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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 5, Cumulated No. 51, May 25, 2012

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0805

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Effect of Corrugated Bed Shapes on Hydraulic Jump and Downstream Local Scour

 

Fahmy S. Abdelhaleem1, Amin A. M2, and Helal Y. Esam3

 

1, 2 Researcher, Hydraulics Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Egypt

3Assist. Prof, Civil Engineering Dept, Faculty of Engineering, Menofiya University, Egypt

fahmy@hri-egypt.org and f.salah82@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hydraulic jump is generally help in the dissipation of excess kinetic energy downstream of hydraulic structures such as drops, spillways, chutes and gates. The corrugated stilling basin beds decrease the required depth and length of the jump, so, it reduces the cost of energy dissipating stilling basin. Through this research, an experimental study was conducted to study the effect of using three different shapes of corrugated beds on the characteristics of a hydraulic jump and downstream local scour. Forty eight experimental runs were carried out considering wide rang of Froude numbers ranging from 2.0 to 6.5. Five values of the relative roughness of corrugated shapes were investigated. A case of smooth bed is included to estimate the influence of corrugated beds on hydraulic jump parameters and the scour hole dimensions. Obtained results were analyzed and graphically presented and also, simple formulae are developed to estimate the hydraulic jump parameters and the scour hole dimensions. the results of this study confirm the effectiveness of corrugated beds for energy dissipation downstream hydraulic structures and corrugating the stilling bed can decrease the cost of stilling basin.

[Fahmy S. Abdelhaleem, Amin A. M, and Helal Y. Esam. Effect of Corrugated Bed Shapes on Hydraulic Jump and Downstream Local Scour. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):1-10] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.01

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2

Experience of Modernization in Japan and Egypt between Success and Failure": A Comparative Study

 

Amal Abdel-Fattah Atwah Shams

 

Sociology of Development in Ain Shams University

Shams_shams7115@yahoo.com; amal_shams@edu.asu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Objectives: The Present Paper handles the experience of Development in Japan and Egypt in more than a century. It aims to: (1) – Investigating the causes of failure and success in both countries. (2) – Recognizing the role of Geography in their development. (3) – Investigating the impact of education on Development of both countries.(4) – Examing the impact of external forces, like Colonialism, on the Development of both Countries. Methodology: (1)- An (overview) of the Experience of Development of Development in both countries is to be used. (2) -The Historical method is uses to Highlight the Major events in their History. (3) - Analytical approach is used to analyze the Major events and Influence on their Development. (4) - The Comparative approach is used to compare the Roles of Geographic Location, Education, and external factories in Japan and Egypt. Difficulties: (1) - Lack of References, in Arabic and English, on the Topic. (2) - Long Time span which required: a –Wide Reading on the history of Both Japan and Egypt. b- Comparing both experiences of development. c- Focusing on Major events, not details. (3) - Comparing Japanese, Western, Egyptian views on the Topic.

[Amal Abdel-Fattah Atwah Shams. Experience of Modernization in Japan and Egypt between Success and Failure": A Comparative Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):11-20]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.02

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3

Effect of foliar spraying with gibberellic acid and/or sitofex on bud behavior, vegetative growth, yield and cluster quality of Thompson Seedless grapevines

 

Rafaat S.S. Elgendy; Ghada Sh. Shaker and Ola A. Ahmed

Vitic. Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt.

 

ABSREACT: This investigation was conducted during three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3)and sitofex (CPPU) either in the single or combined form with regard to the concentration and time of application on bud behavior, vegetative growth, cluster weight and fruit quality in Thompson Seedless grape. Sitofex at 3 or 5 ppm and GA3 at 10 or 20 ppm were assessed individually or combined at three stages: the beginning of vegetative growth, at 75% bloom and at berry set. Remarkable effects on percentages of bud burst and fruitful buds were observed when CPPU at 3 ppm and / or GA3 at 10 ppm were sprayed at the beginning of vegetative growth. Sprays including the high concentration of each growth regulator (CPPU or GA3) resulted in appreciable increases in vegetative growth parameters, cluster weight, berry weight and size, berry length and diameter particularly when CPPU and / or GA3 were sprayed at the beginning of vegetative growth. Application of both CPPU and GA3 was found to increase TSS and decrease acidity in the berry juice. Generally, it can be said that the spraying sitofex and / or GA3 at the beginning of vegetative growth at low concentrations (CPPU at 3 ppm or GA3 at 10 ppm) gave the highest percentages of bud burst and fruitful buds; using a combination of sitofex and GA3: CPPU at 3 ppm plus GA3 at 40 ppm resulted in improving vegetative growth, cluster weight and berry quality of Thompson Seedless grapevine. Therefore, it can be recommended not to spray Thompson Seedless grapevines with high concentrations of sitofex or GA3 to avoid the possible reduction of bud fertility especially where vines are sprayed at bloom or berry set stages.

[Rafaat S.S. Elgendy; Ghada Sh. Shaker and Ola A. Ahmed. Effect of foliar spraying with gibberellic acid and/or sitofex on bud behavior, vegetative growth, yield and cluster quality of Thompson Seedless grapevines. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):21-34] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.03

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Characterization of Fennel Fruits: Types and Quality (I)

 

Mokhtar M. Bishr1, Eman G. Haggag2*, Mohamed M. Moawed3 and Osama M. Salama4

 

1Research and Development Dept., Arab Co. for Pharm. and Med. Plants (MEPACO)

2Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

3Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

4Pharmacognosy Dept., Faculty of Pharm. Sci. and Pharm. Ind., Future University in Cairo, Egypt

wemisr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Four samples of different fennel fruit cultivars (F 1-F 4), obtained from El-Fayoum, Egypt (F 1), El-Menia, Egypt (F 2), Sudan, El-Khartoum (F 3), and Germany (F 4) were cultivated in MEPACO`s Farm (Arab Co. for Pharm. and Med. Plants, Cairo, Egypt) and the obtained fruits were subjected to macro- and micro-morphological stereomicroscopic examination as well as GC-MS analysis of their volatile oils. The aim of the study is to determine the differences in the macro- and micro- characters of different fruit cultivars as well as their oil constitutes. The results show different exomorphic parameters viz. shape, color, dimensions and surface sculpture. Also the stereomicroscopic examination showed differences in the epicarp, mesocarp; vitti and endosperm. GC-MS analysis of volatile oils of (F 1-F 4) showed on comparing three parameters; fenchone, estragole and trans-anethole that F 4 has the highest percentage of trans-anethole (78.98%), while F 1 and F 2 have close values (1.05 and 1.02%, respectively) followed by F 3 (3.02%). F 4 has the lowest percentage of estragole (3.97%); while (F 1-F 3) have higher values (78.58, 64.81 and 25.79%, respectively). Also F 4 has doubled the percentage of fenchone (6.73%) of F 1 and F 2 (2.54 and 2.57%, respectively), while F 3 has 0.69%. Thus results show that the two cultivars growing in Egypt (F 1 and F 2) have almost the same ratios of the compared parameters while, the Sudan cultivar F 3 is closer to F 1 and F 2 than it is to F 4. Also the three cultivars (F 1-F 3) are far from specification of sweet fennel oil but close to bitter fennel oil. The German cultivar (F 4) has the best oil quality as a sweet fennel. Investigation of the powdered samples (F 1-F 4) showed that only F 4 is different in having higher abundant fragments of reticulate parenchyma cells with ratio of 1:3 {F 4:(F 1-F 3)}. In conclusion: These findings are of pharmaceutical-industrial value helping in the production of herbal pharmaceutical products of fennel fruit and/or oil of known higher quality.

[Mokhtar M. Bishr, Eman G. Haggag, Mohamed M. Moawed and Osama M. Salama. Characterization of Fennel Fruits: Types and Quality (I). J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):35-40]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.04

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Molecular Genetic Evaluation Of Seven Varieties Of Summer Squash

 

El-Adl, A.M.; 1 A.H. Abd El-Hadi;1 Horeya M. Fathy2 and M.A. Abdein2

 

1 Dept. of Genetics, Faculty of Agric. Mansoura University, Egypt.

2 Vegetables Breeding Department, Horticulture Res. Inst. (HRI), ARC, Giza, Egypt.

Corresponding author: abdeingene@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The present investigation was carried out in 2010 growing season, with the aim of molecular genetic evaluation of seven squash parents under Egyptian conditions. The study included seven squash varieties. These selected squash parents were: i.e. Eskandrani (P1), Zucca Patisson custard white (P2), All Green Bush (P3), Courgette Orelia (P4), Sakiz (P5), Copi (P6) and Gapla (P7). These parents were discriminated by their leaves fingerprints as obtained through protein electrophoresis technique and RAPD-PCR technique using five random primers. Protein electrophoresis successfully generated reproducible polymorphic banding patterns. The generated profiles revealed high levels of polymorphism among the studied parents. Data of the analysis recorded a sum of 18 bands. These bands were identified as 11 polymorphic bands and 7 monomorphic ones in all studied parents. The polymorphic bands were scored as 3 unique bands. These unique bands were used to discriminate between the seven squash parents.Five 10-mer arbitrary primers of twenty-one of each RAPD successfully generated reproducible polymorphic products. The generated profiles revealed high levels of polymorphism among the studied parents. Data of these primers recorded a sum of 51 bands. These bands were identified as 29 polymorphic bands and 22 monomorphic ones in all parents under study. The polymorphic bands were scored as 8 unique bands. These unique bands were used to discriminate between the seven squash parents. In addition, the results generated from protein and RAPD profiles were pooled together to elucidate the genetic relationships among the seven examined parents. The constructed dendrogram tree divided the studied parents into two major groups. The first group included Gapla (P7) only, while the second group was divided into two main sub groups, the first main sub group was divided into two main sub sub groups the first main sub sub group included All Green Bush (P3) and Courgette Orelia (P4). The second main sub sub group included Sakiz (P5) and Copi (P6). On the other hand, the second main sub group included Eskandrani (P1) and Zucca Patisson custard white (P2) parents.From the foregoing results, using protein and RAPD markers for characterization and construction of genetic linkage maps and the molecular genetic diversity of parents support the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in squash cultivars breeding programs.

[El-Adl, A.M.; A.H. Abd El-Hadi; Horeya M. Fathy and M.A. Abdein. Molecular Genetic Evaluation Of Seven Varieties Of Summer Squash. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):41-48] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.05

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6

Love and marriage (is love a necessity for married couples?)

 

Shahram Malekzadeh1 and Shaghayegh Malekzadeh2

 

1. Assistant professor of Qazvin University

2. Family counselor, Instructor of Payam-E-Nour University of Sari

malekzadeh.shahram@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In our long years of practicing as a physician, we had been encountered with many married couples complaining of lack of love in their relationships, or unfortunately plenty cases of break-up referred to that. It seems that a great misunderstanding exists here. In this article a description is given, regarding marriage and love, and we will conclude that marriage is something like a contract for building a family. As Mina chin also depicted of course if love (real love-which is a very rare thing) exists there between, it would be much better, but it isn’t a necessity. In the treatment of the family according to the systematic view, we make family as a consonance system and organization and emphasis that every member of the family are acting the roles of spouse, parents, child, as the same as their job. In a system, the laws create a contract for the present responsibilities and the families without laws, discipline and coop ration may break up. So they increase the respect with preserving the suitable mental distance and formal relationship, and sincerity can be defined logical. Therefore it’s necessary to instruct couples the skills of controlling their thrills and increasing EQ (Bradberry et al. 2009) between them. We believe that with respect to Ellis theory for cognitive therapy, there is a need to change many couples “Central Schema” (McGinn and Young, 1996) according to necessity of love for serendipity in common life, and teach them in real world, marriage is a contract and responsibility and it differs from a romantic and imaginary life. At last the article will conclude that, a very important thing in married couple's relationship is to learn, tolerance of differences and accepting each other, and that, love (of human origin) should be experienced before marriage. After marriage, other kinds of love, like love current which is hidden in nature, music, and so on, should be sake.

[Shahram Malekzadeh and Shaghayegh Malekzadeht. Love and marriage (is love a necessity for married couples?). J Am Sci 2012;8(5):49-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.06

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Stress and Depression: An Assessment and Guidelines

 

Armin Mahmoudi

 

Department of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran.

armin.md@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Stress cause hormone changes spe­cially Adrenalin and other hormones and could be the cause for dangerous diseases such as cerebral apoplexy, heart attack, blood pressure, bone emptiness, stomach ulcer and many other mental-behavioral diseases and have bad effect on human mental health. It is good to know that stress cause changes on skin, hair and face. Stress can produce much fat under skin, manage, it also show the individuals face older than what he/she is. Nega­tive effects of stress on brain are clear. Recent research shows that continuous stress and extreme excretion of Corti­cal has negative effect on Hip comp which has role on mind. Scientists believe Hip comp not only has basic role on recording events but also protection of their details. Studies show that chronic stress and much amount of Cortisone can decrease Hip comp cells and damage them as a result the mind and its func­tion would disturb. cortisone like other hormones changes during each day. That is the amount of it is higher in the morning and lower in the afternoon. Stress deranged this process. Re­search, also shows one of the results of the severe stress is the extremamount of fat on abdomen. And this bad news for those who hope to decrease the possibility of heart attack، cancer and other diseases. Depression is one of the disorder re­lated to mental health which human test in combat. Now depression could be cured because doctors/ psychatwats know better about the reasons of clini­cal depression. Most people become dejected because of tragic events in their life. It is now identified that family and genetic reasons increase depres­sion. Biological & Psychological reasons generally cause depression. [Armin Mahmoudi. Stress and Depression: An Assessment and Guidelines. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):51-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.07

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Evaluation of inhibitory effects of cuminum cyminum oil on the fluconazaole resistant and susceptible Candida albicans isolated from HIV patients in Iran

 

Salari S.1, 3, Khosravi A.R. 1*, katiraee F.1, Ayatollahi Mousavi1 S.A.2, Shokri H3, Nikbakht Borujeni GH4

 

1- Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2- Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Kerman, Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, Kerman, Iran

3- Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mazandaran, Amol, Iran.

 4- Departemant of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran,

samirasalari73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) continues to be considered the most common opportunistic fungal disease in HIV/AIDS patients globally. The present study was undertaken to determine the antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolates were obtained from Iranian PLWH (people living with HIV) and cultured on CHROMagar and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. All isolates were identified according to assimilation profile, germ tube, colony color and other conventional methods. Disk diffusion testing and Broth Micro dilution of Fluconazole according to the methods described in CLSI was performed. In addition, Cuminum cyminum essential oil was used to evaluation in vitro activity its against against fluconazole resistant and susceptible Candida albicans. In our study, C. albicans (50.2%) and C. glabrata (22%) were the most frequent isolated, from these isolates, 25.7% were resistant to fluconazole (MIC QUOTE  64 µg/ml. Complement data showed mean MIC, 0.575% ± 0.6810% (range: 0.25%-2%) for Cuminum cyminum essential oil to Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates and mean MIC, 0.306% ± 0.2640% (Range, 0.125%-0.5%) for susceptible Candida albicans isolates with significantly difference (p<0.001). Based on our result we conclude that screening of resistance candida isolates in clinical laboratory is idealistic for surveillance of antifungal resistance to patient’s managements, And Cuminum cyminum essential oil having antifungal properties, can be helpful to treat of candidiasis.

