Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 6, Cumulated No. 52, June 25, 2012

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0806

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Effect of Seaweed Extract and Compost Treatments on Growth, Yield and Quality of Snap Bean

 

Abou El-Yazied, A.; A. M. El-Gizawy; M. I. Ragab and E. S. Hamed

 

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Shoubra Elkheima, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The study was carried out during 2009 and 2010 seasons, on snap bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). cultivars. Bronco, fine type. at Brnashat village, Giza governorate, Egypt. In order to investigate effect of seaweed extract and compost treatments. The experiment which carried out to study the effect of four different seaweed compost levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 m3 seaweed compost/feddan) and four concentration of seaweed extract (0, 250, 500, 750 ppm) as a foliar application on vegetative growth, flowering characteristics, yield parameters and chemical composition. Results indicated that spraying the plants with seaweed extract at higher rate significantly increase Number of leaves per plant, Average leaf area, Leaf and stem fresh weight per plant, Leaf and stem dry weight per plant, Percentage of fruit set, compared to control. Seaweed extract at 750 ppm tested concentrations exhibited the highest significantly pods yield compared to those of untreated check and other treatments. Spraying seaweed extract at higher rate tended to have the highest values from photosynthetic pigments, N, P, K and Mg content of leaves whereas, protein content in pods, free amino acids percentage in leaves, carbohydrates in leaves and pods and carbohydrates fraction in leaves both rates ( 500 and 750 ppm seaweed extract ) gave the highest value with significance over the 250ppm and control plants. But fiber percentages in pods have no significance difference between treatment and control. Seaweed compost treatments showed that using 3m3 or 2 m3 per feddan gave the highest value on vegetative growth, flowering characteristics, yield parameters and chemical composition (minerals and biochemical values). It was concluded that reproductive, pods yield characteristics and chemical composition of snap bean responded positively to 3m3 or 2m3 seaweed compost combined with foliar application 750 ppm seaweed extract.

[Abou El-Yazied, A.; A. M. El-Gizawy; M. I. Ragab and E. S. Hamed. Effect of Seaweed Extract and Compost Treatments on Growth, Yield and Quality of Snap Bean. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):1-20]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.01

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2

The filler effects TiO2 nanoparticles on increasing compressive strength of palm oil clinker aggregate-based concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. The effect of limewater on compressive strength permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved compressive strength when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles, curing the specimens in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation in TiO2 nanoparticles blended concrete causes high strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. The filler effects TiO2 nanoparticles on increasing compressive strength of palm oil clinker aggregate-based concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):21-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.02

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3

Stressors among Nursing Staff Working in Intensive Care Unit in Governmental & Non-governmental Hospitals at Makkah Al-Moukarramah, KSA.

 

HalaY. Sayed1 and Manal M. Ibrahim 2

 

1*2Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, KSA.

1 Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University. Egypt, 2 Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University. Egypt

Hala_yehia11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Working in any area of a hospital can be a very stressful experience. However, when working in areas such as the emergency room or the intenseive care unit. Patients require a greater level of care and can take a turn for the worse in a heartbeat. These situations can require immediate response by the nursing staff and can often cause high stress level. Aim: to determine the work stressors among intensive care unit' nurses in governmental & nongovernmental hospitals. Research design: is a descriptive correlational design. Sample: Seventy nurses working in intensive care units were included in the study (50) nurses were randomly selected from Al-Noor Specialist Hospital & 20 nurses were selected from Dr. Bakhash Hospital. Tool: The nurses' work stressors were measured by using the Health Professions Stress Inventory (HPSI). Results: The present study revealed that, working in ICU at governmental hospital major stressor than nongovernmental. Also, lack of professional recognition and work condition are the most common categories of stressor among nurses. Recommendations: Nursing managers need to listen to the concerns of nurses, and provide flexible scheduling, adequate staffing levels as well as appropriate rewards and recognition.

[Hala Y. Sayed and Manal M. Ibrahim. Stressors among Nursing Staff Working in Intensive Care Unit in Governmental & Non-governmental Hospitals at Makkah Al-Moukarramah, KSA. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):25-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.03

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The Moderating Role of Family Ecological Factors (Family Size) on the Relationships between Family Environment and Emotional Intelligence

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Ma’rof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: While a huge of literature indicates that family environment influence emotional intelligence, the family size as one of the important determinants which buffers this effect received little empirical attention. The current study investigated the moderating role of family size on the relationships between family environment and emotional intelligence among 234 early adolescents (girls and boys) in grades 2 and 3 of guidance schools of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (Bar- on EQ-i; YV, 2000) and the Moos and Moos Family Environment Scale. Results revealed that family environment fostered emotional intelligence in their early adolescents. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that family size moderated the relationship between family environment and emotional intelligence. Specifically, early adolescents tended to indicate more emotional intelligence at higher levels of family environment when family have fewer members. These findings underscore the need for continued focus on the role of family size when assessing the links between family environment and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence. Researchers have demonstrated that in family functioning related to early adolescents’ emotions, family and their characters such as family size is very important in the lives at early adolescence.

[Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. The Moderating Role of Family Ecological Factors (Family Size) on the Relationship between Family Environment and Emotional Intelligence. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):32-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.04

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A Comparative Study between Spinal and General Anesthesia in Infants and Children Undergoing Surgical Procedures in the Lower Half of the Body

 

Reda S. Abdelrahman and Mohamed E. Lotfy

 

Departments of Anesthesia, Faculty Of Medicine, Tanta University

redasobhi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The objectives of spinal block in infants and children are analgesia and muscle relaxation with minimal physiological disturbances, rapid recovery and prevention of side effects and complications associated with general anesthesia. The present study was designed to compare between spinal and balanced general anesthesia in infants and children undergoing surgical procedures in the lower half of the body. One of the targets of the study is to gain some popularity for spinal anesthesia in infants and young children in our practice. This study was performed in Tanta University Hospitals after obtaining the local hospital organization approval. Sixty patients of both sex classified as ASA physical status I and II, aged between 2 months – 6 years scheduled for general surgical, orthopedic and urological procedures in the lower half of the body were enrolled in the study after an informed written consent was obtained from the parents. Patients were randomized into two equal groups: Group S (spinal anesthesia group): Patients received lumbar subarachnoid block with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% after induction of general anesthesia. Group G (general anesthesia group): Patients received balanced general anesthesia (control group). The hemodynamic parameters and the sensory and motor characteristics of the spinal block, as well as the ease of performance and success rate of the block were assessed. Also the recovery time, the postoperative pain scores, and the total doses of fentanyl consumed postoperatively were recorded. Blood samples for measurement of serum cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and glucose were taken immediately preoperatively, 45 minutes after beginning of surgery and 2 hours postoperatively. The stress hormones and glucose values were significantly higher in Group G, when compared with Group S, 45 minutes after surgery. The postoperative pain scores at recovery, as well as the postoperative fentanyl consumption, were significantly higher in Group G as compared to Group S. On the contrary, the recovery time in Group S was significantly higher than that observed in Group G. The block characteristics in Spinal anesthesia group showed almost complete motor block in all patients well before 5 minutes from onset of SAB which started to resolve after 56±9 minutes. The upper level of sensory block was achieved well before 10 minutes in all patients and reached on average to T5. The overall complications related to spinal anesthesia were infrequent and minor. In conclusion: Spinal block in children less than 6 years of age is safe, practical and satisfactory in surgery involving lower half of the body provided that the anesthetist is experienced with a good and well- informed assistant. Onset time of pediatric spinal is short and the block is characteristically of excellent sensory quality and usually adequate muscle relaxation especially for lower abdominal and orthopedic procedures.

[Reda S. Abdelrahman and Mohamed E. Lotfy. A Comparative Study between Spinal and General Anesthesia in Infants and Children Undergoing Surgical Procedures in the Lower Half of the Body. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):38-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.05

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Incidence and Management of Bovine Claw Affections and Their Economic Impact: A Field Study on Dairy Farms

 

Ahmed, I. H. and Shekidef, M. H

 

Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University

shekidef77@vet.suez.edu.eg

 

Abstract: This field study aimed at improving claw health in dairy herds through early diagnosis and convenient treatment. Whereas, the objective of the data analysis was to estimate the association of the hoof lesions detected at different stages of lactation with the milk produced on test days by Holsteins Frisian cows in Egyptian dairy farms. The original data included 1312 cows from 3 farms in Egypt between January 2008 and December 2009. The lesions were aggregated by etiology. Sole abscess (SA) and sole ulcer (SU) were aggregated as hoof horn diseases (HHD). Digital dermatitis (DD) was maintained as a separate outcome and the lesions Interdigital dermatitis (ID), heel horn erosions (HHE), interdigital hyperplasia (IH) and interdigital phlegmon (IP) were aggregated as other infectious diseases (OID). Wound at interdigital skin (WD) and fracture of 3rd phalanx (FR) were aggregated into accidental lesions (AL). Hoof lesions were categorized by lactation stage at detection to allow comparison of outcomes between cows with lesions identified early in lactation and those identified later. Prevalence of the lesions as well as TDY was recorded. The results revealed that, SU and SA have the highest prevalence among the hoof lesions. They are usually associated with the greatest milk loss as well. High yielding dairy cows are more likely to expose to lameness due to SA and SU than average yielding or low yielding cows. DD, OID or accidental hoof lesions can affect dairy cows regardless their milk yield. Primiparous cows are more prone to be affected with higher prevalence of hoof lesions than multiparous cows due to physiological alteration associated with the first exposure to pregnancy and lactation.

[Ahmed, I. H. and Shekidef, M. H. Incidence and Management of Bovine Claw Affections and Their Economic Impact: A Field Study on Dairy Farms. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):46-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.06

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Effect of seed inoculation and foliar application of biofertilizers on some biochemical and morphological characteristics of waterlogged-canola

 

Farhad Habibzadeh1, Ali Sorooshzadeh1, Seyyed Ali Mohammad Modarres sanavy1, Hemmatollah Pirdashti2

 

1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran

soroosh@modares.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Waterlogging stress restricts growth and yield of canola by undesirable physiological changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the influences of the seed inoculation and foliar application of two biofertilizers on selected biochemical and morphological characteristics of canola plants (Brassica napus L. cv. Hayola 401) under the waterlogging stress conditions. Two biofertilizers, including AAP (Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and APB (Azospirillum spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Basillus subitilis), were used as seed inoculation or foliar spray at different times on waterlogged seedlings of canola (at 5-leaf growth stage). The data analysis showed that the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid in the leaves of canola were reduced by this stress. The number of siliques per plant, grain yield, plant height, stem width, number of branches and branching position also significantly decreased as a result of the waterlogging stress. The application of biofertilizers either by seed inoculation or foliar sprays significantly alleviated the waterlogging effects. It was evinced by the higher pigments content in the leaves, the increase in the number of siliques per plant, the greater grain yield and increase in the other morphological characteristics over the waterlogged control. However, we concluded that, among the applied methods, inoculating the seeds with the biofertilizers is advisable to alleviate the waterlogging damage in canola.

