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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 4, Cumulated No. 50, April 25, 2012

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0804

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Construction and validation of problem solving questionnaire

 

Karim, Sevari, Mitra Kandy

 

Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Ahwaz, Iran

Sevari1347@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The goal of recent study is structure & validate of problem solving questionnaire. For the same reason, from Payam Noor University, 247 students (105 boys and 142 girls) were chosen in random form. For making questionnaire mentioned, we used of factorial analysis of discovery. Data is gotten by questionnaires of make-research. After, 3 time experimental rotation, results is gotten from factorial analysis of discovery and scree test, showed that questionnaire of problem-solving are established from 19 items and two factor as problem analysis & finding cause (11 items) & confidence to ability of problem solving (8 items). The reliability of questionnaire took by Cronbach alpha 0.70, and test validity mentioned by correlate with questionnaire of problem-solving Shahandeh (1991) appointed, and its amount was about 0.442 which it partly is a signal from well validity of factorial analysis questionnaire. Above questionnaire can use for the distinction problem-solving as a valid equipment for researchers and educators experts.

[Karim, Sevari, Mitra Kandy. Construction and validation of problem solving questionnaire. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.01

 

Key Words: Problem solving; problem analysis & finding cause, confidence to ability of problem solving.

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Comparative Phonetic Study of Frequently Used Words in Iranian Farsi versus Tajik Farsi

 

Abdolazim Hakimi (Ph.D)

 

1The Research Expert of Research Institute for Education,

2 Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University- South Branch, Tehran, Iran

azimhakimi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper is a report on comparative phonetic study of the most frequently used words in contemporary Iranian and Tajik Farsi reference languages. It contains a brief historical overview of Farsi language with special focus on Iranian and Tajik dialects. After a discussion of reasons for differences in languages, this study attempts to identify the degree of phonetic similarities and differences of two language varieties. Corpus linguistic of this study was made of 3000 most frequently used words selected from an Iranian Farsi language database. These words were transcribed in both languages by using survey method. They were classified into 10 groups based on transcription differences. Study analysis concentrated on identical words with similar meanings in both languages. Phonetic differences of this group of words were studied in details. A systematic approach was used to classify phonemic alterations. This study provides its comparative analysis by using word samples. The outcome of the study showed that 18.23% of corpus linguistics was made of identical words with similar meanings and no phonetic differences. Another 77.37% of samples was made of identical words with similar meanings but with different phonetic. The existing differences between two Farsi language varieties are not so extensive to prevent communication or interaction of Iranian and Tajik Farsi speaking individuals. Considering the phoneme positions in two languages and their frequency in corpus linguistic, the most differences were observed in vowels. The differences of the two languages follow given phonetic tendency patterns. These phonetic tendencies symbolize each language.

[Abdolazim hakimi. Comparative Phonetic Study of Frequently Used Words in Iranian Farsi versus Tajik Farsi. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):6 -16]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.02

 

Keywords: Farsi Reference Language, Most Frequently Used Words, Phonetic Differences, Consonant System, Vowel System, Iranian and Tajik Farsi Language Varieties

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Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Performance Evaluation of BAS Employees of Kaohsiung City, Kaohsiung County and Pingtung County

 

Tai-Zu Wu, Tai-Liang Lin, Mei-Jan Hsiehkung, Shu-Fen Liu

 

Graduate Institute of Business Administration, Cheng-Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

csu_taylen@yahoo.com.tw

 

AbstractThis study aims to explore the relationship among service quality, customer satisfaction and performance evaluation of budget, accounting and statistics (BAS) employees by conducting a survey on intra-agent non-BAS employees and the citizens of Kaohsiung City, Kaohsiung County and Pingtung County. The survey shows that customer satisfaction perceived by citizens is significantly higher than that of intra-agent employee. In the seven performance evaluation items, more than 50% of the respondents agreed that service quality is correlated with “work intelligence & official document operation”, “service attitude”, and “moral character and virtue”. Moreover, in the relationship between customer satisfaction and performance evaluation, “work intelligence & official document operation” is correlated with “service attitude”. The empirical results of this study can provide strategic suggestions for future studies or the industry.

[Tai-Zu Wu, Tai-Liang Lin, Mei-Jan Hsiehkung, Shu-Fen Liu. Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Performance Evaluation of BAS Employees of Kaohsiung City, Kaohsiung County and Pingtung County. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):17-26]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.03

 

Keywords: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Performance Evaluation, Employee of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (BAS)

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The role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in node negative breast cancer with tumor size 5 cm or larger

 

Alaa Maria and Mohamed El-Shebiney.

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: It is not been established whether breast cancer patients who have a primary tumor 5 cm or larger with no axillary nodal nor distant metastases at the time of the diagnosis benefit from post mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) or not. Materials and Methods: Between January, 1997 and December, 2008, a total of 53 lymph node-negative (LNs) breast cancer patients with tumors sizes 5 cm or larger were treated with mastectomy, adjuvant systemic therapies with or without PMRT at Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University Hospital. Of these 53 patients, 40 (75.5%) patients had received adjuvant PMRT. We retrospectively assessed rates of cause-specific survival (CSS), locoregional–recurrence free survival (RFS) and distant-failure free survival (FFS) and risk factors for CSS in these patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 74.7 months (range 30-132 months), distant failure only was diagnosed in 9 patients (17%), locoregional recurrence only in 2 patients (3.78%), and 2 (3.78%) patients had both locoregional and distant failure. Three (23%) of the 13 patients who were not treated with PMRT developed locoregional recurrence (two patients had recurrence in the chest wall and one patient in the axilla) as compared with only one (2.5%) of the 40 patients who were given PMRT. The 5-year locoregional-RFS rate was 97.37% in the PMRT group vs. 76.92% in the no-PMRT group (p = 0.01). The 5-year distant FFS rate was 82.35% in the PMRT group vs. 69.23% in the no-PMRT group (p = 0.26). The 5-year CSS rate was 87.24% in the PMRT group vs. 68.38% in the no-PMRT group (p = 0.11). By the univariate analysis using Cox proportional-hazards survival regression adjusted for the prognostic variables; the tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen/progesterone (ER/PR) receptor status and adjuvant hormonal therapy had associated with statistically significant CSS rate. Conclusion: The CSS, locoregional-RFS and distant-FFS rates were better in LNs negative breast cancer patients with large tumor size (≥5cm) who received PMRT. Also, tumor size pT2 =5 cm, low tumor grade, hormonal receptors positive and hormonal therapy administration were associated with improved CSS. These data should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of patients and events and because pathologic features that are associated with adverse outcome, such as lymphovascular or perineural invasion and surgical margin status not available and this imbalance in prognostic factors masks a favorable impact of PMRT.

[Alaa Maria and Mohamed El-Shebiney. The role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in node negative breast cancer with tumor size 5 cm or larger. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):27-34] http://www.americanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.04

 

Key words: Breast cancer, Post-mastectomy radiotherapy, node negative, tumor size

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Short-Term Load Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Networks

 

Saeed M. Badran

 

 Department of Electrical Engineering, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

 sbadran@bu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: An accurate regional load forecasting is very important in improving management performance of Power Plant Generation. Various regional load forecasting methods have been developed for 24 hours ahead. There was a developed model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which had 24 output nodes. Other ANNs model forecasted the peak and valley of the load and the result was used to forecast the load profile. A parallel architecture or topology used for the system with 24 separated ANNs, which means that one model of ANNs, is used to forecast the load demand every hour during a day. The proposed Feed-Forward Neural Network principle is conducted to perform ANNs as a behavioral model for regional electricity system. Several data records such as hour, temperature and humidity data are used as the inputs for this model. In this paper, all raw data must be preprocessed first, before they are used as the training data. A behavioral model for Monday and Tuesday forecaster is developed in this paper based on statistical reason. Gradient Descent and Levenberg Marquardt training algorithms are involved in this ANNs behavioral model. The performance of each training algorithm is compared in visuals and numerical to validate the results. Finally, the results show that the ANNs model successfully predicts the load demand for dedicated regional electricity system.

[Saeed M. Badran. Short-Term Load Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Networks. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):35-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.05

 

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Forecasting, Multi-layer perceptron, Levenberg-Marquardt method.

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Preparation of Anti-Buffalo- IgG Alkaline Phosphates as Specific Conjugate for Serodiagnosis of Buffalo Species Using Protein-A-Sepharose Affinity Chromatography.

 

Hanan M.El-Hewairy

 

Immunology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Egypt

m.elhewairy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Anti-buffalo IgG conjugated with calf intestinal alkaline phosphates were prepared. Buffalo serum was precipitated with 50% SAS, dialyzed and concentrated with PEG. Affinity chromatography utilizing protein A covalently bound to sepharose beads was applied to separate pure immunoglobulin-G from buffalo serum. Anti-buffalo IgG were prepared by immunization of goats with purified buffalo IgG then goat anti- buffalo IgG were prepared as previously described. Goat anti- buffalo IgG was conjugated with alkaline phosphates enzyme.

[Hanan M.El-Hewa. Preparation of Anti-Buffalo- IgG Alkaline Phosphates as Specific Conjugate for Serodiagnosis of Buffalo Species Using Protein-A-Sepharose Affinity Chromatography. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):43-47]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.06

 

Keywords: Anti-Buffalo- IgG; Alkaline Phosphate; Conjugate; Protein-A-Sepharose Affinity Chromatography

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Restoration of badly decayed second primary molars

 

Fouad, W.A.M., Eid, M.H., and EL Motayam, K.M.

 

Department of Pediatric and Community Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University. Waelpedo@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Evaluation of retentive strength of three different restorative materials used to restore badly decayed pulpotomized second primary molars. Methods: Thirty extracted lower second primary molars were selected and randomly divided into three groups of ten restored with group (1): amalgam, group (2): composite and group (3): glass ionomer (Fuji IX). The occlussal part of each tooth was removed with a separating disc leaving about 3mm above the CEJ. After pulpotomy the interance of the orifices were enlarged with large round bur to give space for zinc oxide and eugenol mix and leave enough intra coronal room for the restoration. In order to increase the retention, undercuts were prepared in the cavity walls at the four line angles using a round bur. After restoring teeth, they were subjected to tensile load in a computer controlled materials testing machine. Results: Mean and standard deviation of retention forces were; 96.3 2.1 N, 260.8 28.5N and 56.2 4,9N for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the three groups. Conclusion: Composite material offered the most retentive restoration of badly decayed second primary molars.

[Fouad, W.A.M., Eid, M.H., and EL Motayam, K.M. Restoration of badly decayed second primary molars. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):48-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.07

 

Key words: Depression, Loneliness, Elderly

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The Effect of Reminiscence on Self-Esteem, and Depression among Elderly People

 

*Zeinab, A., Osman; *Enayat A. Khalil; **Magedy M., Arafa, and *Naglaa, M. Gaber

 

* Psychiatric and Mental health nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

**Psychiatric Medicine, Faulty of Medicine, Cairo University

Naglaamostafa45@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: As people enter old age, they begin to experience associated changes in their physical, mental and social health. Elderly individuals often develop feelings of loneliness, sullenness, depression and loss of self confidence. Reminiscence is a commonly-used clinical intervention to assist the elderly in adapting to the aging process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reminiscence on self-esteem, and depression among elderly people. A pre-post quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study. A sample of convenience of 30 institutionalized older adults was recruited from Dar El-Hana Geriatric home. Socio-demographic/medical data sheet, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scale, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Self-esteem Scale, were used to achieve the purpose of this study. A reminiscence program session was held for 90 minutes for a total of 10 weeks (20 sessions), the program focus on particular stages of life using a semi-structured interview. Findings of this study indicated that, reminiscence intervention significantly raised self-esteem, and the reduction in depression levels did not reach statistical significance. To conclude reminiscence intervention is an effective alternative intervention which can help living-alone elderly adapt to the aging process. Further studies about reminiscence on a larger number of elderly from different geographical areas are recommended.

[Zeinab, A., Osman; Enayat A. Khalil; Magedy M., Arafa, and Naglaa, M. Gaber. The Effect of Reminiscence on Self-Esteem, and Depression among Elderly People. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):53-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.08

 

Keywords: Reminiscence, self-esteem, depression, elderly people

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Music therapy and Schizophrenia

 

Gholamreza Pasha 1, Giti Akhavan 1, Bahman Gorjian 2

 

1. Department of psychology Ahvaz Branch Islamic Azad University, Iran

2. Abadan Branch Islamic Azad University, Iran

g.rpasha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Schizophrenia is a psychological disorder in which spread spectrum of recognition functions especially memory, attention, movement skills, performance functions and intelligence will be damaged. Chiho and Chun (2003) believed that systematic and regular music training is influencing on memory processing. The major goal of this research is to study and investigate the effect of active music on memory and attention of schizophrenic patients in the treatment center of Dezful: The research sample including 30 men were selected through random simple sampling; and they were categorized in two groups consist of experimental group (15 men) and the control group (15 men). The research design was the type of pre-test, post-test with control group. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of two – hour music therapy. The measurement tools consisted of Kim Karad memory test and the accuracy comet square test. The method of multivariable covariance analysis (MANCOVA) was used to analyze data. The results indicated that the active music training has positive effect on memory and attention of schizophrenic patients. The results of this research were matched with the findings of (Sullivan, 1998) who indicated the effect of music on attention also musical games in order to help schizophrenic patients to change attention from one subject to another. Moreover this research was matched with the findings of (Wolfgram, 1978) who indicated that music therapy for retarded adults with mental disorder develops occupational skills, academic skills and social skills.

[Gholamreza Pasha, Giti Akhavan, Bahman Gorjian. Music therapy and Schizophrenia. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):62-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.09

 

Key words: Schizophrenia, Memory, Attention, Music Therapy

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Students' perceptions of the educational environment of the nursing program in Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences at Umm Al Qura University, KSA.

 

Hala Yehia Sayed,1,2 and Naeima Gaber El-Sayed3,4

 

1Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, KSA.

2 Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo. Egypt

3Nursing Faculty of Princess Nora Bent Abdel Rahman University, Riyadh, KSA,

4 Faculty of Nursing, Alexindria University, Egypt

Hala_yehia11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background, Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. It is essential to assess the educational environment to determine the contribution to learning outcomes of students. The aim of this study was to identify the perceptions of students undertaking the curriculum of Nursing Program in order to compare students' perception of the educational environment by the second year and baccalaureate students so that remedial measures could be taken to enhance students' learning experiences. Materials and Methods, the research design was carried out on 100 students enrolled in the nursing program, 20 of them are fourth year (final year of the program) and 80 students from second year, (beginning of the program). The study was conducted at the at the nursing department, faculty of applied medical sciences, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah, KSA. Data of the current study were collected in second semester of the academic year 1430-1431 H. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory was used. Results, the findings of the present study indicated that the DREEM mean score of students was (143.9/200) which mean that students have positive perception of the educational environment. However, fourth year students found to be more satisfied with the learning environment (146.6/200) compared to the second year students (141.3), with no significant difference in both students' perception. Conclusion, The present study revealed that both groups of students (second and fourth year) nursing students perceived the learning environment high positively. Nevertheless, the study also revealed problematic areas of learning environment in atmosphere in the faculty which enabled staff members to adopt some remedial measures. Recommendation These data can serve as a baseline for a longitudinal quality assessment of students' perceptions of the changes planned for the nursing school at Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia. Further studies are needed to analyze educational environment down to the year levels, These data provide a starting point for further study of some of the influences on students' perceptions of atmosphere as they proceed through the course

[Hala Yehia Sayed and Naeima Gaber El-Sayed. Students' perceptions of the educational environment of the nursing program in Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences at Umm Al Qura University, KSA. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):69-75]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.10

 

Key words:- Student nurse perception - Educational Environment- DREEM.

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Platelets and sepsis in preterm neonates: Is there an organism-specific response?

 

Mohsen M Deeb1; Dalia M Ellahony2 and Wafa A Zahran 2

 

Department of Pediatric1, and Microbiology2 and Immunology3, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University. meshmesh187@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Preterm babies stay in neonatal intensive care unit for a long time and they have lower immunity and need intensive procedures. These factors make them vulnerable to infection, so we need a rapid sensitive reliable marker for early detection of sepsis. Aim of the work: This work aimed to: 1- Assess platelet count in preterm neonates with culture proved sepsis. 2-Study the relationship between different infectious agents (gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi) and thrombocytopenia. Patients and Methods: The study comprised 40 preterm newborns delivered in our hospital (25 newborns had low birth weight, 12 very low birth weight and 3 extreme low birth weight), 13 newborns had early onset sepsis while 27 had late onset sepsis. According to Bussei et al., (2005) our newborns divided into three groups according to their platelet count Group (I): included 13 newborns with mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count≤ 150,000/ mm3), Group (II): included 19 newborns with moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count ≤ 100.000/ mm3) and Group (III): included 8 newborns with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count ≤ 50,000/mm3). All newborns were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, close monitoring for sepsis (clinical sepsis score, hematological sepsis score and blood culture) and clinical and laboratory diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. RESULT: Platelet count decreased with decreasing gestational age, severe thrombocytopenia in 8 patients aged 31 1.51 weeks. The lowest the birth weight the marked deficiency in platelet count. Low birth weight had mild thrombocytopenia, very low birth weight had moderate thrombocytopenia and extreme low birth weight had severe thrombocytopenia. Newborns with early onset sepsis had mild thrombocytopenia while those with late onset sepsis had moderate thrombocytopenia. Forty five percent of our patients had gram negative infection and 32.5% had fungal infection. Newborns with gram positive infection had normal platelet count, newborns with gram negative infection had mild thrombocytopenia and newborns with fungal and mixed infection had moderate thrombocytopenia. Both recovered newborns and those who died had moderate thrombocytopenia, but it was significant lower in those who died than in recovered. There is no significant difference between recovered and died groups except in platelet count which was more deficient in died group. The younger the gestational age, extreme low birth weight and fungal infection cause severe thrombocytopenia.Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia can be used as an early diagnostic marker for sepsis and a prognostic one. Candidemia and delay to appropriate therapy contribute to increased morbidity and mortality.

[Mohsen M Deeb, Dalia M Ellahony and Wafa A Zahran. Platelets and sepsis in preterm neonates: Is there an organism-specific response? J Am Sci 2012;8(4):76-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.11

 

Keywords: Neonatal sepsis, neonatal thrombocytopenia, DIC score

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Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in Rabbits’ Fibrotic Liver

 

Radwa A. Mehanna.1, Nihal M. Habachy.1, Gihan M. Sharara.2, Mohamed Sharaan.3, Magda M. El Dakhakhny.1 Mona K. Marei 4

 

Departments of 1Medical Physiology; 2 Medical Biochemistry and, 3General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University; 4Department of Prosthodontics, Tissue Engineering Laboratories, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University. gihansharara@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The prognosis of patients with liver fibrosis is poor as the therapeutic treatment for fibrosis remains inadequate. Liver transplantation is currently the only curative approach, but with the worldwide shortage of donor organs which is likely to increase over the coming decades, research into alternative methods of treatment to whole organ transplantation is essential. Liver cell transplantation and cellular-based therapies are evolving as viable clinical alternatives to whole organ transplantation. The aim of this work was to investigate whether human umbilical cord blood derived CD34+stem cells could improve liver fibrosis in an experimental model. Materials and methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in V-Line New Zealand male rabbits using allyl alcohol, then after induction (confirmed by pilot study) CD34+ magnetically purified stem cells derived from human umbilical cord were transplanted directly into the liver through portal vein infusion. All experimental animals were not subjected to any immune system attenuation through the whole study period. Two months later, they were sacrificed for assessment in comparison to a control group with induced liver fibrosis. Assessment was done through liver function tests (serum albumin, total protein, alanine transaminase and aspartate trasnaminase) and histopathological analysis. Results: results were statistically analyzed and showed significant improvement of liver functions in stem cell treated group in comparison to the control one. Also statistical analysis of the histopathology using measurements of fibrosis taken by image analysis (software-soft imaging system 2005- analysis life science serious) showed significant regression of fibrosis in stem cell treated group in comparison to the control group. All rabbits survived healthy through the whole study period after the xenogenic transplantation without immune suppression. Conclusion: human cord blood derived CD34+ stem cells can be effective as a cell based therapy in liver fibrosis.

[Radwa A. Mehanna., Nihal M. Habachy., Gihan M. Sharara, Mohamed Sharaan, Magda M. El Dakhakhny, Mona K. Marei.. Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in Rabbits’ Fibrotic Liver. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):83-94]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.12

 

Key words: CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, Umbilical cord blood, Liver fibrosis.