[Salari S, Khosravi A.R, katiraee F. Ayatollahi Mousavi, Shokri H, Nikbakht Borujeni. Evaluation of inhibitory effects of cuminum cyminum oil on the fluconazaole resistant and susceptible Candida albicans isolated from HIV patients in Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):54-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.08

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Split tensile strength of palm oil clinker aggregates-based cementitious composites in the optimum state

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Split tensile strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite with palm oil clinker aggregates cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. Split tensile strength of palm oil clinker aggregates-based cementitious composites in the optimum state. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):61-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.09

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Hepatoprotectine Effects of Metformin on Fructose Induced Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Rats

 

Ahmed MF 1 and Mahmoud MA 2

 

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufyia University

 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Misr University for Science and Technology

 

Abstract: The most known risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the metabolic syndrome. In this study, we characterized changes in liver pathology, hepatic lipid composition, and plasma biochemistry occurring in rats given fructose-enriched diet 10% (FED). Rats were given FED or standard rat chow for 5 weeks. Rats on FED were divided into 2 groups: One group of rats was fed FED only for 5 weeks and another group of rats was received metformin 50 mg/kg for the last 2 weeks (3 weeks FED + 2 weeks FED and metformin). FED rats had developed hepatic macrovesicular and microvesicular fat deposits, with increase in hepatic triglycerides (+198%) and hepatic cholesterol (+89%), but a decrease in hepatic phospholipids (-36%), hypertriglyceridemia (+223%), and hypertension (+15%). Also, in FED rats there was significant increase in serum cholesterol and serum glucose (100.6±2.5, 9.0±0.4 respectively), and significant increase in hepatic MDA and TNF-a (209.9± 43.9, <12.5, respectively). Metformin reduced blood pressure (-24%), serum triglycerides (-36%), hepatic triglycerides (-51%), hepatic macrovesicular fat (-51%) and increased Hepatic phospholipids (+37%). Also, significant decrease in hepatic MDA and TNF-a (150.1± 27.0, <10.5 respectively). In conclusion: Metformin could reduce most of biochemical and tissue parameters and also improve the histopathological features of liver associated with non alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

[Ahmed MF and Mahmoud MA. Hepatoprotectine Effects of Metformin on Fructose Induced Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Rats. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5): 67-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.10

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Sellar and Parasellar Lesions: A 15 years University Hospital Experience, Saudi Arabia

 

Awatif A. Jamal and Rana A. Ajabnoor

 

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University and Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. awatjamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pituitary gland pathology is the most frequent lesion seen in the sellar/ parasellar region of the brain. The aim of the study is reporting the frequency and the type of lesions encountered in the sellar / para/ suprasellar region at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah from 1995 tell 2010, correlate the radiological-pathological experience and compare it with the literature experience. Material and method: All brain lesions over 15 years period (1995 tell 2010 ) were collected from Patholgy Department and detailed radiological information of the sellar/parasellar lesions obtained from the Radiology Department. Results: 55 out of 284 total brain lesions were sellar / parasellar lesions and accounted for (19.34%) of the total brain lesions. 36 cases were pituitary adenomas (65.45%), 12 cases were Meningiomas (21.8%), 3 cases were Crainopharingiomas (5.45%), 1 case of Germ cell Tumor (1.81%), one case of Chordoma (1.81%), one case of Chodrosarcoma (1.81%) and one case of Epidermoid cyst (1.81%) were identified. Conclusion: The current study supports the notion that pituitary adenoma is the most frequent sellar/ para/ suprasellar lesion encountered at King Abdul-Aziz University hospital followed by non adenomatous pathology including meningioma, craniophryngoma and other less frequent lesions. Good correlation between histopathological studies and radiological Imaging found and our institute experience is highly attuned with the literature.

[Awatif A. Jamal and Rana A. Ajabnoor. Sellar and Parasellar Lesions: A 15 years University Hospital Experience, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):74-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.11

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.11

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Screening for Helicobacter pylori Infection among Patients with Otorhinolaryngological Diseases May Spare Need for Surgical Interference: A PCR Confirmed Study

 

Adel F. Al-Kholy, Mamdouh Z. Abadier, Manal M. Hassaan†, Ebrahem M. Rageh*, Mohamed F. Shindy**

 

Departments of Medical Biochemistry, Clinical Pathology* & Otorhinolaryngology**, Faculty of Medicine, Benha & October 6† Universities; Egypt

adeladel59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the coincidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients presenting with varied otorhinolaryngological diseases. Patients & Methods: The current survey study included 292 patients; 173 males and 119 females with mean age of 25.9±15.4 years. All patients underwent complete otorhinolaryngological evaluation with special concern to the presenting complaint. Then, all enrolled patients underwent the urea breath test (UBT) using the Heliprobe 14C UBT and the obtained surgical specimens or effusion samples or swabs were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori DNA. Results: According to results of UBT, 41 patients were H. pylori infected, 107 patients had borderline infection and 144 patients were free of infection. PCR examination of H. pylori DNA detected 62 positive cases; 33 were positive and 29 were borderline UBT with a true positive rate of 80.5% for positive and 27.1% for borderline UBT. PCR assured H. pylori infection in 5 patients had CRS with polyposis, in 9 patients with CRS without polyposis, in 17 patients with tonsillitis and in 10 patients with pharyngitis without tonsillitis. PCR confirmed H. pylori infection in 15 patients with chronic otitis media (COM) with effusion and in 6 patients with laryngitis. Conclusion: Upper air passages could be considered as reservoir for H. pylori that must be considered as an underlying pathogenic mechanism for various otorhinolaryngological disorders and must be excluded prior to surgical decision making. Urea breath test could be considered as a good positive screening test for presence of H. pylori infection and must be applied as a routine test at otorhinolaryngological clinics.

[Adel F. Al-Kholy, Mamdouh Z. Abadier, Manal M. Hassaan, Ebrahem M. Rageh, Mohamed F. Shindy. Screening for Helicobacter pylori Infection among Patients with Otorhinolaryngological Diseases May Spare Need for Surgical Interference: A PCR Confirmed Study. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):83-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.12

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.12

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Spectral Relationships of Some Mixed Integral Equations of the First Kind

 

S. J. Monaquel

 

Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science King Abdul Aziz University Saudi Arabia

smonaquel@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Here, the existence of a unique solution of mixed integral equation (MIE) of the first kind in three dimensions is discussed in the space ; Ω is the domain of integration with respect to position. A numerical method is used to obtain system of Fredholm integral equations (SFIEs). Many spectral relationships (SRs), when the kernel of position takes a logarithmic form, Carleman function, elliptic kernel, potential function and generalized potential function are obtained in this work. In addition, many important new and special cases are considered and discussed.

[S. J. Monaquel. Spectral Relationships of Some Mixed Integral Equations of the First Kind. J Am Sci 2012;8(5): 89- 99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.13

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Parameters’ Effect on Weld Quality for Dissimilar Spot Welding Between Ferritic Stainless Steel and Low Carbon Steel Sheets

 

M. El-Shennawy1 and S. M. Khafagy2

 

1Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

2Tabbin Institute for Metallurgical Studies (TIMS), P.O.B 109 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

E-mail: moha_111@yahoo.com; egtimsmmk@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This work discusses the effect of main controlling parameters of spot welding process on the quality of dissimilar welded joint between ferritic stainless steel grade 430, FSS with 0.5 mm thickness and low carbon steel, LCS with 0.6 mm thickness sheets. Parameters studied were welding current, welding time and electrode pressure. Metallurgical and mechanical characteristics were determined through microstructure, tensile shear and microhardness examinations. The results of this study showed that the suitable electrode pressure in this dissimilar combination of steels; FSS and LCS; was 0.2MPa (2 bar). It was found also that the welding current is the most influential parameter on weld quality. The best weld strength was obtained at 3.4 KA. Increasing welding current and welding time up to certain level increases the joint strength, after this level the joint strength decreases. Investigations showed also that the dominant structure of the nugget is martensite. The fracture due to tensile shear test was mainly intergranular in ferritic stainless steel side and the fracture mode was button pullout. Microhardness values recorded their highest values at locations where carbides existed beside the martensite of the nugget.

[M. El-Shennawy and S. M. Khafagy. Parameters’ Effect on Weld Quality for Dissimilar Spot Welding Between Ferritic Stainless Steel and Low Carbon Steel Sheets. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):100-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.14

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Nursing care standards for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

 

Asmaa Sayed Abd Al-Magid, 1 Sanaa Mohammed A, Alaa Aldeen2 Samir Shehata Mohammed3and Zienab Abd Elatef4

 

1Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

2Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

3Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

4Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

dr_as_sa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the study is to develop nursing care standards for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. A study was conducted in oncology unit and outpatient clinic of oncology at Assiut university hospitals. To accomplish the purpose of this study data were collected from all head nurses and nurses works in oncology unit and out patient clinic of oncology (30), physician (24) who had an experience in the field of the study for determining the basic competencies. Tool utilize for data collection were Health team opinionnaire sheet, Nurses knowledge standards level test for cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy, and Nurses performance observation standards level checklist for cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. The results show that the majority of physician and nurses agreed about all competencies to be performed by physician and nurses whom works at oncology field as these competencies required for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, as regard nurse's knowledge about cancer there was a highly significant statistical difference between four stages (Pre, Immediate, after one month, and after three months) application of standards. On pre standards application 53.3% of study group were Poor in knowledge, on immediate standards application 100% of study group were good in knowledge, after 1 month of standards application 80% of study group were good in knowledge, and after 3 months 60% of study group were satisfied in knowledge, and regarding to nurse's performance the results show that the level of performance improved in all procedures immediately, after one month and after three months than pre- standards application.

[Asmaa Sayed Abd Al-Magid, Sanaa Mohammed A, Alaa Aldeen, Samir Shehata Mohammedand Zienab Abd Elatef. Nursing care standards for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):108-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.15

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Electroweak Interaction in the  and  - leptonic Pair production at High Energies

 

E.M.A. Hilal

 

Department of Mathematics Science Faculty for Girls – King Abdulaziz University. ehilal@kau.edu.sa

 Abstract: The theoretical treatment of the process of the annihilation of  - pair into  - or  - pairs at high regions of energy can be studied in details. The Electroweak interaction in the processes can also be studied obtaining analytical formulae for the cross-sections of the process in different cases. Applying the obtained formulae for the case of high energy to obtain the energy distribution for the processes. The effect of polarization of the particles on the process can be also studied, obtaining the formulae for the cross-sections in both weak  and electromagnetic interactions. The comparison between the two types of interactions e.g. weak and electromagnetic, and the interference between them is performed, showing that the study of particle polarization in the process is very important and give us a result compatible with the Salam-Weinberg model of electroweak interactions and the experimental studies.

[E.M.A. Hilal. Electroweak Interaction in the  and  - leptonic Pair production at High Energies. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):121-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.16

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Epidemiological Study Of The Unmet Need For Contraception In Benha City

 

Soad Darwish El- Gendy1, Abdelmoniem Younis Dawah1, Ranyah Hamdy M. Afify1, Sheref El-Taher1 and Reham Omar Abd –elmoniem2

 

1Department of Community,Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha University,

2Family Medicine Center, Benha City

prof_elashhab2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although contraceptive use has increased in many developing countries yet unmet need for family planning is an important public health issue because of its negative association with social and health outcomes for both mothers and children. Understanding the underling reasons and the characteristics of women with unmet need can help to design unmet need strategies. Aim of the work: To determine the magnitude and some of the underlying factors of unmet need for contraception for a sample of fecund married women of reproductive age (15 – 49 years) attending medical health center in Benha City. Subjects and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on four hundreds married women. Data were collected through a structured interview questionnaire sheet. It includes socio-demographic data, KAP study, reproductive aspects, and quality of care of family planning services. The size of the unmet need was estimated according to the standard EDHS 2008 definition of women with unmet need. Results: This study revealed that the level of unmet need for contraception was 30%. The percentage of illiteracy was higher for the unmet need group 33.3% and the percentage of working women was higher among contraceptive users 23.5%. None of unmet need group 0.0% realize the correct concept of family planning. The attendance of health education sessions about family planning was very low 11%. The majority of women with unmeet need (75%) believe that contraceptive methods may be harmful. The main reasons for never use of family planning methods were current lactation and fear of side effects (33% each) and that for discontinuation were the menstrual problems 59.4%. There was no significant difference between women in the unmet and met need group regarding physical accessibility to services. Conclusion and recommendations: The rate of unmeet need for family planning is still high. Family planning should have a public health focus, concentrating on creating a supportive and active family planning program at multilevels starting from the woman herself to the community as a whole and depend on the health education as the main strategy.

[Soad Darwish El- Gendy, Abdelmoniem Younis Dawah, Ranyah Hamdy M. Afif, Sheref El-Taher and Reham Omar Abd –elmoniem. Epidemiological Study Of The Unmet Need For Contraception In Benha City. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):125-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.17

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World Music Industry Based on PETSEL Analysis; the Case of Hi-Fi

 

1Samad Ranjbar Ardakani, 1Mostafa Ranjbar Ardakani, 2Sasan Ghermezi, 1Behzad Safaee

 

1Noorabad Mamasani Branch, Islamic Azad University, Noorabad Mamasani, Fars, Iran

2 Department of Management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

Applyforisi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Music is the important art of human being; it has the power to change our mindset, to affect every aspect of our lives and our culture. Yet music is also a large global business towards our economy. One of business segment of music is the Hi-Fi sector, Hi Fi system included music player, amplifiers and speaker. Nowadays, accordingly to enhancing computer technology, Hi-Fi is more and more getting into cyber field such as computer installation Hi-Fi systems, digital music players etc. Hi-Fi sector experienced ups and downs from 1970s to nowadays. By PETSEL analysis, it is an external analysis tool for analysis of macro-environment. PESTEL is stand for Political factor(s), Economic factor(s), Social factor(s), Technological factor(s), Environmental factor(s) and Legal factor(s). This article discusses on the main aspects of Hi Fi industry based on PETSEL analysis.

[Samad Ranjbar Ardakani, Mostafa Ranjbar Ardakani, Sasan Ghermezi, Behzad Safaee. World Music Industry Based on PETSEL Analysis; the Case of Hi-Fi. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):135-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.18

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Modellistic Approach for Land Suitability - An Application to Maize

 

M. Wahsha1*, Anas. M. Al-Omari2, K. Mostafavi3, Bassem M. Raafat2&8, M. Ghotbi4, M. Ghotbi5, H. R. Rouhi6 M. Esmaeili Azad5, M. Ramezani5, M. Amini Dehaghi7, A. Moghaddam Khamseh7

 

1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy

2 College of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, KSA.

3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

4 Department of Ecology and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, Germany.

5 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Iran.

6 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran.

7 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahed University, Iran.

8Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, NRC, EGYPT

* dr.mohammadwahsha@yahoo.com; omari_anas_2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Land suitability classification is currently based on the definition of a Land Utilisation Type, the compromise point between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The Simulation methods to define Land Utilization Type have been relatively little used since mathematical models are focused on problems of scientific rather than practical nature. In this paper a regression model is presented as a tool in prediction of crop production. The model is based on the relationships among climatic conditions, soil water, nutrient concentration in plants, and maize production. Climatic condition is modelled by the aridity index and is linked to crop production by a Gauss curve, soil water is modeled by AWC (available water capacity), which is linearly correlated to crop production. Finally, nutrients concentration is linked to crop production by a non rectangular hyperbole. Jointing the three modules (climate, water, and nutrients) originates a complex theoretical equation, in which all chemicals absorbed by plant are considered. The model has been validated in experimental trials. Its current application is subjected to a simplification of the theoretical equation.

[M. Wahsha, Anas. M. Al-Omari, K. Mostafavi, B. Raafat, M. Ghotbi, M. Ghotbi, H. R. Rouhi, M. Esmaeili Azad, M. Ramezani, M. Amini Dehaghi, A. Moghaddam Khamseh. Modellistic Approach for Land Suitability An Application to Maize. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):139-149]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.19

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Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on surface and groundwater systems in the western part of the River Nile, between EL-Edwa - Der Mawas area, El Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt

 

Mohamed El Kashouty*, Esam El Sayed**, Ashraf M. T. Elewa** and Mamdouh Morsi***

 

* Cairo university, Faculty of Science, Geology Department

** Minia University, Faculty of science, Geology Department

*** Environmental Department, Minia Governorate

 

Abstract: The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on the surface and ground-waters systems in the western part of the River Nile, Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. The situation is further complicated by contamination with lithogenic and anthropogenic (agricultural and sewage wastewaters) sources and low plan exploitation techniques. The Pleistocene aquifer is composed of sand and gravel of different sizes, with some clay intercalation. The semi confined condition was around the River Nile shifted to unconfined outside the floodplain. The groundwater flow generally from south to north and diverts towards the western part and the River Nile. Ninety-six and twenty-one water samples were collected from Pleistocene aquifer and surface irrigated waters (Ibrahimia canal, River Nile, and Bahr Youssef) and El Moheet drain. The detail chemical analyses with respect to major and trace elements were accomplished for hydrogeochemical evaluation. The total dissolve solids (TDS) of the surface irrigated water are below 500 ppm which is suitable for drinking and irrigating uses. The As and Ni content of surface water makes it unsuitable for drinking but suitable for irrigation. The River Nile in the study area with respect to the Cd content is inappropriate for drinking and irrigation purposes due to the agricultural activity and inflow from the groundwater (the River Nile is a discharge zone). The Pb and Se concentrations in surface irrigated water are higher than the drinking standards and lower than the irrigation standards The Zn and F concentrations in surface irrigated water are lower than the drinking and irrigation standards. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is more or less equal in surface irrigated water and decline in El Moheet drain by increase in organic wastewaters (BOD and COD) in the drain. The COD and BOD in surface irrigated water are higher than the drinking standards. The B and Cu concentrations in surface irrigated water are lower than drinking and irrigation standards. The TDS concentration in groundwater increases generally from southern to northern part of the study area, with groundwater flow. The TDS anomalous areas (800 to 1400 ppm) are attributed to lithogenic, and anthropogenic (agricultural) impact. The B concentration anomalous areas are located due to the western zone that exceed the drinking water standard. The contamination with respect to Cu and Ni is out the aquifer system. The Cd concentration was below the drinking water standard of 0.003 mg/l, therefore no pollution with respect to Cd concentration. The NO2 and Cr concentrations shows no impact on the groundwater quality. The Ba, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations impact on the groundwater environment with respect to drinking purpose while it can use in irrigation. The cluster analysis was distinguished into four clusters which subdivided into six sub clusters (A-F). The average concentrations of each sub cluster was determined and correlated with the geographic position. The principal component analysis was established and classified into six factors.