[Farhad Habibzadeh, Ali Sorooshzadeh, Seyyed Ali Mohammad Modarres sanavy, Hemmatollah Pirdashti. Effect of seed inoculation and foliar application of biofertilizers on some biochemical and morphological characteristics of waterlogged-canola. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):62-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.07

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Active Hexose Correlated Compound improved the gingival integrity of Albino rats.

 

Zoba H. Ali1 and Rabab Mubarak1&2

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Nahda University, Beni suef, Egypt

rawya_h2a@yahoo.com, rababmubarak2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nutrition is an integral component of oral health. There is a continuous synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) on the integrity of rat gingival tissue. Material and methods:Twenty adult male albino rats (250±10 g) were divided equally into two groups, control and AHCC groups. AHCC was administered orally by oesophageal tube at a concentration of 1g AHCC/ kg of body weight/ day in distilled water. The rats were sacrificed after three months; the gingival specimens were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examinations.Results: AHCC improved the gingival integrity. It produced normal histological features of the surface epithelium with mild acanthosis, mild hyperkeratosis. Lamina propria demonstrated more condensed collagen fibers, increased number of fibroblasts and clusters of lymphocytes and macrophage. Several ultrastructural changes were observed, some of which suggested that AHCC treatment resulted in the formation of more efficient permeability barrier in the gingival area. Keratin filaments were appeared in the stratum basal, as the keratinocytes migrate apically; tonofilaments in the cell continue to accumulate and increased in number. In the strata spinosum and granulosum numerous membrane –coating and keratohyalin granules were synthesized. Membrane- coating granules were fused with the cell membrane and increased epithelial barrier function. The keratohyaline granules released their content to the cytoplasm making the tonofilaments to aggregate into tonofibrils. In the stratum corneum the keratin fibrils (tonofibrils) completely replace the cytoplasmic contents of the cell. Conclusion: AHCC supplemented to the rats may be increase the integrity of the gingiva epithelial cells through regulating the keratinization, tonofilaments, keratohyalin and membrane- coating granules formation.

[Zoba H. Ali and Rabab Mubarak. Active Hexose Correlated Compound improved the gingival integrity of Albino rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):69-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.08

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Another look to the Construction of Present Stem in Persian Language

 

Shapour Reza Berenjian1, Ali Reza Berenjian2

 

1. Regional Information Center for Science and Technology (RICeST), Shiraz, Iran

2. University of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

shapour_berenjian@radiffmail.com

 

Abstract: In Persian language, the second person singular of imperative verb is used to make the present stem. We present a pattern for making present stem directly from infinitive verbs of Persian language instead of using imperative form. In this study, the Persian verbs are categorized in 12 groups regarding the methods used to make their present stems, and the making pattern of each group is presented here.

[Shapour Reza Berenjian, Ali Reza Berenjian. Another look to the Construction of Present Stem in Persian Language. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):79-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.09

 

Keywords: Present stem, Persian infinitive verbs, Persian language, Grammar

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The History of BANI HILAL between Written Texts and Oral Performances

 

 Dr. Khalid Abou El-Lail

 

Lecture of Folk Literature, Arabic Language Department, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University

khabuelail@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper examines thestudy of thevarious narrations for the Hilaliansira “epic” betweenwritten textsandcontemporary oralperformances; in order to identifythe changes inArab society.Folk Literature isan importantkeyto the studyof Arab societyandexamine theprogressordecline. The Study will derive its material from the written Hilalian texts and will derive also from the oral Hilalian performances (Collected by the Researcher while conducting the field study) as performed by the Egyptian folk professional Poets and amateur narrators. This Study will depend on the Ethnographic method and will also be made to the "Comparative Method", in order to make a comparison between the written and the oral texts, as well as between "Al-Hilaliya" in Upper Egypt (Qena and Sohag) and in Lower Egypt (El-Gharbeya).

[Khalid Abou El-Lail. The History of BANI HILAL between Written Texts and Oral Performances. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):84-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.10

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Proposing a Framework for Strategic Positioning in Tile and Ceramic Industry (Integrated Approach)

 

Ahmad Jafarnejad Chaghooshi 1, Mohammad Rahmani 2, Mohammad Karimi Zarchi 3

 

1 Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3M.S. Candidate of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: Mohammad.karimi@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper is proposing a comprehensive framework for the strategic positioning of companies in competitive markets. In this paper, we use the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods for the strategic positioning. At first, the most influential internal and external elements were detected with the help of the techniques of strategy formulation. Using the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix, we formulated the primary organizational strategies. Then, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) is used for obtaining the existing relations between SWOT. After obtaining the relationship between the SWOT, Using analytic network process (ANP) and Formation of super-matrix, weights (SWOT) are obtained. In next step, TOPSIS is used to obtain the score of each strategy. Finally, we will adapt strategies with SPACE matrix postures and put them in the matrix According to scores.Additionally, an empirical study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

[Ahmad Jafarnejad Chaghooshi, Mohammad Rahmani, Mohammad Karimi Zarchi. Proposing a Framework for Strategic Positioning in Tile and Ceramic Industry (Integrated Approach). J Am Sci 2012;8(6):91-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.11

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Effectiveness of prevention and management of pressure ulcers, as" a patient safety issues" among bed ridden Patients at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Hasnah Ben Erfan Banjar1; Sabah M. Ahmed Mahran, 2 and Dr. Gihan Mohamed M. Ali1

 

1Nursing Department -College of Applied Medical Science, King Abdul Aziz University, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt

Sabahmahran@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols, patients continue to suffer from these injuries (1). So prevention of the pressure sore has been a nursing concern for many years. Although the prevention of pressure ulcers is a multidisciplinary responsibility, nurses play a major role in preventing it. Most pressure sores are preventable and are caused by faulty care (2). King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAUH) is one of the larger sized governmental hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with a total bed capacity of 878. It underwent accreditation process administered by Accreditation Canada from 2007 to 2008. Aim of the study is evaluate the effectiveness of prevention and management of pressure ulcers, as" a patient safety issues" among bed ridden Patients at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Setting: descriptive exploratory with randomized sampling was used which calculated 40 newly admitted patients and 40 nurses who cared for the same patients and carried out in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospitals in Jeddah in Kingdom of Saudi Arabian. Methods: three modified tools for data collection were used. First one namely; Braden risk assessment scale. Second one namely: risk assessment tool, divided into 2 main parts related to Socio-demographic characteristics, Knowledge towards age, sex, level of conscious, length of staying in hospital, date of admission, level of activity, department------etc. second part is a process of care. Third one namely: observational checklist used to investigate the nurses' role. Results: present study finding revealed that no one of studied nurses done a comprehensive skin assessment is which should be performed within 24 hours of admission as providing care for high risk patients; while 80.8% high risk patient given the same care but after patients have bed sore and there is significant differences was noticed. Conclusion: The prevalence of pressure sores are developing at factors such as immobility, comatose status and long of stay among bed ridden patients as well as majority of participating nurses were providing care to use blue sheet pad & foam matters( used specially for bed sores) and most of nurses were not applicable to give the patient and family health education about preventive measures of pressure ulcer, and assess with family member who is caring for patients, understanding and ability to perform skin care. Recommendations: The present study emphasized on empowering staff nurses to provide preventive pressure ulcer care by identifying risk assessment, planning staff development programs based on staff, organization, and patient needs and monitoring the process to conduct assessment of all new admissions to determine who is susceptible to develop of pressure sores.

[Hasnah Ben Erfan Banjar; Sabah M. Ahmed Mahran and Gihan Mohamed M. Ali. Effectiveness of prevention and management of pressure ulcers, as" a patient safety issues" among bed ridden Patients at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):100-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.12

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Performance of Air Filter fabrics Produced From Scrim Woven and Nonwoven fabrics

 

Sanaa S. Saleh

 

College of girls for Science, Arts & Education, Ain Shams University

sanaashoukry@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, 4 air filter needle-punched nonwoven fabrics have been produced. 3 filters are produced using needle-punching technique only and the fourth is produced from needle punching plus a woven scrim fabric. 3 filters are produced from new polyester fibers (100%) while one filter is produced from blended new and recycled fibers (40% new polyester and 60% recycled polyester fibers).Air filter fabric properties have been investigated such as tensile, tear resistance, compression properties, moisture transport and air permeability.

[Sanaa S. Saleh. Performance of Air Filter fabrics Produced From Scrim Woven and Nonwoven fabrics. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):110-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.13

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Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on increasing split tensile strength of lightweight concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. The effect of limewater on split tensile strength permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved split tensile strength when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles, curing the specimens in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation in TiO2 nanoparticles blended concrete causes high strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on increasing split tensile strength of lightweight concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):121-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.14

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Histological Changes in the albino rats Ovary after Exposure of the Mothers to the Drug Tetracycline during Pregnancy

 

Samira Omar Balubaid

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Dr-s2012@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Many of the pregnant women and nursing mothers sometimes used different types of antibiotics for treatment of some diseases. The most important of these antibiotics is the tetracycline drug, which is used to treat many diseases. This is displays fetuses and infants at risk of this drug, therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the collateral damage on histology of the ovary. To achieve this, Pregnant female rats were administrated orally a standard therapeutic dose of tetracycline (0.7mg \ kg b. wt.), as the chronic dose. The acute single dose (1.5 mg/kg b, wt) was administrated to females on the tenth day of pregnancy. Another female group fed orally with a double single dose. Females at the age of 60 days after birth were examined. The results showed a lack of significant increase in weights and lengths. Also administration of drug at all tested doses led to the histological changes sharply in the ovaries such as decomposition of tissues and bleeding, sore and breadth of the distances because of swelling and the occurrence of necrosis and fibrosis were noticed. These observations make the pregnant women stay away from taking the drug during pregnancy, and try to determine the lowest possible dose to minimize side effects of the drug.