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Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs on the Outcome of Pregnancy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Mohamed S. S. Saad, Hatem M. Salem and Khaled M. Hadhoud

 

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

drhatem55@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive and complex disorder that is difficult to treat effectively in the long term. The majority of patients are overweight or obese at diagnosis and will be unable to achieve or sustain near normoglycemia without oral antidiabetic agents; a sizeable proportion of patients will eventually require insulin therapy to maintain long-term glycemic control, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with oral antidiabetic therapy. The frequent need for escalating therapy is held to reflect progressive loss of islet β-cell function, usually in the presence of obesity-related insulin resistance. Today’s clinicians are presented with an extensive range of oral antidiabetic drugs for T2DM. Objective: This article will discuss the various effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs on the outcome of pregnancy with T2DM. Material And Methods: Patients were attending the combined outpatient clinic for Internal Medicine Department, Endocrinology Unit and Obstetrics Department of Zagazig University Hospital, were entered into a database. The following maternal, fetal and neonatal items were retrieved from the database. Maternal outcome (pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, Cesarean section) and fetal and neonatal outcome (macrosomia, congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, neonatal hypoglycemia) were analyzed as well HbA1c levels, planning of pregnancy, gestational age at first antenatal visit. One hundred-fifty pregnant female were classified into three groups. All pregnant females were subjected to full medical history with thorough medical examination, routine laboratory investigations include (fasting blood glucose [FBG] level, 2-hours post prandial glucose level [2-hpp]), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and pelvi-abdominal ultrasonography. Results: In the present study, 50 pregnancies in T2DM have delivery and they incidentally continued the use of their oral anti-diabetes (OADs) (e.g., sulphonylurea and biguanides) before realizing that they had got pregnant for a period from 1-4 weeks. As regards, the relation between fetal macrosomia and types of OADs; there were nonsignificant statistically value occurred in all studied groups used biguanides. The relation between neonatal hypoglycemia and types of OADs; there is nonsignificant value in the OADs group of the studied groups. Also, there is nonsignificant value between OADs types and neonatal polycythemia, hyperbilirubinemia and respiratory distress. There were nonsignificant value in the cases of studied groups with birth injury and types of OADs, but it did not occur with biguanide use. There was nonsignificant statistical value between intra uterine foetal death and types of OADs. There were significant statistical value between CS and types of OADs use in the studied groups. Also, there is nonsignificant statistical value in the incidence of abortion and types of OADs (weeks). It occurred mostly with sulphonylurea, and did not occur with biguanide use. As regards, the results obtained the relation between incidence of preeclampsia and types of OADs, there was nonsignificant statistical value, it occurred mostly with sulphonylurea and did not occur with biguanide in cases of the studied groups. There was relation between polyhydramnios and the types of OADs. There were nonsignificant statistical value occurred only with the use of sulphonylurea in cases of the studied groups. Conclusion: The use of oral hypoglycemic drugs on the outcome of pregnancy in type 2 diabetes during early pregnancy increases the incidence of maternal complication. Recommendations: 1) Preconception counseling and assessment of glycemic control before conception and during early gestation (first 6 to 8 weeks) is the primary determinant of the risk for various congenital anomalies and early pregnancy loss. 2) Pre pregnancy management should be initiated 3to 6 months before intended conception; the goal is to obtain A1c level within normal range. 3) Oral hypoglycemic drugs must not be taken during early pregnancy. 4) Insulin should be used during pregnancy.

[Mohamed S. S. Saad, Hatem M. Salem and Khaled M. Hadhoud. Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs on the Outcome of Pregnancy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):95-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.13

 

Key words: Type 2 diabetes, oral hypoglycemic drugs, pregnancy outcome.

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Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: Risk Factors and Resources- Utilization at a Chest Disease Clinic, Alexandria, Egypt

 

Ola Abdel Moneim Akl1 Azza Ali El.Mahalli2

 

1 High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University. A. professor of Primary Health Care.

2College of Applied Medical sciences, Dammam University - KSA& High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University- Department of Health Administration and Behavioral Sciences. A. professor of Health Administration, Planning& Policy. ola_akl@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Background: Drug-resistant TB is a relatively new phenomenon that now occurs throughout the world. Drug resistance arises due to the improper use of antibiotics in chemotherapy of drug susceptible TB patients such as administration of improper treatment regimens by health care workers and failure to ensure that patients complete the whole course of treatment. Essentially, resistance arises in areas with poor TB control programs. Objective: To determine risk factors of M/XDR-TB among TB patients attending a chest diseases clinic in Alexandria- Egypt for the period from December 2008 till June 2011 to improve case management and control of drug resistant TB. Also, it aimed to determine effect of M/XDR-TB on utilization of resources. Design: Case- control study. Method: Medical records of TB patients who were receiving treatment at the chest diseases clinic for the period from December 2008 till June 2011. Cases were patients underwent drug susceptibility tests and results confirmed M/XDR – TB. However, controls were TB patients without drug resistance based on results of drug susceptibility tests. Cases were 59 patients, and controls were 122 patients (ratio was 1:2). Results: almost the half of both cases (MDR/XDR patients) and controls were from the middle age group (25-45 years). Male gender, employment, history of TB contacts and having a positive smear to AFB on admission carry higher risks for developing MDR-TB (OR: 2.28, 3.46, 2.31, and 25.3 respectively). In logistic regression, the duration of treatment was the only significant factor (protective). All resources utilized were significantly higher for MDR-TB cases than for controls. Conclusion and Recommendations: treatment of M/XDR-TB is a cost effective intervention that necessitates urgent mobilization of resources.

[Ola Abdel Moneim Akl Azza Ali El. Mahalli. Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: Risk Factors and Resources- Utilization at a Chest Disease Clinic, Alexandria, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):107-112]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.14

 

Key Words: M/XDR-TB- Risk factors- Resources Utilization.

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Internet Ethics

 

Farzaneh Farahanipour

 

The professor of Tecnical&Vocational University,Valiasr college Tehran-Iran

ffarahanipour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Widespread availability of internet has created new ethical problems. These problems have opened expert discussions to solve internet ethical issues. This paper begins with a look into history of internet and continues with a discussion about the positive roles internet has played in many applications including facilitating group membership, formation of scientific associations, performing certain surgical operations, and the like. Final part of this paper reviews internet abuses and the new and unique ethical problems that they entail. The issues covered in this paper include software theft, copyright violation, privacy intrusion, computer hacking, and weblogging. This paper examines ethical dimensions of the underlying issues and concludes that internet training shall include discussions about internet ethics.

[Farzaneh Farahanipour. Internet Ethics. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):113-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.15

 

Key words: Internet, Ethics, Information, Positive role, Negative role, Ethical problems

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Development of High-Performance Green Concrete using Demolition and Industrial Wastes for Sustainable Construction

 

Dina M. Sadek1* and Mohamed M. El-Attar2

 

1Building Materials Research and Quality Control Institute, Housing and Building National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Construction_20001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Growth of population, increasing urbanization and industrialization contributed to fast consumption of available natural resources and generation of considerable amount of wastes. The recycling of wastes in concrete industry will lead to greener and sustainable concrete, unless they are proven harmful by testing. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of recycling air-cooled slag (ACS) as a substitute of natural coarse aggregate on the strength and durability of high performance concrete containing natural aggregates or a blend of natural aggregates and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as a new approach to massively recycle these wastes for sustainable construction. The durability of concrete was evaluated by assessing abrasion resistance, water permeability, behavior of concrete after exposure to wetting and drying cycles, resistance to sulfate attack, and alkali-aggregate reaction. The results indicated that it is feasible to produce high performance concrete with satisfactory properties by using recycled aggregates and supplementary cementing material. ACS can be recycled successfully as a coarse aggregate in high performance concrete as it offers an approach to solve the problems arising from its disposal; in the meantime modified properties are added to the concrete. In general, concrete containing ACS had better performance compared to concrete entirely made with natural aggregates. Furthermore, the use of ACS is particularly beneficial for concrete containing RCA as it attenuated the negative impacts of RCA on concrete strength and durability without the need to increase the cement content.

[Dina M. Sadek and Mohamed M. El-Attar. Development of High-Performance Green Concrete using Demolition and Industrial Wastes for Sustainable Construction. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):120-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.16

 

Keywords: Sustainability; Recycling; Air-cooled slag; Recycled concrete aggregate; Concrete; Durability.

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Effect of Peppermint as One of Carminatives on Relieving Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) During Pregnancy

 

Eman M. Sayed Ahmed1; Saher M. Soliman1 and Hisham M. Mahmoud2

 

1Department of Maternal & Neonatal Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

2Department of Obstetric & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

saharmossasoliman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This is an intervention study aimed at studying the effectiveness of peppermint on relieving gastroesophageal reflux disease "GERD" during pregnancy. It was conducted at out patient antenatal clinic of Ain Shams Maternity University Hospital after obtaining faculty ethical committee approval. The sample was consisted of 221 pregnant women. Tools used for data collection consisted of woman's knowledge structured interviewing questionnaire regard peppermint; woman's diary regard GERD symptoms improvement with peppermint use, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptom assessment scale (GSAS) and supportive material in the form of an Arabic leaflet was used. Results revealed improvement in pregnant women knowledge regard GERD & peppermint, before and after intervention. As regard analysis and variation in women's GERD symptoms, mean number of symptoms and mean distress score before and after using peppermint a highly statistically significant difference was detected before and after intervention which indicated marked improvement in GERD symptoms after using peppermint. Also strong positive correlation was proved between pregnant women compliance regard peppermint use instructions & GERD relieve measures and means GERD distress score at pre and post intervention. The study concluded that use of carminatives as peppermint tea, beside compliance to lifestyle measures are effective on relieving GERD Grade 1 (NERD) during pregnancy. The study recommended using of peppermint tea in-between meals for relieving of GERD during early stages of pregnancy. Further studies are still needed to determine the effect of using peppermint in different forms on relieving GERD during pregnancy.

[Eman M. Sayed Ahmed; Saher M. Soliman and Hisham M. Mahmoud. Effect of Peppermint as One of Carminatives on Relieving Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) During Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):132-143]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.17

 

Key words: Peppermint, GERD, Pregnancy

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Effect of Vitex Agnus Custus (VAC) on Premenstrual Syndromes among Nursing Students

 

Randa M. Ibrahim1; Saher M. Soliman1 and Hisham M. Mahmoud2

 

1Department of Maternal & Neonatal Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

2Department of Obstetric & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

saharmossasoliman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is particularly common problem in the younger age groups. PMS has occasional extreme negative effect on quality of life. An intervention study had been done to evaluate the effect of Vitex Agnus Castus on nursing students’ premenstrual syndromes and health related quality of life. The study conducted at Faculty of Nursing Ain Shams University. It started at beginning of January 2011 and completed by January 2012. One hundred twelve students at different academic level were recruited on the study using systematic random sample technique. Three tools were used for data collection named structured interviewing questionnaire sheet, Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstrual Symptoms (PRISM calendar), and 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results of the current study revealed that student s’ age ranged between 18 to 24 years with mean age (20.59 1.42years). Students from urban area were represented 63.4%. Mean duration of menstrual bleeding (5.23 1.2 days), previous different method were used by 79.5% of students to relieve PMS. In addition, 36.6%, 33.9%, and 29.5% of students had sever, moderate, and mild degree of PMS, respectively at initial assessment. Meanwhile, 69.6% of students their PMS were completely relieved at final assessment, while, 8.1%, 13.4% and 8.9% of students had sever, moderate, and mild degree of PMS, respectively which indicates highly statistically significant difference between them before and after using VAC. Furthermore, a highly statistically significant difference was found between PMS before and after use of VAC. Also, students' HRQOL was significant improved after use of VAC. In Conclusion the present study concluded that VAC is effective for treatment of PMS that reflected upon improve nursing students' health related quality of life, the effects being confirmed by physician and students. The effects are detected in most main symptoms of the syndrome, the study recommended that considering VAC herbal remedy as one of most effective therapeutic option for women suffering from PMS.

[Randa M. Ibrahim; Saher M. Soliman and Hisham M. Mahmoud. Effect of Vitex Agnus Custus (VAC) on Premenstrual Syndromes among Nursing Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):144-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.18

 

Key words: Vitex Agnus Casts- Premenstrual Syndromes - Health Related Quality of Life

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Cognitive styles, learning styles and motivational beliefs among students of Payame Noor University and Shiraz University

 

Saeed Mazloomiyan, Mohammad Hassan Seif, Saeed Talebi, Ahmad Rastegar

 

Department of Educational Psychology, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

Saeedmazloomi12@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the differences between cognitive styles, motivational strategies and learning styles between the students of Payame Noor University and Shiraz University. Data gathered from a sample of 600 students extracted from Krejcie and Morgan’s Table (1970). Data analysis performed using ANOVA, MANOVA and independent t-test. Result showed that there is a significant difference between learning styles of the students of two universities. The cognitive styles and motivational strategies also were significant differently as discussed in the text of the article.

[Saeed Mazloomiyan, Mohammad Hassan Seif, Saeed Talebi, Ahmad Rastegar. Cognitive styles, learning styles and motivational beliefs among students of Payame Noor University and Shiraz University. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):154-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.19

 

Keywords: Motivational Beliefs, Cognitive Strategies, Learning style, PNU, Shiraz

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Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of mothers toward Breast Feeding at Well Baby Clinic, King Abdulaziz University Hospital

 

Basem S Eldeek1; Safwan.O Tayeb2 and Saddiq B Habiballah3

 

Community Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom Saudi Arabia, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.

5th Year Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia.

Intern Student, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia. thanaelkholy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: Breastfeeding has innumerable benefits on infants, mothers and societies as a whole. The prevalence of breastfeeding in developed countries is increasing. In spite of great advances in health services in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, recent studies have reported a downward trend in breastfeeding practice. The purpose of this study is to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of mothers attending the well baby clinic at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah (KAUH) about breastfeeding and to explore the factors that prevent mothers from breastfeeding and to suggest measures to enhance their practice. Method: The design of the study was mixed research design in form of three focus groups discussion followed by a cross-sectional study was conducted at KAUH well baby clinic in 2010-2011. In each focus group discussion (qualitative study), about ten mothers were included, and in the quantitative study, Six hundred Mothers (2 to 3 each day) having infants aged 6 months and below were interviewed to collect information about their breastfeeding practice. World Health Organization (WHO) definitions were used for classification of infants’ nutrition patterns. Data includes assessment of mother’s social status. Results: The exclusive breastfeeding rate was 25% among the study sample. The correct time for giving complementary feeding rate was only 10%. All the values were far behind those recommended by WHO. The most common reasons for failure of breastfeeding were: insufficient breast milk (32%), working away from home (29%), giving birth by cesarean section (19%) and formula milk advertisement (16 %). Conclusions: This study showed that we have low level of breastfeeding practice in Saudi Arabia. Managing the reasons of breast milk insufficiency, promoting the benefits of breastfeeding, and organizing special community based programs for potential stockholders to provide measures of facilitating breastfeeding for working mothers can enhance this practice.

[Basem S Eldeek; Safwan. Tayeb and Saddiq B Habiballah. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of mothers toward Breast Feeding at Well Baby Clinic, King Abdulaziz University Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):157-162] http://www.americanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.20

 

Keywords: breast feeding, knowledge and practice.

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Fundamentals of Ethical Management of Enterprises; Success Keys, Challenges and Issues

 

1Sasan Ghermezi, 2Mohammad Hadi Damiri

 

1University of Applied Sciences and Technology, Jahad Daneshgahi Branch, Shiraz, Fars, Iran; 2MA of Financial Management. ghermezisasan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ethics is the term we give to our concern for good behavior. It is human nature to not only is concerned with our own personal well being, but also that of others and of human society as a whole. It is stated that ethics is a way of being human and if men and women had not identified their own welfare with that of others, then they probably would not have survived and developed.

[Sasan Ghermezi, Mohammad Hadi Damiri. Fundamentals of Ethical Management of Enterprises; Success Keys, Challenges and Issues. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):163-165]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.21

 

Keywords: Business Ethics, Enterprise, Manage, Ethical Job

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Development and Standardization of Achievement Test

 

Hassan Moshtaghian Abarghoie 1, Yusuf Mahmoudi Khamiripoor 2, Hossein Hosseini 2, Bahram Esmaeili 3, jamshid Moshtaghian Abarghoie4, Hojat Moshtaghian Abarghoie5

 

1. Master of Educational Research, Tehran University Education Area 4 Shiraz, IRAN

2. Department of Public Administration, M.sc of HR management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN 5.

3. M.sc of HR management, The Holy Prophet Higher Education Complex, Tehran, IRAN. 0098 (0)7117335087; fax: 0098 (0) 71122810906.

4. Master of Educational Administration, Sharif Technical College of Abarkouh,Yazd, IRAN

5. Department of Public Administration, PhD student of Human Resource Management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN

hojatmoshtaghian@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and standardization Achievement test to measure student learning in biology program at the secondary school. Both classical and IRT models were used to address the research objectives of the study. The preliminary instrument consisted of 150 multiple-choice items that on a sample size of 300 students were performed. The final instrument was two parallel forms of 50 items that on the normative sample volume of about 938 Students were performed. Estimated reliability coefficient for internal consistency with test forms was 0.89, 0.88, respectively. On the basis of factor analysis both forms of the test was an overall factor saturated. Results showed there is no significant difference between mean scores of boys and girls. So standardized and percentile Norms for all subjects calculated. Findings from the IRT analysis showed that more than 92 percent of the items are significantly fitted to Three-Parameter Logistic Model. Test information function was a bell-shaped curve and over a wide ability range from -0.5 to +2.5 provides more information. Also the maximum information was provided at +1.5 from ability continuum.

[Hassan Moshtaghian Abarghoie, Yusuf Mahmoudi Khamiripoor, Hossein Hosseini, Bahram Esmaeili, Jamshid Moshtaghian Abarghoie, Hojat Moshtaghian Abarghoie. Development and Standardization of Achievement Test. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):166-168]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.22

 

Keywords: Achievement test, Classical model, Item-Response Theory, Standardization

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Patterns of Sleep Disturbances among Healthy Nulliparous Women

 

Samar k. Hafez1,2 and Rasha Mohamed Essa3

 

1Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

2 Nursing Department, College of Applied Health Sciences, Tai f University, Saudi Arabia

3Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing Dept. Faculty of Nursing, Damnhour University, Egypt.

sakamal2000@yahoo.com; rashaessa111@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to identify Patterns of sleep disturbances during pregnancy among healthy nulliparous women and their possible contributing factors. An exploratory retrospective study was carried out on a convenient sample of two hundred healthy nulliparous women during their antenatal follow up visits to the ante-natal clinic at EL-Shatby Maternity University Hospital in Alexandria. A structured interview schedule and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used for data collection. Results revealed that about three-quarters (74%) of the total study subjects revealed sleep disturbances and demonstrated poor sleep quality throughout their current pregnancy. Poor sleep quality was significantly more common among young nulliparous who were younger than 25 years during their last trimester. Nocturnal awakening was the most reported pattern of sleep disturbances among the study subjects followed by insomnia, lack of dream sleep and light sleep. Frequent nocturia, abdominal discomfort, breathing disorders, low backache and restless leg syndrome were the most given reasons for sleep disturbances among the suffered study subjects. In conclusion, that poor sleep quality was prevalent among healthy nulliparous women during their pregnancy and was significantly related to their demographic characteristics such as: age, educational levels, family type and income as well as adverse obstetrical disorders and psychosocial factors associated with their pregnancy

[Samar k. Hafez and Rasha Mohamed Essa. Patterns of Sleep Disturbances among Healthy Nulliparous Women. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):172-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.23

 

Keywords: Patterns of Sleep Disturbances among Healthy Nulliparous Women

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Predictors of bleeding complications in percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy with spring–loaded 18 G needle biopsy in diffuse renal parenchymal diseases

 

Morteza Tahmasebi, Neda Aynehband, Golzaree Kh., Rezaee E., Motamed A.

 

Department Of Radiology, Jondishapur Medical University, Ahvaz, Iran

Correspondence: Dr. Morteza Tahmasebi, Department of Radiology, Golestan Blvd, Ahvaz, Iran.

tahmasebilmn@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Amis: this study was designed to evaluate the risks that associated with performing a percutaneous ultrasound–guided renal biopsy, and also, comparing the relationship between bleeding complications and influence factors. Materials and methods: Since April 2009 to November 2010 among 65 patients whom were referred for renal biopsy, 60 fulfilled the study criteria. They underwent biopsy of kidneys by automated 18 G needle in a single center with single operator. Predictive value of demographics (age, gender), clinical data (blood pressure), baseline hematologic factors, BMI (body mass index) and number of biopsy for the risk of major complication were investigated. Result: The study consisted 60(27 male, 33female) 41(68.37%) experienced post biopsy bleeding [30(50%) hematomas, 34(56.6%) hematuria, 2(3.3%) blood transfusion, 9(15%) Hb decrease]. Major complication developed in 12 (20%) [Blood transfusion N=2, Gross hematuria N=5, hematoma thickness >20mm N=9]. On the other hand we had no death, nephrectomy or interventional angiography. Post biopsy bleeding was higher in younger (21 to 30, 31 to 40 years p < 0.001) abnormal baseline hematologic factors (53.33% vs. 15%) or systolic blood pressure more than 140 mm Hg (136 11.86 vs. 125.8 15.59 P=0.008). Conclusion: Biopsy with 18 G needle is safe and accurate but not a risk free procedure. On the data collected for potential predictor of post biopsy complication, only age, abnormal baseline hematologic factors, blood pressure show a significant predictive value. The other variables investigated such as BMI, Number of passes, gender doesn’t have any predictive value.

[Morteza Tahmasebi, Neda Aynehband, Golzaree Kh., Rezaee E., Motamed A. Predictors of bleeding complications in percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy with spring–loaded 18 G needle biopsy in diffuse renal parenchymal diseases. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):179-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.24

 

Keywords: Renal biopsy; bleeding complication; hematoma

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Application of Rosgen classification the Ziarat watershed, Gorgan

 

Seyed majid mousavi

 

MSc Student of watershed management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, science and research branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran, Iran. Mousavi.m@mail.ru

 

Abstract It is important to Study the relationship between river's sediment and Hydraulic from the management, increasing the aquatic settlements, Succession and river's morphologic mature, management of the water resources and its erosion and sediment, river's Geometry relations, designating critical shear stress, the relations between shear stress And Velocity and Flow resistance and Determining Edibility potential of River bank. The basis for stream classification in this research was Rosgen stream classification (RSCS). 50 Reach have been chosen on the basis of stream orders and flow regimes and in each Reach of cross section, width/depth relation, entrenchment, average and maximum of Bankfull depth and width in the Watershed. The cross section was studies with measuring width and depth.the river bed particles sampling in the cross section or near to it in each reach and selecting 100 sample particles were measured and their frequency in each reach was specified. The cumulative frequency distribution of particle's average diagonal (D50) in the Normal log was reached from calculating the particle's average diagonal. Reach slope was also determined with using Aerial Photos. The results show that the most frequency of entrenchment is in the Range of 1/4 (low). 48% of under study reaches have the average W/D, 70% have the average sinuosity, 24% high sinuosity and 6% low sinuosity. The type's frequency percent in the first level of Rosgen include type G with 48 %(most frequency), type B with 26%, type C with 20% and type D with 6 percent (lowest frequency) respectively. Also the results show that the most frequency of slope is in the of 0/02 to 0/039.from the view point of average size of particles the most frequency percent belongs to cobble and the least to clay and Silt.

