. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.01

 

Keywords: Meta-analysis, educational / instructional technology (ICT), financial/fund limitation, barrier

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2

Multiple Fault Tolerant Measurement Based on Computational intelligent Techniques for a Continuous Stirred Tank Heater plant

 

Farouq Zargany, Mehdi Shahbazian, Houshang Jazayeri rad

 

Department of Automation and Instrumentation, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahvaz, Iran

Far.zargany@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A multiple fault tolerant measurement system based on nonlinear dynamic models, a special search algorithm, principle components decomposition and Q test is developed. The proposed system uses a model-based estimator to deliver symptoms. The symptoms are then analyzed in a statistical unit in order to detect the faults and isolate the faulty sensors. Multi-layer perceptron networks, radial basis function networks and Tagaki-Sugeno fuzzy models were examined for the fault estimator module while fuzzy models presented the best performance. The main advantages of the proposed scheme are the capability to detect, isolate and repair multiple faults in both input and output sensors and the feasibility to be applied to any system with as many sensors as required, all due to particular design of its model-based estimator. The system was tested on a CSTH model developed based on an experimental platform; different experiments demonstrated satisfactory results.

[Farouq Zargany, Mehdi Shahbazian, Houshang Jazayeri rad. Multiple Fault Tolerant Measurement Based on Computational intelligent Techniques for a Continuous Stirred Tank Heater plant. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):9-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.02

Key words: Multiple faults, fuzzy model, neural network, fault detection, fault isolation

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Optimization of Formation Volume Factor and Solution Gas-Oil Ratio Correlations for Southern Iranian Oil fields Using Genetic Algorithm

 

Omid shafiie1, Jamshid Moghadasi1, Mehdi Shahbazian2, Farouq Zargany2

 

1Department of petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahvaz faculty, Iran

2Department of Automation , Petroleum University of Technology, Ahvaz Faculty, Iran

 

Abstract: Reservoir fluid properties have a critical role in reservoir engineering computations such as material balance calculations, well test analysis, reserve estimates, inflow performance analysis, recovery and numerical reservoir simulations. Ideally PVT properties are obtained by experimental methods which are expensive and time consuming. To resolve this problem empirical correlations are used. The prediction reliability of these correlations strongly depend on the range of data used for developing them originally and the fluid compositions of different geographical locations. In this research, the well-known correlations of two essential PVT parameters, formation volume factor and  solution gas-oil ratio, are selected and optimized for southern Iranian oil fields. Genetic algorithm as an effective optimization method is applied to accomplish this task. The results for locally optimized correlations show significant improvements over the classical correlations.

[Omid shafiie, Jamshid Moghadasi, Mehdi Shahbazian, Farouq Zargany. Optimization of Formation Volume Factor and Solution Gas-Oil Ratio Correlations for Southern Iranian Oil fields Using Genetic Algorithm. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):19-25]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.03

 

Keywords: Volume; Factor; Gas-Oil; Ratio; Correlation; Oil field; Genetic Algorithm

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4

Translatability and Untranslatability of Literary Texts

 

1Forough Zekavati, 2Ahmad Seddighi

 

1Department of English Translation, Central Tehran, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of English Translation, Allame Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract This corpus based study investigated  the possibility of producing a perfect translation of high grade literature, such as Bustan - e - Sadi, Rubaiyat – e - Khayyam into English and Tolkein's  the Lord of The Rings into Persian . To achieve this goal, 12 examples from Bustan, 24 examples from Rubaiyat  and  7 examples from the Lord of The Rings were extracted from the original texts which were compared by their corresponding translations. The results showed that translation of high grade literature from Persian into English and English to Persian is possible but to translate all literary figures like rhythm, rhyme, style, proper nouns, sentences, etc which have cultural and ideological meaning might be done partially and not absolutely.

[Zekavati F, Seddighi A. Translatability and Untranslatability of Literary Texts. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):26-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.04

 

Key terms: High and low grade translation, Alliteration, Cultural equivalent, Descriptive equivalent, Paraphrase

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5

The Role of Celebrities of Ebn Saatie Khorasani Clan in Expending Watch-making Industry

 

Nader Karimyan Sardashti

 

Faculty Member of Cultural Heritage, Research Institute of Handicrafts and Tourism

Email: NK_sardashti@yahoo

Abstract In Islamic civilization Era, Iranian scientists played a prominent role in making watches and different chronometers, which could move by applying water- pressure, mercury- pressure, the pile heat, or the special standard weights. Iranian mechanics engineers had a plentiful trend to make automatic machines and also make some attempt to build chronometers, which were automatic machines with regular movement in Islamic era (12-13th century A.D) at this time , the celebrities of Ebne Saatie Khorasani ’s clan had an important role and activity to develop the industry of watch making, and has made some watches in 6th  and 7th century A. H. In this family, there are three most famous scientists, having the honorific title “saatie” including Mohammad Ebne Ali named Saatie Khorasani, Abol  Hassan Bahaeldin  Ali ebn Mohammad ebn Ali celebrated into ebn saatie, and FakhreAidin rezvan ebn Mohammad ebn Ali ebn Rostam named ebn saatie. In this paper, we have dealt with the way of life and works of these scientists, particularly, we defined Ebn Saatie’s valuable book as “Elmolsaat v Alamal Beha” about watch making.