[Samira Omar Balubaid. Histological Changes in Albino Rats Ovary after Exposure of the Mothers to the Drug Tetracycline during Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):125-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.15

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Start-up performance of a pilot -scale Integrated Reactor for treating domestic garbage and Sewage Sludge from Treatment Plant

 

Anthony Thomas Mhamadi1*, Qiang He1,2, Theoneste Ntakirutimana1, Jiang Li1

 

1Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University,

Chongqing, 400045, P. R. China

2Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, P. R. China

*Corresponding author:atkilimo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pilot scale innovative design reactor that integrates anaerobic fermentation of domestic garbage and excess sewage sludge digestion was developed and studied. The reactor was operated continuously for 56 days, 22L of sewage sludge were treated daily and a total of 2240kg of domestic garbage were treated in the entire period of the experiment. The results show that under the conditions of sludge dosage rate of 10%, average HRT 5d, the sewage sludge water content and organic matter content (VS/TS %) fall down from 99.8% to 91% and 71% to 28% respectively. The fermentation of garbage in the integrated reactor supplied appropriate heat for digestion of sewage sludge to take place while the garbage being stabilized and reducedThe temperature in the middle sludge digestion compartment was between 25℃to 38℃ at the ambient temperature of 17℃ to 28℃. The inlet domestic garbage organic matter and moisture content were 64%~ 88% and 87.0%~94% respectively; while the outlet organic matter and moisture content were reduced to 36%~77% and 76.6%~93.5% respectively. The preliminary results of the reactor attain the reserved design targetIt showed to be effective in reduction and stabilization of sewage sludge and domestic garbage. The integrative reactor, however, still remains to be improved.

[Anthony Thomas Mhamadi, Qiang He, Theoneste Ntakirutimana, Jiang Li. Start-up performance of a pilot -scale Integrated Reactor for treating domestic garbage and Sewage Sludge from Treatment Plant. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):132-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.16

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A Comparative Study for the Diagnosis of Microbial Keratitis Using Different Techniques

 

1Rania A. Khattab, 2Mohamed Shafik, 1Salwa A. Rasmy, 2Dalia G. Said, 2 Maha M. Abdelfatah and 1Yasser M. Ragab

 

1Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Corneal unit and Microbiology Department, Cairo, Egypt

Khattab500@yahoo.com; lady_Ok@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: The aim of the current study is to compare the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount with Gram stain versus culture procedures for the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal keratitis. Methods: One hundred and fifty patients clinically diagnosed as microbial keratitis who attended the Research Institute of Ophthalmology cornea clinic were investigated in our study. The samples collected were examined by direct microscopy using Gram stain as well as KOH wet mount and also plated on different culture media [sheep blood agar, chocolate agar, and Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA)]. The smear results were compared with culture findings of each case to investigate and analyze the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of each technique using Medcalc program. Results: Gram stained smears showed positive bacterial growth in 121 patients out of the 150 studied cases with suspected ulcerative keratitis. A percentage of 72% (87 cases) out of these 121 cases was found to have positive bacterial growth in culture as well as in direct smear. Direct smear of Gram stained corneal scrapes showed fungal hyphae in only 4 cases, out of which 3 cases had also positive growth on SDA. On the other hand, using 10% KOH wet mount preparation for detection of fungal filaments illustrated that only 12 cases were positive, 9 of which turned out to be positive on SDA. The Gram stain smear technique reported significant higher sensitivity for detection of bacteria (84.47%) compared to that of fungal filaments (2.91%). However, the gram stained smear for the detection of fungal filaments illustrated significant higher specificity (97.87%) than that for the detection of bacteria (27.66%). The sensitivity of both the KOH wet mount preparation and Gram stain for the detection of fungal filaments was low (8.74% and 2.91% respectively) and correlated with higher specificity for both techniques (93.62% and 97.87% respectively). Positive predictive values were almost equal in both staining methods for the detection of fungal filaments. The negative predictive value was higher for Gram stain in the detection of bacteria (44.83%) than that for the detection of fungi (31.51%). The incidence percentage of bacteria in gram stained smears was 49.3 % (74 cases) among eyes with corneal ulcer larger than 2 mm and 2 % (3 cases) among eyes with corneal ulcer smaller than 2 mm. The incidence percentage of fungi in KOH smears was 12 % (18 cases) among eyes with corneal ulcer size larger than 2 mm in diameter and 0 % among eyes with corneal ulcer smaller than 2 mm size. Conclusion: Direct smear and culture techniques are of great diagnostic value for management of microbial keratitis. Direct smears with Gram stain are of higher diagnostic value in case of bacterial keratitis than in case of fungal keratitis; however, it is not as helpful on its own without confirmation with positive cultures for general diagnosis of cases of microbial keratitis.

[Rania A. Khattab, Mohamed Shafik, Salwa A. Rasmy, Dalia G. Said, Maha M. Abdelfatah and Yasser M. Ragab. A Comparative Study for the Diagnosis of Microbial Keratitis Using Different Techniques. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):139-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.17

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Assessment of Pain and Spinal Cord levels of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide and Interleukin-6 in a Model of Neuropathic Pain in Female Rats

 

Gihan Sharara1, Hala M. Abou Heif 2 and Abeer El-Emam Deif 2

 

Departments of 1Biochemistry and 2Physiology Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University

gihansharara@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Neuropathic pain is a form of chronic pain that arises from functional changes in the pain sensory system after peripheral nerve injury. It is manifested by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) is 37 amino acid neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system and is involved in processing of nociceptive information. Evidences from human and animal studies whether estrogen is pro or antinociceptive is inconsistent. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non pharmacologic therapy for pain used to produce analgesia in inflammatory conditions. Aim of the present work was assessment of pain and spinal cord levels of CGRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a model of neuropathic pain induced in female rats by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. The possible modulation of neuropathic pain by estradiol and TENS was also assessed in ovariectomized rats with CCI of sciatic nerve. Material & Methods: The study was carried out on 48 adult female rats divided into six groups (8 rats/each). Group 1: sham operated rats, group II: CCI of sciatic nerve in gonadally intact female rats, group III: ovariectomized (OVX) rats, group IV: OVX+CCI, group V: OVX+CCI/17 b estradiol, group VI: OVX+ CCI/TENS. All ovariectomized rats were included in the study 3 weeks after ovariectomy for depletion of circulating estrogen. Exogenous estrogen was given to ovarietomized rats of group V as 6mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) per day subcutaneous for 3 weeks starting on the same day of CCI-surgery (day 0). TENS was delivered to OVX+CCI rats (group VI) starting from day 0 and continued for 3 weeks on alternate days under light ether anaesthesia. Pain behavior was assessed by pin prick test. Mechanical hyperalgesia was defined as increased hindpaw withdrawal frequencies percent (PWF%) to mechanical stimuli. The assessment began on the day of CCI surgery (day 0) before the operation (pre-operative, baseline data) and followed up weekly on post-CCI days 8, 14 and 21 (post operative assessment). Ovariectomized rats that were not subjected to CCI (group III) followed the same schedule for assessment of PWF%. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, lumbar spinal cord was dissected and used for later assessment of mRNA expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) using an Reverse transcriptase –Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Also levels of CGRP and IL-6 in the spinal cord were assessed by Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Results: The expression of CGRP in the spinal cord tissue, levels of CGRP and IL-6 were significantly higher in lumbar spinal cord after CCI, OVX or OVX+CCI compared with sham operated rats. After estrogen or TENS therapy, a significant decrease of expression of CGRP, levels of CGRP and IL-6 were found compared with untreated (OVX+CCI) group. However, the values of CGRP and IL-6 after treatment were still above control level. Rats in group II (CCT of sciatic nerve in gonadally intact female rats) had significant increase of PWF% on post-CCI days 8, 14 and 21. Group III: OVX rats had significant increase of PWF% on day 0 and post-CCI days 8,14 and 21 versus sham operated rats. Group IV (OVX+CCI) showed significant increase of PWF% on days 8, 14 and 21 post-CCI compared to baseline. These values were significantly higher than those of sham operated rats. PWF% in group IV (OVX+CCI) tended to be higher at all the time points of post-CCI follow up than corresponding values in group II (CCI in gonadally intact females) and the difference was statistically significant on day 14. Group V (OVX+CCI/17 b estradiol) showed significant decrease of PWF% starting from day 8 and continued on days 14 and 21 post-CCI versus baseline, but remained significantly higher than sham operated rats. Group VI: OVX+CCI/TENS showed significant decrease of PWF% on post-CCI days 8, 14 and 21 compared with baseline, but remained significantly higher than sham operated controls. No statistically significant differences in PWF% were found between estradiol and TENS treated groups on post CCI days 8, 14 and 21. Conclusion: increased spinal cord levels of CGRP and IL-6 could be involved in the mechanism of mechanical hyperalgesia after CCI surgery of sciatic nerve and ovariectomy. Administration of estradiol or TENS significantly attenuated the development of hyperalgesia in (OVX+CCI) group, possibly by decreasing spinal cord levels of CGRP and IL-6. The findings suggested that TENS can be considered as alternative to hormonal therapy for neuropathic pain in ovariectomized rats.

[Gihan Sharara, Hala M. Abou Heif and Abeer El-Emam Deif. Assessment of Pain and Spinal Cord levels of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide and Interleukin-6 in a Model of Neuropathic Pain in Female Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):145-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.18

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Protect of Underground Oil Pipelines by Using (Al-Sn-Zn) as Sacrificial Anode in Al-Qasim Region

 

Khadim F. Al-Sultani and Jenan Nasser Nabat

 

Department of Metallurgical Eng., Faculty of Material, University of Babylon - Iraq

finteelalsultani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sacrificial anode cathodic protection is one of the most widely used methods in protecting buried oil pipe lines against the corrosion damages. In the present work, a series of Aluminum alloys have been prepared as sacrificial anodes candidates to be used in the protection of the oil pipelines that pass through the Al-Qasim region. These prepared alloys were microstructurally and electrochemically characterized to evaluate their performance as Al-sacrificial anodes for cathodic protection of oil pipes. The relationships between the protection potential with time, sacrificial anode life, discharge currents, and capacity of sacrificial anodes were found, taking into consideration the distance between sacrificial anode and protected steel sample. According to the results obtained, the best selection of sacrificial anodes was (Al-4% Zn-0.4% Sn) alloy at 30cm in Al-Qasim region.