[Seyed majid mousavi. Application of Rosgen classification the Ziarat watershed, Gorgan. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):184-189]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.25

 

Keywords: Rosgen classification, river morphology, width, entrenchment, bed particles, Ziarat River.

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Plasma IP-10 as a predictor of Serious Bacterial Infection in neonates and young infants

 

Salem A. Sallam1, Gihan M. Babrs1, Mohamed Said, 2 and Heba M.Taghian3

 

1Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University

2 Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University

3 Pediatrics Department, El-Minia General hospital

gihanbabrs@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Abstract: Background: Early diagnosis of SBI in young infants is a difficult problem by clinical symptoms and signs. IP-10 has been identified to play an important role during infectious and inflammatory processes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the value of plasma IP-10 in early diagnosis of SBI in young infants. Patients & Methods: 100 patients with clinical suspicion to have SBI were admitted in Pediatric department and NICU and subjected to clinical examination and investigations (complete blood count, C-reactive protein and plasma IP-10 levels and microbiological cultures). Results: SBI proved by positive culture in 45 infants and had higher plasma IP-10 levels than those infants without SBI (n=55) (435.131 versus 25.526.9, P=0.0001) after adjusting age. A plasma IP-10 level > 43.5 ng/ml has the best diagnostic accuracy for indicating SBI (Sensitivity 82%, Specificity 90%). Conclusion: Plasma IP-10 is a valuable laboratory test in diagnosis of SBI and may serve as a better diagnostic marker of SBI than total WBC count, CRP, ANC and IT ratio.

[Salem A. Sallam, Gihan M. Babrs, Mohamed Said and Heba M. Taghian. Plasma IP-10 as a predictor of Serious Bacterial Infection in neonates and young infants. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):190-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.26

 

Key word: Serious bacterial infection, IP-10, chemokines

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Analyzing Norooz in Iran and Afghanistan

 

Hassan Bigonah1* Yousef rasoli2, Seyyed Ali moosavinoor3

 

1. Torbate jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbate jam, Iran (Corresponding author); Bigonah121@yahoo.com

2. Farhangian univercity of Yasuj, Iran; scientificgroup@mail.ru

3. Farhangian University, Iran

 

Abstract: In the culture and customs of each nation, there are days that have historical and cultural roots and are the manifestation of beliefs that go forward even to their religious sanctities, and display their historical and cultural identity of that society. One of these days is the beginning of the new Solar year that is regarded as the most frequent universal customs, and less civilization can be found that is deprived of that. Each civilization honors the outset of the New Year in establishing historical and national customs and celebrations. With the benefit of a genuine, long-term culture and history and the concurrency of that with the life and revival of the earth, Norooz and the celebrations of the New Year have the especial point to be different from the New Year celebrations of other nations. The ancient customs of Norooz is beyond the recollection of a nation, but also is the link between past, present, and future. It takes more virtue, after the advent of Islam, and the emphasis is on the commemoration of its customs. The collection of these factors caused that despite of passing many years and vicissitudinous way of history, Nouroz stays strong not only in "Great and ancient Iran", but also wherever that "the Great culture and civilization of Iran" affects. Therefore, through comparing of Norooz in both Afghanistan and Iran, the author attempts to show that where the roots of this tradition are and how Norooz has survived in these two countries.

[Hassan Bigonah, Yousef rasoli, Seyyed Ali moosavinoor. Analyzing Norooz in Iran and Afghanistan. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):195-200]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.27

 

Keywords: Norooz, Iran, Afghanistan, Customs

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The relationship between predictive factors of mathematical performance and the level of Testosterone, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Prolactin and Thyroxine

 

Abbas Amani 1, Hassan Alamolhodaei 2, Farzad Radmehr 3

 

1. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Abbasamani777@yahoo.com

2. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Alamolhodaei@yahoo.com

3. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. f.radmehr65@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The relationship between some specific hormones (Testosterone - Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone-Prolactin-Thyroxine) and some predictive factors of mathematical performance in university students has been investigated in this study. According to the forty tests (twenty for males and twenty for females) performed in this research, six significant differences were found between low and high hormone groups and predictive factors of mathematical performance. As can be inferred from the results of this study, hormones in question have more effects on predictive factors of mathematical performance for female students than male ones. Five significant differences found for female students, in contrast just one significant difference were found for male students. Also it should be mentioned that hormones in question have more effects on cognitive style of students than other variables in this study.

[Abbas Amani, Hassan Alamolhodaei, Farzad Radmehr. The relationship between predictive factors of mathematical performance and the level of Testosterone, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Prolactin and Thyroxine. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):201-212]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.28

 

Keywords: Predictive factor-math performance- Testosterone - Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone-Prolactin-Thyroxine

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Exploring the relationship between Iranian students’ Mathematical Literacy and Mathematical performance

 

Robabe Afkhami1, Hassan Alamolhodaei 2, Farzad Radmehr3

 

1. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. r_afkhami@yahoo.com

2. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Alamolhodaei@yahoo.com

3. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. f.radmehr65@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate students’ Mathematical Literacy(ML) in elementary, secondary and high school. The purpose of ML is students' ability to use mathematics to solve context related problems in real world. In the theoretical framework of ML in the international PISA study, mathematics is divided four categories space and shape, change and relationships, quantity and uncertainty. A sample of 90 students from elementary school (10-11years old), 118 students from secondary school (14-15 years old) and 70 students from high school (17-18 years old) were tested on mathematical literacy and the Witkin’s cognitive style (Group Embedded Figure Test) test. The findings of this study showed that students in elementary school were more successful and literate than secondary and high school students. ML of secondary and high school students showed no significant difference. Also obtained results indicate that FI students in ML test were better than FD students. [Robabe Afkhami, Hassan Alamolhodaei, Farzad Radmehr. Exploring the relationship between Iranian students’ Mathematical Literacy and Mathematical performance. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):213-222]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.29

 

Keywords: Mathematical Literacy, Mathematical performance, Cognitive style

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Elbow joint tendon and ligament lesions; diagnosis using multiple imaging modalities

 

Mostafa M. Shakweer1 Samir A. Al-shora 2 and Aly R.Ibrahim3

 

Departments of Diagnostic Radiology1, Orthopedic Surgery2& Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation3, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine (Damietta)

mshakweer1@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: Elbow pain is a big problem because the joint is surrounded by numerous ligaments, muscles and neuro-vascular structures. The choice of the imaging modality depends on the clinical presentation and suspected pathology. Fifty patients were studied at Al-azhar University hospital (Damietta). All of the patients were symptomatic and presented by pain and limitation of movement at the affected elbow joint with history of trauma in acute onset patients. They were examined clinically at Orthopedic and Rheumatology Departments and referred to Diagnostic Radiology department for further radiological evaluation. Plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were complementary modalities to reach the correct diagnosis. The aim of this study was to reach the proper diagnosis for elbow joint pain using the clinical background and the different imaging modalities.

[Mosta M. Shakweer, Samir A. Al-shora, Aly R. Ibrahim. Elbow joint tendon and ligament lesions; diagnosis using multiple imaging modalities. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):223 -231].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.30

 

Key word: Elbow joint, tendons, ligaments, ulnar collateral ligament, radial collateral ligament.

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Establishment of Regeneration system for Taif peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar (Balady cultivar) in Taif, KSA.

 

Mohamed A. Nagaty 1,2

 

1Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia

2Plant Production Department, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, ARE

 

Abstract: Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is one of the most important stone fruits in different parts of the world. Peach trees are essentially infected by many different pests and diseases. One of basic requirement for successful transformation system is reliable high-frequency regeneration. Shoot organogenesis could be induced from stored mature embryos of Taif peach (Prunus persica L.) cultivar in vitro. In this study, the influences of different cytokinin (TDZ) levels and dark incubation periods on shoot regeneration were determined. Taif peach cultivar regenerated in the presence of TDZ and darkness for the first 13 days of the culture. Dark incubation at the early stage of culture was critical for obtaining higher regeneration efficiencies from stored Taif peach embryos. Media containing 3.6 M TDZ with 2.5M IBA was more effective than other TDZ levels in inducing shoot regeneration. The highest regeneration frequency was obtained with concentrations of 3.6 M TDZ (62.5%) in combination with dark incubation. Root percentage of the regenerated shoots was 38.2% by addition of 10.74 M NAA in the medium. Regeneration of adventitious shoots from stored mature embryos of Taif peach cultivar is obtained. Therefore, it could be suggested that Taif peach cultivar has a potential for genetic transformation through this regeneration protocol.

[Mohamed A. Nagaty. Establishment of Regeneration system for Taif peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar (Balady cultivar) in Taif, KSA. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):232-239].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.31

 

Keywords: Organogenesis; In vitro; Peach; 5 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); thidiazuron (TDZ); Regeneration; Embryonic axis; Adventitious shoots; Shoot Regeneration Medium (SRM).

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Copper ion selective electrode based on copper (II) complex of 4-Azocyanoacetamido-m-toludine antipyrine

 

Salem M. Hamza1; Nashwa M.H. Rizk2; Moushira M. Salem*1 and S.A.Aaly2

 

1Chemistry Department Faculty of science, Menoufia University, Egypt

2 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Menoufia University. Egypt

*moushira_salem @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The characterization performance and construction of copper (II) complex of 4-Azocyanoacetamido-m-toludine antipyrine {[Cu2L2Cl4].2H2O} (Cu-HL2)-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sensor is described. The sensor is based on the use (Cu-HL2) ionophore as electro active material In PVC matrix in presence of DOP, DOS and NOPE as solvent mediator. (Cu-HL2) membrane sensors show a stable, near Nernstian response at 25 0.1 C in pH in the range 4–8. the electrode has The low detection limit of 5.110-6 M and displays a linear EMF versus log [Cu2+] response over the concentration range1.010-6 to 1.010-2 M Cu2+ with cationic slope of 29 0.1mVdecade-1 have been attained. The sensor is stable for 8weeks. Selectivity coefficient data for some common ions show negligible interferences. The electrode has been used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Cu2+ with EDTA and direct determination of Cu2+ in wastewater of the electroplating industry.

[Salem M. Hamza; Nashwa M.H. Rizk; Moushira M. Salem and S.A. Aaly. Copper ion selective electrode based on copper (II) complex of 4-azocyanoacetamido-m-toludine antipyrine. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):240-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.32

 

Keywords: Copper ion; PVC membrane; Nernstian slope; Ion selective electrode; Nernstian slope; Copper (II) complex of 4-azocyanoacetamido-m-toludine antipyrine, Potentiometry.

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Comparison of the Histopathological Effects of Subcutaneously Implanted Metallic and Silicon with Metallic Slot Brackets in Rats

 

Wael M Refai1 and Mohamed S El Mofty2

 

1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University

2Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University

W_refai_67@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The majority of orthodontic alloys contain nickel. The release of nickel can cause allergy and may lead to hypersensitivity. Aim The study was conducted to compare the histochemical effects of subcutaneously implanted metallic and silicon with metallic slot brackets in rats. Material and methods: The study was conducted using 30 rats. They were equally divided into three groups (10 each). The first group was the control group. In the second group, metallic bracket was subcutaneously implanted. In the third one, silicon bracket with metallic slot was similarly implanted. Before scarifying the animals, blood sample from the renal artery was taken. All animals were sacrificed after 15 days after implantation. Tissue samples were taken from the area around the bracket and from the spleen. They were microscopically examined. Results: The differential leucocytic count revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase of monocytes and lymphocytes in both in the second and third groups. However, the increase was more in the second group. Concerning basophils count the significant increase was seen among the second group only. Concerning microscopic examination, the implantation site in the second group showed granulation tissue prominently infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages. Abundant edema separating fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphoid cells with scanty connective tissue fibers were also observed. Lymphocytes in follicular and parafollicular area in the spleen were seen. Viewing the third group, A few amounts of lymphocytes and monocytes as well as mature fibrous connective tissue were observed at the site of implantation. The white pulp in most cases appeared more or less normal. Only, mild proliferation of lymphocytes in the perifollicular area was observed. Conclusions: Both brackets exhibited inflammatory response. However, inflammation was more severe in the second group. This was attributed to higher metallic content (nickel) which can induce more severe immune reactions.

[Wael M Refai, Mohamed S El Mofty. Comparison of the Histopathological Effects of Subcutaneously Implanted Metallic and Silicon with Metallic Slot Brackets in Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):250-257]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.33

 

Key words: Nickel, brackets, immunology, spleen, microscopic analysis

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Diode Laser assisted Drainage of the Subretinal Fluid: Procedure refinement

 

Ahmed I. M. Kamel

 

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University

balchin@consultant.com

(Corresponding author: DR Kamel, Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University Cairo Egypt)

 

Abstract Background: Subretinal hemorrhage is a devastating results that may occur during drainage of subretinal fluid (SRF) with standard retinal detachment surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the rule of transcleral diode laser in draining of the sub retinal fluid after refining the procedure. Patients and methods: a prospective study was conducted on 17 eyes of 17 patients presented with bullous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that required drainage of the subretinal fluid, sealing of the retinal break/s, air or gas injection and buckle implant. The trans-scleral diode laser was applied at an attached retina to adjust the laser power then at the planned site of needle drainage. The diode laser parameters used were 0.2s duration and 0.8-1.4 W power. Results: Adequate drainage of SRF was obtained in all cases. One eye developed a localized subretinal hemorrhage. Conclusion: after technique refinement transcleral diode laser became more reliable and effective tool in preventing choroidal hemorrhage that may occur during draining of the subretinal fluid in retinal detachments surgery.

[Ahmed I. M. Kamel. Diode Laser assisted Drainage of the Subretinal Fluid:Procedure refinement. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):258-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.34

 

Key words: trans-scleral diode laser, retinal detachment, drainage of the subretinal fluid.

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Test anxiety, and Skills of Time Management Among Faculty Nursing Students

 

Latifa T. Abd el–Aziz1, Nermin M. Eid2 and Sanaa M. Safan2

 

1 Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University.

2 Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University.

Latifa_tawfik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: With better time management skills, students would not end up “cramming” for examinations, and thereby decrease test anxiety and improve their academic performance. Aim: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between test anxiety & time management skills among Faculty Nursing students. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Setting: The study was carried out in two Faculties of Nursing affiliated to Benha University and Menoufiya University, Egypt. Sample: Second, third, and fourth nursing students enrolled in the above mentioned setting in the academic year 2010-2011 were included in the study. Tool:The following tools were used I: Student’ time management skills questionnaire. II: student’ test anxiety scale. Results:The results indicated that there was a insignificance correlation between test anxiety and all components of time management skills. Conclusion the study concluded that students' ability to manage time with their course work is associated with test anxiety. Recommendation it 's recommended that future studies should evaluate the role of stress/time management programs to reduce stress and anxiety.

[Latifa T. Abd el–Aziz, Nermin M. Eid, Sanaa M. Safan. Test anxiety, and Skills of Time Management Among Faculty Nursing Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):261-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.35

 

Key words: Test anxiety, time management.

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Effects of silica nanopowder and silica fume on rheology and strength of high strength self compacting concrete

 

Mostafa Jalal1*, Ali Reza Pouladkhan2, Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour 3, Hassan. Norouzi4

 

1. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

4. Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Lenjan branch, Lenjan, Isfahan, Iran

 

* Corresponding author: Tel: +98 21 73932487, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Strength and rheology of high strength self compacting concrete (SCC) containing silica nanopowders and silica fume have been addressed in the present paper. For this purpose, different mixtures were prepared with different amounts of nano silica and silica fume admixtures. In order to understand the influence of paste volume on SCC characteristics, three different binder contents as 400, 450 and 500 kg/m3 were also investigated. For better comparison of rheological properties, a constant water to binder ratio (w/b= 0.38) was adopted. Rheological properties were investigated through slump flow time and diameter, V-Funnel flow time and L-box tests. Mechanical characteristics included compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths at the ages of 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that compressive and splitting tensile strengths increased in the mixtures containing both silica fume and nano silica admixtures. Strength enhancement could be due to the fact that the admixtures especially nanoparticles as a partial replacement of cement could accelerate C–S–H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH)2 amount at the early ages and hence increase the mechanical properties of SCC specimens.

[Mostafa Jalal, Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour, Ali Reza Pouladkhan, Hassan Norouzi. Effects of silica nanopowder and silica fume on rheology and strength of high strength self compacting concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):270-277]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 36.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.36

 

Keywords: self compacting concrete; nano silica; silica fume; mechanical properties; rheological properties

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Chloride penetration, water absorption and electrical resistivity of high performance concrete containing nano silica and silica fume

 

Mostafa Jalal1*, Ali Reza. Pouladkhan2, Hassan Norouzi3, Ghobad Choubdar4

 

1. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3. Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Lenjan branch, Lenjan, Isfahan, Iran

4. Head of A.R.P. International Group, Iran

 * Corresponding author: Tel: +98 21 73932487, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, durability-related properties such as chloride penetration, water absorption and electrical resistivity of high strength self compacting concrete (SCC) containing nano silica and silica fume have been investigated. For this purpose, different mixtures were designed with different amounts of silica fume and nano silica admixtures. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of micro silica, nano silica and blend of micro and nano silica as 10%, 2% and 10%+2% respectively. Different binder contents were also investigated to observe the binder content effect on the concrete properties. Durability properties were evaluated by water absorption, capillary absorption, Cl ion percentage and resitivity tests. The results showed that water absorption, capillary absorption and Cl ion percentage decreased rather significantly in the mixtures containing admixtures especially blend of silica fume and nano silica. By addition of the admixtures, resistivity of the SCC mixtures increased which can lead to reduction of corrosion probability.

[Mostafa Jalal, Ali Reza Pouladkhan, Hassan Norouzi, Ghobad Choubdar. Chloride penetration, water absorption and electrical resistivity of high performance concrete containing nano silica and silica fume. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):278-284]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 37.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.37

 

Keywords: concrete; durability; water absorption; chloride penetration; electrical resistivity

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Effects of titanium dioxide nanopowder on rheological properties of self compacting concrete

 

Mostafa Jalal1*, Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour2, Morteza Khazaei Pool3

 

1. Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

 * Corresponding author: Tel: +98 21 73932487, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, rheological, mechanical, thermal and transport properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) with different amount of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowder have been investigated. TiO2 nanopowder up to 5 wt % were partially added to self compacting concrete and various rheological properties of the concrete have been measured. Rheological properties were investigated through slump flow time and diameter, V-Funnel flow time and L-box tests. The results showed that addition of nanopowder can lead to more consistency and homogeneity of the fresh mix and less bleeding and segregation.

[Mostafa Jalal, Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour, Morteza Khazaei Pool. Effects of titanium dioxide nanopowder on rheological properties of self compacting concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):285-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 38.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.38

 

Keywords: self compacting concrete; rheological properties; titanium dioxide nanopowder

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Durability enhancement of concrete by incorporating titanium dioxide nanopowder into binder

 

Mostafa Jalal*

 

Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

 

* Corresponding author: Tel: +98 21 73932487, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, durability-related properties such as chloride penetration, water absorption and electrical resistivity of high strength self compacting concrete (SCC) containing titanium dioxide nanopowder have been investigated. For this purpose, different mixtures were designed with different amounts of nanopowder and Portland cement was replaced by 1 up to 5 wt% of nanopowder. Durability properties were evaluated by water absorption, capillary absorption and chloride penetration tests. The results showed that water absorption, capillary absorption and chloride penetration decreased rather significantly in the mixtures containing nanopowder in the binder which can lead to increased durability and lifetime of the concrete. It may be due to filler effect of the nanoparticles and more packed microstructure of the concrete binder which inhibits the ingress of water and chloride ions.

[Mostafa Jalal. Durability enhancement of concrete by incorporating titanium dioxide nanopowder into binder. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):289-294]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 39.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.39

 

Keywords: concrete; durability enhancement; titanium dioxide nanopowder; water absorption; chloride penetration

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Genotypic Diversity Of Streptococcus Mutans in a Group of Caries-free and Caries active Normal and Mentally Retarded Egyptian children

 

Faten S. Bayoumi*, S.M.A. El Hadidi**, I.R. Hussein***, Hala M. Abbas**** and E.H.A. Abouel-Ezz**.

 

Professor of Microbiology and Head of Immunogenetics Dep.,National Research Centre, Egypt

Oro-dental genetics Department, National Research Centre, Egypt

Professor of molecular biology, National Research Centre, Egypt

Assistant Professor in Pediatric Dentistry& Dental Public Health Dep Faculty of oral and Dental Medicine- Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Head of Orodental Division, National Research Centre Egypt

 Corresponding author email: drfaten100@link.net

 

Abstract: Aim: To gain insight into diversity of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with different degree of caries among normal children and mentally handicapped children to help for planning a rational strategies for management and prevention of caries risk. Subjects and Methods: Genotyping for148 strains isolated from saliva of 58 Egyptian children caries free and caries active (30 Normal &28 Mentally Retarded child) aged 6-14 years using RAPD using three arbitrarily primers (P1,P2, P3). (RAPD) random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was preferred as a valuable tool in S.mutans epidemiological studies, by virtue of its rapidity, efficiency and reproducibility in generating genetic fingerprints of Streptococcus isolates. Results: No correlation was observed between genotype numbers and S.mutans salivary levels.All children with caries active & free had colonized the same genotype (RAPD with P2).The other two genotypes RAPD patterns encoded P1 & P3 were separately carried by 68.9% & 86.2% respectively.17.2% from all subjects colonized with both genotypes RAPD patterns using P2&P3 together,13.8% (8/58) carried the genotype related to P2 only & 68.9% (40/58) carried all genotypes together. Result highlighted that bacterial interactions might promote variants growth. Presence of the S.mutans genotype encoding P2 might initiate genotype encoded to P3 growth & both genotypes encoded to P2&P3 were relevant to genotype encoded P1 growth. The UPGMA method was used to group the units & instruct the Dendrogram. Conclusion: Genotypic finger printing of Streptococcus mutans can be used as a tool for assessment of caries risk for children from in order to targeted our effort to those for preventive approaches. In addition, Using RAPD contributed to precise picture of some virulent traits of S. mutans genotypes in the oral cavity. Bacterial interactions can play an important role in their virulence.