[Karimyan Sardashti N. The Role of Celebrities of Ebn Saatie Khorasani Clan in Expending of Watch-making Industry. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):32-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.05

 

Keywords: Ebn Saatie’s clan, Iranian celebrities, watch making, history of science, Fakhre Aldin Rezvan Ebn Mohammd Khorasani , Mohammad Ebn Ali Khorasani, Ali Ebn Mohammad Khorasani.

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6

License Plate Character Recognition Using Multiclass SVM

 

Amir Ebrahimi Ghahnavieh, Abolghasem A. Raie

 

Mobile Robots Research Laboratory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. amir.ebrahimi66@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a new method for license plate character recognition based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The goal is to design a fast, accurate and simple classifier for real-time applications. In proposed method first, most probable outputs are recognized by probabilistic models and then, final output is achieved by support vector machines. This design has simple training and obtains adequate speed and accuracy compared with other SVM-based systems. The accuracy is 95.54% and the needed time to process a whole plate is about 60 milliseconds.

[Ebrahimi A, Raie A. License Plate Character Recognition Using Multiclass SVM. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):38-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.06

 

Keywords: Character recognition; license plate recognition; SVM; probabilistic neural network; maximum likelihood

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Agnihotra Ash Amended With Yellow Soil As The Growth Regulator For Zea Mays

 

*Shailendra Sharma, *Taniya Sengupta, *Kapil Sunar, **Ulrich Berk,  ***Vibha Dave, *Tushar Gandhi, **** Rajendra Chaurasia

 

*Department of Biotechnology,Adarsh institute of Management & Science Dhamnod,(M.P.)

**Deutsche, Gesellschaft fur HomaTherapie,Stockach,Germany.

***Department of Zoology, P.M.B.Gjarati  Science College Indore- 452001, India

****Department of Zoology, Govt. Holkar Science College Indore- 452017, India

 

 Abstract: The main objective of the present work is to study the influence of Agnihotra ash on agriculture so as to develop a practical approach for enhancing the crop yield. The ash was obtained from the Homatherapy centre of Mandleshwar and the work had been carried in Biotechnology lab of Shri Umiya Girls College Mandleshwar. The study was done with plant Zea mays. A comparative study has been done by using Agnihotra ash and control ash.  Yellow soil was amended with the ashes for the work. Yellow soil with Agnihotra ash gave the best result. The yellow soil alone gave the poorest result. Agnihotra ash increases the yield and the rate of growth by 20% as compared to the control ash and about 40% as compared to the soil alone. The application of the ash in agricultural field called as Homa farming will enhance good mean to give livelihood opportunity for small resource farmer.

[Shailendra Sharma, Taniya Sengupta, Kapil Sunar, Ulrich Berk, Vibha Dave, Tushar Gandhi, Rajendra Chaurasia. Agnihotra Ash Amended With Yellow Soil As The Growth Regulator For Zea Mays. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):43-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.07

 

Keywords:  Agnihotra ash, Yellow soil,  Homa Farming.

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Domestication of Indian Catfish, Clarias batrachus by Hormonal Treatment and Manipulation of Thermo-photoperiodism

 

1Shailendra Sharma , 2D.K. Belsare, 3Vibha Dave, 4Rajendra Chaurasia

 

1Department of Biotechnology, Adarsh Institute of Management & Science Damnod (M.P.) India
2Former Prof & Head Bioscience Deptt., Barkatullah  Univ, Bhopal, India

3Department of Zoology, P.M.B.Gjarati  Science College Indore- 452001, India

4Department of Zoology, Govt. Holkar Science College Indore- 452017, India

Email: shailendra.b.sharma@gmail.com,  d.belsare@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fish being a valuable and easily accessible source of food, its pursuit and capture, constituting the fisheries, are of great importance”, The wealth of India (1962). Fish culture in fresh waters not only includes the maintenance, feeding, breeding, growth and stocking, but it also reflects the quantity and quality of the fish and their economic production (Huet, 1970). Thus, inland fisheries have a vital role in the economic progress and as a distinct sector of economy. Their benefits are production of food, contribution to national income, employment opportunities, recreation and sports (Rao, 1966). The pollution and various human activities have caused the destruction of natural spawning and fry grounds contributing largely to the reduction in fry catch. A few species are bred in captivity and their spontaneously breeding under captive condition & the time of spawning are  often not predictable. The  problems such as viability of naturally spawned eggs and technical difficulties in egg and larvae collection are constraints to mass-scale fry production and dissemination of pathogens, imbalance of natural ecosystems, genetic pollution etc. The technology of manipulation of thermo-photoperiodism with treatment of melatonin is successfully used in domesticating of fish production. The present investigation reports maintenance of brood stock of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus under controlled conditions and their breeding schedule irrespective of seasons.