[Khadim F. Al-Sultani and Jenan Nasser Nabat. Protect of Underground Oil Pipelines by Using (Al-Sn-Zn) as Sacrificial Anode in Al-Qasim Region. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):158-165]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.19

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Physiological Impact of Fenugreek, Guava and Lantana on the Growth and Some Chemical Parameters of Sunflower Plants and Associated Weeds

 

Mona G. Dawood, Mohamed E. El-Awadi and Kowthar G. El-Rokiek

 

Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O. Code 12622, Cairo, Egypt

monagergis@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Allelopathy is considered an effective and environmentally friendly method to control the weeds and consequently enhances crop production. Pot experiments were conducted during two successive summer seasons (2010 and 2011) in the greenhouse of National Research Centre, Egypt to study the effect of incorporating 10% fenugreek seeds or 20% guava leaves or 20% lantana leaves into the soil on sunflower plants and associated weeds. All treatments caused significant decreases in fresh and dry weights of Echinochloa colonum L. and Portulaca oleracea L at 40 and 100 days after sowing. Fenugreek treatment showed more pronounced effect > lantana treatment > guava treatment. On the other hand, all treatments caused significant increases in the photosynthetic pigments of sunflower leaves (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) relative to unweeded treatment. The total carbohydrate content in sunflower leaf tissues increased significantly with all treatments accompanied by a significant decrease in the total phenolic content relative to unweeded treatment. The head weight, seeds weight/head and 100 seeds weight were increased in the following order weed free treatment > fenugreek treatment > lantana treatment > guava treatment. It was noted that fenugreek treatment is the most effective treatment in increasing oil% followed by guava treatment, while the lowest increase resulted from lantana treatment relative to unweeded treatment. Fenugreek treatment caused the highest decrease in (C16:0 + C18:0) accompanied by the highest increase in (C18:1 + C18:2). Regarding the total essential amino acids, it was noticed that fenugreek treatment showed a noticeable increase whereas lantana and guava treatments showed a decrease in total essential amino acids relative to unweeded treatment. All applied treatments showed significant increases in N%, and non significant increases in P% and K% relative to unweeded treatment.

[Mona G. Dawood, Mohamed E. El-Awadi and Kowthar G. El-Rokiek. Physiological Impact of Fenugreek, Guava and Lantana on the Growth and Some Chemical Parameters of Sunflower Plants and Associated Weeds. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):166-174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.20

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An Investigation of the Effect of Concept Mapping on Improving Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Ability

 

Mansour Fahim (Ph.D.)1, Alireza Amjadiparvar (Ph.D. Candidate)2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. English Department, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Iran

a.amjadiparvar@iausdj.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The current study investigated the influence of concept mapping on EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability. Concept maps are visual representations of knowledge which can be employed as a learning strategy by the learners to find the relationship between current knowledge and new information. They allow the learners to figure out how ideas are connected through representing knowledge in graphs. The major aim of the current study is to assess the effects of concept mapping on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension in two English Institutes in Iran, at the upper-intermediate level. So, the study sought to answer the following question: Does the use of concept mapping significantly improve learners’ ability to comprehend listening tasks? To do so, fifty EFL learners at upper-intermediate level were randomly assigned to experimental (n=25) and control (n=25) groups. Then a pretest-posttest design was utilized. The results of the pretest indicated that the two groups were homogeneous with regard to their listening comprehension ability. The experimental group was taught to construct concept maps through brainstorming before listening to each passage. Then, the results were analyzed by using paired T-test, and showed that listening performance can be improved through the utilization of concept mapping strategy.

[Mansour Fahim, Alireza Amjadiparvar. An Investigation of the Effect of Concept Mapping on Improving Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Ability. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):175-179]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.21

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Postmodern Condition: Origin of Absurd Drama

 
Yousef Afarini 1, Mohammad Shoalehsaadi 2

1 Department of Art and Architecture, Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran.
2 Department of Art and Architecture, Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran.
sepidanfaculty@gmail.com, 1yafarini@yahoo.com, 2mshoalehsaadi@yahoo.com
 

Abstract:Postmodernism is a condition which contains the western civilization in the second half of 20th century. This condition was the refusal of the modern and traditional conditions of the church and anterior autonomy. Postmodern is dominantly defined as refusal of the autonomy of everything without any other autonomous alternative. We must regard the autonomy as the essence to define the new conditions. Postmodernism, as an important university movement, returns to the 1970s, namely publication of Lyotard’s Postmodern Condition.
[Yousef Afarini, Mohammad Shoalehsaadi. Postmodern Condition: Origin of Absurd Drama. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):180-186]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.sciencepub.net/american. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.22

Key words: absurd drama, autonomy, modernism,postmodernism, postmodernconditions

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Pore structure and flexural strength of ZrO2 nanopowders palm oil clinker aggregate-based binary blended concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Flexural of concrete containing ZrO2 nanoparticles which were cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. ZrO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of Portland cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as nano-fillers. The specimens were cured in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting and then their strength was evaluated by flexural strength test. The results showed that replacement of Portland cement with ZrO2 nanoparticles up to 1.0 weight percent for the specimens cured in water and 2.0% for the specimens cured in saturated limewater produces concrete with the best strength. It has been obtained that curing the specimens in saturated limewater for 28 days and then in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened concrete than those cured only in saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days, when the specimens cured in limewater, reduces the effect of strengthening gels which form until the 90 days hence reduces the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more strengthening gel results in a concrete with higher strength. The pore structure of different mixtures was studied. The addition of nanoparticles improves the pore structure of concretes, the refined extent of pore structure increase with decreasing nanoparticles’ content. The pore structure of concretes which were cured in saturated limewater is better than that of concretes cured in water.

[Farzad Soleymani. Pore structure and flexural strength of ZrO2 nanopowders palm oil clinker aggregate-based binary blended concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):187-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.23

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A Study on Liver Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Induction Including Sepsis, Warm Ischaemia, Cold Ischaemia And Reperfusion Injury

 

M El-Wahsh

 

Liver Unit. University Department of Surgery. Zahraa University Hospital.Cairo, Egypt

elwahsh.m@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a member of the immunoglobulin-gene-superfamily, is constitutively expressed on vascular endothelium and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or endotoxin activates complement and signalling mechanisms in both macrophages and endothelial cells to produce inflammatory mediators. These mechanisms stimulate ICAM-1 induction. Ischaemia reperfusion inury induces the same reaction like LPS. Objective: To investigate ICAM-1 expression on sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC’s) in normal rat liver after induction of sepsis, ischaemia (warm and cold), Ischaemia/reperfusion injury on both ischaemic and non ischaemic liver lobes. Methodology: Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats weighing 200-250g were used in the experimental studies. All experiments were non recovery. We designed three experimental models. Induction of sepsis model, in situ warm ischaemia reperfusion, and cold ischaemia models. Results & conclusion: Treated animals with LPS had intense expression of ICAM-1 in both SEC's and hepatocytes. Warm ischaemia over 45min produced marked ICAM-1 expression on SEC’s, this expression bacame more intense after a different period of reperfusion. However, cold ischaemia up to 8hrs has no significant effect of ICAM-1 expression. Reperfusion of the post cold ischemic liver resulted in significant upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, according to the results in this study which showed the up regulation of ICAM-1 expression as a secondary to the inflammatory process which strats immediately after the ischaemic injury and increased after ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

[M El-Wahsh. A Study on Liver Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Induction Including Sepsis, Warm Ischaemia, Cold Ischaemia And Reperfusion Injury. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):195-203]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.24

 

Keywords: Intercellular Adhesion Molecules, liver ischaemia, ischaemia/reperfusion injury, ICAM-1 expression, liver transplantation

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Neovagina Using Omental Flap in Patient with Mullerian Aplasia

 

Abdulrahim Gari1; Bandr Hafidh1; Adnan Gelidan2; Salah Kary3; Mazen Jan4 and Hussein T. Sabban5

 

1 Consultant Obstetrics & Gynecology, King Faisal specialist Hospital & Research Center Jeddah KSA

2Consultant Plastic surgery, King Faisal specialist Hospital & Research Center Jeddah KSA

3Consultant Interventional radiology, King Faisal specialist Hospital & Research Center Jeddah KSA

4Consultant Anesthesia, King Faisal specialist Hospital & Research Center Jeddah KSA

5Obstetrics & Gynecology Teaching Assistant, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine Rabegh KSA

gari505@yahoo.ca; bhafedh2000@yahoo.com; eadnangelidan@gmail.com; mozajan@yahoo.com; salah_kary@yahoo.com; dh.sabban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Vaginal agenesis is characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the uterus, proximal vagina and the fallopian tubes. This anomaly has been recently termed müllerian aplasia by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist3. Müllerian aplasia is an uncommon, but not rare, anomaly. The estimated incidence is 1 in 5000 newborn females1,3. Case: A 25 years old divorced female presents with history of primary amenorrhea. She was diagnosed prior to getting married with absence of the vagina along with the right kidney as case of Mayer–Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. The patient had a neovagina by omental flap. After six months of follow up she did well with an excellent anatomical outcome.

[Abdulrahim Gari; Bandr Hafidh; Adnan Gelidan; Salah Kary and Hussein T. Sabban. Neovagina Using Omental Flap in Patient with Mullerian Aplasia. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):204-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.25

 

Keywords: Mullerian agenesis, Mayer–Rokitansky-kuster-Hauser syndrome, MRKH, Vagionoplasty, Neovagina, mullerian aplasia, Omental flap.

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Infrared Spectroscopy for the Detection of Irradiated Meats

 

Hesham M. Badr

 

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo, Egypt

heshambadr_aea@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using infrared spectroscopy for detecting the irradiation of meats. Samples of beef meat containing fat were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy at room temperature. Then irradiated and non-irradiated beef meat samples were examined by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy post irradiation treatments and after 3 months of frozen storage at -18 °C. The results showed that the spectra of both irradiated and non-irradiated meat samples were relatively complex showing several bands that contributing to many functional groups belonging to meat components. However, a new peak at 1779.60 Cm-1 appeared in the FT-IR spectra of all irradiated samples, while did not detected in any of the control ones. The new peak corresponds to the carbonyl (C=O) stretching vibration of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid and useful marker of irradiation in lipid-containing meats. It was possible to correctly detect all irradiated samples post irradiation and after frozen storage through the application of FT-IR spectral analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is a promising tool as a rapid and sensitive non-destructive analysis for detecting the irradiation of lipid-containing meats. The analysis can be applied for quality control and enforcement of accurate labeling regulations in irradiated meat products.