[Mohamed El Kashouty, Esam El Sayed, Ashraf M. T. Elewa and Mamdouh Morsi. Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on surface and groundwater systems in the western part of the River Nile, between EL-Edwa - Der Mawas area, El Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):150-161]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.20

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How urban managers can use DSS to facilitate decision making process: an application of fuzzy TOPSIS

 

Farzad Torkamani1, Samira Fallah1, Masood Saadatmand2

 

1. Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

m_saadatmand@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Urban authorities have to deal with various, sometimes conflicting, and multi-dimensional issues which brings a great deal of complexity to the planning process. As a result, they need suitable tools to support making rational decisions and overcoming the complexity. Decision support systems (DSSs) are one of the effective tools used worldwide to improve the quality of decision making process. As designing an efficient decision support system requires adequate data gathering and model developing, in most cases DSS development is a costly and time consuming project. Therefore, it doesn’t seem to be logical or sometimes feasible to apply it for urban management areas and the authorities should follow a logical process to choose the most appropriate area for using DSS. The aim of this paper is to propose a multi-criteria decision making model based on fuzzy TOPSIS to pave the way for urban managers in order to benefit from DSS in decision making process. The detailed specification of the model besides the algorithm to be followed is described and a numerical example is presented to clarify the model.

[Farzad Torkamani, Samira Fallah, Masood Saadatmand. How urban managers can use DSS to facilitate decision making process: an application of fuzzy TOPSIS. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):162-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.21

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Automotive Nonwoven Insulation Fabrics Produced from Virgin & Recycled Fibers and their Absorption Properties

 

Sanaa S. Saleh

 

College of Girls for Arts, Science & Education, Ain Shams University

sanaashoukry@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Textiles in transportation are gaining more attention in the last few years as a result of high increase in the demands. In this research, 6 nonwoven fabrics have been produced from virgin and recycled fibers to be used for automotive insulation fabrics. In this paper, the results obtained for testing some produced insulation fabrics which have been presented. The tests included the strength properties, tear resistance, elongation, and air permeability of these fabrics in relation to their fabric structure and fiber composition. Additionally, the absorption properties of these fabrics have been investigated (i.e. absorption of kerosene, gas, car oil and water). The effect of time and liquid type has been explored.

[Sanaa S. Saleh. Automotive Nonwoven Insulation Fabrics Produced from Virgin & Recycled Fibers and their Absorption Properties. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):174-186]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.22

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Factors driving Iranian graduates to immigrate to other countries

 

Roghayeh Panahi

 

Maragheh peyamnoor university,state east Ajarbayjan the first way of hashtrood, after majles square.
Post /zip code 156

scientificgroup@hotmail.com; PanahiR@gmx.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims to examine the factors associated with the move abroad of university graduates. The survey is using a descriptive approach to help the researchers better know current circumstances, enabling graduates to make more informed decisions. What the study found was the most common factors associated with emigration of university graduates were political and economic rights, financial security, health care and welfare, higher education and research, at the macro level; lack of outlets for graduates to apply their research training, low pay and lack of security in the jobs they do land (whether inside or outside their fields), and cultural difficulties. Conversely, the factors that attract potential immigrants to a new home land include better income and more opportunities to apply their education and training and to continue their graduate studies – as well as to explore their spiritual or religious lives without fear; in general, it was found, graduates sought a higher standard of living, more of a chance to strengthen and use their training and a greater sense of freedom, at the micro level.

[Roghayeh Panahi. Factors driving Iranian graduates to immigrate to other countries. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):187-193]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.23

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Keratorefractive Surgery for Post-Cataract Refractive Surprise

 

Moataz El Sawy

 

Departmentof Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine,MenoufiyaUniversity, Egypt

 mfelsawy@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of keratorefractive surgery (LASIK & PRK) to correct clinically significant ametropia following cataract surgery. Setting: eye subspecialty center, Cairo, Egypt (from May 2009 to April 2010). Methods: prospective randomized study that was performed on 40 eyes of 30 patients with clinically significant ametropia following cataract surgery. The eyes were divided into two groups; group A (treated by LASIK) and group B (treated by PRK). Allegretto blue eyes excimer laser was used (with Moria 90 microkeratome only for LASIK group). Mean age was 43.6 years (range 64-25 years). Mean follow up duration was 10.5 months (range 6-18 months). Mean interval between cataract surgery and LASIK or PRK was 6.5 mm (range 8-6 months). Results: For group (A) the mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction (SEQ) for myopic eyes was -2.89±0.72D (range -4.0 to -2.0 D) and for astigmatic eyes was 2.04±0.84D (range 3.5-2 D). The mean postoperative SEQ was -0.42±0.16D (range -0.75 to +0.25D) in myopic eyes and was 0.29±0.1D (range +0.5 to -0.25 D) in astigmatic eyes. There was a statistically significant improvement in myopic eyes (P=0.002) and in astigmatic eyes (p=0.026). Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) improved by a mean of 4 lines in myopic eyes to 0.68 ± 0.15 (range 1.0 to 0.5) (p =0.002) and 3 lines in astigmatic eyes to a mean of 0.63±0.05 (range 0.7-0.6) (p =0.027). For group( B) the mean preoperative SEQ for myopic eyes was -2.32±0.27D (range -2.75to -2.0 D) and for astigmatic eyes was 2.60±0.28D (range 3.0 to 2.25D). The mean postoperative SEQ was 0.46±0.24 (range -1.0 to +0.25 D) in myopic eyes and was 1.80±0.41D (range +2.5 to -1.5D) in astigmatic eyes. There was statistically significant improvement in myopic eyes (p =0.001) while in astigmatic eyes there was no significant improvement (p =0.08). UCVA improved by a mean of 4 lines in myopic eyes to 0.71±0.13 (range 0.9 to 0.5) (p =0.001). No significant improvement in astigmatic eyes (p =0.89). Conclusion: LASIK is safe, predictable procedure for correction of post cataract refractive errors including myopia and astigmatism. Also PRK is effective for correction of residual myopia after cataract surgery but not for residual astigmatism. Further studies are needed to assess the long term SEQ and UCVA stability.

[Moataz El Sawy. Keratorefractive Surgery for Post-Cataract Refractive Surprise. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):194-198]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.24

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Relationship between Staff Nurses' Perception of Professional Shared Governance and their Job Satisfaction

 

Abeer Mohamed Seada and Eman Abdelalim, Etway

 

Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

abeerseada@yahoo.com; emabdalim@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Background: Work environments that focus on a decentralized organizational structure facilitate control over nursing practice. Shared governance is an environment where professional nurses have the legitimate authority to make decisions about practice and the accountability for the outcomes of these decisions. This is fundamental to job satisfaction, recruitment and retention, and subsequent quality of care and patient safety. Aim: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between staff nurses' perception of professional shared governance and their job satisfaction. Design: a descriptive correlational design was used. Methods: The study was conducted in four different work places at El Manial University Hospital. A purposive sample of (90) staff nurses were constitute the study sample. Nurse managers and those in senior nursing administration were excluded from the sample. Data were collected through utilizing two tools, the first consists of two parts, the first part was intended to collect individual characteristics of the study sample, the second part was the Index of Professional Nursing Governance. The second tool was Work Quality Index (WQI) used to measure the job satisfaction of nurses. Results: results revealed that, nurses had lowest mean scores regarding their perception of shared governance which indicates that overall they did not have professional control over their work environment as their work environment are controlled by nursing administrator only or primarily by nurse administrator with some staff input. A highly significant difference between the professional shared governance dimensions total mean scores as well as nurses job satisfaction according to different work places. There was a significant positive correlation between nurses' perception of shared governance and their overall job satisfaction. Recommendations: Top manager should play an important role to support the presence of staff nurses at all levels of decision making and measuring patient, nurse, and systems outcomes. Providing the staff nurses formal authority to control practice and have influence in decision making that positively affects their professional respect, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.

[Abeer Mohamed Seada, Eman Abd El Alim, Etway. Relationship between Staff Nurses' Perception of Professional Shared Governance and their Job Satisfaction. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):199-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.25

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Evaluation of the Effect of Emotional Intelligence Training on Reducing Aggression in Second Year High School Female Students

 

Zahra Eftekhar Saadi1, Mahnaz Mehrabi zadeh Honarmand2, Bahman Najarian2, Hasan Ahadi3, Parviz Askari4

 

1- PhD student, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Ahwaz, Iran

2- Academic Staff, Department of Psychological Sciences, IUA, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Ahwaz, Iran

3- Academic Staff, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

4- Academic Staff, IAU, Ahwaz Branch

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of emotional intelligence training on reducing aggression in second year high school female students of Ahwaz. This is an experimental study with pre-test- post-test control group design. The study population is all second year high school students of Ahwaz. The study was carried out on 60 students of the study population, who were selected by multi-stage randomized sampling method and were divided into the two groups of experiment and study (30 students in each group). Before carrying out the experimental intervention (presentation of the independent variable), the two groups were given the pre-test using, aggression questionnaire (AGQ) Then, the students of the experiment group attended ten 90-minutes training sessions of emotional intelligence techniques. One week after the intervention, the two groups were post-tested using AGQ. The data were analyzed using MANCOVA method (multivariate analysis of covariance). Results of the study indicate that training the emotional intelligence skills will lead to reduced aggression and increased individual-social adaptability of female students, compared with the control group.

[Zahra Eftekhar Saadi, Mahnaz Mehrabi zadeh Honarmand, Bahman Najarian, Hasan Ahadi, Parviz Askari. Evaluation of the Effect of Emotional Intelligence Training on Reducing Aggression in Second Year High School Female Students. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):209-212]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.26

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Effect of some acid treated bacteria on reduction of impure aflatoxin B1 in ruminant gastrointestinal model

 

R. Motameny 1, A. A. Sadeghi 1, M. Dehghan-Banadaky 2, M. Chamani 1, M. Abolhassani 3

 

1. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Animal Science, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3. Hybridoma Lab., Dept. of Immunology, Pasteur Institute of Iran. Tehran, Iran 13164

Motameny_r@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Lactic acid bacteria are of particular interest for reducing the bioavailability of aflatoxins. Bacterial aflatoxin B1 binding ability and aflatoxin B1- bacteria complex stability can be affected by acid treatment for a number of strains. In the present study, the ability of three strains of acid treated bacteria to bind high dosage of impure aflatoxin B1 in ruminant gastrointestinal model was investigated. All strains had significant impact on reducing aflatoxin B1 compared to the controls although there were no differences among bacteria significantly. Our results suggest that these treated strains have the ability to reducing high dosage of impure aflatoxin B1 in ruminant model.

[R. Motameny, A.A. Sadeghi, M. Dehghan-Banadaky, M. Chamani, M. Abolhassani. Effect of some acid treated bacteria on reduction of impure aflatoxin B1 in ruminant gastrointestinal model. J Am Sci. 2012;7(12):213-217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.27

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Modeling of Industrial Fixed Bed Reactor to Produce Dimethyl Ether from Methanol and Determination of Optimum Operating Conditions

 

Seyyed Ya’ghoob Hosseini and Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou*

 

.Gas Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, P. O. Box 63431, Ahwaz, Iran

* mr.khosravi@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether using γ-Al2O3 catalyst was modeled in an industrial adiabatic fixed-bed reactor by one-dimensional heterogeneous model. Longitudinal temperature and conversion profiles were predicted. By the model, the best temperature for pure methanol feed, through plotting temperature-conversion diagram at constant reaction rates and different inlet temperatures was determined. In addition, the optimum pressure was obtained and the effect of mass flow rate was discussed at this pressure and inlet temperature. Finally, it was found maximum obtainable conversion at optimum operating conditions was 81.36%.

[Seyyed Ya’ghoob Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou. Modeling of Industrial Fixed Bed Reactor to Produce Dimethyl Ether from Methanol and Determination of Optimum Operating Conditions. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):218-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.28

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Contextual Analysis of Act 171 of 1976 Approaches to Property Assessment for Rating Purposes in Peninsular Malaysia.

 

Sani Habibu Muhammad 1, Assoc. Prof. Dr Mohd Bakri Bin Ishak 2

 

1 Department of Environmental Management & Planning, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia (UPM).

2 Assoc. Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia (UPM). sanihavibu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Malaysian Constitution is structured in such a manner to allow state Governments make laws and legislations to suite their local circumstances in line with parent Acts. This intention is not intended to create operational diversity and disharmony with the constitution as well as inequality and unfairness among the citizens. Documentary analysis in comparison with International good practices using decided cases to support the analysis was carried out. The local Government Act 171 of 1976 was enacted with sole objective of unifying operational practices as a guiding legislation to all local authority. There exist in the Act some ambiguities on the area of approach to the assessment of real property for rating purposes. This has created disparity in the amount payable on a class of property in different states despite their similarities in accommodation, design, construction as well as public infrastructural facility accessibility and service provision upon which the basis for levying the assessment rates were introduced. It is therefore pertinent to harmonize the objective of the Act with the operational provision to eradicate all ambiguity in order to provide fair and equitable base for property assessment throughout peninsular Malaysia that is viable and productive.

[Sani Habibu Muhammad, Mohd Bakri Bin Ishak. Contextual Analysis of Act 171 of 1976 Approaches to Property Assessment for Rating Purposes in Peninsular Malaysia. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):226-232]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.29

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Evaluation of the impact the food N_Acetylcystein on prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing coronary bypass surgery

 

*A. Ebadi1, M. Deghani2, M. Soltanzade3, A. Ghorban4, Sh. Nasionpour5, R. Akhondzadeh6, K. Behaien7, Sabori8

 

 1,3- Associate Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapour University, Ahvaz, Iran.

2, 5, 6, 7-Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, MD, Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapour University, Ahvaz 4- Assistant Professor, Department of Nephrology

8-Resident of Anesthesiology MD

 * Corresponding Author: Ebadi1959@ajums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a syndrome of sudden decrease in Glomerular filtration is the general definition of waste in the body leads to retention. This definition only includes a range of clinical situations. To encompass the full spectrum of the syndrome of acute kidney injury (AKI) has been proposed. The main objective of this study is whether the preventive use of NAC in preventing AKI after cardiac surgery in patients with chronic kidney disease are at the same time or not? So check the effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on the prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing coronary bypass surgery seem to be logical and useful. Results from this study can identify the possible side effects to NAC. Prove the effectiveness of oral NAC in the prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing coronary bypass surgery can study the use of NAC to the anesthesiologist and the surgeon can offer.

[A. Ebadi, M. Deghani, M. Soltanzade, A. Ghorban, Sh. Nasionpour, R. Akhondzadeh, K. Behaien, Sabori. Evaluation of the impact the food N_Acetylcystein on prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing coronary bypass surgery. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):233-237]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.30

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New Searching Rules to Find Variant Names in Arabic

 

M.M. Badr1, A.A. El-Harby1 and A.M. Riad2

 

1 Department of Mathematic, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, New Damietta, Egypt.

2 Department of Information System, Faculty of Computers and Information Systems, Mansoura University, Egypt.

mohfbadr2000@yahoo.com, elharby@yahoo.co.uk, amriad2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper a new Natural Language Processing (NLP) system that has the ability to extract information from a database using rules and to search by the popular names. These names can be written as fixed forms or variant forms, for instance the name "ابراهيم" may be written correctly as "إبراهيم" or "ابراهيم" or wrong as "أبراهيم" for one person. The new search method is performed using Z-test, and we find that the new way has superior performance compared to the ordinary search.