[Faten.S. Bayoumi, S.M.A. El Hadidi, I.R. Hussein, Hala M.Abbas, E.H.A. Abouel-Ezz. Genotypic Diversity Of Streptococcus Mutans in a Group of Caries-free and Caries active Normal and Mentally Retarded Egyptian children. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):295-302]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.40


Key words: Streptococcus mutans, PCR (arbitrarily primed PCR), RAPD, Dental Caries

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Paraoxonase Gene Polymorphism and Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Microvascular Complications

 

Khodeir, S. A.1; Abd El Raouf, Y. M 1; Amer, A. EMAN2; El Fadaly, N. H. 2and Abd El Latif, E. Aml3

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. 2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alahram Canadian University (acu), 6th October City and 3Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

 masyasser@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Paraoxonase (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme closely associated with HDL – cholesterol that protects LDL – cholesterol against oxidation. Less protection may therefore be supposed by decreased PON1 activity in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association of PON1 gene polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy and the relationship of allelic polymorphism with PON1 activity in DM patients. The study was conducted on 36 patients with type 2 DM complicated with nephropathy, 24 patients without nephropathy, and 20 healthy subjects of matched age and sex to serve as control. Eight ml over night fasting venous blood were collected from every patient and control, distributed as such; 5 ml in plain tube to separate serum for estimation of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, glucose and PON1 activity, and 3 ml on EDTA vacutainer tube for estimation of glycated Hb (HbA1c) and PON1genotyping. Obtained Results revealed that no gender or age influence was found on PON1 activity. Serum PON1 activity was significantly decreased in diabetic patients as compared with control. Also PON1 activity was significantly decreased in diabetic patients with nephropathy as compared with diabetic patients without nephropathy. The PON1 (55) LL genotype was the most frequent in healthy subjects, followed by the MM genotype, and then the LM genotype. In diabetic patients with nephropathy, the MM genotype was the most common, followed by the LL genotype, and then the LM genotype. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, the LL, MM, LM genotypes frequencies were 37.5%, 37.5%, and 25% respectively. The PON1 (192) QQ genotype was the most frequent in healthy subjects, followed by the RR genotype, and then the QR genotype. In diabetic patients with nephropathy, the RR genotype was the most common, followed by the QR genotype, and lastly the QQ genotype. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, the RR genotype was the most common, followed by the QQ genotype, and lastly the QR genotype. The PON1 activity in relation to genotyping showed insignificant difference in genotype LL, MM, LM, QQ, QR, and RR. Higher PON1 activity was found in diabetic patients with nephropathy, genotype LL than LM, and MM. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, the PON1(55)LL genotype showed significant increase in PON1 activity than MM and LM genotype. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, PON1 (192) higher activity was found in QQ, followed by RR, and lastly QR genotypes. In diabetic patients with nephropathy significant higher activity of PON1 was found in genotypes RR as compared with QQ, and QR genotypes.

[Khodeir, S. A.; Abd E l Raouf, Y. M; Amer, A. EMAN; El Fadaly, N. H., and Abd El Latif, E. Aml. Paraoxonase Gene Polymorphism and Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Microvascular Complications. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):303-309]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 41.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.41

 

Key words: Paraoxonase, type 2 diabetes mellitus, microangiopathy.

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Effect of Addation Anise (Pimpinlla Anisum L.) and Caraway (Carum Carvi, L.) on Retard the Rancidity of El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets with Sweetener

 

Tolba, K. H.; Ginat, El-sherif and M. A. El-sherif

 

Food Technology Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

ginat.elsherif@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The natural antioxidants of anise (Pimpinlla anisum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi, L.) were extracted, determined and added to refined sunflower oil at different concentrations to evaluate their effect on the oxidation activity of the oil by Rancimat assay and determination of the peroxide value. Phenols and flavonoids compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC method. The obtained results indicated that total polyphenols were 64.63 mg/100g (as galic acid), total carotenoids were 23.33mg/100g and total tannins were 83.31mg/100g (as tannic acid) in anise ethanolic extract, while, in caraway ethanolic extract the same compounds value were 77.86, 103.42 and 40 mg/100g, respectively. HPLC-analysis of ethanolic extracts of anise and caraway showed presence of a large number of phenols and flavonoids compounds (14 compounds). The possibility of their application as powders and extracts by different concentrations as natural antioxidant in El-mewled El-nabawy sweets (sesames and folia) with sweetener and fortified by full cream milk powder was evaluated for retarding the rancidity of fat/oil in the sweets to recode a large storage time.

[Sahar Ahmed Shafik and Afaf Salah Abd El-Mohsen. Occupational health: Health Promotion Program to Improve Health Workers in Tourah Cement Factory. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):310-318]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.42

 

Key words: Anise, caraway, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, herbs, El-mewled El- nabawy sweets.

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Molecular Basis of Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils

 Noha A. M. Shendy1, Mohamed M. A. El-Nagar1 and Yehia A. Osman Ellazeik2*

1 Chemistry Dept, Biochemistry, 2 Botany Dept, Mansoura Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
lazeikyao@gmail.com

Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH oxidase enzyme complex play central role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during neutrophil oxidative burst. However, the examination of their roles at the molecular levels needed more clarification, especially in the presence and absence of activators and/or inhibitors. Their expression during oxidative burst was measured in Egyptian buffalo᾽s neutrophils at both the mRNA and protein levels. From amongst 12 known PKC isoforms, only three DNA sequences which encode isoforms: PKCγ, PKCε, PKC λ were detected in the Egyptian buffalo neutrophils. The opsonized zymosan and zinc chloride stimulated the respiratory burst in concentration dependent manners which were proportional to the mRNA levels of the three PKC isoforms. Whereas, the neutrophils that incubated with salicylic acid and tricine-copper complex then stimulated with opsonized zymosan inhibited the oxidative burst and hence ROS production. However, their effects were not straightforward when measured at the molecular levels; the salicylic acid increased the transcriptional and expression levels of PKC whereas, copper complex showed an initial increase in transcriptional level then a decrase with longer incubation period. Conclusion: PKC isoforms afftects the rate of oxidative burst and it appeared that the dominant isoforms are dependent on the source of neutrophils. Moreover, their activities are subjected to control by the surrounding environmentals conditions and the time of exposure to simili or inhibitors.
[
Noha A. M. Shendy, Mohamed M. A. El-Nagar and Yehia A. Osman Ellazeik. Molecular Basis of Protein Kinase C Isoforms in Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):319-327]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 43.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.43


Key Words
: protein kinase C; neutrophil; reactive oxygen species; respiratory burst; NADPH oxidase; phagocytosis.

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The Geographic Information System A Tool for Automatically Illustrating the Microbiological Activities in Groundwater Aquifers, Case study: El Bahariya Oasis, Egypt

 

Safaa M. Soliman

 

Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center, El Kanter El Khairia, Kalubia, Egypt,

safaa_soliman_m@yahoo.com
 

Abstract: The main source of water in Egypt is the Nile, which originates outside the country and is shared by eleven riparian countries. Rainfall is very limited with respect to its geographical and temporal distribution and rates. The other source of fresh water is the groundwater, which represents about 20 % of the available fresh water resources of the country, but is mostly non-renewable. However, if no actions are taken to protect groundwater from degradation, the resource can loose its comparative advantage or even totally lost. Some Egyptian governorates had observed decline in well yields and deterioration in its groundwater quality. Even after developing these wells no active recovery was reported. Hence, the Research Institute for Groundwater (RIGW, 2004) took over a study to gain a better understanding of the cause of water well problems under the National Water Quality Monitoring Component (Component 1000-NAWQAM). Traditionally water well problems have been attributed to the chemical and physical properties of the well environment. A recent research indicated that water well deterioration is caused by bacteria is called well bio-fouling. El Bahariya Oasis is a case study of this research. It is located in the Northern East part of the Western Desert of Egypt at about 450 km South West of Cairo and extends northward into the Qattara Depression area. Water samples have been collected from 22 wells to detect the existence and aggressivity of Iron bacteria, Sulphate bacteria and Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria using the biological activity reaction test (BART). The laboratory analysis are conducted in Egypt and supported by the Canadian experts from the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA). The main objectives of this research are to describe Microbiological Testing as a Diagnostic Procedure of Well Yield Reduction and to create and test a GIS program as a tool for automatically illustrating the results of Microbiological Testing (the aggressivity degree of Iron bacteria, Sulphate bacteria, Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, and Slime Forming bacteria) of the study area water wells. The results have demonstrated that application of GIS could support demonstrating the relation between the well environment parameters and the BART tests results to with respect to well yield problems. The GIS programming demonstrated that 8 of the sampled wells contain at least one type of high degree of aggressive bacteria, 6 of the sampled wells contain at least one type of medium degree of aggressive bacterial, 12 of the sampled wells contain at least one type of low degree of aggressive bacterial and 5 of the sampled wells indicated no reactions.

[Safaa M. Soliman. The Geographic Information System A Tool for Automatically Illustrating the Microbiological Activities in Groundwater Aquifers, Case study: El Bahariya Oasis, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):328-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 44.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.44

 

Key word: Geographic Information System (GIS), ArcView, Point Theme, Polygon Theme, Aggressivity Degree, Iron bacteria (IRB), Sulphate bacteria (SRB), Heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB), and Slime Forming bacteria(SLYM), El Bahariya.

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Endothelial nitric oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism (G894T) in coronary artery disease in Egyptian patient

 

 Rizk El- Baz 1 Sabah El-Abd2; Faten Abd-Alghafar3; Waleed Fathy4 and Wesam Khyal1

 1Genetics Unit, Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Molecular Biology Dept., Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Minoufiya University, Egypt

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Minoufiya University, Egypt

4Clinical Pathology Dept., Faculty of Medicine Minoufiya University, Egypt

fathyw81@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) could be a candidate gene for coronary artery disease(CAD). Objectives: To check for the association of polymorphisms of Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (G894T) gene with the susceptibility and severity of coronary artery disease in Egyptian patients. Subjects: This work included 70patient with coronary artery disease and 62 healthy individuals. The mean age of cases was 60.68 11.29 years (range: 35.00-94.0 years). They included 36 males and 34 females. Methods: DNA was amplified using PCR-SSP for detection of polymorphisms related to of Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (G894T) gene. Results: Total cases showed significant frequency of G894T GG (P=0.039, OR=0.476), G894T TT (P=0.001, OR=7. 327). These were considered risk genotypes for disease susceptibility. On the other hand, total cases showed non significant frequency with combined heterozygosity for G894T GT (P= 0.546, OR=0.784). Conclusions: Polymorphisms related to Endothelial nitric oxide synthase G894T genes may be considered genetic markers for coronary artery disease among Egyptian cases.
[Rizk El- Baz Sabah El-Abd; Faten Abd-Alghafar; Waleed Fathy and Wesam Khyal
. Endothelial nitric oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism (G894T) in coronary artery disease in Egyptian patient. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):338-345]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 45.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.45

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Risk factors, Gene, Polymorphism Endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

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LASER versus Ultrasound in Treatment of Mechanical Low Back Pain

 

Amr A. Abdel-aziem1*, Emad T. Ahmed2, Moussa A.Youssief3

Departments of 1Physical Therapy for Biomechanics; 2Physical Therapy for Surgery and 3Physical Therapy for Neurology, College of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, KSA.

amralmaz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) is musculoskeletal disorder, that are most commonly felt in the back, and are frequently associated with functional limitations. The aim of this study was to compare between the effect of LASER in combination with traditional exercise therapy and the effect of ultrasound in combination with the same traditional exercise therapy in the treatment of mechanical back pain. One hundred and fifty patients with mechanical LBP were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Group (A) received LASER therapy in combination with traditional exercise group. Group (B) received ultrasound therapy n combination with traditional exercise group. Study participants received 24 treatment sessions of LASER or Ultrasound therapy over a period of 8 consecutive weeks. Outcome measures were, a visual analog scale (VAS), and modified Shober’s test for spinal range of motion (ROM). There were no significant differences between-group at baseline in VAS and modified shober’s test. For LASER group the visual analogue scale values proved reduction in the pain level and increase of the ROM of the spinal column after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment (P= 0.000). After 4-weeks, there was no significant difference between LASER group and ultrasound group in pain reduction (P= 0.312). However, after 8 weeks the reduction of pain of LASER group was significantly higher than ultrasound group (P= 0.003). For ultrasound group the modified Schober’s test values proved improvement in ROM of the spinal column after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (P= 0.000). After 4 weeks there was a significant improvement in the ROM of LASER group than ultrasound group (P= 0.042). Moreover, after 8 weeks the improvement of LASER group ROM was significantly higher than ultrasound group (P= 0.000). Participants of both groups diagnosed with mechanical LBP showed greater reduction in pain and improvement in trunk movement. Especially LASER therapy group showed better results than ultrasound therapy group over a period of 8 consecutive weeks.

[Amr A. Abdel-aziem, Emad T. Ahmed, Moussa A.Youssief. LASER versus Ultrasound in Treatment of Mechanical Low Back Pain. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):346-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.46

 

Keywords: LASER; Ultrasound; Low back pain.

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Investigation of the genetic diversity of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars in Taif by using

RAPD-PCR

 

 Mohamed. A. Nagaty1,2 and Mahmoud M. Rifaat1,3

 

1Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21974, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

 2Plant Production Department, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Arish 45511, Egypt

 3Genetics Division, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41512, Egypt.

nagagene@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), a member of the family Cactaceae, thrives in low annual rainfall countries. Besides being consumed as food or beverages, the plant is appreciated for its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral and anti-oxidant properties. This study was carried out to molecularly characterize two prickly pear cultivars (Red Toti and Yellow Shafawi), growing in Shafa region of Taif, KSA. Twelve 10-mer primers were used to amplify DNA by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR. Out of the RAPD primers used, 7 primers were found useful for distinguishing the two cultivars. The different RAPD primers produced a total of 71 amplicons (110 bp to 2500 bp in size), of which 23 were polymorphic among the two studied cultivars. The genetic similarity between the two cultivars was 43% based on Jaccard's coefficient. Biclustering of RAPD profiles and RAPD amplicons improved the display of the RAPD markers. Certain RAPD markers identified in this study might be associated with the biochemical and morphological traits that distinguish Red Toti and Yellow Shafawi cultivars.
[Mohamed. A. Nagaty and Mahmoud M. Rifaat
. Investigation of the genetic diversity of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars in Taif by using RAPD-PCR. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):353-357]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 47.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.47

 

Keywords: Prickly pear, RAPD, PCR, Biclustering.

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Enhancement of the Refinement Process for Surface of 3D Object

 

Iklima Mohamad1, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim1, Abdullah Bade1, Amjad Rehman2 and Tanzila Saba1*

1CDRG, Department of Computer Graphics and Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information System, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
stanzila2@live.utm.my (contact author)*

2College of Computer and Information Sciences, Al-Imam M. Saud University Riyadh KSA

 

Abstract: The most challenging task in developing surface modelling is to make the look of 3D object surface realistic such as a real object. To achieve this objective, three main issues that must be considered are the number of polygon, quality of the surface and time. A smooth surface is a key factor to make realistic look of 3D object in the virtual environment. Therefore, the main motive of the previous surface modelling methods is to produce a smooth and a good quality of object surface but it mostly incurred high generation cost. Thus, this paper will focus on developing a technique to obtain a smooth object surface at less cost without reducing the quality of the surface.
[Iklima Mohamad, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Abdullah Bade, Amjad Rehman, and Tanzila Saba.
Enhancement of the Refinement Process for Surface of 3D Object. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):358-365]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.48

 

Keywords: subdivision surface, surface modelling, virtual environment.

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Employment freedom and the prohibition of discrimination in the workplace; a comparative study of Iranian Constitution, Iranian Labor Rights and Regulations of ILO

 

1 Dr. Bahram Farahmand Saber, 1 Dr. Mahdi NikNafs, 1Amir Rastegar

1 Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Applyforisi@gmail.com
 

Abstract: This paper reviews the employment and discrimination prohibition laws in Iranian memorandum and labor law compared to the regulations of International Labor Organization (ILO). Hence, this paper attempts to provide the further exploration of the Iranian and International labor rights, pitfalls, weaknesses, strength and opportunities.
[Bahram Farahmand Saber, Mahdi NikNafs, Amir Rastegar. Employment freedom and the prohibition of discrimination in the workplace; a comparative study of Iranian Constitution, Iranian Labor Rights and Regulations of ILO.
J Am Sci 2012;8(4):366-368]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.49


Keywords:
Labor right, discrimination, freedom, employment.

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Saudisation of the nursing workforce: Reality and Myths about planning Nurse Training in Saudi Arabia

 

Sana Al-Mahmoud1, Penelope M Mullen2 and Peter Spurgeon2

 

.1College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

2Medical School, University of Warwick, UK

 

Abstract: Background: The majority of nurses in the Saudi health system are expatriates and Saudisation of nursing faces difficulties in attracting students and retaining Saudi nurses in the workforce. Objectives: Whilst previous studies have focused on cultural and religious issues, this paper focuses on the Saudi nurse-training pathway and its contribution to Saudisation. Method: In the absence of centrally-collected data, a survey of all nurse-training institutions in KSA was conducted. Results: It was found there has been a great increase in the number of places, but the vast majority are at Diploma level. Considerable regional disparities were observed and the private sector is playing an increasing role in provision. Whilst males have over half the places there is no degree-level provision for them. Conclusions & Recommendations: It is concluded that to achieve Saudisation more places, central data collection and planning are needed. In addition, regional and gender disparities in provision might affect Saudisation negatively. Despite the fact that applications exceed places, there are fewer entrants than places. It is difficult to determine the exact number of qualified applicants and thus to conclude how strong demand for places is. Recommendations are made relating to planning and policy issues, nursing education and attracting more students. More attention should be given to publicising and making the nursing profession more attractive. For example, salaries for Saudi nursing staff should be increased. A nursing admissions service should be established which provides high school leavers with the information they need about nursing and job guarantees should be offered to nursing graduates.

[Sana Al-Mahmoud, Penelope M Mullen, and Peter Spurgeon. Saudisation of the nursing workforce: Reality and Myths about planning Nurse Training in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):369-379]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.50

 

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, nursing profession, nurse training, nurse planning, nurse workforce.

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Effect of Work Problems on Clinical Instructors Performance in Faculty of Nursing, Menoufiya University

 

1Lamiaa Ismail Keshk and 2Mervat Ebrahim El Dahshan

 

1Department of Nursing Administration Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University

2Department of Nursing Administration Faculty of Nursing, Menoufiya University

keshk_lamiaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The role of the clinical teacher is by far much greater than that of educator, evaluator, or provider of care alone. It is truly a mixing of these qualities in addition to being present to the student as a resource person and student advocate that comprises clinical teaching. They need to shift their actions from the delivery of quality care of patients to the delivery of quality education to students who will one day provide patient care. A high teaching workload can constrain scholarly productivity’. High teaching workloads involved heavy responsibility in course coordination, teaching, especially clinical teaching, and university service. Aim: is to Explore and assess the effect of work problems on clinical instructors' performance in the Faculty of Nursing, Menoufiya University in the academic year 2007-2008. Subject and methods: An exploratory, descriptive design was used, and conducted in Shebin El-Kom teaching hospital and University hospital in the Faculty of Nursing, Menoufyia University, The samples were included all clinical instructors (40) appointed during the academic year (2007-2008).A self-administered questionnaire were used to clinical instructors to assess socio-demographic data and working problems sheet Including the working problems that the clinical instructor faced while training the students in different clinical setting. Observational checklist to observe nursing teacher in clinical setting (ONTICS) tool. Results: The results showed that the majority of clinical instructors were suffering from heavy work related to regularly staff meeting and insufficient time. Also, clinical instructors were satisfied for their teaching skills. Conclusions: an orientation program for preparation of newly appointed clinical instructor is highly recommended. This program is supposed to facilitate the transitional phase during their career and develop collegial relationships with peer and other staff members.

[Lamiaa Ismail Keshk and Mervat Ebrahim El Dahshan. Effect of Work Problems on Clinical Instructors Performance in Faculty of Nursing, Menoufiya University. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):380-391].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.51

 

Key words: clinical Instructors, work problems, work load, performance.

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Barriers to Research Utilization in Clinical Practice

 

Ghada Abd El-Salam Belal1, Shereen Ragab Dorgham2, Reda Abd-El fatah Said 3

 

1Maternity and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University.1 Nursing Services Administration Dept, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University,2 Nursing Services Administration Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University.3

d_org_ham7@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: One important source of knowledge is research. Research provides a solid foundation on which health care professionals base their practice. So, the lack of awareness and utilization of research is a hindrance to nursing professional development. This study aimed to assess barriers to research utilization in clinical setting at Tanta University Hospital. The study was conducted at Tanta University Hospital. The study subjects consisted of 96 head nurse. The data of the study was collected using Barrier Scale Questionnaire. The study results revealed that the majority of the highly ranked barriers to research utilization are categorized as setting related barriers, followed by presentation and accessibility of research findings, research and nurses related barriers, while, the majority of suggested facilitators to research utilization are related to setting, and presentation and accessibility to research findings. The study recommended that; the culture of research should be pervasive in the organization through providing supportive leadership by the unit managers and collaboration between colleagues, staff and physicians.

[Ghada Abd El-Salam Belal, Shereen Ragab Dorgham, Reda Abd-El fatah Said. Barriers to Research Utilization in Clinical Practice. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):392-403]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.52

 

Keywords: barriers to research, clinical practice, research utilization.