[Hesham M. Badr. Infrared Spectroscopy for the Detection of Irradiated Meats. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):208-214]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.26

 

Key words: irradiation, detection, meat, IR, FT-IR, spectroscopy, 2-dodecylcyclobutanone

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Assessment of Radioactivity and the Exposure Doses from Local Cement Types in Saudi Arabia

 

J. H. AlZahrani

 

Physics Department, Faculty science Faculty for Girls, king AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Jalzhrani@keu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Activity concentration of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K in local cement factories (Aljouf, Yanbo, Alqassim, Tabuk, Jeddah and Alarabia) in Saudi Arabia has been measured using Na (Tl) detector. The mean values of radium equivalent fluctuated from 83 Bq/Kg in Yanbo to117 Bq/Kg in Aljouf. The average absorbed dose rate change from 56.79 nGyh-1 and 38.58 nGyh-1 for Aljouf and Yanbo factories, respectively. These average values give rise to a mean effective dose 0.189 mSvy-1 and 0.279 mSvy-1 which are just about 2 % and 3 % of the 1.0 mSvy-1 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1990) as the maximum annual dose to members of the public. The results indicate no radiological anomaly. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for primordial radionuclide concentrations in cement of the areas.

[J.H. AlZahrani. Assessment of Radioactivity and the Exposure Doses from Local Cement Types in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):215-220]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.27

 

Keywords: Radioactivity, radium equivalent, cement, Dose assessment

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Mechanical Behavior of A356/Albite Composite Material

 

N. E. Elzayady, R. M. Rashad, and A. Elhabak

 

Department of Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.Ph.D Student, Assosiate Professor, and Professor. goga.2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation aims to study the effect of Albite ceramic on the microstructure and mechanical characterizations of A356 aluminum/composite containing reinforcement of 3 percent by weight and (2-20) µm particles’ size. The composite was fabricated using ‘stir-casting’ method in which the particles were added to molten alloy at semi-solid state during stirring process at rotating speed 700 r.p.m. Metallographic investigation of the fabricated samples as well as the mechanical properties; (tensile, compression, impact and hardness.) were studied. The results of study revealed that; adding Albite to A356 alloy has significantly increased the tensile strength as well as elongation percent with 18% and 25% respectively. Also higher compression yield strength and relative elastic strain with 17 % and 37.5% in sequence were achieved than that of the unreinforced alloy, while marginal increase in compressive strength in plastic zones has been obtained. The addition of Albite ceramic to the A356 alloy has improved the fracture toughness by about 12 %, a slight increase in hardness was observed as a result of the inserting Albite dispersions into the matrix alloy, on the macrohardness scale.

[N. E. Elzayady, R. M. Rashad, and A. Elhabak. Mechanical Behavior of A356/Albite Composite Material. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):221-230]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.28

 

Key words:Aluminum silicon A356, Albite, MMCs, microstructure, and mechanical properties.

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Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs with Depression in Shear and Flexure Zones

 

A.M. Elbehairy and M.Rabie

 

 Structural engineering Department, faculty of Eng. Cairo University, Egypt.

rabie_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Depressions in flat slabs are a common design problem whenever sanitary needs are required. Presence of depression affects the overall behavior of the slab. This effect is dependent on depression size and location. In this research the effect of depression in shear & flexure zones of both column and field strips on the behavior of flat slabs is investigated. A finite element model of a single floor of a flat slab building is used for investigation. Linear analysis is conducted for the study. A slab composed of three square panels is analyzed for one hundred eight different study cases of depression sizes and locations. Bending moments and deflections of the different study cases were investigated and compared with recommendations of different building codes. Design aids in chart form are concluded. Finally recommendations for the design of flat slabs with depression are given.

[A.M. Elbehairy, M.Rabie. Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs with Depression in Shear and Flexure Zones. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):231-246]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.29

 

Keywords: Flat slabs; Depression; Field strip; Column strip; Shear zone; Flexural zone

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Treatment of Low-Flow Tongue Lesions by Diode Laser-Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP)

 

Ali Mohammad Saafan* & Tarek Mohamed Ibrahim*

 

* Ass. Prof. of Dental Laser Applications, Department of Medical Applications of Laser, National Institute for Laser Enhancement Sciences, Cairo University.

Corresponding author: alisaafan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of Diode laser in eliminating tongue venous malformation, while conserving as much as possible lingual tissues through intralesional photocoagulation (ILP). Patients and Methods: A series of 9 patients (5 females & 4 males) with age from 17 years to 43 years were treated in this study. Diode laser 980nm beam was delivered through a 320um bare fibre, with 5 watt average power in continuous mode. Treatments were conducted under local anaesthesia. Results: At the end of the treatment, all lesions showed chief complaint elimination and at least 60% regression of the size of the lesions. There were no serious complications, such as bleeding or invasive infection. Conclusion: Intra-lesional photocoagulation (ILP) with a Diode laser 980nm is effective and safe for treatment of tongue venous malformations.

[Ali Mohammad Saafan & Tarek Mohamed Ibrahim. Treatment of Low-Flow Tongue Lesions by Diode Laser-Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP). J Am Sci 2012;8(6):247-251]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.30

 

Key words: Diode laser, Tongue lesions, intra-lesional photocoagulation therapy

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Measurements of Radiation Level around the Location of NORM in Solid Wastes at Petroleum Companies in Egypt

 

N. A. Mansour1, T. S. Ahmed2, M. Fayez-Hassan3 Nabil M. Hassan1, M.A. Gomaa2and A. Ali2

 

1Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig – Egypt

2Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt

3Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Cairo, Egypt

nassif_mansour@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Recent concern has been devoted to the hazard arising from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material scales (NORM) which are omnipresent in the earth's crust. These scales contain mainly 226Ra and its daughter products, which can cause an exposure risk. Fifteen petroleum scales samples were collected at different Oil fields in the Red Sea Refineries (Company) for Petroleum Services in the Eastern Desert of Egypt were investigated. The specific radio activities of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K, and its daughter nuclide for all samples were determined using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate in air for all waste samples were estimated. The radon emanation coefficient of the waste samples and the radon exhalation rate was estimated. Its values equal 0.341547312 gm m-3 and 0.011153571 (111.5 ˣ 10-4 Bqm-2s-1) respectively. The gamma ray dose rates, with the associated occupational doses in the samples, and 226Ra concentration in hard/soft scale samples were determined. The chemical structure of the waste samples was investigated using X-ray florescence technique (XRF) and Sr, Ca, Fe, Ba, Si, Pb, K, Zn, S, Ti, and Mn were found in all samples. From this study, it was noticed that the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the petroleum scales samples were higher than that of the petroleum sludge samples exceeds the NRC limits. Results obtained are discussed and compared with the international recommended data.

[N. A. Mansour, T. S. Ahmed, M. Fayez-Hassan. Nabil M. Hassan, M.A. Gomaa and A. Ali. Measurements of Radiation Level around the Location of NORM in Solid Wastes at Petroleum Companies in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):252-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.31

 

Keywords: NORM, Petroleum, Radiation exposure, Natural Radioactivity, Waste, Gamma-ray spectroscopy, Scale, Sludge, Radon.

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(6):261-270]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

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Modernism in thought among girl students of Tehran universities

 

Alireza Sharifi Yzdi

 

Research Institute for Education, Ministry of Education, Tehran, Iran

Rezasharifi10@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Although main origin of modernity was western countries especially European countries, all human societies have been affected during the past 200 years which led to some problems. Perhaps, we can say that the most important problem is challenge between tradition and modernity. Iran society has faced phenomena of modernity and modernization and the Iranians have been familiar with the first signs of modernity for 180 years. Tradition and modernity have related to each other during this term in two formal-political and informal aspects. Relation of tradition and modernity in formal-political aspects has experienced two specified periods: A- dominance of modernity on tradition especially since 1925 to 1978, B: dominance of tradition on modernity since 1978 (victory of Revolution) up to now. Study shows that relation of tradition and modernity in informal level and in society has been a kind of peaceful coexistence instead of contrast and tension. On the basis of the results obtained from this study, Iran society has been familiar with modernity and modernization. In this process, it has led to contrast of tradition and modernity in some cases. This article has been manifested especially in Pahlavi dynasty (1925-1979) as dominance of modernity on tradition during victory of Revolution (1979 up to now). In this study, it was specified that some conditions lead to modernity growth in societies with use of development and modernity school thinkers’ view such as rate of urbanism, education and some components which can be observed in the person who lives in modern society such as scientism, acceptance of new experiences, creative imagination, Universalism, rationalism, interpretability, self knowledge, identity seeking, confidence etc. Statistical population of this study includes all girl students of Tehran universities and sample size of 370 was selected with use of Cochran formula. Data gathering tool is the questionnaire which has measured 9 modernity indices with use of different items. Main (dependent) variable of this research is modernism. Modernity rate has been obtained out of 9 indices with Cronbach, alpha 76.7. In this research, 67.7% of the sample size had high modernity. The obtained results show that indices of progressivism, scientism, independence, risk had medium limit and indices of equalitarianism, civil attitude and new experiences had high limit. Among the given hypotheses, term of education and social position have significant relation with modernity. Our hypotheses have not shown relationship between term of education, urban or rural origin, social participation, use of mass media and modernity. At the end, stepwise multivariate regression analysis model was used in order to obtain concurrent effect of the variables. Only variables of educational term and social position could have been studied that is increase of the educational years will enhance modernity and high social position will increase modernity. In the regression model which has been selected for social participation, variables of mass media had direct relationship, age had reverse relationship and urban or rural origin had relationship with social participation. Term of teaching had reverse relationship and social position and social participation of the person had positive relationship with use of mass media.

[Alireza Sharifi. Modernism in thought among girl students of Tehran universitie. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):271-279]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.33

 

Key words: modernity, modernism, modernization, modern thought, development, universalism, rationalism

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Qualitative Analysis of Tourism Difficulties in Yasechah Village: Going toward Rural Development in ChaharMahal VA Bakhtiary, Iran By using grounded theory

 

Abdolhamid papzan1, Mahdi Karamidehkordi2, Mostafa Karbasioun3

 

1. Associate professor, Agricultural college, razi University, Kermanshah, Iran and guest Researcher of FU, Berlin, BC CARE, as corresponding author. E-Mail: papzanabdolhamid@gmail.com

2. Msc of Rural Development, Agricultural College, razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3. Mostafa Karabsioun, Assistant professor, Agricultural development economics group, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran. Papzanabdolhamid89@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Sustainable development in Iran as well as many developing countries has been facing with several challenges over last decades; where, various obstacles have been hindering this sustainable development. Past strategies used in Iran have not properly addressed crucial matters like poverty, employment, hygiene, food security, and sustainability of environment. As a result, sustainable development status in Iran is still far behind the expectation of both scientists and policy makers. To reach a better situation, enhancing social, economical, and cultural aspects of development is obviously essential. One worldwide accepted approach is tourism development with a focus on agro-tourism. This could considerably accelerate rural development with turning potential villages to tourism attractions. Hence, the purpose of this study was to design a systematic model and determine major tourism obstacles/difficulties via assessment of different viewpoints about target village of Zayandeh River green margin located in CheharMahal Va Bakhtiari (Ch & Ba) province. The assumption was then to better underpin sustainable development in the province through recognition, prioritization, and determination of tourism barriers. A qualitative research methodology and Grounded Theory was used for data analysis. Snowball method, which is a purposeful sampling method, was operated. Research population consisted of three different groups: rural sciences professionals, provincial internal and external tourists, and cultural heritage experts of Ch & Ba province. The findings uncovered that provincial tourism centers suffer from various difficulties such as fundamental or sub-constructional problems, hygiene and health shortcomings, shortage of cultural attractiveness, lack of proper understanding of tourism phenomenon, lack of program planning, lack of consistent research and monitoring system, and finally dramatic climate change in the recent years.