[M.M. Badr, A.A. El-Harby and A.M. Riad. New Searching Rules to Find Variant Names in Arabic. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):238-243]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.31

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Effect of Acute Apelin Injection on Arterial Blood Pressure in both Normal and Diabetic Rats

 

Mohammad I Shehata, Mostafa H. Abdel Salam, Dalia I. Abd Alaleem and Hadeel A Al-Sherbiny

 

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University.

miar2009@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Apelin is an adipokine originally identified as the endogenous ligand of the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The next studies have demonstrated that apelin and its receptor are involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. It has been hypothesized that it may exert vasodilating and hypotensive effects as opposed to the pressor action of angiotensin II/ angiotensin-type 1 receptor (AT1) signaling. However, this effect in case of cardiovascular diseases is controversial. Diabetes mellitus is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease which is the leading cause of death in those patients. Aim: This study was designed to detect possible acute effects of in vivo apelin-13 injection on arterial blood pressure in both normal and diabetic state, with a trial to clarify possible involved mechanisms. Material & methods: This study was conducted on 90 healthy adult male albino rats; the animals were divided equally into 3 equal main groups: Group I: Control group, Group II: Strptozotocin -induced type 1 diabetes non-treated rats, and Group III: Insulin treated diabetic rats. Experimental design: In the three groups we examined the effect of acute injection of Apelin-13 (10 nmol /kg b.wt) either alone or in the presence of, L-NAME (l0 mg/kg b.wt) or Glibenclamide (20 mg/kg) on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR), also we investigated the effect of acute apelin injection on MAP reactivity to angiotensin II (60 ng/kg b.wt ) or acetylcholine (l µg/kg). Results: The results of this study showed that administration of apelin-13 in normal, diabetic, and diabetic treated anaesthetized rats was reduced MAP by 10, 19.3, 10.2 %, respectively (p<0.001),without any significant change in heart rate. In the presence of a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (L- Name), the effect of apelin-13 on blood pressure was abolished. However, the administration of apelin-13 in the presence of glibenclamide produced a significant decrease in MAP in all groups. Thus, apelin may lower blood pressure via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. The results of this work showed also that, administration of apelin-13 antagonizes the hypertensive action of Ang II in all groups, furthermore, this effect was less significant in the diabetic rats in comparison with that of control and insulin treated groups. In addition, our results demonstrated that administration of apelin-13 produced a significant increase in the hypotensive effect of acetylcholine in all groups, moreover, this effect of apelin-13 was more significant in diabetic group in comparison with that of both control and diabetic treated groups. Conclusion: acute apelin-13 administration in vivo caused NO-mediated decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, which was more significant in diabetic rats in comparison with normal and insulin treated rats. In addition, apelin-13 injection antagonized the hypertensive action of Ang II which was less significant in the diabetic group, and augmented the hypotensive effect of acetylcholine which was more significant in the diabetic rats in comparison with that of control and insulin treated groups. Therefore, the use of apelin may be investigated as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic vasculopathy. However, the impact of chronic administration requires further attention.

[Mohammad I Shehata, Mostafa H. Abdel Salam, Dalia I. Abd Alaleem and Hadeel A Al-Sherbiny. Effect of Acute Apelin Injection on Arterial Blood Pressure in both Normal and Diabetic Rats. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):244-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.32

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Relationship between Staff Nurses' Perception of Professional Shared Governance and their Job Satisfaction

 

Abeer Mohamed Seada and Eman Abdelalim, Etway

 

Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

abeerseada@yahoo.com emabdalim@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Background: Work environments that focus on a decentralized organizational structure facilitate control over nursing practice. Shared governance is an environment where professional nurses have the legitimate authority to make decisions about practice and the accountability for the outcomes of these decisions. This is fundamental to job satisfaction, recruitment and retention, and subsequent quality of care and patient safety. Aim: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between staff nurses' perception of professional shared governance and their job satisfaction. Design: a descriptive correlational design was used. Methods: The study was conducted in four different work places at El Manial University Hospital. A purposive sample of (90) staff nurses were constitute the study sample. Nurse managers and those in senior nursing administration were excluded from the sample. Data were collected through utilizing two tools, the first consists of two parts, the first part was intended to collect individual characteristics of the study sample, the second part was the Index of Professional Nursing Governance. The second tool was Work Quality Index (WQI) used to measure the job satisfaction of nurses. Results: results revealed that, nurses had lowest mean scores regarding their perception of shared governance which indicates that overall they did not have professional control over their work environment as their work environment are controlled by nursing administrator only or primarily by nurse administrator with some staff input. A highly significant difference between the professional shared governance dimensions total mean scores as well as nurses job satisfaction according to different work places. There was a significant positive correlation between nurses' perception of shared governance and their overall job satisfaction. Recommendations: Top manager should play an important role to support the presence of staff nurses at all levels of decision making and measuring patient, nurse, and systems outcomes. Providing the staff nurses formal authority to control practice and have influence in decision making that positively affects their professional respect, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.

[Abeer Mohamed Seada and Eman Abdelalim, Etway. Relationship between Staff Nurses' Perception of Professional Shared Governance and their Job Satisfaction. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):256-266]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.33

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Plasma Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, D-Dimer and S100β Protein: A Panel for Differential Diagnosis of Acute Stroke

 

1Mamdouh Z. Abadier, 2Gamal H. Eliwa, 3Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed, 4Zakaria M. Ahmed and 5Osama A. Abdel-Salam

 

1Department Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University.

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, New Domiatta-Al-Azhar University

4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

5Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

 

Abstract: Objectives: To explore the diagnostic utility of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100β protein and d-Dimer for differentiation between cases of acute stroke compared to CT findings as a gold-standard diagnostic modality. Patients & Methods: The study included 80 patients; 51 males and 29 females with mean age of 49.6±6.8 years. Mean time lapsed since occurrence of symptoms till sampling was 8.3±2.7; range: 2-12 hours. All patients underwent clinical injury severity evaluation using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), neuroimaging and gave blood samples for ELISA estimation of plasma levels of GFAP, S100β protein and d-Dimer. Results: Radiodiagnosis depended on computed tomography (CT) alone in 54 patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone 17 patients and both CT and MRI in 9 patients and defined intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 12 patients, ischemic stroke (IS) in 31 patients, transient ischemic attack (TIA) in 19 patients and stroke mimic (S mimic) attack in 18 patients. Mean NIHSS score of ICH patients was significantly higher in patients had ICH and IS compared to TIA and S mimic patients. Mean at admission plasma levels of S100β protein and GFAP were significantly higher in ICH patients compared to all other patients and in IS patients compared to those had TIA and S mimic with significantly higher plasma levels of GFAP and significantly lower S100β in TIA compared to S mimic patients. Mean at admission levels of d-Dimer were significantly higher in IS patients compared to other groups. Stepwise regression and ROC curve analyses revealed that high GFAP and S100β levels are specific predictors for ICH, while high GFAP and d-Dimer could differentiate between acute IS from S mimics and TIA. Conclusion: High plasma levels of GFAP and S100β protein in association with short time lapsed till presentation and high clinical severity score could identify cases of hemorrhagic stroke, while high plasma levels of d-Dimer and GFAP in association with high clinical severity score could identify IS cases among cases of non-hemorrhagic stroke, so a panel of the three parameters; GFAP, d-Dimer and S100β protein could be used as a differentiating modality among cases of stroke and could be applied wherever neuroimaging facilities are unavailable or if patient's transfer is hazardous.

[Mamdouh Z. Abadier, Gamal H. Eliwa, Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed, Zakaria M. Ahmed and Osama A. Abdel-Salam. Plasma Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, D-Dimer and S100β Protein: A Panel for Differential Diagnosis of Acute Stroke. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):267-272]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.34

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Study of the Diagostic Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Hepatocellular Carcioma

 

Hany S. Sabry1; Mohamed A. Nouh1; Boris Yoffe2; Hatem Mahmoud El-Sebaai3; Hossam Ibrahim Mohamed1 and SomaiaAbd ElMohsen Mohamed1

 

1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt. 2Hepatology Department, Baylor College of Medicine, Hosuston, Texas, USA,

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.

dr.hossamebrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Forty patients with HCC, 20 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 10 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Serum alphafetoprotein (sAFP) and VEGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The serum VEGF levels in the HCC group (4189. ±2831 pg/ml) was significantly elevated as compared with those in patients with cirrhotic liver (470.05±283 pg/ml) and those in normal controls (172.8± 82.71 pg/ml). The VEGF levels were not significantly different between the patients with liver cirrhosis and the normal controls. In the 40 HCC patients, the serum VEGF levels in patients with portal vein (PV) thrombosis (n = 25, 5851.9±2629.4 pg/ml) or with large HCC lesions (>/= 5 cm in diameter) (n = 22, 5686.95 ± 1594.2 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those without PV thrombosis (n = 15, 3294.5 ± 2544.9 pg/ml) or with small HCC lesions (n = 18, 2359.5± 2966.45 pg/ml), while the serum AFP levels in patients with portal vein (PV) thrombosis (711.67 ± 585.97 ng/ml) or with large HCC lesions (>/= 5 cm in diameter) (740.67 ± 645.31 ng/ml) were not significantly higher than those without PV thrombosis (538.34 ± 619.05 ng/ml) or with small HCC lesions (425.86± 519.7 ng/ml) CONCLUSION: combined measurement of serum AFP and VEGF significantly increases the sensitivity, accuracy and negative predictive value in detection of HCC in cirrhotic patients rather than using of AFP or VEGF separately.

[Hany S. Sabry; Mohamed A. Nouh; Boris Yoffe; Hatem Mahmoud El-Sebaai; Hossam Ibrahim Mohamed and SomaiaAbd ElMohsen Mohamed. Study of the Diagostic Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Hepatocellular Carcioma.. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):273-279]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.35

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Biochemical study on the effect of Metallo-Surfactant and its loaded nano-analogue as anticancer drug

 

Abdelftah M. Badawi, 1 Nadia I. Zakhary, 2 Salwa M. I. Morsy, 1,4 Gilane M. Sabry, 3 Mervat M. Fouad, 2 and Ahmed M. Mousa1

 

1Applied Surfactant Laboratory, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

4Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

salwamm.morsy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In vivo antitumor activity, liver function, hematological and antioxidant status of copper cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (Cu-CTAB) loaded cyclodextrin nano-analogue was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor in mice. Mice were then sacrificed for estimation of simultaneous alterations in the hematological profile, liver biochemical parameters, antioxidant status and histopathological changes. The cardiotoxic effect represents in measuring lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase enzymes of both compounds and Doxorubicin were investigated in rats. The antibacterial and antifungal effect of copper cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (Cu-CTAB) loaded cyclodextrin nano-analogue was evaluated against Desulfonamonas pigra, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The synthesized compounds showed a potential activity comparable to the parent compound cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB).

[Abdelftah M. Badawi, Nadia I. Zakhary, Salwa M. I. Morsy, Gilane M. Sabry, Mervat M. Fouad, and Ahmed M. Mousa. Biochemical study on the effect of Metallo-Surfactant and its loaded nano-analogue as anticancer drug. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):280-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.36

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The Impact of Intellectual Capital on Management Accounting Practices and organizational performance In Iranian major factories

 

Mojtaba Tayari, Sasan Ghermezi

 

Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN. tayarimojtabaa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: With respect to the 1404 vision (a scenery script to develop in economic, social and political parts in iran), the development of the intellectual capital can be great aid to growth and the development of entrepreneurship and establishment of knowledge based enterprises. Present research examines the influence of intellectual capital on Management Accounting Practices and organizational performance in Shiraz factories Siemens, Fars Golsar factory; Bushehr industries cement co and Bushehr industries Polymer co. The research methodology is descriptive and survey research. In present research the library studies such as depended books, articles, journals and Questionnaires are used for gathering data in order to analyzie them, the method of data analyzing is multiple regression, Anova, T-test, Donken test and Pearson correlation. The result of The research shows that two basic research hypotheses namely influence of intellectual capital on Management Accounting Practices and influence of intellectual capital on organizational performance be confirmed. Also, The result of The research shows that the influence of intellectual capital on Management Accounting Practices in Factories Siemens is more than other Factories, also, the influence of intellectual capital on organizational performance in Bushehr Industries Polymer co is more than other Factories. The result of the research shows that the investment level in intellectual capital in Fars Golsar Factory is more than other factories. In the end of research, it offers that factories should deal with explaining importance and application of each dimension of intellectual capital to staffs, experts and managers by training on the job or by seminars and the role of internal reporting and referring it to strategic decision making should be considered as well. It should create a system also for evaluating investment project in intellectual capital which could quantify the profit of this kind of investments in these factories and The research offer that these factories should use Real Option Valuation (ROV) for evaluating strategic advantages of this kind of investments it offered using twofold accounting in balance sheets, both traditional and intangible assets in these factories as well.

[Mojtaba Tayari, Sasan Ghermezi. The Impact of Intellectual Capital on Management Accounting Practices and organizational performance In Iranian major factories. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):289-303]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.37

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Impact of the Nutritional Status on Yield of Nine Mango Cultivars Grown Under Farm Conditions at Giza Governorate, Egypt

 

Shaaban, S. H. A.* and Mahmoud M. Shaaban

 

Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre. *shashaaban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field study was carried out at some private farms in Giza Governorate, Egypt during seasons 2006-2010 with the nine mango cultivars: Zebda, Langra, Fagri Kalan, Hindi Khassa, Misk, Hindy Sinnara, Ewais, Alphons and Golk. The study aimed at investigating nutrient status of the orchards grown under flood irrigation system to discover deficiencies and suggest solutions. The obtained data revealed that orchard’s soils were alkaline in reaction, sandy loam in texture in the surface layer (0-30cm) and sandy in texture in the subsurface layer (30-60cm) with deficient levels of available macro and micronutrients in the absorption root zone. Leaf analysis showed that nutrients concentration in the sufficient range but Ca, Mn and Zn were severely deficient along the course of the study which became limiting factors led to very low yields. The highest yield upon all was obtain by the cultivar Zebda which suggests its higher resistance to unfavorable soil conditions and nutrient deficiencies, while the cultivar Alphons gave the lowest yield which may indicates its higher sensitivity. More studies should be done to establish suitable fertilizer programs depend upon soil test and leaf analysis, taking in consideration choice of the efficient cultivars for nutrient deficiencies to be cultivated.

[Shaaban, S. H. A. and Mahmoud M. Shaaban. Impact of the Nutritional Status on Yield of Nine Mango Cultivars Grown Under Farm Conditions at Giza Governorate, Egypt. J Am Sci. 2012;8(5):304-310]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.38

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The Different Relations of the Lower Third Molar to the Inferior Alveolar Canal in A Sample of Egyptian Population as Detected by Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)

 

Sherouk Khalifa; Nagla’a Abdel Wahed and Reham Hamdy

 

Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

shwshw00@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Iatrogenic injuries to the nerve can result in a series of dramatic events to the patient due to altered sensation and pain. This can be prevented by an accurate preoperative detection of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) location. 3-dimentional evaluation is more advantageous than the 2-dimentional methods. Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of the different relations of the lower third molar to the inferior alveolar canal (IAC). Materials and methods: the different relations were evaluated in 31 cases imaged using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). This was assessed in a sample of Egyptians. Results: 32.2% of cases showed the canal to be in contact with root, while they were separated in 67.7% of the cases. The canal could be buccal or lingual, inferior or superior or passing through the root and the percentage of these relations were found to be 51.6%, 3.2%, 67.7%, 3.2% and 0% respectively. The canal was found to be at the same level with the root in horizontal direction in 3.2% of cases and in the vertical direction in19.3% of cases. Conclusion: wide range of variation between the percentages of relations reported in literature was observed. This could be attributed to the nature of the studies and the criteria of cases selection. More research is needed to investigate the effects of race and gender on the anatomical location of the inferior alveolar canal.