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NATO objectives in expansion towards the East

 

Mohammad Reza Gaedi (Corresponding author)

Department of political science, Shiraz branch, Islamic Azad University,Shiraz, Iran

Ghaedi.M.R@gmx.com

 

Abstract: With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the main threat to "North Atlantic Treaty Organization" (NATO) destroyed. After 1990s, this organization adopted a "new security strategy" through a new definition of "security". Based on this approach, NATO's range of action extended from "territory of member states" to any part of world where members' interests are threatened. According to globalization process and based on "new security strategy", NATO established new institutions and mechanism such as "North Atlantic Cooperation Council" and "Partnership for Peace". In NATO members' idea, after the collapse of the Soviet Union not only threats haven't gone away but also they have become multilateral and more diverse in ultra bipolar arena. Based this approach, NATO tries to expand the organization to reach economic and security areas. The reason of members' attention to the idea of "expansion towards the East" was to complete the second half of the "Marshall plan".

[MohammadReza Gaedi. NATO objectives in expansion towards the East. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):404-411]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.53

 

Keywords: NATO, North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC), Partnership for Peace (PFP), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

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Shia Ghulat in Khorasan and Mawarannahr in the first Islamic centuries

 

Nabiollah ghasemikhatir1, Hassan Bigonah 2

 

1. Technical University of Imam Muhammad Bagher, Sari, Iran

GhasemikhatirN@gmail.com

2. Torbate jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbate jam, Iran

scientificgroup22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The issue of the present article is Shia Ghulat in Khorasan and Mawarannahr in the first Islamic centuries. One of the basic issues of Islam history and the religious beliefs is the advent of different sects. Various religious sects emerged in the history of Iran, after Islam, one of which is Shia Ghulat in Khorasan and Mawarannahr in the first centuries of Iran after Islam. This article touches this pivot point of why the sect of Ghulat emerged. Moreover, it answers the question that what historical, social, political, and religious backgrounds were. Besides, it asks the continuity reasons of their beliefs and opinions until the 6th Century AH. In addition, this article searches their political and social activities.

[Nabiollah ghasemikhatir, Hassan Bigonah. Shia Ghulat in Khorasan and Mawarannahr in the first Islamic centuries. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):412-416]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.54

 

Keywords: Ghulat, Shia Ghulat, Ghulat revolt, Khorasan and Mawarannahr, political and social results

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The Effect of Material's Kind Variation on the Functional Performance Properties of the Woven curtains

 

Saadia O. K. Ibrahim

 

Department of Spinning, Weaving and Knitting, Faculty of Applied Arts - Helwan University
sadia.kishk@yahoo.com

 
Abstract:
Curtains' Fabric are considered one of the important types of furnishings either it was used inside homes, or hotels or restaurants or offices or meeting halls, and whatever purpose of use differed, at the end it is used for Two main purposes: First is Beneficial, as the glass windows and wall holes to allow man practices his personal life freely enough, or with the purpose of sound absorption and thermal insulation and protection of furniture from the harmful effect of sun rays especially in modern buildings of big glass faces. The second is Aesthetic represented in addition of art touch as an aesthetic value. As the material type has effective effect on different Properties for these Fabrics, as the fibers play an important role either it was natural or Synthetic, and both has its advantages and characters that suits the final use.
So the research interested in study of The effect of difference material type on the functional performance Properties for woven curtains' Fabrics, by producing 25 woven samples, this Fabrics of five different materials that are: cotton, wool, polyester, poly acrylic, poly propylene, and Blending them. Then performing some laboratory tests on these Fabrics, these tests are: drapability, air permeability, thickness, stiffness, thermal insulation, light reflection and also ability to permeate ultraviolet rays in addition to sound absorption. Then tabulation of tests' results, then their analysis statistically, their discussion and drawing chart relationships.

[Saadia O. K. Ibrahim. The Effect of Material's Kind Variation on the Functional Performance Properties of the Woven curtains. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):417-425].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 55.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.55

 

Keywords: curtain fabric, sound absorption, woven curtains, thermal insulation, drapability, air permeability

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Optimum flexural strength of binary blended concrete in presence SiO2 nanoparticles as nanofillers and with palm oil clinker aggregates

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Flexural strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength.
[Farzad Soleymani
. Optimum flexural strength of binary blended concrete in presence SiO2 nanoparticles as nanofillers and with palm oil clinker aggregates. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):426-431]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.56

 

Key words: SiO2 nanoparticle; flexural strength; palm oil clinker; lightweight concrete; curing medium; optimal strength.

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Optimum content of SiO2 nanoparticles in concrete specimens

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Compressive strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. Optimum content of SiO2 nanoparticles in concrete specimens. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):432-437]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.57

 

Key words: SiO2 nanoparticle; compressive strength; cementitious composite; curing medium; optimal strength.

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Studies on Edwardsiellosis in Clarias Gariepinus Fish at Sohag Governorate

 

Mahmoud Hashiem and Mohamed A. A. Abd El-Galil

Fish Microbiology Dept. National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Hurghada, Egypt.

Fish Dept., Faculty of. Veterinary Medicine., Sohag Univ., Egypt.
dm4467201@yahoo.com, abdelgalil1997@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Edwardsiellosis (Emphysematous putrefactive disease) is one of the most serious bacterial diseases affecting Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) fish. This study reported the most characteristic lesions including skin depigmented areas, external hemorrhages, small cutaneous ulcers and gas filled pockets give rise offensive odour, ascitis. Its prevalence was 5.2% in the examined fish sample and 16.7% in the clinically diseased fish. The isolated strains were identified by the conventional biochemical tests and API20-E as E. tarda. The isolated strain was pathogenic and its LD50 was 1.5x105CFUml-1. Combination of carvacrol and its precursor cymene (100ppm of each) for 14 days as food additives controlled the disease in C. gariepinus while 50ppm reduced mortality to10%.

[Mahmoud Hashiem and Mohamed A. A. Abd El-Galil. Studies on Edwardsiellosis in Clarias Gariepinus Fish at Sohag Governorate. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):438-444]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.58


 

Keywords: Edwardsiellosis, Clarias gariepinus, carvacrol and cymene, antibiotics, oxytetracycline

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Outcome of Conservative Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Adults: An Observational CT-Controlled Study

 

Nabil Abdulghany Sarhan and Ahmed Abdel Fatah
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University
Sarhannabil@yahoo.com

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate short-term outcome of conservative treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and the frequency of need for surgical conversion. Patients & Methods: The study included 120 CRS patients; 71 males and 49 females with mean age of 37.47.2 years. All patients underwent nasal endoscopy and endoscopic findings were graded according to Lund-Kennedy scoring system. CT scan of paranasal sinuses was performed and assessed according to Lund-Mackay scale. All patients completed the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and the chronic sinusitis score (CSS) quality of life questionnaires. All patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones as first line for 14 days and cases were divided into responders and non-responders according to the obtained response. Non-responders were prescribed high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate as alternative line for 14 days. Non-responders and responders had recurrent attack were prepared for surgical treatment. All responders had to complete post-treatment RSDI and CSS questionnaire and those remained free of recurrence for at least 6 months underwent CT imaging. Results: At the end of 3-months, 70 patients (58.3%) responded to treatment with evident improvement of complaints and significant improvement of health quality of life scores compared to their pretreatment scores. Twenty-nine patients had recurrent symptoms after a mean duration of 61.3 months, while 41 patients completed free follow-up for a mean duration of 83.1 months. The relapsed patients received the alternative line of conservative treatment and 10 of them responded to the second episode of treatment, while 19 patients were converted to surgical management. Response to conservative treatment was assured by post-treatment CT examination showing resolution of sinuses opacity and significant decrease of Lund-Mackay scale. Non-responders received the alternative line and 17 patients responded, while 33 patients were converted to surgical treatment. Collectively, 41 patients (34.2%) responded to first line of management, 27 patients (22.5%) responded to the alternative line of management and 52 patients (43.3%) were converted to surgery. Conclusion: Trials of conservative management for patients with CRS allowed CT-confirmed resolution of infection in about 35% of patients with significant improvement of quality of life scores and spares surgical interference, so relieving patients' apprehension and minimized cost with high benefit and restoring surgery for non-responders.
[Nabil Abdulghany Sarhan and Ahmed Abdel Fatah
. Outcome of Conservative Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Adults: An Observational CT-Controlled Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):445 -450].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.59

 

Key word: Chronic rhinosinusitis, CT, Conservative treatment

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Effects of Fentanyl and Dexmedetomidine Infusion on Tracheal Intubation and Emergence Agitation in Children Anesthetized With Sevoflurane

 

Samy A. Amr1 and Mohamed A. Osma2

 
1
Anesthesiology Department, South Egypt Cancer Institute

2 Pediatric Surgery Department, Children Hospital, Assiut University, Egypt

saaerfan62@yahoo.com.ph

 

Abstract: Background: Emergence agitation (EA) is a common side effect after anesthesia with sevoflurane as a sole agent in children. Fentanyl and dexmedetomidine, can be used to facilitate intubation and decrease emergence agitation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding either fentanyl or dexmedetomidine on conditions at intubation and on emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia without confounding nitrous oxide or premedication. Methods: This study was approved by Our Clinical Ethical Committee and written consents were obtained from patients prior entry into the study. This study included a total number of (150) patients, ASA physical status I, and their ages range between (2-8years). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either i.v. saline (control group), a bolus dose of fentanyl 2g/kg followed by a continuous infusion of 1 g/kg/h (group F), or a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine 0.75 g/kg followed by a continuous infusion of 0.5 g/kg/h (group D). Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane in oxygen and maintained using a predetermined concentration of sevoflurane. Sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration for tracheal intubation (MACTI) was assessed. After extubation. Agitation parameters were measured using a five-point scale, agitated children were managed by giving intravenous increments of fentanyl 1 g/kg. Postoperative fentanyl consumption, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and the time of hospital discharge allowance were recorded. Results: MACTI value were (2.64%, 1.35% and 1.31%) in control group, group F and group D respectively (p< 0.05) with no deference between group F and D. Incidence of postoperative agitation, amount of fentanyl consumption and nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in control group (P< 0.001). No significant difference between the three groups in the time of hospital discharge allowance. Conclusion: Adding either fentanyl infusion or dexmedetomidine infusion in a proper doses facilitate tracheal intubation and reduced sevoflurane-related emergence agitation with high safety profile.

[Samy A. Am and Mohamed A. Osma. Effects of Fentanyl and Dexmedetomidine Infusion on Tracheal Intubation and Emergence Agitation in Children Anesthetized With Sevoflurane. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):451-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.60

 

Keywords: Sevoflurane, fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, agitation, pediatric potency, MAC

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A Study on the Effect of Female Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk on Glycemic Control of Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

 

1Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, 2Ali K. Asala, 1Ahmed A. Hendawy, 1Mansour H. Zahra and 1Mohamed M. Shaban

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

mohamed.shaban77@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It is known that camel milk have multiple benefits on the body functions and treatment of some diseases. This study was designed to investigate the effect of camel milk on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin in rats. Thirty healthy adult male albino rats were used for this study. The rats were divided into three equal groups. Group 1 non diabetic control group, group 2 diabetic rats in which diabetes mellitus was induced intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (65mg/kg body weight) and group 3 diabetic and treated with camel milk given orally at a dose of (40ml/day) for each rat daily for four weeks. Glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1C, lipids profile, ketone body, pH, bicarbonate, creatinine, urea and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were estimated. Obtained results revealed that there was a significant decrease in glucose, HbA1C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), creatinin, urea and acetoacetic acid keton and a significant increase in insulin, High density lipoproteins (HDL), pH, Bicarbonate and final body weight in group 3 when compared with group 2. In conclusion, camel's milk has hypoglycemic effect on experimental diabetic rats.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Ali K. Asala, Ahmed A. Hendawy, Mansour H. Zahra and Mohamed M. Shaban. A Study on the Effect of Female Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Milk on Glycemic Control of Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):459-465]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.61

 

Key words: Camel milk, diabetes mellitus, streptozotocin, insulin

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Value of a Combination Assay of Urinary Survivin, Calreticulin and Urokinase Type-Plasminogen Activator Receptor as Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tool in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

 

S Sharaf1; A Ketat1; I Diab1; F Dwidar1 and W Sameh2

Medical Biochemistry1 and Urology2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, EGYPT.

ihdiab59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Approximately 70% of bladder cancer are superficial, and respond well to endoscopic transurethral resection. However, 70% of these patients experience tumor recurrence. As the propensity for local recurrence extends over the lifetime, these patients must undergo life-long surveillance. Combination of cystoscopy and urine cytology, is considered to be the "gold standard" for this survellance. However, the former is invasive and the latter has low sensitivity. Therefore, new non-invasive tests with high sensitivity and specificity that are easy to perform are needed for screening and surveillance for recurrent tumors. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work was to investigate the value of a combination assay of the three urinary proteins: survivin, calreticulin (CRT) and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as non invasive diagnostic tool in detection of bladder cancer recurrence. Patients and Methods: From march 2010 to October 2010, all patients with known history of NMIBC who are scheduled for follow-up cystoscopy in the Department of Urology, Alexandria University were prospectively included in this study. All patients underwent cystoscopy under general anaesthesia, and those who were found to have a definite or suspicious lesion(s) in the bladder underwent complete TURBT. Voided urine samples from all patients were taken before cystoscopy. Urinary survivin and uPAR concentrations were performed by ELISA technique while urinary CRT was estimated by western blot technique. Results: Sixty eight patients were eligible to our study. Thirty patients were found to have no recurrence of the disease and were considered as group I (recurrence-free group) while 38 patients had non-muscle-invasive recurrence and were considered as group II (recurrence group). There was significant increase of the three urinary proteins in the recurrence group compared to the recurrence-free group. The concomitant use of the three urinary markers revealed higher sensitivity for detection of bladder cancer recurrence (96.8%) than the use of each marker alone, but at the expense of lower specificity (80%). Combining these markers using a Logistic Regression Model resulted in higher specificity with maintained excellent sensitivity. A direct comparison between the diagnostic performance of the new logistic regression model, survivin alone and various combinations the three markers showed that the new model had the highest sensitivity (93.75%) with a 100.00% specificity. Conclusion: Combining more than one urinary marker is a logic step forward that improves the sensitivity of detection of bladder cancer recurrence. The use of this logistic regression model as a promising urinary marker for early detection of bladder cancer is recommended where the specificity remains 100.0% while the sensitivity is raised to 93.75%. However larger studies should be carried out to prove the usefulness of these marker combinations.

[S Sharaf; A Ketat; I Diab; F Dwidar and W Sameh. Value of a Combination Assay of Urinary Survivin, Calreticulin and Urokinase Type-Plasminogen Activator Receptor as Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tool in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):466-473]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.62


Key words:
Urinary bladder, detection, Recurrence, Survivin, Calreticulin and uPAR

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A nonlinear inverse problem with unknown radiation term

 

H. Molhem 1, R. Pourgholi 2, M. Borghei 3

 

1,3. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran.

2. School of Mathematics and Computer Sciences,Damghan University, P.O.Box 36715-364, Damghan, Iran.

 molhem@kiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this study we consider an inverse problem of linear heat equation with nonlinear boundary condition. We identify the temperature and the unknown radiation term from an overspecified condition on the boundary. At the beginning of the study, Taylor's series expansion is employed to linearize nonlinear term and then finite-difference method is used to discretize the problem domain. The least-squares method is adopted to modify the solution. To regularize the resultant ill-conditioned linear system of equations, we apply the Tikhonov regularization method to obtain the stable numerical approximation to the solution. Results show that an excellent estimation can be obtained within a couple of minutes CPU time at pentium IV-2.4 GHz PC.

[H. Molhem, R. Pourgholi, M. Borghei. A nonlinear inverse problem with unknown radiation term. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):474-478]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).http://www.americanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.63

 

Keywords: Inverse heat conduction problem, Radiation term, Stability, Finite difference method, Least-squares method, Tikhonov regularization method.

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Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Silybum Marianum Plant against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

 

Nevien I. Soufy

 

Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University

neviensuofy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Silybum marianum (SM) plant seeds and its effect on body weight were studied in rats. In vitro determination of the antioxidant activity of SM extract using 1, 1- diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was carried out. The hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant effects of SM extract were evaluated in CCL4 - intoxicated rats. Estimation of serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT) in hepatic tissue and liver histopathology were the parameters used in the study. The results showed that no mortalities occur when SM extract was orally given to rats in graded doses up to 8.0 g b.wt. kg-1. SM extract induced a significant in vitro antioxidant activity when compared to standard ascorbic acid. Pretreatment of CCL4intoxicated rats with SM extract (200 and 400 mg/kg-1 b.wt./day) for 8 weeks significantly (P< 0.05) decreased the elevated serum liver enzymes and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver homogenate when compared to the CCL4-poisoned group. These biochemical findings were accompanied by amelioration of hepatic degenerative changes (vacuolar degeneration and necrosis) induced by CCL4. The results proved the protective effect of Silybum marianum on liver cells. The protective effect of SM extract may be attributed to the antioxidant effect flavonoids present in this plant. It could be concluded that Silybium marianum plant have high safety, hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activity in rats. The study recommends that intake of Silybium marianum plant may be beneficial for patients who suffer from liver diseases associated with oxidative stress.

[Nevien I. Soufy. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Silybum Marianum Plant against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):479-486]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.64

 

Keywords: Silybum marianum; Hepatoprotective; Antioxidant; Histopathology; Rats.

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Cytotoxicity/Genotoxicity of Natural Dyes in Comparison with Synthetic Extracted from Egyptian Cotton Clothes

 

 1Yousif Elhassaneen; 2Islam Hussein and 3Rasha Elgohary

Departments of 1Nutrition and Food Science & 2Clothes and Textile, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom,
3Division of Home Economics, Faculty of Specific Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Abstract: The present study was aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of natural dyes (hibiscus, turmeric and henna) in comparison with synthetic ones (red, olivaceous and yellow) extracted from some cotton clothes distributed in Egyptian local markets. Fish liver cells homogenate and human lymphocytes cultures used as in vitro biological model systems instead of intact animals. Dyes purified extracts were prepared from cotton clothes samples and exposure to fish liver cells homogenate which incubated at 27 0C (5% CO2 extension) for 24 hrs. The obtained data indicated that some cytotoxic effects such lysosomes (NR assay) and mitochondria (MTT assay) dysfunction as well as cell wall membrane integrity (CV assay) were observed on the liver cells at the lower concentrations of tested synthetic dyes extracts compared with little effects induced by the naturals dyes extracts. According to midpoint cytotoxicity values, the sequence of tested dyes extract for the different cytotoxicity assays were red > yellow > olivaceous > henna > hibiscus > turmeric. Data for DNA damage detected by comet assay in human lymphocytes culture indicated that synthetic dye clothes extracts significantly (p<0.01) increased the percentage of total damaged spots while little effects induced by natural dye extracts. In conclusion, synthetic dyes extracted from clothes distributed in Egyptian local markets could be constituted real threaten to human health through inducing many cyctotoxic and mutagenic effects. Therefore, natural dyes such as hibiscus, turmeric and henna recommended to be used in textile dying technology instead of the synthetic ones..................................................................................................................................................................
[Yousif Elhassaneen, Islam Hussein
, and Rasha Elgohary. Cytotoxicity/Genotoxicity of Natural Dyes in Comparison with Synthetic Extracted from Egyptian Cotton Clothes. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):487-498]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.65


Key words: Natural dyes, synthetic dyes, toxicological effects, comet assay, cotton clothes

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The Effects of Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Probiotics on Broilers Exposed to Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress

 1Yosef, T.A., 2Al-Julaifi, M.Z. and 3Kandeel, M.

1Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelshiekh University
2Toxicology Laboratory, Management of Veterinary Laboratories, Ministry of Agriculture, Riyadh 11418, Saudi Arabia.
3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelshiekh University, Kafrelshiekh 33516, Egypt
Email:
tarektoxicology@yahoo.com

Abstract: One-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups (45 birds each) including three replicates for a 1-42 days as follows: (1) control: basal ration; (2): Camellia sinensis 1 g/kg basal ration; (3): lead acetate 200 mg/kg basal ration; (4): Camellia sinensis + lead acetate basal ration. Lead caused oxidative damage on blood and liver of the exposed birds as evidenced by a significant (p<0.05) increase in lead levels by 21.87 and 86.73 % and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 253.85 and 87.50 % respectively. Moreover decreased antioxidant enzymes activities. Co-supplementation of Camellia Sinensis to lead resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in lead levels in the blood and liver by 42.85 and 58.82%; MDA by 45.45 and 50.00% respectively. SOD and CAT activities increased significantly (p<0.05), in addition to increasing in the GSH level. Results indicate that Camellia Sinensis may be beneficial in preventing lead-induced oxidative damage in poultry.
[Yosef, T.A., Al-Julaifi, M.Z. and Kandeel, M. The Effects of Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Probiotics on Broilers Exposed to Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):499-506]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.66

 

Keywords: Camellia Sinensis; Lead; Oxidative Stress; MDA;GSH; SOD; CAT.

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Shelf Life Improvement of Camel Meat Treated With Potassium Sorbate 0.3%

 

Hussein, M.A.1, El-Ghareeb, W.R. 1 and Lotfy, O.O2

 1Food Control Department, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
2Vet Clinic, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
elged2010@yahoo.com

 Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the use of potassium sorbate 0.3% as a preservative for minced camel meat. Fresh camel meat (thigh muscle) (n=80) samples were collected from different butcher shops in Zagazig city, Egypt and examined microbiologically for total mesophilic aerobic plate count, total Enterobacteriaceae count, total Staphylococcus aureus count and total mould and yeast count. The log mean values SE of examined microorganisms were log 64.9, log 3.32.1, log 3.32.0 and log 2.51.5, respectively. The effect of potassium sorbate 0.3% on microbial load and sensory characteristics of refrigerated camel meat (41 C) was studied. The results indicated a significant reduction especially in the total mould and yeast count. Thus, the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended to 8 days (samples treated with potassium sorbate 0.3%) as compared to the control samples, meat pH level was maintained and surface discolouration was minimal in treated meat samples as compared to control. On the other hand, this method of preservation is applicable, easy to be transported and prepared, cheap and available in markets. Public health significance of bacterial contamination of camel carcasses was discussed and suggestive measures for improvement of the microbial quality of camel carcasses were mentioned.
[Hussein, M.A., El-Ghareeb, W.R.
, and Lotfy, O.O. Shelf Life Improvement of Camel Meat Treated With Potassium Sorbate 0.3%. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):507-511]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 67 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.67

 

Keywords: camel meat, microbial, shelf life, pH, potassium sorbate.