[Papzan A, Karmidehkordi M, Karbasioun M. Qualitative Analysis of Tourism Difficulties in Yasechah Village: Going toward Rural Development in ChaharMahal VA Bakhtiary, Iran By using grounded theory. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):280-286]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.34

 

Keywords: tourism, obstacles, difficulties, sustainable, development, Yasechah Village, Zayandeh Rood, Iran, CheharMahal Va Bakhtiary

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Legal foundations of lawful government, sovereignty, and state in the Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Gholamreza Asadollahi

 

scientificgroup@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims to introduce the theories on emergence of concepts like government, sovereignty, and state and analyze the foundations of constitution and the bases of other evolutionary laws. The state can find consistency and durability within the sovereignty and government of law. Foundation of the government, sovereignty, and state in the Islamic Republic of Iran complies with the theory of "God's dominion over the world and human" which is forms the basis of Islam. This also determines the responsibility, scope of duties, and civil tasks of the state. According to the Forty-Forth Article of Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iran's economic and social systems can function in public, cooperative, and private sectors. So, lawful government, sovereignty, and state will have their own independent identity based on legal foundations.

[Gholamreza Asadollahi. Legal foundations of lawful government, sovereignty, and state in the Islamic Republic of Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):287-290]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.35

 

Keywords: Legal foundations, government, sovereignty, state, Islamic Republic of Iran

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Perceived Stresses among Male Students in University of Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Study

 

Attia Z. Taha1, Amr A. Sabra 2

 

1 Family &Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

2 Primary Health Care Division, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt & Family and Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

amrsabra_eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: University students often experience different stresses, which may affect their emotional, psycho-social and physical health. Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of perceived stresses and the effects of studying on health and life style among male students from College of Medicine and College of Applied Studies & Community Service (CASCS) in the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 456 students, 363 from college of medicine, and 93 from CASCS. A self-administered validated Arabic version of “Influence of Studying on Students’ Health” questionnaire was used. It consisted of self-reported problems and stresses encountered by students. Chi-squared test was used and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a high prevalence of social, emotional, and study problems among medical students (86.6%, 81.3%, and 80.4% respectively). The main problems reported by students of CASCS were family, economic, and study problems (27.7%, 21.8%, and 19.6% respectively). Concentration, recognition, and memory were reported to be worse in 26.8%, 17.6%, and 27.1%, respectively among students of both colleges. Mood disturbances (56.4%), frustration (42.5%), and anxiety and nervousness (38.7%) were the main stresses experienced by students. Curriculum contents (81.4%), teaching methods (68.4%), and fear of failure (63.2%), were the main reasons for being under stress for students of both colleges. Conclusions: Studying affected physical, mental, social, and psychological health of students. Establishment of counseling unit and preventive mental health services are recommended.

[Attia Z. Taha, Amr A. Sabra. Perceived Stresses among Male Students in University of Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia: A Comparative Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):291-298]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.36

 

Keywords: Perceived Stresses, Students, Physical Health, Mental Health, Life Style, Saudi Arabia

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Medical Ethics: Knowledge about Confidentiality among Medical University Students, Eastern Province Saudi Arabia

 

Magdy A. Darwish1, Amr A. Sabra 2

 

1 Family &Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

2 Primary Health Care Division, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt & Family and Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. amrsabra_eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: All identifiable patient information, whether written, computerized, visually or audio recorded or simply held in the memory of health professionals, is subject to the duty of confidentiality. Medical students are considered to have the same duties of confidentiality as licensed physicians. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge level about confidentiality among fourth year medical students, college of medicine, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among all 164 fourth year medical students enrolled in the parallel program during their attachment to the family and community medicine training center. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire which was consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and questions to assess knowledge about different aspects of confidentiality. Descriptive statistics, Chi-squared and logistic regression tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: None of the students had received ethics courses in their basic study and only 11% had attended training courses of less than one month duration about medical ethics. About 41.5% of university students had good level of knowledge regarding different aspects of confidentiality. The only factor that was found to be statistically significant was gender, where 52.2% of females had good knowledge level about confidentiality compared to 17.6% of males (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that gender and age of the students were the 2 factors predicting knowledge level about confidentiality where females (OR = 5.05, CI=2.1-12.1) and younger students (OR=0.132, CI=0.021-0.828) had better knowledge. Conclusion: A quite high proportion of the medical students had good knowledge about confidentiality despite that they didn’t receive ethics education in their curriculum. Principles of medical ethics should be incorporated in undergraduate medical training so that students during their training and later on as healthcare providers will understand and apply medical ethics.

[Magdy A. Darwish, Amr A. Sabra. Medical Ethics: Knowledge about Confidentiality among Medical University Students, Eastern Province Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):299-304]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.37

 

Keywords: Perceived Stresses, Students, Physical Health, Mental Health, Life Style, Saudi Arabia.

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Medication Adherence: A Comparative study between Institutionalized and Community Dwelling Elderly, Alexandria, Egypt

 

Heba Mahmoud El Kady1, Moataza M. Abdel Wahab2 and Noha Shawky Mostafa3

 

Departments of 1Family Health (Geriatric Health), 2Biostatistics and 3Tropical Health (Primary Health Care), High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

heba_elkady2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Older adults receive more prescriptions per-capita than any other group yet non adherence to prescribed medications is a major public health problem among them. This study aimed at comparing medication adherence among a group of institutionalized and community dwelling elderly in Alexandria. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out on 50 community dwelling elderly in Sokina village, a slum area in Alexandria and 50 institutionalized elderly randomly selected from two governmental elderly homes. The majority of the elders (76.6%) were adherent to their treatment regimen and adherence was better among institutionalized elders. The reasons mentioned for non adherence were mainly cost of medication, avoidance of side effects, forgetfulness and inaccessibility to purchase of medications. It is concluded that medication adherence is better among institutionalized elders. We recommend further research for non-studied determinants of non adherence, namely depression scores and perception of treatment benefits.

[Heba Mahmoud El Kady, Moataza M. Abdel Wahab and Noha Shawky Mustafa. Medication Adherence: A Comparative study between Institutionalized and Community Dwelling Elderly, Alexandria, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):305-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.38

 

Keywords: Medication adherence, institutionalized, community dwelling, elderly

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Acute Toxicity and Dependence of Tramadol in Albino Rats: Relationship of Nestin and Notch 1 as Stem Cell Markers

 

Rehab M. Samaka1, Naira Fahmi Girgis2, Tahany M. Shams3

 

Department of Pathology1, Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology2, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufyia University Department of Pathology3, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University

rehabsamaka@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tramadol, a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic is used worldwide. It is devoid of many serious adverse effects of traditional opioids. However, recently, abuse and dependence as well as toxicity and tramadol-related deaths have been increasingly reported. The researches that focus on the potential applications of stem cells (SCs), in drug screening and toxicology tests attract our attention to assess the expression of both Nestin and Notch 1 as stem cell markers in response to acute toxicity and dependence of tramadol in brain, lung and liver of albino rats. Our study includes sixty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I (control), group II (tramadol acute toxicity) and group III (tramadol dependent). Observed behavioral changes and manifestations were recorded. Surviving rats were sacrificed and autopsy was performed for all rats. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of both Nestin and Notch 1 in lung, brain and liver were carried out. Results: A significant direct correlation was observed between Nestin and Notch 1 scoring and localization in different studied groups (r = +0.95, P value <0.001). Both stem cell markers showed higher significant values in dependant group than the acute toxicity one (P<0.001). Additionally, highly significant relationship between expression of both Nestin and Notch 1 and the histopathological changes in brain, lung and liver whereas they are higher in dependence group related histopathologic changes than the acute toxicity group related histopathological changes. Apoptotic index in brain showed an inverse correlation with both Nestin H score and Notch 1 H score (r=-0.94, r=-0.88 respectively and P<0.001 for both). Therefore we conclude that stem cell markers are the main modulators of life saving as they re-expressed early in response to cell injury by toxicity and late in maintenance of cellular regeneration by playing crucial roles throughout the journey. Activation of Nestin and Notch 1 signaling in both acute and chronic tramadol toxicity groups might provide a molecular basis for potential protective and treatment strategies.

[Rehab M. Samaka, Naira Fahmi Girgis and Tahany M. Shams. Acute Toxicity and Dependence of Tramadol in Albino Rats: Relationship of Nestin and Notch 1 as Stem Cell Markers. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):313-327]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.39

 

Key words: Tramadol, stem cells, acute toxicity, LD50, dependence, Nestin, Notch 1, IHC

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Effect of Amlodipine and Trimetazidine on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

 

Mohamed Nabih Abdel-Rahman1 and Mahmoud Kandeel2,3

 

1Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelshiekh University, Kafrelshiekh, 33516 Egypt
3United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1193 Japan

dr_modyoyo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Gentamicin is one of the aminoglycoside antibiotics that is used for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. Its clinical use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Trimetazidine is a cytoprotector agent whose site of action, mechanism and chronological order of effect are not yet well known. Amlodipine is one of calcium channel blockers that plays an important role in treatment of hypertension. Objective: To study the effect of each of amlodipine and trimetazidine alone and in combination on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: 50 albino rats were divided into 5 equal groups: Control untreated group, Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity group, Amlodipine + Gentamicin treated group, Trimetazidine + Gentamicin treated group, Amlodipine + Trimetazidine + Gentamicin treated group. Blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, urinary N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminidase, urinary protein, renal tissue malondialdehyde, tissue superoxide dismutase, tissue nitric oxide, tissue nitric oxide synthase, tissue reduced glutathione and mitochondrial complex I activity were determined. Kidneys were excised for histopathological examination. Results: Administration of trimetazidine or amlodipine alone or in combination induced significant increase in creatinine clearance, tissue superoxide dismutase, tissue reduced glutathione and mitochondrial complex I activity with significant decrease in blood urea, serum creatinine, urinary gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, urinary N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminidase, urinary protein, tissue nitric oxide, tissue nitric oxide synthase and tissue malondialdehyde with improvement of the histopathological picture compared to gentamicin treated group. Conclusion: Gentamicin generated renal tubular toxicity by inducing the formation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, producing renal tubular inflammation and necrosis and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. It also demonstrated the renoprotective effect of each of amlodipine and trimetazidine alone and its additive antioxidant and cytoprotector effect in combination against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

[Mohamed Nabih Abdel-Rahman, and Mahmoud Kandeel. Effect of Amlodipine and Trimetazidine on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity In Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):328-335]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.40

 

Key words: amlodipine; trimetazidine; gentamicin; nephrotoxicity; rats.