[Sherouk Khalifa; Nagla’a Abdel Wahed and Reham Hamdy. The Different Relations of the Lower Third Molar to the Inferior Alveolar Canal in A Sample of Egyptian Population as Detected by Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). J Am Sci. 2012; 8(5):411-417]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.39

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Exploratory Socio-Spatial Distribution of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Girls in Jeddah Governorate, KSA

 

Katibah Maghrabi

 

Department of Medical Geography, King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: Background: Obesity in general and childhood obesity in specific are becoming an increasingly challenging burden worldwide, it is estimated that 10% of the world's school-age children are being overweight and one quarter of them are obese. Despite its hazardous effects on health, factors associated with obesity from the perspective of medical geography are not adequately studied. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of obesity among primary school female students and to identify demographic associated tendencies based on geographic distribution. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed healthy female school students (grades 4th, 5th and 6th) during 2011. Four governmental schools representing different socioeconomic levels in Jeddah Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were selected, from which eight hundred students were included. A pre-designed validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Weights and heights were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Students were categorized into overweight, obese and normal according to BMI by age scale adopted by CDC for girls (2-19 years).Results: A total of 788 students participated in the study with a response rate of 98.5%. Sixty seven students (8.5%) were categorized as either overweight (49, 6.2%) or obese (18, 2.3%). The proportion of overweight and obesity was significantly increasing towards older ages; it ranged between 5.6% at nine years old girls to 17.2 at age thirteen. The prevalence was significantly higher among students living in villas; own private cars and whom fathers are jobless. Geographically, the prevalence was significantly higher among students residing in Al Morjan district in the north west of Jeddah which is known as being predominantly of high socioeconomic level.

[Katibah Maghrabi. Exploratory Socio-Spatial Distribution of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Girls in Jeddah Governorate, KSA. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):418-456]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.40

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Casual strategy mapping using integrated BSC and MCDM-DEMATEL

 

Elham Falatoonitoosi1, Zulkiflle Leman 1, Shahryar Sorooshian2

 

1Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

2Business school, Taylor’s university, Malaysia

1 2Sorooshian@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Our environment is known with competition increasing in global economic and business strategies. The clear importance of effective management of business strategy map has become absolutely necessary. Strategy mapping represents a structured and general framework for strategic goals and plays an important role in formulating business competition and organization performance formulating. It is important to rank factors influencing strategy map and prioritize the strategies based on suitable factors. In this paper, a casual model was settled for mapping of strategic plans in Balanced Scorecard (BSC). We developed the map with integration of BSC and MCDM-DEMATEL technique to rank different business strategies for organization performance formulating. The proposed map is based on experiences of experts in real business world.

[Elham Falatoonitoosi, Zulkiflle Leman, Shahryar Sorooshian. Casual strategy mapping using integrated BSC and MCDM-DEMATEL. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):424-428]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.41

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Influence of Mechanical properties of Cotton Fabrics on Seam Quality

 

F. Fathy Saied Ebrahim¹’²

 

1Academy of Specific Studies, Worker University

2Faculty of Science & Education, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

f_wutext@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to study the effect of mechanical properties on seam quality of cotton fabrics. Twenty cotton fabrics are used for experiment. Mechanical properties of the fabrics on warp and weft directions were tested by FAST instrument. Seam efficiency, seam puckering and seam boldness were tested to evaluate seam quality. Curve regressions were used to analyze the influence of mechanical properties on seam quality. The results showed that the shear rigidity and extensibility were closely correlated with the seam efficiency and seam puckering rate, whereas the thickness, weight and shear rigidity were affecting on the seam boldness of the cotton fabrics. The regression equations of seam quality rate were obtained.

[F. Fathy Saied Ebrahim. Influence of Mechanical properties of Cotton Fabrics on Seam Quality. J Am Sci 2012; 8(5):429-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.42

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The Possible Physiological Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor – 1 (VEGFR-1) in Adrenaline-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats with and Without Exercise

 

Wafaa M. Hassab El Nabi¹ and Eman M.S. kamha2

 

1Physiology Department and2 Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. emankamha85@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: We investigated the effect of post-myocardial infarction (MI) exercise on oxidative and angiogenic mediators in the heart of rats with adrenaline-induced MI. Methodology: Forty adult male rats that were divided into the following four groups: group I, sedentary control group; group II, exercised control group; group III, sedentary infarct group and group IV, exercised infarct group. MI was established by subcutaneous injection of adrenaline (2 mg/kg body weight) in two subsequent doses, 24 hours apart for 2 consecutive days. Sedentary and exercised control groups received subcutaneous saline. The animals in groups II and IV started swimming immediately after induction of MI for about 15 minutes daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. However, rats in groups I and III remained sedentary throughout the experiment period. After 4 weeks, blood and heart tissues were collected for the assay of cardiac enzyme markers lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1(VEGFR–1), malondialdehyde and antioxidant concentrations. Results: MI showed increased levels of LDH, CK,and malondialdehyde in association with decreased antioxidant concentrations. However, post-MI exercise attenuated the effects of MI on oxidative stress markers and increased antioxidant activity in cardiac tissue. In addition, cardiac VEGFR-1 was elevated significantly in the sedentary infarct rats with more increase in the exercised infarct group. Conclusion: post-MI exercise training could reverse the adverse effects of MI by reducing the extent of myocardial damage, attenuating the oxidative stress, increasing VEGFR-1 expressions, and thereby increasing angiogenesis.

[Wafaa M. Hassab El Nabi and Eman M.S. kamha. The Possible Physiological Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor – 1 (VEGFR-1) in Adrenaline-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats with and Without Exercise. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):435-442]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.43

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Biochemical Effects of Cyromazine on Culex Pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

 

Assar, A.A.1, Abo-El-Mahasen, M.M.1, Hearba, N.M2 and Rady, A. A.2

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty, of Science, Menufiya University. Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

2Parasitol. Department. Faculty, of Medicine, Menuofiya Univ. Shebin El-kom, Egypt.

newsirenia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current work was carried out to evaluate the biochemical effects of the insect growth regulator (cyromazine) as chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI) against, 4th larval instar of Culex pipiens, treated as 2nd larval instar with 0.1 and 1 ppm to determine the effect of this CSI on glucose, protein and amino acids content as well as the phosphatase, transaminase and phenoloxidase enzymes. The obtained results indicated that the tested IGR significantly decreased the glucose, the amino acids, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the phenoloxidase in the homogenate of 4th larval instar of C. pipiens, while protein content and the activity of acid phosphatase increased. Also, the tested IGR elicited inhibitory effect on alanine amino transferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) at 0.1 ppm, while induced significant stimulatory effect at 1 ppm.

[Sahar Ahmed Shafik and Afaf Salah Abd El-Mohsen. Occupational health: Health Promotion Program to Improve Health Workers in Tourah Cement Factory. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):443-450]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.44

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The Impact of Profit Management on Capital Structure in the Accepted Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange

 

1Mohammad Reza Ravanshad, 2Abdorasoul Rahmanian Koushkaki, 3Reyhane Mosalanejad

 

1 Department of Accounting, Larestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Larestan, Fars, Iran

2Department of Accounting, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University Bandar Abbas, IRAN

3Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran (Islamic Republic of). Ravmoh2012@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Profits, capital structure and management of strategic issues for all companies around the world is growing. Sometimes profit management for managers, provides certain trade benefits to the species that seem good at the end of the year. This study investigated the relationship between earnings management and capital structure of listed companies in Tehran stock exchange is. For this study, about 60 companies of listed companies on the Stock Exchange during 1382 to 1386 were analyzed. For data analysis, multivariate regression method was used. in this study, capital structure and discretionary accruals as the dependent variable, ROA (return on total assets ratio) and ROE (return to the ratio of total equity) as independent variable is considered. The results indicate that accruals and ROE have a significant negative relationship with their capital structure. Significant positive relationship with ROA and capital structure of firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange has found.

[Mohammad Reza Ravanshad, Abolrasoul Rehmanian Koushki, Reyhane Mosalanejad. The Impact of Profit Management on Capital Structure in the Accepted Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):451-453]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.45

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Relationship of Seljuk to ghaznavids to ghories

 

Ali Mahmodi Alami

 

Abstract: Seljuks were nomadic that have inhabited at that side of jeyhoon or Oxus. After a period of time, they were became such powerful so that defeated the strength ghaznavids government. After the formation of Seljuk government, they started to establish the political relationship to neighbors’ thas they sent some missionaries toward surrounding nations and even established a close relationship to west nations in which the most record of relation was to ghaznavids government. That lasted about one and half century, this relationship was accompanied with much as cent and descent. Mainly one of the concerns of Seljuk kings was the relationship to ghories those who have inhabited in mountain area of harat in a which their people for supersession of khorasan riots, however the Seljuk kings continuously looked at ghoriesas unmanageable powers.

[Ali Mahmodi Alami. Relationship of Seljuk to ghaznavids to ghories. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):454-456]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.46

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Relationship between Islam world and Democracy

 

Jafar Kabiri Sarmazdeh1 davod kiany (ph.d) 2

 

Department of Politics, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran.

1JafarKabiri@yahoo.com and 2 d_kiany2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Very few studies have attempted to empirically examine the relationship between Islam and democracy in the Islam world. Islamic democracy refers to several kinds of democratic government or states that can be renowned in the Islamic countries. The basis of this division has to do with how comprehensively Islam is incorporated into the affairs of the state. A democratic state which recognizes Islam as state religion, such as Iran, Pakistan and other countries are examples of Islamic Democracy. Some religious values are incorporated into public life, but Islam is not the only source of law democratic state which endeavors to institute sharia. Islamic democracy offers more comprehensive inclusion of Islam into the affairs of the society. This article explains the Relationship between Islam and Democracy in the Muslims’ world.

[Jafar Kabiri sarmazdeh and Davod Kiany. Relationship between Islam world and Democracy. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):457-461]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.47

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Implementing High Vitamin C Treatments to Decrease Blood Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Saudi Patients

 

Osama Adnan Kensarah and Firas Sultan Azzeh*

 

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. fsazzeh@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of high vitamin C intake from diet and supplements on serum uric acid concentrations during 2 months. A group of 30 Saudi adults, nonsmokers, hyperurecemic, from both genders and aged between 20-70 yrs. Participants were divided into 3 groups; control group (low purine diet with normal vitamin C intake), high dietary vitamin C with purine restricted diet and high vitamin C supplements with purine restricted diet. The high vitamin C dose was 500mg/day. All participants have been followed-up for two months and reviewed at least two times a week. Uric acid, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were measured before and during the study. The overall mean reduction of uric acid for dietary treated group was -0.77 mg/dl and for supplemented group was -0.28 mg/dl. In the control group, the average uric acid was incremented after 2 months by 0.51 mg/dl. Reduction in serum uric acid was statistically significant for dietary treated group but not for supplemented one. This study suggests that inclusion of 500 mg/day of vitamin C for 2 months reduced risk factors associated with hyperuricemia. Dietary treatment was more effective in reduction serum uric acid than supplements.

[Osama Adnan Kensarah and Firas Sultan Azzeh. Implementing High Vitamin C Treatments to Decrease Blood Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Saudi Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):462-467]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.48

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Rapid identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Directly from Nasal Swab Specimens using duplex Light cycler PCR in Sohag University Hospital

 

Mona Fattouh ¹, Hydi Ahmed 2 and Medhat Ismail 2

 

Departments of Medical Microbiology & Immunology¹ and Clinical Pathology2, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

 

Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread worldwide and is responsible for significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Control strategies to limit the emergence and spread of this organism rely on rapid and sensitive tests for detection of MRSA carriage. Screening for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a key aspect of infection control to limit the nosocomial spread of this organism. Current methods for the detection of MRSA in clinical microbiology laboratories, including molecular methods for the identification of MRSA which are based on the detection of S. aureus-specific gene targets and the mecA gene require a culture step and the isolation of pure colonies that result in a minimum of 48 to 72 hours until a result is known. Also, clinical specimens such as nasal or wound samples are often colonized by both S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) which can both carry the mecA gene. In this study, we used two methods for identification of nasal carriage of MRSA; conventional culture methods and duplex real time PCR among one hundred newly admitted patients to Sohag University Hospital (65 males and 35 females), with age range from (25-35 years) in the period from September 2011 to February 2012. The isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus based on morphology, Gram staining, coagulase and catalase tests, and mannitol salt agar fermentation. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were subjected to cefoxitin disc diffusion test using a 30 µg disc to be identified as MRSA. In total, 26 patients (26%) were found to be nasal carriers of S. aureus and all these strains were MRSA. These conventional methods took 24-48 hours for routine culture and then further 24 hours for susceptibility testing for identification of MRSA. By using a duplex real-time fluorescence-based PCR assay targeting the mecA gene and the Sa442 gene which allows a rapid detection of nasal colonization with MRSA directly from nasal swab specimens containing a mixture of staphylococci from one hundred newly admitted patients; with the time from the start of processing of specimen to result was approximately three hours. 26 patients (26%) were found to be nasal carriers of MRSA. Duplex real-time fluorescence-based PCR assay is as effective test as the conventional methods; in addition it is more rapid, sensitive and specific for detection of nasal colonization with MRSA and providing for same-day results, allowing more efficient and effective use of infection control resources to control MRSA spread in health care facilities.

[Mona Fattouh, Hydi Ahmed and Medhat Ismail. Rapid identification of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Directly from Nasal Swab Specimens using duplex Light cycler PCR in Sohag University Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):468-474]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.49

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A Research in the Lexical and Content Structure of Devote Letters in Qajar Era

 

Mohammad Molaei 1, Fatemeh Eybakabadi 1, Hassan Bigonah 2

 

1. PhD student of Institute of Linguistics, Tajikistan Academy of Sciences

2. PhD student of Institute of philosophy, Tajikistan Academy of Sciences

molayem@gmx.com

 

Abstract: the structure of devote letters are usually composed of several parts. The introduction part that usually starts with praise, thank of God and commemoration of the benefactor. After that is the reason, motivation, and the explanations, benefactor's name and address, the subject of devotion, position, and geographical limits of the dedicated property, the date of dedication, instruction to use the income of endowment, and at the end, name, address, and benefactor or benefactors' seals that form the different parts of a devote letter and the content. In writing the devote letters, words are usually used that are linguistically very significant.

[Mohammad Molaei, Fatemeh Eybakabadi, Hassan Bigonah. A Research in the Lexical and Content Structure of Devote Letters in Qajar Era. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):475-478]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.50

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Nuclear Factor- κB (NF-κB) Expression in High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats

 

I. Diab1; H. Abdelaziz1 and H. Abo heif 2

 

Medical Biochemistry1 and Physiology2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. ihdiab59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Obesity is a metabolic disease associated with insulin resistance and release of multiple cytokines as IL-6. Nuclear factor – kappaB (NF-κB) is accused to be a central mediator of inflammatory and stress responses occurring in obesity. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to induce a model of obesity and insulin resistance in rates that simulate human obesity. Also to assess the level of IL-6 and the expression of NF-κB in liver and muscles of these rats and the effect of exercise on their levels. Materials And Methods: The study was carried on 21 male Wister rats divided into:- group1(7rats) the control group fed on diet derived from fat for 3 months. Group 2 (14 rats) fed on high fat diet for the same period of time, after one month group 2 were subdivided equally into group2A the resting group and group2B practicing swimming exercise for the rest two months. At the end of the three months blood samples were taken from all rats for estimation of levels of glucose and insulin to estimate insulin resistance (HOMA), they were sacrificed and samples of their livers and muscles for estimation of levels of IL-6 by ELIZA and expression of NF- ⱪB by western blotting. Results: After one month there was a significant increase in weight in group2 rats than the control,the weight gain continued at the end of the experiment with no effect of exercise. Insulin resistance was significantly increased with increasing weight, and decreased by exercise. As regard level of liver IL-6, there was a significant increase in the exercising group2B than the control and the non-exercising group2A,while muscle IL-6 as well as liver likelihood ratio of NF- ⱪ B showed significant increase in both groups 2A and B than the control with no exercise effect. Activity of muscle NF- ⱪB showed a significant increase in groups2A and B than the control, also in group2B than group 2A.Conclusion: High fat diet can lead to weight gain and obesity that is associated with increasing insulin resistance which can be improved by exercise. Obesity may be accompanied by release of NF- ⱪB that can increase IL-6. Effect of exercise on the studied parameters is contradicting,

[I, Diab; H Abdelaziz and H Aboheif. Nuclear Factor- κB (NF-κB) Expression in High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):479-486]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.51

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In Vivo and in Vitro Studies on the Effect of Colchicine and Possible Protective Role of Lithium on Cerebellar Cortex Postnatally in Albino Rat offsprings.