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Postoperative Analgesia for Circumcision in Children: A Comparative Study of Caudal Block versus High Dose Rectal Acetaminophen or EMLA Cream

Jehan Ahmed Sayed1 and Mohamed Amir Fathy2

1Department of Anesthesia and intensive care, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt
jehan.alloul@yahoo.com

 Abstract: Background: Analgesia for circumcision in children is considered essential by the American Academy of pediatrics to minimize the postoperative discomfort and pain. Objectives: We compared efficacy of caudal epidural bupivacaine analgesia versus high dose rectal acetaminophen (40mg/kg b.wt) or topical application of Eutetic mixture of the local anesthetics lidocain and prilocain (EMLA cream) in children undergoing circumcision. Methods: Sixty ASA I children aged 6 weeks-3 yr undergoing circumcision were randomized to receive either single dose of 2-4gm of topical EMLA cream (Astra Pharma Inc. Sweden) 1h prior to procedure (group I), 40 mg/kg b.wt rectal acetaminophen (group II) or caudal epidural 1mg/kg b.wt of 0.25% bupivacaine (group III). The study drug was administrated in the groups (II) and (III) immediately after induction of general anesthesia. All children were assessed for the post operative pain intensity with the FLACC pain scale for five categories (F) Face, (L) Legs, (A) Activity, (C) Cry, and (C) Consol ability, time to first supplemental analgesia (oral acetaminophen), frequency of analgesic used and any adverse events during the first 24hrs. Results: Total FLACC pain score was significantly decreased, together with significant reduction in the percentages of children required postoperative analgesia in both caudal bupivacaine and rectal acetaminophen groups when compared to the EMLA group. However no difference was observed in pain scores, frequency of used analgesia or time to first rescue analgesia between caudal epidural or rectal acetaminophen group. Postoperative undesirable effects were comparable in all groups. Conclusions: High dose rectal acetaminophen (40 mg/kg) provides adequate post-circumcision analgesia in pediatrics comparable to caudal block and superior to topical EMLA cream. It is a useful alternative to caudal block as it is easier administer and appears safe.
[Jehan Ahmed Sayed and Mohamed Amir Fathy. Postoperative Analgesia for Circumcision in Children: A Comparative Study of Caudal Block versus High Dose Rectal Acetaminophen or EMLA Cream. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):512-516]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.68

 

Key words: analgesic, caudal block, circumcision, rectal acetaminophen, EMLA cream.

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Effect of Boron and Yeast Extract Foliar Application on Growth, Pod Setting and both Green Pod and Seed Yield Of Broad Bean (Vicia Faba L)

 

A. Abou EL-Yazied1and M. A. Mady2

 

1Dep. Hort., Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El- Kheima, Egypt.

2Dep. Agric. Botany, Fac. Agric., Moshtohor, Benha Univ., Egypt

 

Abstract: A field experiment with broad bean (Vicia faba L) cv Super Aquadulse was conducted to study the effect of separate and combined foliar applications of boron (0, 25 and 50 ppm) and yeast extract (0, 2.5 and 5 ml/L) on growth, yield and some biochemical constituents. The results revealed that, foliar application with boron and yeast extract either individually or in a mixture, significantly stimulate many growth aspects as number of leaves per plant, dry weights of both stems and leaves per plant, total leaf area and absolute growth rate as compared with the control treatment. In addition, foliar spraying with boron at 50 ppm and yeast extract at 5 ml/L increased photosynthetic pigments, NPK, B, total sugars, total free amino acids and crude protein content in leaves at 70 and 85 days after sowing. Moreover, boron and yeast extract treatments not only increased auxins and cytokinins but also decreased abscisic acid at 75 days after sowing during second season. All treatments not only increased number of formed flowers, setted pods per plant, green pod and dry seed yields, as well as satis factory effect upon shedding percentage, i.e. reduced it. Hence, it could be recommended that foliar spraying with boron at 50 ppm and yeast extract at 5 ml/L can be used to increase the final green pods and seed yield as well as seed quality of broad bean plants.
[A. Abou EL-Yazied and M. A. Mady
. Effect of Boron and Yeast Extract Foliar Application on Growth, Pod Setting and both Green Pod and Seed Yield Of Broad Bean (Vicia Faba L). J Am Sci 2012;8(4):517-533]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.69

 

Keywords: boron, yeast extract broad bean, Vicia faba, chlorophyll, endogenous phytohormones, flowering, pod setting, yield, seed quality

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Developing a Theory of Ubiquitous Marketing Research: Combining Ideology And Methodology of Marketing Research

 

Wael Kortam1, Abeer Mahrous1 and Samaa Attia2


1
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University, Egypt

2Faculty of Business Administration, Economics & Political Science, British University in Egypt, Egypt

 

Abstract: This paper aims to propose a theory of ubiquitous marketing research. To that end, the paper develops a synergistic integration of the postulates, pathways and ends of the ideology and methodology of marketing research in order to make the scientific truth of the marketing research discipline uniquely universal through getting over its perpetuation, generalization and globalization hurdles of time, place and culture. These research endeavors should be expected to signposting a blueprint of genuine ubiquitous science of marketing research.

[WaelKortam, Abeer Mahrousand, Samaa Attia. Developing a Theory of Ubiquitous Marketing Research: Combining Ideology And Methodology of Marketing Research. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):534-538]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.70

 

Keywords: Ubiquitous Marketing Research, Ideology of Marketing Research, Methodology of Marketing Research, Universal, Eternal and Global Marketing Knowledge

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Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents

Amal Ahmed Khalil Morsy1 Nagat Salah Shalaby2 and Mona Abdel Sabour3

Pediatric Nursing1, Obstetric and gynecology Nursing2, Family & community health nursing Departments3 Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt
nagatsalama@gmail.com

Abstract: The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent schoolchildren, and to investigate its effect on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). It is hypothesized that overweight/ obesity is an independent predictor of a lower HR-QOL score. The study was conducted in preparatory and secondary schools in Port Said city on 898 schoolchildren selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Data were collected using a designed a self-administered questionnaire form including a validated HR-QOL scale translated into Arabic and pilot-tested. Body mass index was measured. The response rate was 95.2%. The results showed a 11.5% prevalence of obesity and 21.5% overweight, significantly higher in secondary level, compared to preparatory (p<0.001). The total QoL score was 68.712.1; it showed statistically significant decreasing trends from normal to obese, through overweight in all QoL domains except having positive feelings. Significantly more girls in the overweight and obese categories had their menarche (p=0.002), and the intensity of menstrual pain was significantly higher in overweight and obese girls (p=0.02). Multivariate analysis identified participant's age, female gender, number of diseases or symptoms and BMI as independent statistically significant negative predictors of QoL score, while good perception of health and higher level of father education were positive predictors. Therefore, health care providers, schoolteachers and parents should deploy more efforts in implementing Intervention programs aimed at prevention and treatment of overweight/obesity in schools
[Amal Ahmed Khalil Morsy, Nagat Salah Shalaby, and Mona Abdel Sabour. Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):539-545]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.71

 

Keywords: adolescent, health, Obesity, quality of life

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Plasma Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 levels (HER-2) and HER-2 codon 655 polymorphism in Females Suffering from Breast Cancer

 

Hala M.T. El-Mougy1, Omayma H.M. Sarhan1, Wafaa M.E. Abdel Fatah1 and Ola M.R. Khorshid2

 

1Departments of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine(Girls), Al-Azhar University

2Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

hala.elmougy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: HER-2 proto-oncogene plays an important role in the regulation of normal breast growth and its alteration is associated with carcinogenesis and poor prognosis of breast cancer. HER-2 gene polymorphisms is suggested to be the principal mechanism of HER-2 gene amplification, protein over-expression and increased plasma HER-2 “the truncated product of the receptor that is released into the circulation” in breast cancer. In this study we explored the HER-2 gene polymorphisms and plasma HER-2 in 40 breast cancer females and 20 healthy control subjects. Patients were classified equally into 2 groups, early breast cancer and locally advanced breast cancer. The results of the study showed a highly significant increase of mutant genotypes AG/GG in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) group but not in early breast cancer patients (EBC) compared to control group. This genotype was significantly higher in LABC compared to EBC. Mutant AG/GG genotypes were significantly associated with lymph node positivity and increased immunohistochemical expression of HER-2. Regarding allele distribution, mutant G allele was significantly higher in LABC but not in EBC compared to control and it was significantly higher in LABC than in EBC. Plasma HER-2 was significantly elevated in LABC compared to control but not in EBC compared to control group. Within breast cancer patients, plasma HER-2 was significantly elevated in carriers of the AG/GG genotype than in AA genotype carriers. In conclusion, the present study supported the hypothesis that HER-2 gene polymorphism and plasma HER-2 are important predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer.

[Hala M.T. El-Mougy, Omayma H.M. Sarhan, Wafaa M.E. Abdel Fatah, and Ola M.R. Khorshid. Plasma Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 levels (HER-2) and HER-2 codon 655 polymorphism in Females Suffering from Breast Cancer. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):546-552]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.72


Key words:
HER-2 gene polymorphism, breast cancer.

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Assessment of Antioxidant Changes of Aged Rats Treated With Sumac Extract

M. M. Abbass1, A. H. Mahmoud1, Mohamed M. A. Hussein2 and Salah A. Gabr1

Biological Applications Dept., Isotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority1, Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University2
manalmounir71@yahoo.com

Abstract: It is increasingly being realized that many of today's diseases are due to the "oxidative stress" that results from an imbalance between formation and neutralization of free radicals. Many synthetic drugs are said to protect from oxidative damage but they have adverse side effects. An alternative solution to the problem is to consume natural antioxidants from food supplements and traditional medicine. Sumac extract is a widely used herbal plant that affects the biological activities. The present study has focused on the potential role of sumac extracts on age- related changes in senile rats. Thirty male albino rats were used for this purpose. They were divided into three groups (10 animals in each), 1st group (6 months old) served as adult or control group, 2nd group (24 months old) as senile group, 3rd group (22months old as senile rats received 200mg / kg b.w. of sumac extract for two months) as treated group. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant activities of sumac extract (glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde), hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, WBCs and hematocrit), liver enzymes (AST and ALT), total protein, albumin, globulins and hormones (testosterone, T3 and T4). The sumac extract induced a significant increase in GSH and CAT levels and decrease in the concentration of MDA of senile rats. The plant extract, raised the Hb concentration, RBCs count and hematocrit. Also, it was elevated the level of total protein and albumin in treated rats as compared with senile rats. However, it made no significant change in ALT and AST. The extract had slight or no effect on T3 and T4 levels. Meanwhile, testosterone level increased significantly in treated rats in comparison with senile rats. These findings demonstrated that sumac extract have a positive effect on antioxidant status to minimize free radical-induced damage which is a key cause of aging.
[
M. M. Abbass, A. H. Mahmoud, Mohamed M. A. Hussein, and Salah A. Gabr. Assessment of Antioxidant Changes of Aged Rats Treated With Sumac Extract. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):553-558]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.73

 

Keywords: Sumac extract, antioxidant status, hematological parameters, senile rats.

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Modulatory Effects of Fish Liver Oil on Pilocarpine-Model of Epilepsy in Rats Compared to Topirmate as a Common Antiepileptic Drug

 

Walaa G. Hozayen1; Rasha R. Ahmed2; Amal K. Khalefa1 and Mohammed B. Ahmed1

 

1 Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Division, Beni-suef University.

2 Faculty of Science, Zoology Department, Beni-suef University.

Walaabio2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the action of fish liver oil and Topirmate in pilocarpine epileptic rats. Methods: Six groups of rats were treated daily for 21 days: control; pilocarpine- treated rats (epileptic control) were injected intraperitoneally with 350 mg/kg b. wt pilocarpine; epileptic rats treated with topirmate (100 mg/kg b. wt); epileptic rats was treated with fish liver oil (2.3 mg/kg b. wt); the 5th group was treated with the same previous dose of topirmate and the 6th group was treated with the previously mentioned dose of fish liver oil. Results: In epileptic rats a significant increase in hippocampal dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase and serum K+ level was reported. In addition, significant decrease in hippocampal glycine, reduced glutathione content and serum Na+ level, was recorded. Both fish liver oil and topirmate were found to be able to ameliorate most of the physiologically-altered parameters in epileptic rats. Conclusion: Fish liver oil could act as a promising antiepileptic drugs of high efficacy in retarding pathophysiological complications related to the neurophysiological disorders induced by pilocarpine epilepsy in rats.

[Walaa G. Hozayen; Rasha R. Ahmed; Amal K. Khalefa; Mohammed B. Ahmed. Modulatory effects of fish liver oil on pilocarpine-model of epilepsy in rats compared to topirmate as a common antiepileptic drug. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):559-566]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.74

 

Key words: Epilepsy, Topirmate, Fish liver oil, Neurotransmitters, Amino acids, Electrolytes, Reactive oxygen species.

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Physical and Stretch Properties of Woven Cotton Fabrics Containing Different Rates of Spandex

 Mourad M. M. 1; M. H. Elshakankery2 and Alsaid A. Almetwally2

1Faculty of Education, Helwan University, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
2Textile Eng. Dpt., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Mohamedmourad94@yahoo.com

Abstract: Spandex fibers have superior stretch and elastic recovery. Cotton yarns containing spandex are frequently used to manufacture elastic textile products. In this study cotton fabrics containing different rates of spandex were woven. Statistical methods were used to detect the effects of spandex rates on physical and stretch properties of the produced fabrics. The findings of this study revealed that Rate of spandex in cotton fabric has a significant influence on the physical and stretch properties of these types of fabrics.
[Mourad M. M; M. H. Elshakankery
; Alsaid A. Almetwally. Physical and Stretch Properties of Woven Cotton Fabrics Containing Different Rates of Spandex. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):567-572]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.75

 

Key words: Spandex fibers, Stretchable fabrics, draft ratio, Elastic recovery, Fabric Growth, Maximum Stretching.

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Microorganisms in the Air over a Bio-solid Waste Landfill in Egypt

 

1Mansour F.A., El- Dohlob S.M., 2Abdel Hameed A.A, 3Kamel M.M, and *2El-Gendy S.A.

 

1Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 2Air Pollution Dept. and 3Water Pollution Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*safaaelgendy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate microbial air quality (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) in adjacent and at different downwind distances at a municipal biosolid waste landfill (Shoubramant landfill). Airborne microbial composition was studied using a liquid impinger sampler during the period from June 2006 to June 2007. Air quality was evaluated using two microbiological contamination indices: the global index of microbiological contamination per m3 (GIMC per m3) and the amplification index (AI). Airborne microbial concentrations were usually higher downwind than upwind. The maximum downwind concentrations were 8.554105 colony forming unit per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) for bacteria, 7.36105 CFU/m3 for actinomycetes and 1.088104 for fungi. AI demonstrates that concentrations at downwind distances always superior to those of the upwind. There were no distinct correlation patterns found between air-microorganisms and weather conditions; the correlations differed according to the type of organism. The downwind microbial concentrations did not reach to the background ones, which raise the question about health risk. Human activity, type of organisms and meteorological factors were the main criteria controlling the temporal variations of microorganisms in the air. It is important to monitor microbial air quality near potential sources of bioaerosol emissions. In Egypt, detailed and systematic data is lacking on airborne microorganisms associated with waste application facilities.

[Mansour F.A., El- Dohlob S.M., Abdel Hameed A.A, Kamel M.M, and El-Gendy S.A. Microorganisms in the Air over a Bio-solid Waste Landfill in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):573-579]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.76

 

Keywords: biosolid landfill, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, air quality, weather conditions.

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Surface Morphological Structure Of The Tongue Of The Hedgehog,HemiechinusAuritus (Insectivora:Erinaceidae)

Nasr, E.S.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Nasriraky1970@yahoo.com

Abstract: The morphology of the dorsal lingual papillae of the adult hedgehog, Hemiechinusauritus (insectivora)was examined by scanning electron and light microscopy. The tongue in the hedgehog was elongated with somewhat symmetrical width. It was about 11–15 mm in length and 3–4 mm width. On the dorsal surface of the lingual mucosa, four types of papillae were observed: filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate. Numerous filiform papillae covered the entire surface of the apex and body of the tongue. Dome shape fungiform papillae were observed over the entire surface scattered between the filiform ones. They displayed regional variation in number and size. Three vallate papillae, in an inverted triangle form were found on the root of the tongue. Each papilla had an elliptical form with a depression around it. Both fungiform and vallate papillae were carrying taste budes. A pair of crescent- shaped foliate papillae were found in the postero-lateral part of the root. Each had parallel microridges. The lingual mucosa showed keratinization while submucosa housing the lingual muscle and mucous glands.
[Nasr, E.S. Surface Morphological Structure Of The Tongue Of The Hedgehog
, HemiechinusAuritus (Insectivora:Erinaceidae). J Am Sci 2012;8(4):580-588]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.77

 

Key words: Hedgehog tongue, morphology, SEM.

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Corrosion Inhibition of Copper Metal by Some Amino Acids in Chloroacetic Acids

W. A. Hussein

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt
Wallaahmed@yahoo.com

Abstract: The corrosion behavior of copper metal in chloroacetic acids, namely monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and tri chloroacetic acid (TCA), were investigated using potentiodynamic and cyclic voltametry techniques. It was found that, for diluted solutions of DCA and TCA (< 0.5M) and all MCA concentrations only active and limiting current regions were appeared but on increasing the concentration of DCA and TCA to above ≥ 0.5M a new region appears directly before limiting current region characterized by oscillation in current density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX pattern refer to that the porosity of electrode surface is in lose relation with appearances of current oscillation phenomena. The inhibition effect of alanine, valine and phenylalanine was examined. Calculated quantum chemical parameters indicated that the trend for variation of corrosion inhibition of studied amino acids is consists with the trend deduced from experimental results. Different adsorption isotherms were tested.
[W. A. Hussein
. Corrosion Inhibition of Copper Metal by Some Amino Acids in Chloroacetic Acids. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):589-598]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.78

 

Keywords: Copper; Corrosion; inhibition; polarization; amino acids

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Fusion rate following fixation with anterior titanium plate and screws in association with anterior cervical micro-discectomy and interbody insertion of bone-filled PEEK cage in cases of single level cervical discogenic radicular pain.

 

Hamdy Mohammad Behairy, Magdy Asad Al Hawary, Ma'amon Mohammad Abo-Shosha, Ebrahim Ewees, Mostafa H. Al-Waliliy

 

Department of Neurosurgery, Al-Azhar Faulty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

dr.hamdybehairy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: A lot of previous studies concerning cervical fusion have discussed the issues of using PEEK cages versus autologous bone graft, filling the cage with natural or artificial bone versus inserting it empty and the use of titanium plate for multi-level cervical disc disease; but less number of previous studies have discussed anterior cervical microdiscectomy plus interbody insertion of bone-filled cage plus fixation using anterior titanium plate and screws in single level cervical disc disease especially those with radiculopathy without myelopathy. Material and methods: A retrospective study (over the last 2 years) of 36 patients surgically treated with single level anterior cervical microdiscectomy and interbody insertion of artificial bone-filled cage in addition to fixation using anterior titanium plate and screws aiming at evaluation of clinical and radiological outcome of this technique and how far it can produce fast, good and solid fusion and minimize early and late complications. Results: Immediately after the procedure, all cases revealed disappearance of the radicular pain due to the enough nerve root decompression. After clinical and radiological follow up for an average period of 18 months, no one of these patients showed disc space collapse, kyphotic deformity, non-union, cage extrusion or erosion into the vertebral body or plate and screws displacement or pull out. On the other hand the rate of degeneration in the neighboring levels was slightly increased. Conclusions: The addition of plate fixation following anterior cervical microdiscectomy and artificial bone -filled PEEK-cage implantation is a safe and highly effective procedure in obtaining good solid fusion.

[Hamdy Mohammad Behairy, Magdy Asad Al Hawary, Ma'amon Mohammad Abo-Shosha, Ebrahim Ewees, Mostafa H. Al-Waliliy. Fusion rate following fixation with anterior titanium plate and screws in association with anterior cervical micro-discectomy and interbody insertion of bone-filled PEEK cage in cases of single level cervical discogenic radicular pain. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):599-602]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.79

 

Keywords: Anterior cervical discectomy- cervical cage - cervical plate.

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The analysis of economic situation in Taherian dynasty

 

Hamid Kohan sal

Email: scientificgroup@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Therian was the first independent government after Arabs attack. Taherian government residing in Khorasan was the first type of Iranian governments after Islam during half a century of governance. At the time of Taherian, Neishabour was selected as the capital. At this time, Taherian's government lived comfortably due to giving importance to agriculture, development, and prosperity. Khorasan, joined to the huge collection of Islamic World quickly, and played its significant role in Islamic culture and civilization progression, despite of recession due to Mawarannahr Turks' revolt. In this article, Taherian's economical situation and activities are going to be studied.