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Avian Influenza practices among rural community in Egypt

 

Reem Bassiouny El Lassy and Elham Hassan Tawfik

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

reembass@yahoo.com, elhamelnaggar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Avian influenza (AI) is currently a threat to global health. Prevention and control largely depend on population awareness and behavior. Aim of study: is to assess practices among rural community related to avian influenza. Material and Methods: Descriptive design, using an interviewing questionnaire and observational checklist, was conducted in Damanhour, Kafr EL-Dooar and Abo El-Matameer Cities. Results: Of the total 210, the entire sample was dealing with poultry; the mean age of the total studied sample was 40 years. The entire sample was females as the common performance of backyard farming in Egypt managed by females, nearly three quarter (74.8%) of the studied houses had birds shed outside the house, half of the studied houses (50.5%) separated the different types of birds, less than half of the studied houses (47.6%) was clean the bird shed and well-ventilated. Nearly all the studied houses (94.3%) had ceiling of shed. Less than three quarter of houses (72.4%) had presence of birds in cages into the shed. The observed practices in this study include monitoring one of the procedures of participant when dealing with poultry; (shed cleaning, dealing with eggs, dealing with dead birds, slaughtering and cooking). The present study shows that more than half of the studied houses had fair score regarding the observed practices. Less than three quarter of the study group (72.9%) heard about avian flu (AF) information from television; few mentioned other sources (e.g., school, doctors, nurses, relatives, neighbors). Regarding total knowledge score, 49.0% of the studied sample had poor scoring. Conclusions and Recommendations: The level of community knowledge and practices about AI disease was fair. Therefore, designing and implementing health educational programs about AI to improve the community practices should have the priority to encourage people to take a more active role.

[Reem Bassiouny El Lassy and Elham Hassan Tawfik. Avian Influenza practices among rural community in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):336-347]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.41

 

Keywords: avian influenza, knowledge, practices, rural.

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Ankle Tuberculosis in Sohag University Hospital

 

Mona Fattouh ¹, Abdel Rahman Hafez ², Zeinab H. Ahmed³

 

Departments of ¹Medical Microbiology and Immunology, ²Orthopedic Surgery, ³Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

monarahman2002@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Isolated involvement of bone in tuberculous infection is uncommon, and the variable clinical and radiological features may mimic pyogenic osteomyelitis, bone tumor or other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the synovium. In this study we reported four male patients admitted at Sohag University Hospital during the period from January 2009 to January 2012 with isolated tuberculous ankle arthritis. All patients underwent physical examination, routine laboratory tests, plain radiographs, and a biopsy of the infection site for culture on Lowenstein Jensen medium and for histopathological examination. Laboratory findings of the four patients were; an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and positive C-reactive protein (CRP). The most common radiologic findings of the affected joints were that of juxta-articular osteoporosis, narrowing of the joint space and subchondral cysts. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of bone biopsy which demonstrated caseating granulomas and tissue culture yielded growth of tuberculous bacilli. The patients made full recovery on anti-tuberculous treatment and arthrodesis of the ankle joints. In conclusion; osteoarticular tuberculosis can be difficult to diagnose as only about one third of patients have respiratory symptoms. So, when a patient presents with a localized, painful swelling of the ankle, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Additionally, we highly recommend taking a biopsy of the site of suspected infection because an early diagnosis is the key to successful treatment.

[Mona Fattouh, Abdel Rahman Hafez and Zeinab H. Ahmed Diagnosis and Treatment of Ankle Tuberculosis in Sohag University Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):348-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.42

 

Keywords: Ankle, Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Treatment.

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Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients?

 

Amal S. Bakir and Zainab A. Ali-Eldin

 

Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

http://www.jofamericanscience.org; amalshawky_mb@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy of the hepatocyte. The primary risk factors for HCC are viral hepatitis and chronic alcohol abuse. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has been previously reported to be associated with HCC, insufficient data is available regarding the association between DM and HCC in Egypt. This work evaluated DM as a risk factor for HCC in Egyptian population. Design: Cross sectional study. Methods and material: This study was conducted on 300 patients divided into 3 groups. Group Ι: 100 consecutive patients with HCC, Group ΙΙ: 100 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis), Group ΙΙI: 100 patients admitted with acute illness matched to group I and II regarding age and gender. All patients were subjected to a comprehensive clinical assessment, laboratory investigations including: fasting and 2 hours post prandial blood sugar, serum alpha fetoprotein, hepatitis B and C viral markers, glycated hemoglobin, abdominal ultrasound, triphasic abdominal spiral computed tomography and liver biopsy if needed. Statistical analysis used: The following statistical tests were used: independent t-test, Mann Whiteny test, Chi square x2 test and spearman correlations rho test. Results: The frequency of DM was higher in the HCC (38%) and the cirrhotic patients (38%) compared with the controls (22%) (p=0.014). There was a significant positive correlation between duration of DM and number and size of hepatic focal lesions (p=0.042, p=0.031 respectively).

[Amal S. Bakir and Zainab A. Ali-Eldin. Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients? J Am Sci 2012;8(6):353-358]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.43

 

Key words: HCC, DM, hepatic focal lesion, risk factor.

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The Role of Intuitive and Life-related Activities in Improving Teaching of Geometry in Primary School

 

Molouk Habibi

 

Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran

moloukhabibi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents a set of activities to improve geometrical intuition in students and also to help them in understanding the application of geometry in real life. The main problem of teaching geometry by following traditional methods is that it is usually difficult for students to make connections between geometrical concepts and real life. This reduces the motivation of students and consequently causes their lack of success in learning geometry in primary and higher educational levels. The students can achieve deeper understanding of geometrical concepts when they are introduced with structural connections of these concepts and real life situations. Also, understanding the space and the space communication is an important factor in learning geometry and helps the students in visualizing their ideas. Having a profound understanding of geometrical principals is possible by using intuitive, applied, and visual activities which are followed by engaging in activities for creating and developing the space impressions. In this paper, we present a number of activities such as tiling, modeling, and knots which represent the relationship between geometry and life. Also some activities for developing the intuitive ability and imagination of students are introduced.

[Molouk Habibi. The Role of Intuitive and Life-related Activities in Improving Teaching of Geometry in Primary School. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):359-366]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.44

 

Keywords: Visualization; Motivation; Constructivism theory; Van Hiele model; Intuition

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Development of TLC- Densitometeric Method Used for Quantitative Estimation of Some Natural Pharmaceutical Preparations in Egyptian Market

 

Abeer Temraz and Dina El-naggar

 

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy For Girls, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

dinaelnaggar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Phytopharmaceuticals and dietary supplements are launched into the market without proper scientific evaluation. In this study, TLC-densitometric method was developed for the quantitative estimation of L-Carnitine capsules and syrup, Kellagon capsules which contain (Ammi visnaga and Cymbopogon proximus extracts) in Egyptian market. L-carnitine Rf was 0.47 using mobile phase: chloroform: methanol: formic acid: water [65:65:4:4 v/v/v/v] with double development, spots intensities were measured by densitometry at λmax = 500 nm. The assay of L-Carnitine capsules was 383.25 mg/capsule (109.5%) and of L-Carnitine syrup was 289.5 mg/ml syrup (96.5%). Both khellin and proximadiol was chosen as markers for quantitative estimation of Ammi visnaga and Cymbopogon proximus extracts respectively. Khellin Rf was 0.39 using mobile phase: chloroform: methanol [99:1 v/v] and the spots were measured at λmax = 440 nm. Proximadiol Rf was 0.18 using mobile phase: chloroform: methanol [95:5 v/v], measured at λmax = 530 nm. The assay of Kellagon capsules yielded 6.6 mg khellin /Capsule and 0.44 mg proximadiol /Capsule.

The method was validated and showed accuracy, selectivity and precision, hence can be used for a routine quality-control analysis and simultaneous quantitative determinations.

[Abeer Temraz and Dina El-naggar. Development of TLC- Densitometeric Method Used for Quantitative Estimation of Some Natural Pharmaceutical Preparations in Egyptian Market. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):367-371]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.45

 

Key words: Khellin, L-carnitine, proximadiol, TLC-Densitometer

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Tissue Expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and p53 in Oral Squameous Cell Carcinoma Patients

 

1Ahmed Khafagy and 2Manal El-Mahdy

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

ahmedkhafaagy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To determine tissue expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and p53 in specimens of pathologically documented oral squameous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in comparison to specimens of normal healthy oral tissue. Patients & Methods: The study included 24 patients; 18 males and 6 females with mean age of 60.7±10.1 years. Seventeen patients had tongue lesion, 4 had mouth floor lesion and 3 had buccal mucosa lesions. Mean diameter of lesions was 3.6±1.3; range: 1.2-5.2 cm. All patients underwent full history taking, complete clinical examination and grading according to American Joint Committee of Cancer and underwent preliminary biopsy taking for confirmation of diagnosis and to grade the degree of tumor differentiation. All patients underwent surgical resection with safety margin and the resected specimens were examined immunohistochemically for nuclear staining for p53 and cytoplasmic staining for iNOS. Results: Fourteen specimens were positive, while 10 negative for iNOS; 8 specimens stained positive were of pathological grade I, 5 specimens were grade II and only one specimen was of grade III with significantly higher frequency of positivity for iNOS among specimens of grade I. Six specimens of patients had nodal involvement were stained positive for iNOS, while the other 2 specimens of patients had nodal involvement were stained negative for iNOS with significantly higher frequency of positive staining for iNOS among patients had nodal involvement and a positive significant correlation between nodal involvement and positive staining for iNOS. Thirteen specimens of those iNOS positive were positive for p53, 8 specimens were negative for both proteins, while one specimen positive for iNOS was negative for p53. Conclusion: Overexpression of both iNOS and p53 is a concomitant finding in tissues of OSCC and positively correlated with each other and with nodal involvement and thus mostly indicate unfavorable prognosis.