[Shailendra Sharma , D.K.Belsare, Vibha Dave, Rajendra Chaurasia. Domestication of Indian Catfish, Clarias batrachus by Hormonal Treatment and Manipulation of Thermo-photoperiodism. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):46-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.08

 

Key words: Natural spawning, Thermo-photoperiodism, Fry production, Indian catfish, Brooders.

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9

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction using benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary in the Alborz basin, Northern Iran

 

Masoud Asgharian Rostami1*, Mohammad Vahidinia1, Ebrahim Ghasemi-Nejad2

 

1-Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2-Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, University of Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: masoud.rostami@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Benthic foraminiferal assemblages, in contrast to planktic foraminifera, generally did not suffer mass extinctions at the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. High-resolution study of benthic foraminifera from the Galanderud section provides detailed data on palaeoenvironmental turnover across the K/Pg boundary. The Galanderud section records a dramatic change in the structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the K/Pg boundary. Uppermost Maastrichtian assemblages are well preserved, highly diversified, and abundant. They consist of a mixture of epifaunal and infaunal morphogroups in which epifaunal morphogroups are less abundant. This indicates an optimum environment with mesotrophic to weakly eutrophic conditions during the latest Cretaceous. At the K/Pg boundary, benthic foraminifera indicate a major faunal turnover, a dramatic decrease in the percentage of both infaunal morphogroups and diversity that illustrate oligotrophic conditions. This extinction or temporary emigration of most infaunal morphogroups is interpreted to be the result of a sudden collapse of the food web. This sudden collapse in primary productivity may be the result of the extraterrestrial impact. Faunal recovery and restructuring is recognizable during the lowermost Danian reflecting a gradual recovery after the K/Pg boundary event.

[Masoud Asgharian Rostami, Mohammad Vahidinia, Ebrahim Ghasemi-Nejad. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction using benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary in the Alborz basin, Northern Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):49-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.09

 

Keywords: Paleoenvironmental reconstruction; benthic foraminiferal assemblages; basin; Iran

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10

No Implicit Learning is Possible without Awareness! In Favor of Noticing Hypothesis

 

Parviz Maftoon1, Nima Shakouri 2

 

College of Foreign Languages and Literature, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. pmaftoon@srbiau.ac.ir1, shakouri.ni@gmail.com2

 

Abstract: To be fair, one’s ability to use what was learned is the product of filtering out what was attended to.  Accordingly, learners must attend to and notice any source of variation that matters, whatever makes a difference in meaning. Those types of learning attended to are the by-product of what is consciously going to be investigated. Henceforth, something which is explicitly memorized and learned can promote individuals’ implicit learning, in future. In this regard, it is claimed explicit learning can have a subtle effect on enhancing implicit learning; however, this impact may not be smooth.  The paper is an attempt to resolve some misunderstandings in favor of Schmidt’s (1990) Noticing Hypothesis; furthermore, this paper is to revisit the claim that attention is a matter of degree to be interpreted in a relative rather than in an absolute sense.

[Parviz Maftoon, Nima Shakouri. No Implicit Learning is Possible without Awareness! In Favor of Noticing Hypothesis. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):56-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.10

  

Key words: attention, implicit learning, awareness, consciousness

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 Identifying Key Performance Indicators of an Iranian Islamic Bank Based on BSC and AHP

                                                                                                                                                                        

Mohammad Ali Shahhoseini 1, Sahand Khassehkhan 2, Nahid Shanyani 3

 

1. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Management, MBA, University of Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Management, Financial Management, University of Tehran, Iran

S.khassekhan@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of an Iranian Islamic bank, i.e. K bank, based on the Balanced Scorecard. In an attempt to achieve this goal, cognitive tasks and activities, customers and stakeholders, the organizational structures, visions, and the organizational mission of K bank as an Islamic bank are identified. Perspectives in the BSC (Balanced Scorecard), as described in the present research, are financial indicators, customer indicators, internal processes indicators, as well as growth and learning. The required data were obtained through interviews with experts and bank executives. Results of the present study could contribute to policymakers’ understanding of Islamic banks. The findings would also clarify whether Islamic banks are to be thought of as relics of a bygone era, propped up by grant and falsify financial-sector competition, or they are to be considered as efficient and focused financial institutions. A better understanding of such notions not only requires specific knowledge about the performance of Islamic banks, but it also calls upon the determination of their efficiency and profitability.