[Hamid Kohan sal. The analysis of economic situation in Taherian dynasty. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):603-605]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.80

 

Keywords: Taherian, Economic, agriculture, tax

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Association between changes in serum vaspin concentrations and changes of anthropometric and metabolic variables in obese subjects after weight reduction

 

Doaa M. Abdel-lateif and Shereen S. El-Shaer

 

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Visceral adipose tissue derived serpin (vaspin) has been regarded as a novel adipokine with potential insulin sensitizing properties. In The present study, we investigated the changes of serum vaspin concentration in response to weight reduction, and the association between changes in serum vaspin concentration and changes of anthropometric and metabolic variables in obese subjects after weight reduction. We performed a longitudinal clinical intervention study on 63 obese persons enrolled in a six-months weight reduction program that included lifestyle modification and adjuvant treatment with the anti-obesity agent. Anthropometric variables, lipid profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and serum vaspin concentrations were measured. Statistical analyses were performed according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR). Serum vaspin concentration was decreased significantly in responders (≥2% reduction in baseline weight), but not in non-responders (<2% reduction in baseline weight). Changes in serum vaspin concentration were significantly correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the higher, but not in the lower, HOMAIR group. In multivariate linear regression analysis, change in serum vaspin concentrations in the higher, but not in the lower, HOMAIR group was positively correlated with change in BMI and negatively correlated with initial HOMAIR level. The association between changes in serum vaspin concentration and changes in anthropometric and metabolic parameters differed according to insulin resistance status in obese subjects. These relationships were more prominent in the higher HOMAIR group. Insulin resistance may influence the correlations between changes in serum vaspin concentration and related metabolic variables.

[Doaa M. Abdel-lateif and Shereen S. El-Shaer. Association between changes in serum vaspin concentrations and changes of anthropometric and metabolic variables in obese subjects after weight reduction. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):606-611]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.81

 

Keywords: Intensive Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serpin), Obesity, Weight reduction, HOMAIR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance).

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Effect of L-Carnitine on Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures in Rats

 

Ahmed MF 1 and Mahmoud MA 2
 

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology* Faculty of Medicine, Menoufyia University

2Department of Clinical Pharmacology Faculty of Medicine, Misr University For Science And Technology

 

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in seizure-induced neurodegeneration and there is a correlation between free radical level and scavenger enzymatic activity in epilepsy. It has been suggested that pilocarpine-induced seizures is mediated by an increase in oxidative stress. Current research has found that antioxidant may provide, in a certain degree, neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures at the cellular level. L-Carnitine has a powerful antioxidant action. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of L-Carnitine (L-CAR) in rats, against oxidative stress caused by pilocarpine-induced seizures. 30 min prior to behavioral observation, rats were treated with (0.9% saline i.p., control group), L-CAR 300 mg/kg alone. (L-CAR 300 mg/kg i.p., L-CAR group), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group) and the combination of L-CAR (300 mg/kg, i.p.) and pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.). After the treatments all groups were observed for 6 hrs. The enzymatic activities, lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentrations were measured using spectrophotometric methods and these data were assayed. In P400 group rat there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. However, no alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. In the L-CAR and pilocarpine co-administered rat, antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content, as well as increased the SOD and catalase activities in rat hippocampus after seizures. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced seizures, indicate that brain damage induced by the oxidative process plays a crucial role in seizures pathogenic consequences, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using L-carnitine. In conclusion: L-carnitine could enhance activities of SOD and reduce the MDA level and could reduce seizure period, inhibit neuronal damage as free radical scavenger.

[Ahmed MF and Mahmoud MA. Effect of L-Carnitine on Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures in Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):612-618]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.82

 

Keywords: L-carnitine, hippocampus, oxidative stress, pilocarpine, epilepsy

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Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the dorsal lingual papillae of the rat Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae, Rodentia)

 

Nasr, E. S; Gamal, A.M. and Elsheikh, E.H

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University

emanhelsheikh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The distribution and structure of the lingual papillae in rat tongue were studied by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue in the rat was about 27 mm in length and about 3 mm in width. The characteristic features of the tongue were the median sulcus on the apex, considerable narrowing in the body of the tongue and a moderately developed prominence. On the surface of the apex and body of the tongue three morphological types of the filiform papillae and fungiform papillae were observed. The prominence of the tongue was covered with forked and saw-like filiform papillae. Two oval vallate papillae were situated in the sides of the median line of root of the tongue. The posterior part of the lingual root is flat without papillae. Histological observation indicated keratinization of the dorsal surface of the tongue with variable degrees.

[Nasr, E. S; Gamal, A.M.; Elsheikh, E.H. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the dorsal lingual papillae of the rat Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae, Rodentia). J Am Sci 2012;8(4):619-627]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.83

 

Key words: tongue papillae, rat, light and sem.

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(4):628-635]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 84

Withdrawn

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 An Integrated Multi-Dimensional Framework for Internet-Base Book Shop Architecture: A Case Study from Iran

 

Mohammad Abaee Shoushtary 1, Mohammad Hossein Abooie 2, Farid Safaee Nik 3

 

1. MSc. Student of Industrial Engineering System, Management and Productivity, Industrial Engineering Department, Yazd University, Safaeieh, Pajouhesh St., Yazd, Iran

2. PHD, Assistant Professor in Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering Department,Yazd University, Safaeieh, Pajouhesh St., Yazd, Iran

3. M.S in Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering Department, Yazd University, Safaeieh, Pajouhesh St., Yazd, Iran

mohamad.abaie@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Today, several of business corporations use internet for introducing, selling and marketing their services or products. But they need a virtual store for successfully in virtual world. There are several researches about internet-base stores architecture that all of them focused on one aspect of factors that influenced on website quality but there is not an integrated multi-dimensional framework. This article reported an integrated multi-dimensional framework that guide companies for designing a good shop store. This framework include all aspect in term to technical issues, marketing issues, shape design, navigating issues, psychological issues, customers and site owners ideas and etc. For extracting problems that are available in shopping website architecture, have used questionnaires and interviews to collect customers and web owner’s ideas. When problems had determined, authors have used techniques, standards and methods according literature review. Finally, ideas of four successful website owners had collected for their experiences using and have made an integrated multi-dimensional framework according to information and techniques. For testing that framework, has done a case study for designing a book shop in Iran. Results of using that show successfully in book shop architecture.

[Mohammad Abaee Shoushtary, Mohammad Hossein Abooie, Farid Safaee Nik. An Integrated Multi-Dimensional Framework for Internet-Base Book Shop Architecture: A Case Study from Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):636-645]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 85

doi:

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.85

 

Keywords: Website; Internet-Base; E-Commerce; Book Shopping; Marketing

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 Using power spectral density and vibration analysis for fault diagnosis of kind of low speed electromotor (case study: a starter motor used in vehicles)

Ebrahim Ebrahimi

Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran
e.ebrahimi57@gmail.com

Abstract: Different researches have been shown that vibration technique in a machine condition monitoring program provides useful reliable information. The aim of this paper is to study the relation between vibration analysis and starter motor fault diagnosis. This was achieved by vibration analysis of a starter motor. Vibration data produced by vibration analysis was compared with previous data. The results of this paper have given more understanding on the dependent roles of vibration analysis in detection of starter motor faults. For these types of vibration, it would be more accurate, or more interest to analyze and test them using random vibration. In this research we have calculated RMS and PSD (Power Spectral Density) of starter motor in different faults conditions. G(rms) and PSD have calculated for different faults. The results indicated that different faults have different PSD. The results showed that by calculating PSD we could detect the faults of starter motor before serious damage occurs. [Ebrahim Ebrahimi. Using power spectral density and vibration analysis for fault diagnosis of kind of low speed electromotor (case study: a starter motor used in vehicles). J Am Sci 2012;8(4):646-649]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.86

 

Key words: Condition monitoring; Vibration analysis; Power Spectral Density; Starter Motor

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 The Content Review of Lullabies in Iran and Tajikistan

Fatemeh Eybakabadi 1, Mohammad Molaei2, Hassan Bigonah3

1 Payame Noor University, Shazand, Markazi, Iran (corresponding author)

3 Farhangian University

1Eybak__Fatemeh@gmx.com 3scientificgroup@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Lullabies are a part of folklore or oral literature of a nation. Thus, the characteristics of oral literature are true about them more or less. Having applied some books and works that have been written on Iranian and Tajikistani lullabies and analyzed the content review of them, the author has tried to analyze some characteristics of lullabies contents and their applications in some regions of Iran and Tajikistan.

[Fatemeh Eybakabadi, Mohammad Molaei, Hassan Bigonah. The Content Review of Lullabies in Iran and Tajikistan. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):650-653]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.87

 

Keywords: Lullabies; Iran; folklore; Tajikistan

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Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotubes-Refrigerants Fluids

 

Hamed Rashidi[1], Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou[2]

Department of Gas Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran

 [1] Gas Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran

 [2] Gas Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran

Email: mr.khosravi@put.ac.ir, Tel/fax: 00986115550868

Abstract: A model has been presented to predict the thermal conductivity of CNT nanofluid systems based on several dimensionless groups including thermal conductivity of base fluid, CNTs and dimensions of nanotubes. According to the investigations, the thermal conductivity of CNT nanofluids increases nonlinearly when the concentration of CNTs are increased. The new model showed to have a great agreement with experimental data for a series of CNT–R113 (Cl2FC-CClF2) nanofluids.
[Hamed Rashidi, Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou. Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanotubes-Refrigerants Fluids. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):654-658]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.88

 

Keywords: CNT. Nanofluid. Thermal Conductivity. Dimensionless Groups

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 Egyptian Date Palm Pollen Ameliorates Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Cadmium Chloride in Adult Male Rats

 

Wafaa A. Hassan; Akram M. El-kashlan and Noha A. Ehssan

 

Department of hormone evaluation, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt

Dr_wafaa_ahmed_hassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pollen of the date palm (DPP) has been used for long time as a traditional Egyptian herbal medicine for improving male and female fertility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect and the possible mechanisms of DPP against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction in adult male rats. Testicular dysfunction was induced by an oral administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5mg/kg body wt, every other day for 30 days). Oral administration of DPP (240mg/kg body wt, daily for 30 days) dramatically increased estradiol level of normal rats. Co administration of DPP with CdCl2 significantly restored the reduction in sex organs weight and the decline in sperm counts and their motility as well as the decrease in testosterone level induced by CdCl2 challenge. Treatment with DPP counteracted the increases in antioxidant systems in rat testis as assessed by restoration of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Co administration of DPP with CdCl2 inhibited the abnormalities in testicular morphology, but partially attenuated the elevation in the percentage of testicular DNA damage induced by CdCl2. This study provides evidence that DPP exert a significant protective effect against testicular dysfunction induced by CdCl2 through increases in estradiol level as well as normalization of testosterone levels and sperm parameters. This report also shows some evidence that DPP protects rat's testicular tissue via suppressing testicular histological abnormalities and modulating its DNA damage.

[Wafaa A. Hassan, Akram M. El-kashlan, and Noha A. Ehssan. Egyptian Date Palm Pollen Ameliorates Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Cadmium Chloride in Adult Male Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):659-669]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.89

Key words: Date palm pollen, Gonadal hormone, prooxidant, antioxidant system, cadmium, infertility.

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 Identification of Fatty Acid Content, Amino Acid Profile and Proximate Composition in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

 Maryam Sabetian1*, Somayeh Torabi Delshad2, Sohrab Moini3, Houman Rajabi Islami4, Abbasali Motalebi5

1 Department of Food Processing Technology, Armenian State Agrarian University (Yerevan), P. O. Box: (37410)567411, Yerevan, Armenia. (maryam_sabetian@yahoo.com)
2
Department of Fisheries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box: 14515/755, Tehran, Iran. (st.delshad@yahoo.com and rajabi.h@srbiau.ac.ir)
3 Department of food Science and Technology, Faculty of Biosystem, University of Tehran, P. O. Box: 4111 Karaj, Iran. (smoini@ut.ac.ir)
4 Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, P. O. Box: 14155-6116, Tehran, Iran. (Motalebi@ifro.ir)

Abstract: Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile. Chemical samples composition were determined using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. The protein content of rainbow Trout was 19.651.2 %. The total lipid content was determined 4.460.2 %. The ash was measured 1.330.1 % rainbow trout flesh. The moisture content was recorded 71.71.9 %. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography, The total saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content were 26.3%, 33.8% and 24.62% of total fatty acids, respectively. Finally, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20: 5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid C22: 6 n-3) were the dominant PUFAs. The ratio of n3/n6 fatty acids was 2. 06. Furthermore, The amount of essential amino acids was 35.740.1 %. Among amino acids, the glutamic acid, the aspartic acid and lysine were the predominant Amino acids by having 11.1 0.4 %, 9.530.1 %, and 7.72 0.1 % values respectively. The measured essential to nonessential (E/NS) ratio for the rainbow Trout flesh was 0. 75.The present results demonstrate that rainbow trout fillet contains essential fatty acids particularly eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids and essential amino acids for promoting good health, prevention and healing of diseases in humans.
[Maryam Sabetian, Somayeh Torabi Delshad, Sohrab Moini, Houman Rajabi Islami, and Abbasali Motalebi. Identification of Fatty Acid Content, Amino Acid Profile and Proximate Composition in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Am Sci 2012;8(4):
670-677]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.90

Keywords: Proximate Composition, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Fatty acid, Amino acid.

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 Professional Socialization Process and Acquisition of Professional Nursing Values among Undergraduate Nursing Students


Abeer Seada1 and Wafaa Fathi Sleem2

 

1Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt

2Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

abeerseada@yahoo.comdr_wafaasleem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The professional socialization of nursing students is seen as a developmental process occurring primarily during the period of formal education. As such, it cannot be left to chance but should be consciously considered in all generic nursing programs. Aim: Examine the relationship between the professional socialization process and professional nursing values that occurs among undergraduate nursing students. Design: A descriptive correlational design was used. Methods: The study was conducted at Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University. Total study sample were 160 students (40 students from each study year). Data were collected through utilizing two tools, the first consists of two parts, the first part was intended to collect individual characteristics of the study sample, the second part was Organizational Socialization Questionnaire to measure the six dimensions of organizational socialization. The second tool was Ochsner's Inventory of professional nursing values to measure nurse’s professional values. Results: The study results revealed statistical significant correlation between professional socialization and professional nursing values among the studied undergraduate nursing students, statistical significant differences in total mean scores of professional socialization at different academic years, and no statistical significant differences in total mean scores of professional nursing values except in autonomy subscale. Recommendations: reflective courses and seminars about professionalism should be conducted regularly by faculty members and clinical instructors as they play an important roles models for students. The need to foster positive and collaborative partnership between university staff and field based staff because the clinical setting serve as an important role in understanding and fulfilling the role of professionals.

[Abeer Seada and Wafaa Fathi Sleem. Professional Socialization Process and Acquisition of Professional Nursing Values among Undergraduate Nursing Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):678-688]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.91

 

Keywords: Professional socialization, Professional nursing values, Undergraduate students.

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Checklist of Mangrove Macroalgae from Southwest, Nigeria.

 

Dike Ikegwu Nwankwo1, Taofikat Abosede Adesalu2.

 

1Department of Marine Sciences. University of Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Botany University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

boseadesalu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. Macroalgae epiphyton attached onto stilt roots and puematophores of Rhizophora racemosa G.F.W. Mers, R. Harisoni Lectimar, R. mangle Linn and Avicenia germinans (Linn) Linn at different locations in Southwest Nigeria were documented over a period of 10 years. A total of 12 taxa comprising five species of chlorophyta, three phaeophyta and four rhodophyta. Habitat modification and pollution affected their occurrence and frequency over the years.

[Dike Ikegwu Nwankwo, Taofikat Abosede Adesalu. Checklist of Mangrove Macroalgae from Southwest, Nigeria. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):689-691]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.92

 

Keywords: Mangrove, Macroalgae, biodiversity, environment.

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A Situational Analysis of Waste Management in Harare, Zimbabwe.

 

Rodney G. Tsiko, Sydney Togarepi

 

Department of Geoinformatics and Surveying, University of Zimbabwe, P.O Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. tsikoruz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Waste Management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe. The volume of waste being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the city authorities to improve on the financial and technical resources needed to parallel this growth. Although waste removal is one of the most pressing problems in Harare, it is not a new problem. It was established that the seeds of the apparent chaos in the governance of waste in Harare were laid during the colonial period. Despite many ordinances the colonialists put in place to strengthen urban administration, they regarded native suburbs as areas for a cheap and easily controlled labour force, and therefore, made no serious efforts to resolve the emerging problems, particularly those of waste management. The current authority is struggling to manage the waste under tight budgets; highly inadequate and malfunctioning equipment; inefficient collection practices with variable levels of service, poor and unhygienic operating practices; including no environmental control systems; open burning of garbage; indiscriminate illegal dumping and littering; and a public with seemingly little sensitivity to the garbage around them or any awareness of what represents responsible waste management. Harare’s waste management system needs serious rehabilitation, first on an emergency basis, followed by development and implementation of long-term sustainable measures.

[Rodney G. Tsiko, Sydney Togarepi. A Situational Analysis of Waste Management in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):692-706]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.93

 

Key words: Zimbabwe, Harare, Waste Management

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Live Load Distribution Factors Suitable For Concrete Bridges Under Ecp 201 And Euro Code 1991 Loading

 

Ahmed M. Saleh, Mohamed Rabie and Ezz-El-Din Kamel

 

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineerin,g Cairo University

amsaleh001@yahoo.com; rabie_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Live Load Distribution Factors (LLDF) method is widely used to simplify bridge deck analysis. In this method, the superstructure is modeled as a single spine. The straining actions obtained are then distributed among the different girders using the LLDFs. Finite element modeling is used for the analysis of several concrete bridges of slab-on-girder and box-girder types. The modeling details are verified by comparing deflections with site measurements. Over 6000 cases were analyzed to calculate LLDF for truck loading specified by the Euro Code EN 1991 and Egyptian Code ECP 201. Non-linear regression analysis is applied on the obtained results to calibrate the parameters of LLDF equations. LLDF equations suitable for use with ECP 201 and EN 1991 truck loading for straight and skew concrete bridges of slab-on-girder and box-girder types are proposed.

[Ahmed M. Saleh, Mohamed Rabie and Ezz-El-Din Kamel. Live Load Distribution Factors Suitable For Concrete Bridges Under Ecp 201 And Euro Code 1991 Loading. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):707-721]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.94

 

Key Words: Live Load distribution factors; LLDF; Bridge Design; Bridge Decks; Euro Code 1991, Egyptian Code ECP 201

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The Protective Role of Ginseng against N- nitrosodimethylamine Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Male albino Rats (A Histological & Ultra structure Study)

 

Mona Ahmed

 

Zoology Dept, Girls Collage for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams Univ. Egypt

Monaf_123@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective was to evaluate the possible improvement in the histological and ultra structural features of liver of rats treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA) together with Ginseng extract (G). In the present investigation a total number of 40 male adult albino rats of approximately similar body weigh (90 10gm) were used. Animals were divided into four groups the first group of rats served as control (C), the second group received a single intraperitoneal dose of NDMA (20 mg/kg b.wt.), the third group received intraperitoneal dose of NDMA (20 mg/kg b.wt.) and 20 mg\kg of Ginseng extract by intramuscular injection, the fourth group received intramuscular injection doses (20 mg/kg b.wt.) of Ginseng extract daily, all groups were treated of experimental duration for 1 month. Liver was prepared for histopathological, and ultra structure studies. NDMA administration induced hepatotoxicity compared to G treated group, including dissolution of hepatic cords, focal inflammation and necrotic tissue. Interestingly, interacting group also exhibited abnormal changes, including per portal fibrosis, degeneration of hepatic cords and increased mononuclear inflammation infiltrate. These changes were confirmed at ultra structural level, including vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum and atrophied mitochondria with ill differentiated asternae, dense collection of macrophages and lymphocytes as well as fibrocytes with colagenous fibrosis. On the contrary, in animals received G extract only, the hepatic tissue revealed improvement of the histology and ultrastructure of the tissues which became almost similar to the control group tissue. It is possible to suggest that G may have a significant important in protection against NDMA induced hepatic damage.

[Mona Ahmed. The Protective Role of Ginseng against N- nitrosodimethylamine Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Male albino Rats (A Histological & Ultra structure Study). J Am Sci 2012;8(4):722-729]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.95

 

Key words: N-nitrosodimethylamine, Ginseng, Hepatotoxicity.

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Effect of Lateral Supports on the General Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns

 

Saleh A. S. and M. Rabie

 

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Endearing Cairo, University, Egypt

rabie_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Columns are vertical compression members which carry primarily axial Compression load; the axial load may be associated with bending moments in one or two directions. They transmit loads from the upper floors to the lower levels and then to the soil through the foundations. Since columns are compression elements, failure of one column in a critical location can cause progressive collapse of adjoining floors and might lead to total collapse of the entire structure. This study is carried out to investigate the general deformational behavior of laterally braced reinforced concrete columns at floors' levels. The columns are subjected to axial compression loads acting at the top level of column. The cross section of columns and their reinforcing steel are kept constant, while the locations of the lateral beams at floor level within the long dimension of the column cross section in addition to the unsupported length of columns and the rigidity factor of the lateral bracing beams are variables. The experimental phase of this research work comprised testing of four reinforced concrete rectangular columns of medium scale model repesenting a ground and two typical floors column. In the analytical phase of this research work, the tested columns were analyzed using a computer program (ANSYS), taking into consideration the nonlinear behavior of concrete and reinforcing steel. A comparison between the experimental and analytical results was made to verify the finite element model of the tested columns. This was a necessary step to study more related parameters by the finite element analyses such as the unsupported length of columns and the rigidity factor of the lateral bracing. This research presents a proposed equation for calculating the ultimate load of the laterally braced tied columns which takes into consideration the effect of changing the unsupported length of columns, the rigidity factor of the lateral supports and its locations within the long dimension of columns’ cross section.

[Saleh A. S. and M. Rabie. Effect of Lateral Supports on the General Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):730-741]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.96

 

Key words: lateral support; laterally braced, concrete columns, unsupported length, rigidity factor.