 

Eman A. Fouad K. Mansour, Wael B. El-Kholy, Neveen M. El-Sherif

 

Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University

dr.emanessa@yahoo.com; ozakaria10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Colchicine is a widely used drug in certain diseases and has many side effects. This work was carried out to study the effect of colchicine (4 mg/kg body weight) single dose on the cerebellar cortex of albino rat offisprings and the possible protective role of lithium chloride at ages of 15 and 28 days old rats and in vitro through making tissue cultures obtained from the cerebellar cortex of 7-days old rats Fifty neonate albino rats for in vivo studies and twenty five cultures were used in this study. The rats in the in vivo studies and the cultures of the in vitro studies were divided into three groups, as control group, colchicine treated group and colchicine with lithium chloride treated group. Sections of the cerebellar cortex were subjected to light microscopic, immunohistochemical, statistical and the cultures were subjected to genetic studies. Administration of colchicine revealed that, the sections of the cerebellar cortex of treated rats showed disruption and cellular degenerative changes of the Purkinje and the granular cells. Improvement of the histology of the cerebellar cortex occured with administration of lithium chloride. These findings indicate that, colchicine consumption may have some deleterious effects on the cerebellum of the neonates and may affect the functions of the cerebellum leading to tremors, unstable, uncoordinated movements and ataxia. So, it is recommended that colchicine should be used with precautions and in a minimal dose and with concurrent use of lithium chloride.

[Eman A. Fouad K. Mansour, Wael B. El-Kholy, Neveen M. El-Sherif. In Vivo and in Vitro Studies on the Effect of Colchicine and Possible Protective Role of Lithium on Cerebellar Cortex Postnatally in Albino Rat offsprings. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):487-504]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.52

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Design of a Ropeless Elevator with Linear Induction Motor taking into account Edge and end effects

 

M. Abd El-Moaty Zaher, M. Kamal Ahmed and M. Shafik Abd El-Razek

 

Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Msh.egypt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a novel elevator drive's system for high rise building, this elevator is based on single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM). The main article is studies the design of SLIM using a user-interactive MATLAB program. Our goal of this work was the development of an elevator system with reducing the required space of elevator hoist-ways in high rise buildings and to achieve higher speed at more economic operation. The equivalent circuit model of the SLIM was studied with choosing various design parameters to obtain the performance as well as thrust and efficiency. This paper describes the various effects of LIM and compares SLIM performance with and without transverse edge and end effects.

[M. Abd El-Moaty Zaher, M. Kamal Ahmed and M. Shafik Abd El-Razek. Design of a Ropeless Elevator with Linear Induction Motor taking into account Edge and end effects. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):505-517]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.53

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Primary Productivity in Tidal Creeks of South-West Nigeria II. Comparative Study of Nutrient Status and Chlorophyll-a variations in two Lagos Harbour creeks.

 

 Dike Ikegwu Nwankwo1, Okedoyin Joshua1, Taofikat Abosede Adesalu2.

 

1Department of Marine Sciences. University of Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Botany University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

boseadesalu@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: A comparative study of the nutrient status and chlorophyll-a variations at the Five Cowrie and Light House creeks were undertaken for eight months (October 2009-May 2010). There was temporal variation in the water chemistry, nutrients and phytoplankton productivity. Water temperature (≥26.50C), transparency (≥30.4; 47.8), pH (≥7.6), and salinity (≥9.0; 5.00/00) were high in the dry months while in the wet months, total suspended solids (≥5.8; 8.8mg/L) and total dissolved solids (≥56.2-64.7mg/L) values were higher. Dissolved oxygen values (4.40- 5.76mg/L) were moderate in the two creeks while biochemical oxygen demand varied between 12.0mg/L and 28.0mg/L. Reactive phosphorus and nitrogen values were higher in the Five Cowrie creek than Light House creek. In the Light House creek, reactive nitrogen was high in the dry months while in Five Cowrie creek, reactive phosphorus was high in the wet months. Reactive silicate values rose in the dry months (≥3.41; 4.09mg/L) while sulphate values increased in the wet months. Phytoplankton biomass (in terms of cell numbers) was high in the dry months and more in Five Cowrie creek than in Light House creek. Chlorophyll-a values were higher in the Five Cowrie creek (≤0.44mg/L) during the dry months than in Light House creek and followed phytoplankton biomass trend very closely. Five Cowrie creek is more productive than Light House creek base on existing results.

[Dike Ikegwu Nwankwo, Okedoyin Joshua, Taofikat Abosede Adesalu. Primary Productivity in Tidal Creeks of South-West Nigeria II. Comparative Study of Nutrient Status and Chlorophyll-a variations in two Lagos Harbour creeks. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):518-523]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.54

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Stability of Shallow Circular Tunnels in Makkah Rocks

 

Majid M. Assas

 

Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Umm AL-Qura University, KSA

mmassas@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The stability and safety at the excavation face, heading, work area and lifeline out of the sallow circular tunnel has always been of great concern in tunneling. The support pressure needed at the face of shallow tunnel can be determined by using approximate solution. The current method for stability of shallow circular tunnel face has been applied on a homogeneous rock formation of Makkah, KSA. This paper investigates the influence of the surcharge pressure at the ground surface, the height of rocks above the crown of circular tunnel, the radius of tunnel, and the types of rocks characteristics on the support pressure of the shallow circular tunnel face. The stability safety factor of the shallow circular tunnel is determined by using suggested formula, the proposed formula is illustrated from the approximate equation used in this investigation for determination of the support pressure. The previous mentioned factors have significant effect on the support pressure of the shallow circular tunnel face and on the stability safety factor of shallow circular tunnel in rocks. The results of this investigation are considered as a guidance for choosing the suitable type of shallow circular tunnel constructions in Makkah rocks.

[Majid M. Assas. Stability of Shallow Circular Tunnels in Makkah Rocks. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):524-540]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.55

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An in Vitro Comparison of Root Canal Length Measurements of Primary Teeth Using Different Techniques

 

Sherif B. El Tawil*

 

 *Pediatric and Community Dentistry Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

drsherifbahgat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of root canal length measurements in primary teeth, determined by tactile sense, digital radiography and electronic apex locator. Methods: 30 extracted badly decayed primary incisors with different degrees of root resorption were selected, which were stored in saline at 4°C. Real (actual) root canal length determination: was first determined for each numbered specimens by advancing number 15K-file apically with the rubber stopper touching the reference point until the tip of the file was seen by the naked eye to be with the level of the apical foramen. Root canal length determination by tactile sense method: using no. 15 k- file, the file was introduced into the root canal until an increase in tactile resistance was detected. The stopper was adjusted to the same reference point. Root canal length determination by digital radiographic method: performed by using the paralleling technique using the digital x-ray sensor size # 1.On the digital radiographs, tooth length was measured directly on the screen using electronic ruler of the system software. Root canal length determination by electronic apex locator (EAL) method: The Root ZX, J. Morita Corporation was used. Blocks were made by embedding the teeth in alginate with 0.9% sodium chloride solution which act as a conducting gel simulating the periodontium. Results: Tactile method showed the statistically significantly highest mean percentage difference from actual length. There was no statistically significant difference between apex locator and digital X-Ray methods; both showed the statistically significantly lowest mean differences from actual length. Conclusions: The apex locator method can be considered reliable and precise since it is more superior to the tactile method. The digital parallel radiography is comparable to EAL in determining the working length of primary teeth.

[Sherif B. El Tawil. An in Vitro Comparison of Root Canal Length Measurements of Primary Teeth Using Different Techniques. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):541-547]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.56

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Retractions of Spatially Curved Robertson-Walker Space

 

A. E. El-Ahmady* and A.S. Al-Luhaybi**

 

*,** Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

* Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

a_elahmady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new types of retractions of open flat Robertson –Walker model. Types of the deformation retracts of open flat Robertson –Walker model are obtained. The relations between the folding and the deformation retract are deduced. Types of minimal retractions are presented. New types of homotopy maps are deduced. New types of conditional folding are presented. Some commutative diagrams are obtained.

[A. E. El-Ahmady, A.S. Al-Luhaybi. Retractions of Spatially Curved Robertson-Walker Space. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):548-553]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.57

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Relationship between Mean Platelet Volume and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

 

Nouran F. Hussein a, Nevine S. EL Helaly a, Eman A. Abdel Ghanya, Shahira K. Anisb

 

aPediatric and b Clinical Pathology departments, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

nevo_helaly@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: Mean platelet volume (MPV) may be considered as an indicator of platelet function and it may have an association with adverse neonatal outcome. Thus, we hypothesized that high MPV could represent a risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and intaventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight neonate (VLBW). Patient and Method: 134 very low birth weight neonates were enrolled, they were stratified into BPD (n=20), IVH (n=36), and non BPD non IVH control group (n=78), MPV was demonstrated during the first 24-48 hours of life. Results: Platelet counts were similar in the BPD, IVH and control groups but MPV was significantly higher in BPD than in non-BPD groups (12.3±1.4 versus 9.6±1.2 fl, p=0.001). MPV in IVH was significantly higher than non- IVH group (11.6±2.0 versus 9.6±1.2 fl, P<0.001). MPV size > 11 fl was significantly higher in RDS (48.0%) compared to non-RDS (0%) groups (P<0.001). MPV size > 11fl was associated with higher mortality rate (72.7%) compared to MPV size <11fl (33.3%). Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that changes in MPV value at 24-48 hours of life could represent an easy and early biomarker for identification of neonates at higher risk for the development of BPD and IVH.

[Nouran F. Hussein, Eman A. Abdel Ghany, Nevine S. ELHelaly, Shahira K. Anis. Relationship between Mean Platelet Volume and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):554-560]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.58

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Histological and genetic studies on the effect of monosodium glutamate on the cerebellar cortex and the possible protective role of ascorbic acid in adult and neonate albino rat

 

Nesreen A. Salman, Nariman A. Abdel-Fattah, Wael B. El-Kholy and Neveen M. El-Shereef

 

Anatomy and Embryology department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

Good2003boy_hi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a sodium salt derivative of a natural amino acid called glutamate. It is used as food additive. Monosodium glutamate is almost completely tasteless by itself. What it does is to enhance the flavors of certain savory or meaty foods by awakening special taste buds on the tongue. The use of monosodium glutamate is very controversial in recent years. It has been reported that MSG has neurotoxic effects lead to brain cell damage, retinal degeneration, endocrine disorder and some pathological conditions such as addiction, stroke, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. MSG consumption has some deleterious effect on the cells of the cerebellum and by extension may affect the functions of the cerebellum. Ascorbic acid protects against the toxic neurological symptoms that arise from a high MSG dose. Purpose: This work was carried out to study the effect of monosodium glutamate (4 g/Kg body weight) for only 10 days on the cerebellar cortex of albino rat and the possible protective role of ascorbic acid at ages of 10, 30 days old rats and in adult ones. Method: Sixty neonate albino rats and thirty adult albino rats were used in this study. Both of them were divided into three groups: a- control group which was divided into two subgroups negative and positive subgroups, b- MSG treated group, c- MSG plus ascorbic acid treated group. Sections of the cerebellar cortex were subjected to light microscopic, immunohistochemical, statistical and genetic studies. Results: Administration of MSG revealed that, the sections of the cerebellar cortex of treated rats showed disruption and cellular degenerative changes of the Purkinje and the granular cells. Improvement of the histology of the cerebellar cortex occurred with administration of ascorbic acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that, MSG consumption may have some deleterious effects on the cerebellum of the neonate and the adult rats and may affect the functions of the cerebellum leading to tremors, unstable, uncoordinated movements and ataxia. Recommendation: It is recommended that MSG should not be used as a food flavoring agent and if used, must be in a minimal dose. MSG should be avoided in the lactating period, because the cerebellum of the developing fetus was susceptible to be affected by MSG.

[Nesreen A. Salman, Nariman A. Abdel-Fattah, Wael B. El-Kholy and Neveen M. El-Shereef. Histological and genetic studies on the effect of monosodium glutamate on the cerebellar cortex and the possible protective role of ascorbic acid in adult and neonate albino rat. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):561-579]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.59

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An Empirical Research: The Relationship between Family Functioning and Early Adolescent’s Emotional Intelligence

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Ma’rof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: The aim of the present paper was to survey the relationship between family functioning and the early adolescent’s emotional intelligence. Hence, this research follows a specific objective for determination of the relationship between family functioning and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence (EQ). EQ is a set of abilities such as conception, emotion appraisal and expression, emotion management and regulation, and emotion utilization of emotion. The present study was carried out among 234 Iranian students in the second and grades of guidance schools with ages 12-15 years old. The students (girls and boys) were clustered through random and multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Schutte’s (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale and Family Assessment Device (FAD), based on McMaster’s model. Pearson correlation between subscales of total family functioning and emotional intelligence was statistically significant. Results of the regression analysis, together with independent variables entered, indicate that as a group, the independent variables significantly contributed to the prediction of emotional intelligence.

[Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. An empirical research: The relationship between family functioning and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):580-584]. (ISSN:1545-1003) http://www.americanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.60

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Comparing Abadeh Tashk Dialect with Persian Language

 

Faranak Ramezani

 

Department of Literature and Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht branch, Marvdasht, Iran.

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is a contrastive analysis of grammer loss, addition, or change of voice adjectives, noun governing the genitive and noun in the genitive, number, pronouns, infinitives, affixes, verb and sealence usage, the place of stress and the comparison of words. For each mentioned case illustrative examples are offered.( people who live in Abadeh tashk are from lashani tribe which is one of loriوs tribes).In fact,this article intend to compare Lori and Farsi. The dialect of Lori which is the deep structure of the dialect of Abadeh tashk is closely related to modern Farsi. regarding grammatical and Lexical structure.

[Faranak Ramezani. Comparing Abadeh Tashk Dialect with Persian Language. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):585-589]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.61

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Fruit quality of Taif grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars

 

Abdelmegid I. Fahmi1,3, Mohamed A. Nagaty1,2 and Ahmed M. El-Shehawi1,4

 

1Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia

2Plant Production Department, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, Arish 45511, Egypt

 3Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufiyah University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

4Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Elshatby, Alexandria, Egypt

nagagene@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In Saudi Arabia, grape is the second most important economical fruit where the total production of grapes is about 131000 tons. Taif region produces 3000 tons of grapes. Because of the health benefits of grape juice, the main aim of this research was to evaluate the fruit quality of Taif region grape cultivars. The specific objectives were as follows: 1) Determining physical characters of cultivars from Taif region and 2) Identifying chemical composition of these cultivars. For achieving these objectives, ten seeded samples were collected representing five cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Syrian and Taify from different locations in Taif region namely; Abbasah, Bani Saad, A1-Qaim and A1-Hawiyyah. For fruit physical characteristics; cluster, berry and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The result of cluster characters indicated that Italian cultivar clusters were well filled and compacted. As for berry characters, American cultivar had the highest values. Finally, for sensory characters, the American cultivar had the best sensory quality. However, for chemical characters; total soluble solids (ŗBrix), acidity, titratable acidity, ŗBrix/ titratable acidity ratio and total anthocyanins content were measured. The obtained results indicated that, Taify clones had the highest records for these measurements. Also, many minor and macro elements were determined by ICP-OES for chemical characters evaluation. The result indicated that Taify clones had the highest value comparing with the rest studied cultivars. Finally, organic acid tartaric, malic, citric acids and succinic were determined by HPLC as main chemical characters of grapes. The highest contents were found in Taify clones. According to the measured parameters, Taify clones showed the best quality for chemical composition while American and Italian cultivars showed the best quality for physical parameters. Therefore, it was concluded that Taify clones are better candidate for industrial food processing than other cultivars. Also, it was recommended that the obtained physical and chemical characteristics can be used as potential bench marks for fruit quality of local grapes in Saudi Arabia and specifically in Taif region.