[Shahhoseini MA, Khassehkhan S, Shanyani N. Identifying Key Performance Indicators of an Iranian Islamic Bank Based on BSC and AHP. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):64-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.11

 

Keywords: Islamic Banking, BSC, Shari’ah, Interest Free, Performance Evaluation, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process), Strategy, Iran.

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An investigation of functional analysis of bank branches by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); a protocol study

 

Ola Mohammadreza1and Kazemzadeh Fariba*2

 

1Department of Accounting, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2Department of Accounting, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

Email: fariba_kazemzadeh@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)

 

Abstract: Banks in some places utilize frontier efficiency examines to objectively consider best patterns within their organizations. Amongst the frontier efficiency analyzes distinguished in the literature, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was found to be one of the topping approaching. DEA has been successfully utilized in many bank subdivision performance ratings using traditional inter-mediation, profitable and construct approaches. However, there has been little emphasis on evaluating the growth potency of individual branches and to provide Proportional amelioration recommendations.

[Ola MR, Kazemzadeh F. An investigation of functional analysis of bank branches by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); a protocol study. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):74-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.12

 

KEYWORDS: functional analysis, bank, Data Envelopment Analysis.

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Network Security; the Concepts, Challenges, and Solutions for Improving the Network Security

 

Houshang Salhiy1, Behzad Lotfi2

 

1 MEng in Software Engineering, Faculty Member, Institute for higher education hakim nezami Quchan

2 MEng in Computer Architecture, Faculty Member, Institute for higher education hakim nezami Quchan

Houshang_salhiy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Considering the increasing development of the intrusions especially through the internet, and considering the importance of the data security and the necessity of providing proper services on these networks, it is increasingly important to know such intrusions. But it is very difficult to have a precise and complete vision about these intrusions and there is no agreed classification of them. Indeed, each researcher tries to classify the intrusions on basis of his/ her own under-study specification. This study intends to introduce the primary concepts of the networks and the intrusions and threats that disrupt the network security. After the introduction of the primary concepts, we will analyze the security of the computer networks and wireless networks. Then we will explain the firewalls that are important ways of improving the networks security. Finally we will provide some suggestions to increase the safety factor of the networks and to reduce the intrusions.

[Salhiy H, Lotfi B. Network Security; the Concepts, Challenges, and Solutions for Improving the Network Security. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):79-86]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  13

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.13

 

Keywords: Network Security, Wireless Networks, Firewall.

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The Effectiveness of the Pedagogical Programs of Iranian Secondary Schools

 

1Ali Asadi, 2Mahrokh Ebadi

 

1MA in History and Philosophy of The Education; Payam-e Noor University of Tehran

2BA in Islamic Sciences; Islamic Azad University of Zanjan

asadi.tarom@yahoo.com

 

Abstract :This research has been done under the title of "The Effectiveness of the Pedagogical Programs of Iranian Secondary Schools; a Case Study". In this research we have attempted to assess the relationship between the dependent variable (effectiveness) and the independent variables (including the proficiency of the trainers, job satisfaction, determined goals, and assigned time). In this regard, we have studied the factors that make the pedagogical programs effective. The sample size of this research includes male and female 66 trainers who were selected as the sample of the research. This research is a descriptive one that has relied on the survey method, and since the study can resolve some problems of Iranian educational system, it can be regarded as a practical research. To compare the variables, we have used T-test. In this research, the effectiveness is considered as a dependent variable. The measuring instrument of the research has been questionnaire. The results imply that the dependent variable (i.e. effectiveness) increases as each of the independent variables (i.e. proficiency of the trainers, determined goals, and assigned time) are increased. The confidence level of this result for all independent variables is 99%, except for the independent variable of "job satisfaction" that is increased with 95% confidence level.

[Asadi A, Ebadi M. The Effectiveness of the Pedagogical Programs of Iranian Secondary Schools. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):87-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.14

 

Keywords: Effectiveness, pedagogical Programs, Dependent Variable, Independent Variable.

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Impact of Urinary Tract Infection on the Outcome of Allograft Renal Transplantation in Egypt

 

Essam M. Khedr , Aber Halim Baki and Cherry Reda Kamel

 

Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

aberhalim@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Kidney transplantation is the best available replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Successful renal transplantation allows freedom from the lifestyle restrictions and complications associated with dialysis. In addition, over the long term, it is more cost-efficient than dialysis. Infection is still the most frequent cause of death in the early post transplantation period. Infections are reported to be the second most common cause of death in renal transplant patients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in renal transplant recipients, ranging from 6% to 86% and accounting for approximately 40–50% of all infectious complications. Objectives: The aim was to study incidence, risk factors and etiology of UTI and its effect on the outcome of renal transplantation among Egyptian patients. Patients and methods: This retrospective study was conducted on randomly selected 300 allograft renal transplant recipients attended Ain Shams Specialized Hospital, National Institute of Nephrology and Nasser Institute. Patients were subjected to full history taking and laboratory investigations; Kidney function test (KFT), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine analysis, urine culture and sensitivity, complete blood count (CBC). Statistical analysis of data was performed using the SPSS software version 15.0. Results: The study included 300 allograft renal transplant recipients; 71.7% males and 28.3% females; their mean age (years) was 41▒12.1. The mean follow up duration (months) was 35.47▒1.44. Pyuria (WBC/HPF >10) was detected in 137 (45.6%) patients, and 66 (22%) patients were diagnosed as having UTI by positive urinary culture. 54/66 (81.8%) patients developed UTI during the 1st 6 months post-transplantation, while 12/66 (18.2%) after 6 months. And 37/66 (56.1%) patients developed recurrent UTI episodes. The most common etiology of ESRD among patients with UTI was hypertension (26/66). The most common causative organism of UTI was E. Coli (41%). Out of the 66 UTI patients; 18 (27.3%) developed acute rejection (p=0.5). Only 25/300 (8.3%) patients had pre-transplantation UTI, out of who only 8/25 (32%) developed post-transplantation UTI (p=0.2). Out of the patients who developed post-transplantation surgical complications, only 10/30 (33.2%) developed UTI (p=0.1). Only 19/300 underwent nephrectomy of native kidney; 6/19 of them developed UTI; 3/6 (50%) pre-transplantation and 3/6 (50%) post-transplantation (p=0.02). Also UTI was more associated with patients who underwent unilateral nephrectomy (5/6). It was noticed that UTI was more prevalent after the first transplantation (62/66) than after the second transplantation (4/66) (p=0.4). Out of the 43 CMV-positive patients; 10/43 (23.3%) developed UTI (p=0.8). The mean GFR was significantly lower among patients with UTI than among those without UTI (54.98▒25.34 and 62.34▒26.22 respectively, p=0.04). The incidence of lost graft among UTI patients was significantly higher than among those without UTI (10.6% and 3.8%, p=0.03). Presence of UTI didn’t significantly affect 5 years graft survival (p=0.6). Conclusion: UTI is a common post-renal transplantation complication which has a negative impact on graft function and survival. Pre-transplantation nephrectomy decreases the incidence of post-transplantation UTI.

 [Essam M Khedr,  Aber Halim Baki and Cherry Reda Kamel.  Effect of UTI on the Outcome of Allograft Renal Transplantation in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):93-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.15

 

Keywords: UTI, renal transplantation, graft function, graft survival, pre-transplantation nephrectomy, Egypt.

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A Follow up Study of Active Urolithiasis at Ain Shams University Hospital-Etiological Factors and Role of Chronic Preventive Strategies

 

Mahmoud abdel Fattah1, Mohamad Eltayeb Nassser, Yasser Soliman1, Aber Halim Baki1, Mohamed A. Gamal2, Hanan Heissein3

 

1Nephrology Department; 2Urology Department; 3Biochemistry Department; Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

aberhalim@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Kidney stone formation or urolithiasis is a complex process that results from a succession of several physico-chemical events. Regardless of etiology, all stone formers should be counseled on dietary measures for stone prevention. The aim was to assess various chronic preventive strategies and different therapeutic modalities. Patients and Methods: This case control study was conducted on 100 patients with urinary stones and 40 healthy controls. Each patient was subjected to full clinical history, plain abdominal x-ray, non-contrast helical CT abdomen and baseline laboratory investigations. Data were collected, coded, tabulated, and then analyzed using SPSS« computer package version 16.0. Results: The study included 83 males and 17 females; the age of 34% of them ranged from 40-49 years old. Urosurgical intervention (42%) and Oxalate rich diet (41%) were the most prevalent factors favoring urinary stone formation. Mixed Ca stones (50%) were the most commonly retrieved urinary stones. Hyper-calciuria was significantly more prevalent among patients (60% and 32.5% respectively), and hypo-citraturia was highly significantly more prevalent among patients than controls (78% and 42.5% respectively). There was significant increase of urine volume in all groups compliant to dietary modifications. Urinary calcium and oxalate significantly decreased in patients compliant to diet plus 1 drug and those compliant to all prescribed drugs.  Urinary citrate significantly increased among patients compliant to 1 drug only in comparison to non compliant patients. Conclusion: These results confirm the beneficial effect of the currently available specific treatment options based on metabolic evaluation.

[Mahmoud abdel Fattah, Mohamad Eltayeb Nassser Yasser Soliman, Aber Halim Baki , Mohamed A. Gamal, Hanan. Heissein. A Follow up Study of Active Urolithiasis at Ain Shams University Hospital-Etiological Factors and Role of Chronic Preventive Strategies. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):99-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.16

 

Key words: Urolithiasis, etiology, prevention, dietary.

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Clinical Evaluation of Vitamin A, ▀-Carotene, Vitamin E and Cortisol Levels in Health and Selected Diseases in Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Egypt

 

Baraka, T. A.