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Prevalence of hydatid cysts infesting sheep in Jabal Al Akhdar- Libya

 

Ahmad M. Ekhnefer1; Mohammed Fathy2, Abdel- Aal. Mansur; Yehia1, Abdel- Moneim, Osman3

 

Department of Zoology. Faculty of science Omar AL-Mukhtar University-Libya

Department of Zoology. Faculty of science Mansoura University-Egypt

Department of Botany. Faculty of science Mansoura University –Egypt

eknefer2008@Yahoo.Com lazeikyao@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Hydatid cyst Is one of the oldest diseases common and most complex to date, since it is a simple time, and classified as a serious again, and this depending on the location the cyst that was in the brain or heart classified as disease-written and malicious, and vice versa if in the abdominal cavity or under the skin. During the period of study (January 2010 – December 2010) 3650 sheep (1825 local and 1825imported) were examined. A total 744(483 local and 261 imported) apprecently infected carcass. The results illustrated that the percentage of infection in Local higher than the imported sheep were found 26.465% and 14.301%, respectively, the main reason is that the home's main sheep imported is Australia, but there are common features between the incidence in each of the sheep, local and imported, which is that infected females higher than males, the incidence of infection by age Increases with increasing age, and the infection of liver higher than double infection, and double higher than of the lung infection, the lung higher than other infections. With the disparity in the prevalence of the disease among local and imported sheep there are constant features of the disease among sheep that are affected by sex and age. As well as favorites of the disease sites within the host, it is remarkable liver infection, that more than organs.

[Ahmad M. Ekhnefer; Mohammed Fathy, Abdel- Aal. Mansur; Yehia and Abdel- Moneim, Osman. Prevalence of hydatid cysts infesting sheep in Jabal Al Akhdar- Libya. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):742-746]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.97

 

Keywords: hydatid cysts, sheep, jabal Al Akdar-Libya.

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Study and rank factors affect outsourcing in Electric Power Distribution Company of Shiraz with Fuzzy Topsis

 

Ali Anvari1, Monireh Askarinejad 2, Reza Karamzadeh3, Zahra Bahari3, Yusuf Mahmoudi Khamiripoor3

 

1. Electric Power Distribution Company of Shiraz,IRAN. PO BOX 71455-691 Shiraz, IRAN. Tel: 0098 (0)7112134255, fax: 0098(0)7112293266

2. Ph.D. Student of Human Resource management. Department of Public Management, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, Tehran, IR.Iran.

3. Department of Public Administration, M.sc of HR management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-

3697 Tehran, IRAN

anvari.ir@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify and rank factors influencing outsourcing in Electric Power Distribution Company of Shiraz, and provide guidelines for improving the effectiveness and Structuring outsourcing. In this research based on the results of previous research and use Delphi process and Interviews with professionals, Factors influencing effectiveness of outsourcing in electric power distribution companies have been identified and classified And Then in Shiraz Power Distribution on the base of this model and use interviews with experts using the technique of fuzzy Topsis outsourcing situation was analyzed. Then challenges and priorities affecting the effectiveness of outsourcing are presented and priority of them is given. Model and results can be used for improving the effectiveness and structuring of outsourcing in distribution companies and other similar organizations.

[Ali Anvari, Monireh Askarinejad, Reza Karamzadeh, Zahra Bahari, Yusuf Mahmoudi Khamiripoor. Study and rank factors affect outsourcing in Electric Power Distribution Company of Shiraz with Fuzzy Topsis. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):747-752]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.98

 

Key words: Outsourcing, Electric Power Distribution Companies, challenges, fuzzy Topsis

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E-Learning: Key Factor to Improve Structural Ability of Iranian EFL Learners

 

Khalil Motallebzadeh 1, Ahdieh Hosseini 2

 

1 Department of English, Torbat-e-Heydarieh Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran

2 Department of English, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Garmsar, Iran

k.motalleb@iautorbat.ac.ir, kmotallebz@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Computers and internet play an increasingly important role in the lives of L2 learners around the world. This study investigated the efficacy of integrating web-based language learning into the teaching of grammar to pre-intermediate Iranian EFL students. Technology-enhanced language learning is considered as a recent trend in the changing world of information technology. The researchers examined grammar achievement of two groups of male and female students: control (24) and experimental (16). Through 21 sessions of instruction, students in experimental group were provided with 11 grammar courses as well as tasks through the www.eenet.ir. Students in control group followed the conventional program. A test of grammar, an IT Questionnaire, and a researchers-made achievement test of grammar (posttest) were employed as the instruments of the study. Results indicated that the participants in experimental group improved significantly in achieving grammar tasks. The findings of this research supported the fact that online tasks and web-based language learning can motivate learners to participate in the online ELT programs. This study provides pedagogical implications for integrating web-based learning as effective learning techniques.

[Khalil Motallebzadeh, Ahdieh Hosseini. E-Learning: Key Factor to Improve Structural Ability of Iranian EFL Learners. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):753-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.99

 

Keywords: Structural ability; technology-enhanced language learning; electronic learning; web-based language learning

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Reduction and modification of Test Cases in Web Applications by Using Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm

 

Alireza Souri 1, Mohammad esmaeel Akbari 2, Arash Salehpour 3

 

1,3 Department of Computer Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

E-mail: a-souri@iau-Ahar.ac.ir, m-Akbari@iau-Ahar.ac.ir, a-salehpour@iau-Ahar.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Web applications have countless constraints. Cost, time, and space constraints restrict us to execute all the test cases. We need to reduce the test cases to an appropriate amount so the efficient testing of web application can be done. Test case reduction is the process to extract the valid solutions eliminating redundancy and invalid solutions. This paper presents an idea to induce the intelligent aspect in automated testing by applying Multi Objective Genetic algorithm (MOGA). The term Multi objective here suggests multiple tasks to be achieved with efficiency. The multi-objective factors being considered here are cost and coverage. The cost at the end will be reduced cause of the prioritized test cases and coverage will be maximized as we will select the test cases with highest fitness. As per Genetic algorithm the initial population is the test cases extracted from web application. Fitness criterion applied is made on the basis of test case length i.e. the number of ids in each test case and then the test cases with the more length are selected for genetic operations. Pairs for cross over are made on the basis of their affinity. Mutation is applied for the diversity or to extract the right solution. It is not mandatory if required solutions are obtained. The system made for reduction of test cases is efficiently giving the accurate results and with maximum objectives being achieved.

[Alireza Souri, Mohammad esmaeel Akbari. Reduction and modification of Test Cases in Web Applications by Using Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):757-762]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.100

 

Keywords: Test suite prioritization, Multi objective genetic algorithm, Web applications, test case

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Women Participation In Self-Help Development Projects As An Instrument For Rural Women Empowerment In Nigeria

 

Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah1 and Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji2

 

1Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

2Department of Local Government Studies, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria

1asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my (Corresponding Author), 2ndasmn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Women empowerment is a serious challenging task facing Nigerian government today. This paper seeks to examine the impact of participation in Self-Help development projects toward women’s empowerment in the context of the great importance attached to the group approach. The women Self-Help approach is practice today in Nigeria for poverty alleviation and women empowerment as a result of people’s awareness of their felt needs and because people feel they can always come together as one and solve their problems through their collective efforts. The general aim of this study is to describe how Self-Help development projects by Nigerian women are playing a major role in their empowerment and the extent to which Nigerian women can use the approach as developmental and empowerment strategy. The paper briefly looks at various government policies of women empowerment in Nigeria.

[Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah and Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji. Women Participation In Self-Help Development Projects As An Instrument For Rural Women Empowerment In Nigeria. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):763-771]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.101

 

Keywords: Participation; empowerment; self help groups

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Predicting the Impact of Surface Wastewater on Groundwater Quality in Quesna Industrial Area

 

Wedad Morsy and Zeinab El-Fakharany

 

Researcher, Research Institute for Groundwater, NWRC, MWRI

wedad_morsy@yahoo.com and engzeinab2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prediction of the impact of surface wastewater on groundwater can be achieved through statistical analysis and groundwater modeling. The objectives of this paper are to follow up the quality of the groundwater in the middle Delta at Quesna district, and to check the impact of the surface activities in that area on the groundwater quality. The present research was applied based on statistical analysis. In addition to numerical Groundwater flow and quality model (MODFLOW) and solute transport model (MT3D) were employed to simulate the groundwater behavior and migration of pollution plume under the initiated industrial and agriculture activities. The potential pollution sources are diffusion from Mubarak industrial area and El Khadrawya drain. The results of TDS, NO3 and some heavy metals are analyzed using fitting curve between the parameter measured in the surface wastewater and groundwater. The results indicated that TDS decreased in the study area which means that the salinity of the groundwater in those locations was diluted. Results of the trend analysis indicated that the relations between the parameters of the surface activities and those of the groundwater differed from linear, power and polynomial. The statistical correlation values of TDS, NO3, Fe and Zn in sandy soil were greater than those in clay soil while statistical correlation values of Mn and Sr were grater in clay soils, which clarify the dangerous impact of surface activities on the groundwater particularly in the industrial area. The model results showed that, in that area (turtle back) allows high infiltration rate of existing oxidation ponds and surface wastewater. Also, high risk possibility of the migration of the pollution plume causing deterioration in the groundwater quality.

[Wedad Morsy and Zeinab El-Fakharany. Predicting the Impact of Surface Wastewater on Groundwater Quality in Quesna Industrial Area. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):772-781]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.102

 

Keywords: Groundwater Quality, GIS, Industrial Wastewater, Solute transport model.

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The Impacts of Cultural-Social Tourism Management

 

Reza Eamaeili Aghababaei

 

Martyr Babaee, Boulevard, Crafts street, Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, Qazvin, Iran

 

Abstract: In order to plan, develop, and manage tourism, economic, cultural-social, and cultural factors should be taken into account. Tourism bears positive and negative impacts on the environment and its own domain, and the environment may be effective on tourism procedure. The results of tourists’ presence possess notable importance in the world, and at the micro level in Iran. This is notable in a way that the presence of tourists results in the emergence of positive and negative economic, cultural-social, environmental, infrastructural, and managerial impacts in the world and specifically in Iran. But what bears high significance in this paper is to study and evaluate the impacts of tourism in the present situation in Iran’s territory which is considered a special condition. Iran is considered a country accepting tourists in the region due to its natural, historical, and man-made (ancient) attractions, and its special geographical and historical position. A country of such possessions and capabilities shouldn’t be taken away of the economic outcomes because of political problems and cultural-social worries, and on the other hand the international tourism market shouldn’t deprive itself of Iran’s tourism attractions.

[Reza Eamaeili Aghababaei. The Impacts of Cultural-Social Tourism Management. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):782-785]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.103

 

Keywords: Tourism, Cultural-social impacts, Management, Iran

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Comparitve susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae against different mixtures of bacterial toxins of Bacillus thuringiesis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus

 

Najat A. Khatter

 

Biology Department, Faculty of Science for Girls-King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia najat.khatter4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of efficiency of bacterial mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti when used in combinations with each other under laboratory conditions. Synergistic interactions among the multiple endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiesis Subsp. israelensis de Barjac (Bti) play an important role with high toxicity to mosquito larvae also the absence of insecticide resistance in populations treated with this bacterium. A lake of toxin complexity and synergism are the appartent causes of resistance to (Bti) in particular Aedes field populations. To identify endotoxins of the bacterium that might improve insecticidal activity and manage mosquito resistance, we tested their toxins alone and in combination. Most combinations of Bacillus sphaericus and Bti toxins were synergistic and enhanced toxicity relative to B. sphaericus, particularly against Ae. aegypti, when Cyr1Aa toxin from Bti was added to Ctty11A toxins of B. sphaericus, synergism value as high as 966-fold was observed and combinations were 5-86,000 fold more active than B. sphaericus. These data and previous studies using Cytolytic toxins, intiate proposed strategies for improving bacterial larvicides by combining B. sphaericus with Bti. These combinations increase both endotoxin complexity and synergistic interactions to enhance activity and help avoid insecticide resistance.

[Najat A. Khatter. Comparitve susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae against different mixtures of bacterial toxins of Bacillus thuringiesis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):786-791]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.104

 

Keywords: Mosquitocides - Bti - Bacillus sphaericus – Synergy – pest control – management – resistance

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Beyhaghi's Historical Novel

 

Ayyoub Mansouri

 

Payame Noor University (PNU) Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran

 

Abstract: Through showing some characteristics of narrations and fundamental factors such as environment, news, character, and event, we are supposed to show that although Beyhaghi's aimed only at writing a historical book, since this work has some special properties, it can be adapted with the structure of a historical novel. "A historical novel is writing the human's life, the feelings, and interactions of that in the course of time...." Therefore, these historical story schemas, the stories of royals such as "the story of Afshin and Bodolof," the death of Bonasr-e-Moshkan," Bu Bakr Hasiri's pulling down," "executing Hasanak," and are full of tragic themes and the properties of historical novel. Similar to this, is Beyhaghi's characterization and in anecdotes such as pulling down Ghazi Sepah Salar, and Aryaragh. Seen from another side of the coin, it can be stated that Beyhaghi is a good new reporter and journalist. The characters in his stories grasp to action and speaking to introduce themselves to audiences. Therefore, these indicate the story factor of Tarikh-e-Beyhaghi.

[Ayyoub Mansouri. Beyhaghi's Historical Novel. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):792-794]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.105

 

Keywords: History, the factors of story, characterization, historical novel, report writing

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Comparative Studies between the Effects of Antibiotic (Oxytetracycline); Probiotic and Acidifier on E. coli Infection and Immune Response in Broiler Chickens

 

Eman R.Hassan; K.M.Mahgoob Kh.M. ELbayoumi Zeinab M. S. Amin Girh and Hoda M. Mekky

 

Poultry Diseases Department, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza

Prof_emy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this experiment, the efficacy of antibiotic (oxyteracycline); Nutrilac as acidifier and Rand, lactiflora plus as probiotics mixtures) were compared against E coli O78 infection and immune response to routine vaccination (Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and inactivated avian influenza (AI) vaccine) in broiler chickens. A total of 250, 1 Day- old Arbor Acers Broiler chicks were divided into 5 equal groups(1-5) 50 chicks per each) group 1 were kept as blank control. Chicks of group 2 were infected orally with 0.5ml of E coli O78 containing 1 x 104 viable organism /ml in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)and kept as infected control. Chicks of group 3 were received Nutrilac in water (3ml/liter).Chicks of group 4 were received lactiflora in feed (1 g/kg.). Chicks of group 5 were received Oxytetracyclin 20% in feed (1g/kg.) At 12 days of age chickens of groups 3- 5 were orally inoculated with o.4 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 1 x 104 viable oorganism /ml of E coli (O78) by the same does of group 2. Our results showed the, mortality was highest in groups infected with E.coli (17 bird)followed by those receive, lactiflora plus and oxytetracyclin (6 bird/ group) then the lowest were both negative control and Nutrilac (5 bird) while weight gain in all chicken groups the Highest weight gain was those of group receiving Nutrilac (605) followed by group receive lactiflora plus(600)then group receive oxytetracyclin(583) and negative control (541) lowest weight gain was those receive E.coli. The immune response to routine vaccination against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine; Infectious Bronchitis virus (IB) vaccine and inactivated Avian Influenza vaccine (AI) in the same chickens groups was revealed highest titer with Lactiflore plus followed by Nutrilac then oxytetracyclin then blank control. lowest immune response was showed in infected control group. Histopathological examination for second group reveald that liver central and portal veins were moderately to markedly dilated and congested in almost all samples. Changes in the hepatic parenchyma varied from diffuse and marked vascular degeneration in which the nucleui were either pyknotic or karyolysis. Hepatic necrosis which occurs either in the form of minutes sporadic necrotic foci, or variable sized multifocal areas of necrosis infiltrated with mononuclear cells were seen also. In some cases large area of hepatic necrosis were seen. The hepatocytes in the necrotic area either disappeared or showed pyknotic nucli and or showed large vesicular nuclei with peripheral chromatine intestine showing diffused degeneration of the mucosa and desquamation of the epithelial cells that accumulate in the lumen with hyalinization, some field showing necrosed and descumated epithelials, and heavily mononuclear cells infilterated L.propria and congested submucosa. In conclusion It could be concluded that probiotic and acidifier has great value on poultry production as it act as growth promoter either by enhancing digestibility or competitive inhibition of colonization of pathogenic bacteria which destruct intestinal wall and produce toxins. Also results were showed those probiotics and acidifier are of positive value in immune response for vaccination.

 [Eman R.Hassan; K.M.Mahgoob Kh.M. ELbayoumi Zeinab M. S. Amin Girh and Hoda M. Mekky. Comparative Studies between the Effects of Antibiotic (Oxytetracycline); Probiotic and Acidifier on E. coli Infection and Immune Response in Broiler Chickens. J Am Sci 2012;8(4):795-801]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.106

 

Keywords: probiotic - E. coli- viral vaccine – antibiotics –serological test.

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Optimum content of SiO2 nanoparticles in concrete specimens with palm oil clinker aggregates

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Compressive strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength. [Farzad Soleymani. Optimum content of SiO2 nanoparticles in concrete specimens with palm oil clinker aggregates. J Am Sci 2012;8(2):802-807]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 107

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.107

 

Key words: SiO2 nanoparticle; compressive strength; palm oil clinker; lightweight concrete; curing medium; optimal strength.

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Optimum flexural strength of binary blended concrete in presence SiO2 nanoparticles as nanofillers and with palm oil clinker aggregates

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Flexural strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. Optimum flexural strength of binary blended concrete in presence SiO2 nanoparticles as nanofillers and with palm oil clinker aggregates. J Am Sci 2012;8(2):808-813]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 108

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.108

 

Key words: SiO2 nanoparticle; flexural strength; palm oil clinker; lightweight concrete; curing medium; optimal strength.

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109

 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral Insulin Resistance in Egyptian Chronic HCV Patients Treated with Standard Antiviral Therapy

 Amal S. Bakir, Kadry M Elsaeed, Marcel W. Keddeas

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
amalshawky_mb@hotmail.com

Abstract: Background: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection present higher risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the mechanism of this association and the role of antiviral treatment are still unclear. Aim: To study the prevalence of insulin resistance & DM in chronic hepatitis C patients, whether received treatment or not, and the effect of treatment. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 subjects who were divided into three groups; Group A: 15 non diabetic non HCV subjects as a control group. Group B: 30 patients with chronic hepatitis C but still untreated, and Group C: 30 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated by standard doses of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Routine laboratory investigations, fasting insulin level, Homeostasis model assessment – estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HCV- Ab., HCV- RNA, and liver biopsy were done. Results: Untreated chronic HCV patients (group B) demonstrated significant changes in HbA1c, and highly significant changes in post prandial blood sugar (PPBS), fasting insulin level, and HOMA-IR after 6 months. These changes were associated with decrease in insulin sensitivity from 73.33% to 36.67%, whereas insulin resistance increased from 26.67% to 46.67%, in addition to appearance of five cases of newly diagnosed DM (16.7%), and these findings were highly significant. On the other hand, treated chronic HCV patients (group C) showed a highly significant changes as regards AST and ALT, and non significant changes in HbA1c, fasting insulin level, and HOMA-IR. Insulin sensitivity at beginning of the study was (53.33 %) and after 6 months increased by (13.33 %), whereas insulin resistance at beginning of the study was (46.67 %) and after 6 months increased by (23.33 %) and diabetes at beginning of the study was (0 %) and after 6 months was (10 %), and all were statistically insignificant. On correlating insulin resistance state with virologic response, which was 40% at the end of the study, we noticed a significant increase in insulin resistance in chronic HCV patients who did not respond to treatment,(16 out of 18 patients showed insulin resistance), while 11 out of the 12 patients who turned HCV negative showed insulin sensitivity. Conclusion: chronic hepatitis C virus infection may be considered as a risk factor for development of insulin resistance and DM. Viral eradication is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. We recommend close and long term monitoring of non-responder chronic HCV patients for potential increased risk of developing DM.
[Amal S. Bakir, Kadry M Elsaeed, Marcel W. Keddeas. Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral Insulin Resistance in Egyptian Chronic HCV Patients Treated with Standard Antiviral Therapy. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(4): 814-818]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
http://www.americanscience.org. 109

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.109

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, insulin resistance, hepatitis c virus.

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 Relation of Serum Resistin to Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Albumin Excretion Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Mona M. R. Hammady1, Sherif El Hawary1 and Laila Rashed2

 1Internal Medicine and 2Biochemistry Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
monahammady@hotmail. com

Abstract: Background: Accumulating evidence supports that resistin modulates metabolism, promotes endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory activation, leading to acceleration of subclinical atherosclerosis. So the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum resistin and urinary albumin excretion, as albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and to the glomerular filtration rate in non diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We investigated the association of plasma resistin with estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in 40 non diabetic hypertensive adults and 10 controls. Resistin was measured by a solid phase sandwich immunoassay, estimated glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum creatinine, and albuminuria was expressed as urine albumin/creatinineratio. Results: Serum Resistin levels were significantly higher (p< 0.001& t3.418) inpatients (11.270ng/ml 3.042) compared to controls (7.042 ng/ml 2.387). Resistin was found to be positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=. o. 342, p=0.01), and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r=0.321, p=0.043) and negatively correlated to the glomerular filtration rate. No significant correlation was found between resistin and BMI or insulin resistance. Conclusion: Circulating levels of resistin are statistically significantly higher in chronic kidney disease patients as compared to controls. Resistin is positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio and negatively correlated to the glomerular filtration rate. In a multiple linear regression model including factors significantly associated with resistin in univariate analysis, as well as age and gender, only GFR and the SBP were significantly associated with circulating resistin levels. [Mona M. R. Hammady, Sherif El Hawary and Laila Rashed.Relation of Serum Resistin to Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urinary Albumin Excretion Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(4):819-824]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 110 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080412.110

Key words: Resistin, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, glomerular filtration rate, albumin creatinine ratio.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 17, 2012. 
 
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