[Abdelmegid I. Fahmi, Mohamed A. Nagaty and Ahmed M. El-Shehawi. Fruit quality of Taif grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):590-599]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.62

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Design and Manufacturing of thermal cyclic Fatigue Apparatus

 

N. E. Elzayady*, R. M. Rashad, M.Elgamil, and M. A. Elhabak

 

Department of Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

goga.2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The thermal cyclic test is a way of measuring many thermal properties of engineering materials. Thermal fatigue resistance is one of the most important of such properties. As the industry is in a need for selecting suitable materials in relevant applications, evaluation and comparison among different materials have long been essentials issues.The present investigation aims to design and establish an assembled system to conduct an automatic cyclic (heating-cooling) test using electrical resistance technique for heating process and current water for cooling one. The components of the fatigue tester have been designed for the significant temperature differences in the range of 400 to 900°C. The temperature increases from room temperature to the required temperature value through controlled system, and returned to lower temperature by using cooling process. The time of one cycle can be varied and controlled as the test requirements. The constructed sets up of the thermal fatigue tester have been verified and prove to be durable to investigate different types of materials with small sections.

[N. E. Elzayady, R. M. Rashad, M. Elgamil, M. A. Elhabak. Design and Manufacturing of thermal cyclic Fatigue Apparatus. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):600-606] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.63

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Enhanced Two Sliding Windows Algorithm For Pattern Matching (ETSW)

 

Mariam Itriq1, Amjad Hudaib2, Aseel Al-Anani2, Rola Al-Khalid2, Dima Suleiman1

 

1.Department of Business Information Systems, King Abdullah II School for Information Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan

2.Department of Computer Information Systems, King Abdullah II School for Information Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan

r.khalid@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a string matching algorithm - Enhanced Two Sliding Windows (ETSW), which made an improvement on the Two Sliding Windows algorithm (TSW). The TSW algorithm scans the text from both sides simultaneously using two sliding windows. The ETSW algorithm enhances the TSW’s process by utilizing the idea of the two sliding windows and focusing on making comparisons with the pattern from both sides simultaneously. The comparisons done between the text and the pattern are done from both sides in parallel. The experimental results show that the ETSW algorithm has enhanced the process of pattern matching by reducing the number of comparisons performed. The best time case is calculated and found to be QUOTE   while the average case time complexity QUOTE  , where m is the pattern length and n in the text length.

[Mariam Itriq, Amjad Hudaib, Aseel Al-Anani, Rola Al-Khalid, Dima Suleiman. Enhanced Two Sliding Windows Algorithm For Pattern Matching (ETSW). J Am Sci 2012;8(5):607-616]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.64

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Fracture Resistance of Immature Roots Obturated with Three Different Filling Materials

 

El-Ashry B.F*., Eid G.M.**, Zaki D.Y*

 

Department of Operative, Endodontics and Dental Materials, National Research Centre

Endodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

Corresponding author: Welsbam@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of immature roots having apical plug with Portland cement (PC) together with obturation using (i) Zinc Oxide based sealer (ii) Epoxy resin based sealer used with lateral compaction of gutta-percha (iii) Total obturation with Portland cement. Twenty five single rooted teeth were randomly assigned into three experimental groups according to the filling material and one control group. The control group was subdivided into a negative control with unprepared teeth and a positive control with unobturated immature teeth. Teeth in all groups except the negative control were prepared to stimulate immature roots. Root ends in the three experimental groups were filled with a 4 mm barrier of PC. Then the canals were obturated using the three selected materials. Fracture resistance testing was performed using a universal testing machine after embedding teeth in artificially prepared sockets. Fracture load value was measured in Newtons (N) and the fracture pattern was determined. Results indicated that ZnO/E exhibited the highest mean fracture load values, followed by PC, then Ez-Fill. The positive control group showed the least mean fracture values. However ANOVA test revealed no significant differences between all groups (P=0.06). It was concluded that, the use of ZnO/E, or Ez-Fill with gutta-percha core material, as well as, total filling with PC compensated the reduced strength from the lost dentin substance in the simulated immature teeth with PC apical plug.

[El-Ashry B.F, Eid G.M., Zaki D.Y. Fracture Resistance of Immature Roots Obturated with Three Different Filling Materials. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):617-623] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.65

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Comparison of Gabapentin, Prochlorperazine and Ondansetron for Prevention of Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

 

Khaled M. Fares; Sahar A.Mohamed; Nashwa Abd elraouf and Ashraf Elyamany

 

Departments of Anesthesiology and Medical Oncology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, Egypt.

drsaher2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Patients beginning cancer treatment consistently list chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting as one of their greatest fears. Inadequately controlled emesis impairs functional activity and quality of life for patients, increases the use of health care resources and may occasionally compromises adherence to treatment. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of gabapentin, prochlor- perazine and ondansetron in prevention of delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients receiving highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients and methods: 125 chemotherapy-naive cancer patients, who were scheduled to receive moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were enrolled in the study. Patients were stratified according to gender, age and they were allocated to one of three groups: Group І: received 20mg oral dexamethasone with 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (Zofran®) 24 mg on day1 and oral gabapentin 300mg once daily on day 2 through 6 of chemotherapy. Group п: received 20mg oral dexamethasone with 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (Zofran®) 24mg on day1, and oral prochlorperazine (Emedrotec®) 3mg twice daily on day 2 through 6 of chemotherapy. Group ш: received 20 mg oral dexamethasone with 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (Zofran®) 24mg on day1 and oral ondansetron (Zofran®) 8mg daily on day2 through 6. The average severity of nausea and vomiting during days 2 to 6 after chemotherapy was assessed for every patient, using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) and this assessment was repeated for every chemotherapy cycle for 6 cycles. Results: The reported average severity of nausea during cycles 1, 2, 3,6 was lower in patients receiving ondansetron and gabapentin compared to emedrotec (p<0.05). As regard average severity of vomiting scores there was significant decrease in vomiting scores in patients received either gabapentin or ondansetrone in cycles 2,3,4,5,6 compared to patients received emedrotec (p<0.05). A percentage of patients required rescue medication to alleviate CINV during the study period, 8(19.5%) patients taking ondansetrone compared with 10 (24.3%) patients in the gabapentin group and 17(39.5%) patients in the Emedrotec group. Rescue medication used was ondansetron (zofran®) 24 mg IV. Inter groups comparison for the DN4 during the 6 cycles showed significant reduction in the gabapentin group compared to both emedrotec and ondansetrone groups (p<0.05). The incidence of neuropathic pain (DN4 ≥ 4) was significantly reduced in gabapantin group in the 3rd cycle compared to emedrotec and ondansetrone groups (p =0.048). Conclusion: Gabapentin, ondansetron, and prochlorperazine are useful drugs for the management of delayed chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting. Ondansetron and gabapentin are more effective than the prochlorperazine. Gabapentin did not only reduce CINV, it also reduced chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

[Khaled M. Fares; Sahar A.Mohamed; Nashwa Abd elraouf and Ashraf Elyamany. Comparison of Gabapentin, Prochlorperazine and Ondansetron for Prevention of Delayed Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):624-630]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.66

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Evaluation of a Laboratory-Prepared Desoxycholate Medium for the Primary Isolation of Uropathogens

 

Kadafa, Adati Ayuba1, Othman, Fadilah.2

 

1. Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

2. Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

kwaala@yahoo.com, fadhilah.env@gmail.com

 

 Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections seen in primary care. Performing urine cultures for the diagnosis of UTI is a significant part of the workload of most clinical microbiology laboratories. A large laboratory may examine 200-300 urine samples each day. This heavy work load reflects the frequency of UTI both in general practice and in hospital settings. MacConkey agar is a very popular medium for the primary plating of urine specimens. It is rather high cost and not so long shelf-life in the tropics has made it difficult for many laboratories to undertake routine cultures of urine specimens. It has therefore become necessary to attempt the formulation of a laboratory prepared substitute using basic chemical ingredients with long shelf-life so as to provide a substitute for the costly MacConkey agar. In this study thirty-two turbid urine samples that were routinely submitted by patients to the bacteriology diagnostic laboratory of Jama’a Hospital Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria were collected and streaked on plates of laboratory prepared Desoxycholate agar and commercial MacConkey agar using a calibrated wire loop able to deliver 0.01ml of fresh urine. The two media were then evaluated on the basis of bacterial growth promoting ability of each medium. Each plate was scored on the basis of exuberance of growth and colonial morphology of the urinary isolates. The plates were read for significance after incubation for 24 hours at 36oC ± 1oC. A plate was recorded as exhibiting significant bacteriuria when 0.01ml of fresh urine yielded confluent growth or near-confluent growth or indicated a number of colonies equal to or greater than one thousand (≥1000Cfu/0.01ml). Non-significant bacteriuria was recorded when the colonies were less than 1000 per 0.01ml of fresh urine (<1000Cfu/0.01ml). With regards to colony size and fermentation of lactose, the results showed the urinary isolates on both media were substantially the same. The results also showed that if the commercial MacConkey medium used as a standard reference in this evaluation were employed in the diagnostic laboratory, a small number of patients would be diagnosed falsely as having insignificant bacteriuria as a result of inadequate growth of organisms on the rather aged commercial MacConkey medium used in this evaluation. The result of this evaluation seems to indicate that the laboratory prepared Desoxycholate medium may be a reliable and much cheaper medium for the primary isolation of uropathogens in urine specimens. More extensive evaluation is required to validate these preliminary findings.

[Kadafa, Adati Ayuba, Othman, Fadilah. Evaluation of a Laboratory-Prepared Desoxycholate Medium for the Primary Isolation of Uropathogens. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):631-639]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.67

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The Leptonic  Pair Production in the Photon Interaction with Electromagnetic Field of Light Nuclei

 

S.A. ALkhateeb

 

Department of Mathematics, Science Faculty For Girls, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

sadah_alkhateeb@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The analytical and numerical calculations for the problem of photoproduction of (lepton-anti lepton)- pairs in the electromagnetic field of light nuclei has been done. applying the obtained formulae for the energy distribution of the pair-production process to the cases of , -pairs in ultra relativistic regions of incident photon energy. and . Comparing the results for the different cases of pair - production, we can show that the cross-sections for the - pair due to the electric and magnetic fields of the target nucleus are larger than that for the  and  - pairs, and that the magnetic field of target nucleus is more effective than the electric field of the nucleus in the , and - pair production processes. We can also show that the values cross-sections of the processes due to the electric quadrupole and magnetic octupole of the target nucleus are larger than the values of the cross-sections due to the electric charge distribution and the magnetic dipole moment of the target nucleus in the three cases of the pair-production processes.

 [S.A. ALkhateeb. The Leptonic . Pair Production in the Photon Interaction with Electromagnetic Field of Light Nuclei. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):640-645]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.68

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Biochemical and Histological Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on Liver of Female Albino Rat

 

Wael M. Al-Amoudi

 

Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al- Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. wmalamoudi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work investigates the effects of the antiestrogen drug, clomiphene citrate (CC, clomid) on livers of albino rats. Many biochemical and histological changes were induced in these animals when treated with CC at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Treating animals with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight caused elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as significant changes in the total protein levels. Additionally, there were significant increases in the levels of liver function enzymes ALT, AST, ALP and fasting blood sugar in animals that were given clomiphene citrate. The histological changes in the livers of treated animals included cytoplasmic vacuolations in hepatocytes, leucocytic infiltrations, congestion of blood vessels and hyperplasia of bile ducts. In conclusion, biochemical analysis and histopathological alterations indicate that clomid causes hepatic damage in albino rats.

[Wael M. Al-Amoudi. Biochemical and Histological Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on Liver of Female Albino Rat. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):646-651]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.69

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Investigating the Effect of Personal Mediators on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Political Participation

 

Seyed Javad Emamjomezadeh1, Mahmoodreza Rahbargazi2, Reza Mahmoodoghli 3, Zohre Marandi 4

 

1,2,3,4 Department of Political Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

rahbargazi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate whether the relationship between socioeconomic status and political participation is direct or do they connect via personal mediators such as self-esteem, locus of control and political efficacy. In addition, identifying the process of mediation between these mediators, if there are any, is the secondary objective of this study. Data were collected from 150 Isfahan University students tested using questionnaires. Path model analysis was done using SPSS 16 AMOS 18. Findings show that the relationship between socioeconomic status and political participation is better understood by personal variables than their direct relationship. These findings also show that objective and mental participations are separate but when combined, they result in objective political participation. In addition, all variables were more related with mental political participation than with objective political participation.

[Seyed Javad Emamjomezadeh, Mahmoodreza Rahbargazi, Reza Mahmoodoghli,, Zohre Marandi. Investigating the Effect of Personal Mediators on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Political Participation. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):652-657]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.70

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Serum Epstein Barr Virus as a Biomarker in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

 

1Ahmed Houssein, 2Mosad M. Odah, 3Eman A. Badr, 4Mohamed Al-Sherbiny and 1Tamer El-Shiehk

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

3Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Menufea University

4Department of Radiation Oncology & Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menufea University

doctorodah59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantitative estimation of plasma Epstein-Barr viral (EPV) DNA load as a non-invasive diagnostic and/or prognostic modality for Egyptian nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Patients & Methods: All patients underwent fiberoptic direct nasopharyngoscopy for nasopharyngeal inspection and to obtained tissue biopsy of a suspicious growth for pathological examination and grading according to WHO pathological grading. Primary tumor extent was evaluated by both MRI and CT scanning. Two venous blood samples were collected; one prior to initiation of therapy and at 4-weeks after the last session of radiotherapy for quantitative PCR determination of EBV plasma DNA loads. For primary treatment: external radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost for patients with lesions staged T1/T2 N0 M0; external radiotherapy + concomitant chemotherapy +adjuvant chemotherapy and uni- or bilateral neck block dissection for persistent nodal disease at 3 months for patients with nodal lesions. Follow-up included nasopharyngoscopy three-monthly for 2 years. Results: The study included 45 patients; 23 patients (51.1%) had nodal involvement. According to TNM staging; 3 patients had carcinoma in situ, 6 had stage-I, 12 had stage-II, 15 had stage-III and 9 patients had stage-IV lesions; 22 lesions were WHO grade I, 14 were grade II and 9 lesions were WHO grade III. There was a positive significant correlation between WHO pathological and TNM staging. MRI detected local invasion in 12 patients (26.7%). Qualitative PCR detected EBV viral DNA in all blood samples. Using Quantitative PCR technique, mean EBV DNA plasma load was 2188±642 copies/ml. There was a positive significant correlation between mean plasma viral load and TNM stage and WHO grade. Post-treatment quantitative PCR detected EBV DNA only in 10 (22.2%) patients with a mean plasma level of 61.5±33.7 copies/ml that was significantly lower than pre-treatment levels. Conclusion: PCR quantitative estimation of plasma Epstein-Barr viral DNA load is a valuable diagnostic test that showed a positive significant correlation with both TNM staging and WHO pathological grading of patients with NPC and could be used to assess the response to applied therapeutic modalities. Considering Egypt as a non-endemic area for NPC, quantitative estimation of EBV plasma load could be used as screening test for patients presenting by symptoms suspicious of NPC.

[Ahmed Houssein, Mosad M. Odah, Eman A. Badr, Mohamed Al-Sherbiny and Tamer El-Shiehk. Serum Epstein Barr Virus as a Biomarker in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):658-666]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.71

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Synergistic Effect between Azotobacter vinelandii and Streptomyces sp. Isolated From Saline Soil on Seed Germination and Growth of Wheat Plant

 

Magda M. Aly1, 3, Hameda El-Sayed Ahmed El Sayed2, Samyah D. Jastaniah1

 

1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, K.S.A

2 Biology Department, Faculty of applied Science for Girls, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al Mukaramah, K.S.A

3Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt

Heelsayed@uqu.edu.sa; D.Hameda@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Twenty-two bacterial isolates were obtained from rhizosphere of wheat plants, grown in saline soil in western region, Saudi Arabia. All the isolates were grown in broth media supplemented with 2 mg/ml L-tryptophan and screened for indole acetic acid production. Out of the isolated bacteria, 17 isolates showed positive results for IAA production. The isolates M1 and M10 were selected and identified using morphological, physiological and biochemical characters as Azotobacter vinelandii MM1 and Streptomyces sp. MM10. Soaking wheat seeds in either Azotobacter vinelandii (AZ) or Streptomyces sp. (ST) or both culture filtrates (AZ+ST) increased significantly wheat germination. Moreover, soil inoculations with the bacterial cells of AZ, ST or AZ+ST increased the growth and development of wheat in normal and saline conditions. There were significant increases in root depth, shoot length and shoot and root dry weights compared to the control. The amounts of phosphate, N, Mg, K and proteins present in wheat shoots, grown in normal and saline soil were also increased by soil inoculation. No significant effect on Ca was found by soil inoculation under non-saline conditions. Increasing NaCl concentration increased proline content but soil inoculation decreased the adverse effects of NaCl and decreased proline concentration compared to control at the same salinity level. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that Streptomyces, Azotobacter vinelandii or both could be utilized as biofertilizer in saline soils.