 

Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

drtaherbaraka@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin E and cortisol levels were investigated in 133 of dromedary camels.  Healthy camels (n= 52); according to seasons were divided into spring (n=13), summer (n=13), autumn (n=13) and winter (n=13); according to sex divided into males (n=27), females (n=25) and according to age into young (under 3years old n=17) and adult (n=35). The general mean values of serum vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin E and cortisol were 2.090▒0.063 Ámol/L, 0.096▒0.014 Ámol/L, 4.042▒0.222 Ámol/L, and 90.631▒6.363 nmol/L, respectively. Selected diseased camels (n= 81), including simple indigestion (n= 9), rumen acidosis (n= 15), rumen alkalosis (n= 11) and parasitic diarrhea (n=11) were examined.  Young camels and adult female, especially in summer season had low levels of vitamin A, while they had low levels of vitamin E in winter. Adult males had low β-carotene level in winter and spring. In all camels cortisol level was high during summer and autumn.  It is recommended to give adequate supply of vitamin A, β-carotene and vitamin E to camels in risk of simple indigestion occurrence during transport or changing of rations. In cases of rumen acidosis, rumen alkalosis and parasitic diarrhea; beside the correction of rumen& blood acid-base imbalance and dehydration; the administration of vitamin A, β-carotene and vitamin E in combination with anti-stress should be put in consideration in treatment of such cases.

[Baraka T. A. Clinical Evaluation of Vitamin A, ▀-Carotene, Vitamin E and Cortisol Levels in Health and Selected Diseases in Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) in Egypt. . J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):106-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  17

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.17

 

Keywords: Camel, vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin E, cortisol, health and diseases.

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Early Detection of Recurrence and Prognosis of Breast Carcinoma in Young Women
 

Ali Abd Elfatah, Ashraf El-Sharkawy and Hanan Al-Ghamdy

 

Radiology, Surgery, Departments Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt, Dammam University KSA.

 

Abstract: Background: The goal of this study was to determine the outcome of treatment in young women with breast carcinoma and to identify imaging of choice for early detection of recurrence. Methods: We have 30 patients ≤ 30 years who diagnosed as invasive breast carcinoma in the period from September 2007 to September 2009 and follow up for 3 years. In this prospective study we obtain the data of patients from the medical records including history taking clinical examinant local and general and routine and specific investigation including laboratory and radiological also metastatic work up. Other group of patients, more than 30 years age diagnosed as breast carcinoma used as a control group (n=30). Results: We have two groups of patients studying group ≤30 years, control group > 30 years each group is 30 in number of cases in the studying group. The following data were obtained: 10%, 46.66%, 33.33% and 10% for stages I, II, III and IV respectively.Mastectomy was done in 27 case (modified radical mastectomy) breast conserving surgery in three cases (one case stage I, two cases stage II).Conclusion: Women who are diagnosed as breast carcinoma at ≤30 years appear to have a poorer prognosis in comparisons with the group who > 30 years. Kinetic MRI and MRS, are the imaging of choice for detection of recurrence.

[Ali Abd Elfatah ; Ashraf El-Sharkawy and Hesham M Abd-Rabh. Early Detection of Recurrence and Prognosis of Breast Carcinoma in Young Women. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):112-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.18

 

Keywords: Breast carcinoma, Young women, Prognosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer, Mastectomy, Breast conserving surgery. MRI.

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Effect of Some Organic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Brass in Cooling Water Systems

 

Mohammed Emad

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

mhmd_1428@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The inhibition effect of  polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) of average molecular weights 10,000 (PVP-10) and 40,000 (PVP-40), Benzimidazole (BIA) and 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol (AMP) on the corrosion of brass in cooling water systems has been investigated. The investigation was carried out using the weight loss method and open circuit potential measurements. The chemical composition of the make-up water used in the cooling system has been determined. The data showed that the the corrosivity of the water is due to the presence of the aggressive Cl - and SO4 2- ions. The inhibition efficiency and surface coverage were calculated at various inhibitor concentrations. The obtained results showed that the inhibition efficiencies of these inhibitors enhance with increasing inhibitor concentrations and it was found that the inhibition efficiency of these inhibitors decrease in the order: BIA > PVP 10,000 > PVP 40,000 > AMP. Moreover the inhibition effect of various concentrations of the four inhibitors on the corrosion of brass in the make-up water containing  2% N2H4 and 0.005 M Na2SO3 was studied. The open circuit potential measurements showed that the presence of these organic inhibitors shifts the steady state potentials (Es) to more noble direction. In water containing hydrazine, the presence of inhibitors shifts Es to more noble values than in hydrazine – free water which leads to improves the corrosion inhibition of the brass. The mechanism of inhibition was proposed on the basis of the adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the brass surface.

[Mohammed Emad. Effect of Some Organic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Brass in Cooling Water Systems. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):120-125]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  19

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.19

 

Keywords: Brass, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Benzimidazole, 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol  Corrosion inhibition.

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Oral and dermal exposure of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin mixture induced cytogenetic, histopathological damage and oxidative stress in rats

 

Mohamed A. Noaishi1, Amr A. Abd Allah. 1 and Mostafa M.M. Afify2

 

1 Mammalian Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt.

2Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Bani Sweif University, Egypt

Corresponding author: noaishi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Present study is aimed to estimate the risk and the hazard of oral and dermal exposures of chlorpyrifos and cypermithrin mixture which are commonly used in Egypt. And to evaluate which type of exposure is more toxic or dangerous than other. Subacute toxicity of repeated 28 days in male white rats was assessed. The study was included some toxicological parameters ranged from cytogenetic, histopathological and oxidative stress effect. Eighty Wistar strain rats (weighing 140-160g) were randomly divided into four main groups (a, b, c and d) which were further subdivided into subgroups. Each of group (a) and (b) consists of 5 subgroups and were used to determine the oral and dermal LD50. Each of group (c) and (d) consists of 3 subgroups and were used in oral and dermal treatments respectively. The first subgroups of (c) and (d) were kept as control. Rats of two subgroups (c) treated orally by gavage 1/20 and 1/30 of LD50. Rats of two subgroups (d) treated dermally by 1/30 and 1/50 of LD50. The results revealed that, the pesticides mixture induced neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, severe histological changes. Also resulted in lipid peroxidation, inhibition in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (Cat) and reduced the glutathione contents. In addition the results showed the dermal treatments were more toxic and hazard than oral treatments. So, these mixtures of pesticides when present together may induce bio-activation sites resulting in the increase of the observed toxicity of these pesticides mixture compared with the toxicity of the individual alone. Finally, the results strongly impose the need to more detailed testing of the toxicity of mixture exposure than to one individual.

[Mohamed A. Noaishi, Amr A. Abd Allah and Mostafa M.M. Afify. Oral and dermal exposure of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin mixture induced cytogenetic, histopathological damage and oxidative stress in rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):126-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  20

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.20

 

Key words: chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, mixture, Rats, chromosomal aberrations, Histopathology, oxidative stress.

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Nursing Support and Stress among Mothers of Hospitalized Children

 

Amal Ahmed Khalil Morsy

 

Paediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University

dr.amalkhalil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The hospitalization of a child is a stressful experience for parents, especially mothers. Pediatric nurses are in a significant position to support mothers as they provide care to their hospitalized child. The study aim was to assess the nursing support provided to mothers of hospitalized children both in inpatient ward and ICU, and to investigate its relation to mothers' stress. This cross-sectional analytical study was carried on 362 mothers of children hospitalized in the inpatient pediatric ward (212) and in the ICU (150) of four general hospitals in Port-Said. Data were collected using a structured interview questionnaire that included the Nurses Parents Support Tool (NPST) and the Parental Stress Scale. The fieldwork lasted from September 2009 through August 2010. The results showed that the mothers in both groups received little nursing support, especially in ICUs (p<0.001). A statistically significant negative weak correlation (r=-0.20, p<0.05) was found between the total scores of support and stress. The group (ward or ICU) and mother education were the independent positive predictors of the parental stress score, while the length of hospital stay was a negative predictor. In conclusion, the mothers of hospitalized children receive a low level of support from nurses, and consequently have high levels of stress. Nurses should be aware of the various approaches and types of nursing support that can relieve parent’s stress and enhance their coping. Further research is recommended to develop and test culture sensitive tools to assess parents’ stress in our community. [Amal Ahmed Khalil Morsy. Nursing Support and Stress among Mothers of Hospitalized Children. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):135-141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.21

 

Key words: Nursing Support, Parental Stress, Hospitalized Children.

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Evaluation of the Effect of Varicocelectomy on the Semen Parameters in Patients with Clinical Versus Subclinical Varicocele

 

Mohamed A. Abd Elaal, Tamer A. Ali, Yasser A. Badran, Elsayed Salih, Kamal Abou Sena and

Mahmoud Abdo

 

Departments of Urology and General Surgery, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: - To evaluate the efficacy of varicocelectomy in patients with clinical versus subclinical varicocole as regards the seminal parameters.Patients and Methods: - A total of 162 patients with varicocele (72 subclinical and 90 clinical) were included in the study. Semen analysis was done for all patients before and after 3 to 6 months of varicocelectomy. Improvements of semenial parameters were statistically significant in patients with clinical varicocele (P< 0.05). Bilateral and right side varicocele were more common in patients with subclinical varicocele. Also there incidence secondary infertility higher patients presented with subclinical varicocele compared with patients presented with clinical varicocler (P< 0.05).As regard, the effects of varicocelectomy in patients with subclinical varicocele and the clinical differences between these patients and patients with clinical varicocle, we recommend avoiding varicocelectomy in this group of patients unless no identifiable causes of semen abnormality.