[Magda M. Aly, Hameda El-Sayed Ahmed El Sayed, and Samyah Jastaniah. Synergistic Effect between Azotobacter vinelandii and Streptomyces sp. Isolated From Saline Soil on Seed Germination and Growth of Wheat Plant. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):667-676]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.72

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Changes in Knitted Cotton/ Polyester Fabric Characteristics Due to Domestic Laundering

 

N. A. Kotb

 

Faculty of Education, Department of Technical Education, Helwan University, Egypt

nabihakotb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Clothing should be comfortable during use beside to stability and durability, also to withstand a reasonable number of laundering cycles. Synthetic Knitted fabrics are more stable than Knitted cotton fabrics, while the latter allow garments to fit closely and snugly also it is comfortable and safely concerning static electricity. Therefore, blended cotton with synthetic can increase comfort and stability after washing. The changes in knitted fabric characteristics after repeating laundry, ten cycles, for plain and 1×1 rib patterns produced from cotton, polyester and their blends were studied. From which the effect of cotton addition on comfort and stability was detected. This was obtained by measuring the Static charges built up on the surface, roughness, thickness, areal density, stitches density, loop length, and dimension stability of fabric. The fabrics characteristics were analyzed and modeled using multi regression analysis. The changes in fabric characteristics due to laundering were determined. The significant trends of these changes percentage in relation to the parameters were investigated in equations and their correlation analysis was also obtained. The changes in characteristics due to laundry depend on the fabrics composition, fabric pattern and yarn feeding level. The tendency of electrostatic charge decreased due to repeating laundry however it increased the fabric thickness, areal density, surface smoothness, courses per centimeter, and stitches density. The dimensional stability increased when increase percentage quantity of PES yarns in fabric composition. The characteristics of the fabrics due to laundering can be predicted by applying these models.

[N. A. Kotb. Changes in Knitted Cotton/ Polyester Fabric Characteristics Due to Domestic Laundering. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):677-682]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.73

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Frequency of Pulmonary Fungal Infection in Egyptian Patients with Re-Treatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its Clinical and Radiological Significance

 

Takwa E. Meawed1, Amany Fawzy M2, Reda M El Gamry2, Amany Shaker2, Alaa El Gazzar2 and Ahmad S. Ragheb3

 

1Microbiology&Immunology; 2Chest and 3Radiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

takwa_farid@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common Egyptian health problem after Schistsomiasis. Both TB and pulmonary fungal infections are chronic diseases of immunocompromised hosts. However, the co-association of both illnesses had not well-studied before in Egyptians. Treatment failure of TB, relapse and re-infection are major complications facing both physicians and microbiologists during follow up of tuberculous patients. STUDY AIMS: first, to spot light on the co-association of pulmonary fungal infection and re-treatment pulmonary TB patients, assess its frequency and its radiological findings. Second, to disclose the personal risk factors predisposing to this co-association. METHODS: a two-year prospective cross-sectional study included 26 re-treatment pulmonary TB patients investigated for association of fungal infection microbiologically, clinically, radiologically and antimycobacterial drug susceptibility testing by MGIT 960. RESULTS: Most of re-treatment cases of TB were males in productive age. A statistical significant association between fungal isolation and MDR-TB, re-treatment tuberculous diabetic patients, old age and being a farmer with retreatment TB (P<0.05).Dyspnea and weight loss were the most frequent symptoms in these patients (100%). Histoplasma capsulatum was the most frequently isolated fungus from re-treatment TB cases (37.5%).The most frequent CT findings were bronchiectatic changes. CONCLUSION: Smear examination for fungi is recommended as a routine microbiology investigation for all re-treatment TB cases. Repeated sputum examination is highly recommended for diabetic TB patients, old age patient, farmers searching for retreatment and/or associated fungal infection. HRCT is recommended as low dose radiological modality assessing re-treatment TB cases.

[Takwa E. Meawed, Amany Fawzy M, Reda M El Gamry, Amany Shaker, Alaa El Gazzar and Ahmad S. Ragheb. Frequency of Pulmonary Fungal Infection in Egyptian Patients with Re-Treatment Pulmonary Tuberculosis and its Clinical and Radiological Significance. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):683-691]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.74

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International Investment agreement impact of forging direct investment

 

Golsa Moshayedi1 & Armin Mahmoudi2

 

1. Department of Law, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj,Iran.

2 Department of studies in education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj,Iran.

 

Abstract: The rationale for increased efforts to attract more FDI stems from the fact that FDI has been the least volatile source of international investment for most countries Particularly, for emerging economies, direct investment has been the most dependable source of foreign investment In addition, FDI has several positive effects which include technology transfers and diffusion productivity gains, the introduction of new processes, managerial skills, and know-how in the domestic market, employee training, international production networks, and access to markets. This study is based on the premise that developing countries are putting in too much effort towards the advocating for preferential treatment so as to enhance their participation in the multilateral trading system. This paper however is going to advance that if developing countries concentrated on addressing the intrinsic problems in their economies, rather than relying on preferential treatment, in particular, the notion of Non Reciprocity, developing countries would benefit much more from the multilateral trading system, than they are at present. what the real effects of FDI on INDIA and IRAN ? Given this, what will be discussed from a international investment impact of FDI. This discussion is based on an empirical investigation through use in various evidence related to FDI, specifically employment and distribution data; the aim is to somewhat clarify questions as the probable effects of FDI on INDIA and IRAN economies. The study is based on secondary sources of data. The main source of data are various Economic Surveys of India and Ministry of Commerce and Industry data, RBI bulletin, online data base of Indian Economy, journals, articles, news papers, etc. This research sought to examine International Investment Agreement and impact on Foreign Direct Investment. It has been tried to present the importance of FDI relative to other international financial flows because this type of capital has grown since the 1970s, and also it present a case study of India and Iran FDI. The study consisted of seven chapters. The general introduction stated the purpose, objective, need and contribution of the study. It reviewed the concept of FDI, evaluation of the concept of investment, significant of the study, objective of the study and etc.

[GolsaMoshayedi, Armin Mahmoudi. International Investment agreement impact of forging direct investment. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):692-697]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.75

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Assessments of the effects of limewater on water permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended palm oil clinker aggregate-based concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. The effect of limewater on water permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved water permeability when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel.

[Farzad Soleymani. Assessments of the effects of limewater on water permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended palm oil clinker aggregate-based concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):698-702]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.76

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Measuring Unemployment Costs on Socio – Economic Life of Urban Pakistan

 

Amen Gul 1, Khalid Zaman (corresponding author)2, Muhammad Mushtaq Khan 2 Mehboob Ahmad 3

 

1. BS (Hons) Economics Student, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

2. Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology,

Abbottabad, Pakistan. E-mail: khalidzaman@ciit.net.pk.

3Professor and HOD Management Sciences (UGS),Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

 

Abstract: Unemployment is a major incentive to economic action in a market economy. However, it brings about manifold negative social and economic consequences as well. The larger and longer the unemployment, the deeper and more complicated are the social and economic problems it causes in society. The objective of the study is to examine three different costs of unemployment i.e., economic, psychological and social costs of unemployment in the Khyberpakhtoonkhawa (KPK) province of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from three hundred and eighteen peoples (out of four hundred) who are randomly selected from different regions of KPK province of Pakistan. A self designed questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using the techniques of Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, multiple regression analysis and one way ANOVA. All the findings were tested at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. The result concludes that there is a strong and significant relationship between lengthy episodes on unemployed and different costs of unemployment; however, economic costs of unemployment are more prone to unemployment spell, followed by psychological costs and social costs of unemployment in Pakistan.

[Gul, A, Zaman, K, Khan, M, M, Ahmad, M. Measuring Unemployment Costs on Socio – Economic Life of Urban Pakistan. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):703-714]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.77

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The introduction of sustainability indicators of Iranian new town: A practical municipal level approach

 

Mahsa Faramarzi Asli1, Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani2, Mohammad Amin Khojasteh Ghamari3

 

1. Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch Tehran; Islamic Azad University; Iran.

 2. Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch Tehran; Islamic Azad University; Iran

 3. Department of Art and Architecture Islamic Azad University of Tabriz and payame noor university; Iran

arch_khojasteh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the main reasons of in sustainability of city development in Iran is that almost planners and mayors could not have created a connection trough different dimensions of the city. Sustainability indicators are evaluation tools of cities operation that these indicators are applicable in life environmental, economical, social fields. Purpose of this article is offering a framework including the description of wide specter of indicators, with regard to the operation of environmental sustainability indicators. For having a common framework of sustainable indicators for neo cities of Iran, we create a charter in America and Australia. So, according to the documents and library related studies and comparative method of study, we will study some samples of sustainable cities. Results of this article are as follow: Introduction of sustainability indicators for codification of sustainability indicators of Iran neo cities.

[Mahsa Faramarzi Asli, Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani, Mohammad Amin, Khojasteh Ghamari. The introduction of sustainability indicators of Iranian new town: A practical municipal level approach. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):715-722]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.78

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The Role of the Law in creating different legal policies

 

Mohieddin Mohammadi

 

Ph.D Condidate, Yravan Academy of Legal Sciences

Mohieddin_m@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The principle of respecting the sparation of the political forces in a society gives the legal system the right to issue orders for people's complaints based on the laws that have been approved by the legislative branch. There is no doubt that laws, the same as other man-made things have deficiencies. These decisions include breaking and even the conflict between two or several articles of the law that cause the creation of different policies in the court of law and the punitive court of Iran. In this article, there is an attempt to study the factors and their effect on the creation of different legal policies when legal verdicts are being issued.

[Mohieddin Mohammadi. The Role of the Law in creating different legal policies. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):723-727]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.79

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 Start-up Performance of a Pilot-scale Integrated Reactor for Treating Domestic Garbage and Sewage Sludge from Treatment Plant

 

 Anthony Thomas Mhamadi1, Qiang He1, 2, Jiang Li1, Theoneste Ntakirutimana1

 

1Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University,Chongqing, 400045, China

2Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, P. R. China

atkilimo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pilot scale innovative design reactor that integrates anaerobic fermentation of domestic garbage and excess sewage sludge digestion was developed and studied. The reactor was operated continuously for 56 days, 22L of sewage sludge were treated daily and a total of 2240kg of domestic garbage were treated in the entire period of the experiment. The results show that under the conditions of sludge dosage rate of 10%, average HRT 5d, the sewage sludge water content and organic matter content (VS/TS %) fall down from 99.8% to 91% and 71% to 28% respectively. The fermentation of garbage in the integrated reactor supplied appropriate heat for digestion of sewage sludge to take place while the garbage being stabilized and reduced. The temperature in the middle sludge digestion compartment was between 25to 38 at the ambient temperature of 17 to 28. The inlet domestic garbage organic matter and moisture content were 64%~88% and 87.0%~94% respectively; while the outlet organic matter and moisture content were reduced to 36%~77% and 76.6%~93.5% respectively. The preliminary results of the reactor attain the reserved design target. It showed to be effective in reduction and stabilization of sewage sludge and domestic garbage. The integrative reactor, however, still remains to be improved.

[Mhamadi AT, Qiang H, Li J, Ntakirutimana T. Start-up Performance of a Pilot-scale Integrated Reactor for Treating Domestic Garbage and Sewage Sludge from Treatment Plant. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):728-732]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.80

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The Prevalence of Clostridium Perfringens in Healthy and Diseased Field Chickens with Necrotic Enteritis

 

Eman R. Hassanb Magdy F. El Kadya Ismail Abd EL-Hafeez Radwana. Nagwa, S. Rabieb and Mohamed M. Ahmedb

 

a Poultry Disease Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

bPoultry Disease Department, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

prof_emy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to a detection of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) infection in chickens which cause necrotic enteritis (NE) disease from field cases collected from kaluobia, El-menia, Fayoum and Giza governorates. A total of 360 chickens are examined (150 local breed chickens out of these 50 chickens were apparently healthy and 100 diseased chickens showing clinical signs suspected to be NE) and 210 Foreign breed chickens (hubbard and cubb breed chickens) apparently healthy and diseased were collected for 4years from 2006-2009 at different seasons C. perfringens was identified by biochemical test and Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR). The result indicated that the incidence was higher in winter and autumn then spring and summer. The rate of isolation of C. perfringens is higher in imported breed than local breed along 4 years Out of 15 C. perfringens isolates, from apparently healthy in the intestine 16.7% isolates were toxigenic (type A) and 83.3%isolates were non toxigenic. In liver there is no toxigenic isolates but there is 100% non toxigenic isolates. From diseased chickens with NE that out of 60 C. perfringens isolates from the intestine 79.3%isolates were toxigenic type A and 20.6% isolates were non toxigenic.In the liver 100% isolates were toxigenic and 0% isolates nontoxigenic

[Eman R. Hassan; Magdy F. El Kady; Ismail Abd EL-Hafeez Radwan; Nagwa, S. Rabie and Mohamed M. Ahmed. The Prevalence of Clostridium Perfringens in Healthy and Diseased Field Chickens with Necrotic Enteritis. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):733-740]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.81

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Location Selection of Gas Stations Using of Fuzzy GTMA and Fuzzy Prioritization Method (Case Study: Tehran Province Gas Company)

 

Ahmad Jafarnejad Chaghooshi 1, Hossein Safari 2, Mohammad Reza Fathi 3

 

1Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3M.S. Candidate of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: reza.fathi@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper presents an integrated fuzzy approach for Location Selection of Gas Stations. In the integrated approach, fuzzy concepts are used for decision-makers’ subjective judgments to reflect the vague nature of the selection process. Fuzzy Prioritization Method (FPM) and Fuzzy GTMA are included in the integrated approach. FPM is used to determine the weights of criteria. Fuzzy GTMA aims to rank locations. We apply the integrated approach in Tehran Province Gas Company to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

[Ahmad Jafarnejad Chaghooshi, Hossein Safari, Mohammad Reza Fathi. Location Selection of Gas Stations Using of Fuzzy GTMA and Fuzzy Prioritization Method (Case Study: Tehran Province Gas Company). J Am Sci 2012;8(5):741-749]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.82

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The effects of limewater on flexural strength of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended palm oil clinker aggregate-based concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. The effect of limewater on flexural strength permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved flexural strength when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles, curing the specimens in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation in TiO2 nanoparticles blended concrete causes high strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. The effects of limewater on flexural strength of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended palm oil clinker aggregate-based concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):750-753]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.83

 

Key words: TiO2 nanoparticle; flexural strength; palm oil clinker; lightweight concrete

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Various Parameters of Drowning Cases

1Ajay Kumar 2 Anita Kadian and 3Tanu Bamrah

2,3Forensic Science Laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India)
1
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)
1
e-mail- ajayindorakuk@yahoo.com

Abstract: The present study was planned in Forensic Science Laboratory, Madhuban, Karnal, Haryana (India). During the study the various parameters (drowned male and female ratio, water body in which drowning take place, approximate age groups of drowned individuals and various cause of drowning) of fifty drowning cases have been studied. Out from fifty drowning cases, drowned male and female ration (44:6) were observed. Approximate age (mean ± S.E.) of drowned individual groups have been varied from minimum 0.08±0.01 (approximate age of 31-40 years person) to maximum 0.42±0.07 (approximate age of 21-30 years person). Drowning cases have not been reported from approximate age groups 0-10 years old persons. The drowned cases (reported in water body) may varied from minimum 5 cases (in river) to maximum 20 cases (in water canal) followed by 7 cases (in pond) and 18 cases (in minor). The various causes of drowning such as boating accident, diving accident, inability to swim, succide attempt, pressure on mind, any incident and other causes were also observed.
[
Ajay Kumar, Anita Kadian, and Tanu Bamrah. Various Parameters of Drowning Cases. J Am Sci 2012;8(5):754-759]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas080512.84

Key words: drowning, forensic science, boating accident, diving accident, inability to swim, suicide

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 24, 20121. 
 
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