[Mohamed A. Abd Elaal, Tamer A. Ali, Yasser A. Badran, Elsayed Salih, Kamal Abou Sena and Mahmoud Abdo. Evaluation of the Effect of Varicocelectomy on the Semen Parameters in Patients with Clinical Versus Subclinical Varicocele. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):142-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.22

Keywords: Semen, infertility, varicocele.

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Effect of Honey on Monosodium Glutamate Induced Nephrotoxicity (Histological and Electron Microscopic Studies)

 

Amal A. Afeefy1, Marwa S. Mahmoud2 and Mona A.A. Arafa1

 

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar university1,

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University2

Amal.afeefy73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is frequently used as a flavor enhancer, the fact of which makes it one of the most applied food additives in the modern nutrition all over the world. The aim of this work was to study the effect of bees honey on MSG-induced kidney damage. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I animals served as control were given saline for 30 days. Group II animals were given MSG in saline for 30 days. Animals of group III were treated with 6mg/g b.wt MSG and 2mg / rat / day of bees honey for 30 days. Light and transmission electron microscopic examination was used for study the histological changes. Light microscopic examination of the cortex in kidney after administration of MSG, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli. Loss of brush border of proximal convoluted tubules and dilatation of both proximal and distal convoluted tubules were noticed, in addition to areas of huge vacuole were also observed. The medulla of MSG treated rats showed sever histological changes in collecting tubules and collecting duct showed thin rim of cytoplasm and small deeply stained nuclei. Most of loops of Henle are undifferentiated with the presence of several areas of syncytium. Moreover PAS positive reaction was decreased. Results obtained by electron microscopic examination revealed that there was partial loss of brush border of proximal convoluted tubules with destruction of most cytoplasmic organelles and thickening of basement membrane. In addition, the lumen of several tubules was filled with cell debris. The nuclei of podocytes and endothelial cells frequently appeared irregular with nuclear condensation, moreover thickening of basal lamina were observed also. It is noticed that concurrent administration of bees honey with MSG improved histological changes in kidney by light and electron microscope. It could be concluded that honey via its antioxidant activity has the ability to protect against MSG induced histopathological, and ultrastructural alterations to near normal.

[Amal A. Afeefy Marwa S.Mahmoud and Mona A.A. Arafa. Effect of Honey on Monosodium Glutamate Induced Nephrotoxicity (Histological and Electron Microscopic Studies). J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):146-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.23

 

Keywords: kidney, histopathology, ultrastructure, monosodium glutamate, honey.

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Accuracy of combined mammography and breast ultrasound versus breast ultrasound alone in young women below 40 years.

 

Hanan Gewefel a, Dina H Salama b

 

a Lecturer of Radiographic Imaging Technology, Faculty of Medical Applied Science, Misr Science and Technology University, Cairo, Egypt.

b Lecturer of Radiodiagnosis, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

drdinahusseiny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare the accuracy of combined mammography and breast ultrasound versus breast ultrasound alone in evaluating young women below 40 years. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the electronic medical reports of all mammographic and sonographic breast imaging from November 2008 to December 2011 of young women, below the age of 40 years. Women presented to the breast imaging unit of Women and Fetal Imaging Center for screening and diagnostic purposes, were included in the study. Records were reviewed for sonographic or combined mammographic and sonographic findings together with Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BIRADS) assessment and histological results. Examinations rated as BIRADS categories; 1, 2, and 3 were considered negative, while 4 and 5 were considered positive for malignancy. Results: A total of 256 patients were included in the study. Ninety eight patients (38.3%) were evaluated using breast ultrasound, while 158 patients (61.7%) were evaluated using both breast ultrasound and mammography. Palpable mass was the presenting symptom in 111 (43.4 %) of the cases. Biopsies were performed for 36 (14.1%) patients, while follow up for one year or more was done for 220 (85.9%) of patients. By either biopsy or follow up, 22 patients were malignant (8.6%) while 234 (91.4%) were benign. For the 98 cases evaluated with sonography, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV),negative predictive value (NPV) and over-all accuracy were 87.5%, 100%, 100 %, 98.9% and 89.8% respectively; While For the 158 cases evaluated with mammography and sonography, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and over-all accuracy were 92.9%, 98.6% s, 86.7%, 99.3% and 98.1 % respectively. Conclusion: Among the study population, breast ultrasound alone accurately revealed the malignant cases that were present in our study group with 100% PPV, however performing combined mammography and sonography in suspicious cases may increase the sensitivity yet with no significant difference.

[Hanan Gewefel, Dina H Salama. Accuracy of combined mammography and breast ultrasound versus breast ultrasound alone in young women below 40 years. J Am Sci 2012;8(1s):157-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas0801s12.24

 

Key words: Breast cancer, breast ultrasound, mammography

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  The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 22, 2012.

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