[Ahmed Khafagy and Manal El-Mahdy. Tissue Expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and p53 in Oral Squameous Cell Carcinoma Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):372-378]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.46

 

Keywords: inducible nitric oxide synthase, p53, tissue staining, oral squameous cell carcinoma

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Heavy Metals Contamination in Roadside Dust along Major Roads and Correlation with Urbanization Activities in Cairo, Egypt

 

Nasser M. Abdel-Latif* and Inas A. Saleh

 

Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*nabdellatif@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Heavy metal concentrations in roadside dusts are increasingly becoming of health concern. Street dust samples were collected from 46 sites representing different activities across the big city and analysed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Cr, As, Ag and V. Size fraction of <125 µm, represented the greatest contribution of dust in residential, traffic roads and industrial areas, while coarse particles fraction (>200 µm) was the greatest portion of dust in rural sites. Metal concentrations indicated that roadside dust contained elevated levels of heavy metals and varied across Cairo districts. Concentrations of metals in fine fraction of <125 µm were greater than those in coarse fraction. Compared with residential and rural areas, metals concentrations in the dust were higher in traffic roads and industrial areas. Zinc and lead were the most available metals in both dust fractions from all areas. The correlation and ANOVA analysis confirmed the contribution of anthropogenic sources, traffic and industrial emissions, to metal levels in road dust in Cairo. Furthermore, size fraction and dominant urban activity are the main factors controlling metals concentrations in road dust. The contamination levels of the heavy metals in the road dust were evaluated on the basis of contamination factor (Cf), the degree of contamination (Cd), index of geo-accumulation (Igeo), ecological risk factor (Er) and the potential ecological risk index (RI). The contamination factors (Cf) revealed that road dust is highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, Cd, As and V than that contaminated by Ni, Cr, Co and Ag. These results are confirmed by the very high degree of contamination, particularly at traffic roads and industrial areas. Calculated Igeo indicated that there is a moderate to heavy Pb, Zn and Cd pollution which mainly originated from traffic and industrial activities. Potential ecological risk indexes (RI) further indicated that Cairo was suffering from serious metal contamination. Pb and Cd presented higher ecological risks than any other metals, followed by V and Zn with a moderate potential risk. These results are important for the development of proper management strategies to decrease non-point source pollution by various remediation ways.

[Nasser M. Abdel-Latif and Inas A. Saleh. Heavy Metals Contamination in Roadside Dust along Major Roads and Correlation with Urbanization Activities in Cairo, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):379-389]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.47

 

Keywords: Cairo; Road dust; Heavy metals; Pollution indices; Potential risk

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Pulping potential of Ricinus communis stems from Sudan

 

1Safaa Hassan Omer, 2Tarig Osman Khider* 3Osman Taha Elzaki

 

1University of Bahri- College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Khartoum, Sudan

E-mail: safaho@yahoo.ca

2 University of Bahri- College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, Khartoum, Sudan*

E-mail: tarigosmankhider@gmail.com

3 Cellulose Chemistry and Technology Research Unit National Centre of Research, Khartoum, Sudan

E-mail: osmantaha2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ricinus communis stems were examined for its suitability for pulping and papermaking. The physical properties, fibre dimensions, morphological indices, chemical characteristics and metal profile of raw material were reported. The pulping trails were carried out using ASAM, AS-AQ, soda-AQ methods and soda process as reference. The AS-AQ pulping gave the best results in yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical properties. When Ricinus communis cooked with soda-AQ, it showed increased yield and gave pulps with superior properties than soda especially with 0.1% AQ dose.

[Safaa Hassan Omer, Tarig Osman Khider and Osman Taha Elzaki. Pulping potential of Ricinus communis stems from Sudan. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):390-395]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.48

 

Keywords: Ricinus communis; Papermaking; Pulp properties; Fibre morphology; Chemical composition; Alkaline Pulping with additives

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Sociological explanation of inclination to superstitions (Case Study: Isfahan and suburb villages)

 

Alireza Kaldi1, Maryam Karimi Ramsheh2

 

1. Department of Sociology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran.

2. PhD Student in Sociology, Department of Sociology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran.

karimi_r20@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the sociologists’ interests is superstitions, reasons and its prevalence in the society. The word “superstition” is singular form of “superstitions”. Its meaning is dementia and also false story; in other words it is action or belief which is not in conformity with wisdom. Connotatively, superstations are false news, actions and beliefs. Therefore, superstitions are non-scientific and Anti-logic news, beliefs, thoughts, habits and actions.This article has a glance on superstitions, sociologically. We tried to describe the reasons of inclination to superstitions from the view point of sociology. Prevalence of superstitions in African mythology as a result of traditional, non-scientific system from viewpoint of Horton (Jahouda, 1992, pp. 185-186); the role of little literacy in worker class from viewpoint of Hugart (same source, p. 241); the relationship between occupation, income and people thoughts from viewpoint of Sugarmann (Alaviyoun, 1994; pp. 76-77) and finally, the spirit of inclination to destiny and superstations in farmers class from viewpoint of Ragers (Rafiee, 2003; p.35) are among theories which have been analyzed in this article. This study found that inclination to superstitions in statistical population is less than average. We have two hypotheses: (1) inclination to superstitions in Isfahan is less than villages of Southern Baraan. (2) Inclination to superstitions in villages of Southern Baraan is less than villages of Outer jarghouyeh. The study confirmed our hypotheses. This study showed that inclination to superstitions in women is more than men. The results showed that the more education level and the stronger socio-economic status, the less inclination to superstitions. In other words, there is a reverse relationship between these two variables. Usage of media as one of study variables has a reverse and significant relationship with inclination to superstitions. Fatalism and religiosity are among variables which have direct and significant relationship with inclination to superstitions. (However, fatalism has string relationship with superstitions but there is weaker relationship with religiosity and inclination to superstitions). Modernism as a variable has a reverse and significant relationship with inclination to superstitions.

[Alireza Kaldi, Maryam Karimi Ramsheh. Sociological explanation of inclination to superstitions (Case Study: Isfahan and suburb villages). J Am Sci 2012;8(6):396-401]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.49

 

Keywords: superstitions, thought, Cognition Sociology, sociological description, social condition, socio-economic status

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The rate of prevalence and causes of sport injuries in elite males Pankration players

 

Maghsoud Peeri 1*, Mohammad Hassan Boostani 2, Mohammad Ali Boostani 3, Mohammad Ali Kohanpour 4, Ali Mohammad Rezaei 5

 

1,4 Department of Exercise Physiology, faculty of physical education and sports sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2, 3 Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Branch - Young Researchers Club, Iran

5 Department of psychology, faculty of psychology, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Branch, Fars, Iran

Corresponding author; Email: mpeeri@iauctb.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of prevalence and causes of sport injuries in elite males Pankration players in the national team. Methods: To this end 28 men pankration with mean age 23.6 ± 3.1 years, weight 78.4 ± 7.4 kg, 179.7 ± 3.5 cm, and the sport experience 10.3 ± 2.9 years, participated in this study. The subjects had several phases of choice to the final stages of camp were invited and ready to attend the World Pankration Championships in Bulgaria (2010). The data in this study was based on three different close questionnaires; the first part of the personal characteristics, championship records and experiments, the second part was related to pankration performers sport injuries including strain, sprain, bone and skin and the third section consisted of the probable reasons of injuries occurrence, preparation test, first aids types, action after injury, rehabilitation and type of injury in the injured limb. Each sportsman should mark the number of his injuries during a year in the related columns. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods (chi-square test) were used in data analysis. Results: The results showed that muscular injuries (48.7%) were significantly more than other injuries (c2=139.6, p=0.012). Also, injuries in lower limb organic (39%) were significantly more than other body parts (c2=119.5, p=0.02). Moreover, the results showed that the most injuries included trauma (29.2%), sprain (13.3%) and muscle contusion (10.6%) (c2=211.5, p=0.007). Improper warning up (25.9%), injuries per partner (23.5%) and high pressure (21%) were the most injuries reasons. Also, the most important mechanism of injury incidence was related to opponent's kick and punches blow (60.8%), athlete kick and punch (21.5%) and fall down to the ground (17.7%). Conclusion: With correction of present rules and regulations, controlling blow, decreasing wrong blow, improving coaches and athletes awareness of the prevailing injuries in this sport, according to the duration of rest to recover energy reserves lost during training and competition, increase muscle strength sport pankration suit, warm up body before practice and competition, along with the use of protective equipment and safety can be more than many in the sport reduce injuries.

[Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammad Hassan Boostani, Mohammad Ali Boostani, Mohammad Ali Kohanpour, Ali Mohammad Rezaei. The rate of prevalence and causes of sport injuries in elite males Pankration players. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):402-407]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.50

 

Keywords: Pankration players, Sport medicine, Sport injuries, Athletes.

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Evaluation of Different Modalities for Prevention of Esophageal Varices Recurrence

 

Mohamed M. Abdel-Aal, Sahar G. Zaghloul, Mahmoud A. Ashour and Hoda Abdel-aziz El-hady

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

kamel_ashour2025@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Esophageal varices are present in 30% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and up to 60% of those with decompensated cirrhosis, Band ligation is the method of choice although injection therapy still has a role in acute bleeding. However varices frequently recur after endoscopic variceal ligation. In view of the unacceptable high rate of recurrence associated with this technique, the availability of other supplemental consolidation therapies is desired. Aim of work: To evaluate and compare different therapeutic approaches used as consolidation therapy including argon plasma coagulator, injection sclerotherapy and B-blockade for their efficacy in prevention of variceal recurrence, recurrent bleeding and complications after eradication by band ligation. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients presented with 1st attack of upper GIT bleeding, after history taking and physical examination, band ligation of varices was done till obliteration where the patients were classified into 3 groups; group I (20 patients) received argon plasma; group II (20 patients) received paravariceal sclerotherapy with ethanolamine and group III (20 patients) received propranolol. All patients were followed up for 1 year with endoscopy performed every 3 months to check for variceal recurrence. Results: Argon plasma coagulation had the least recurrence rate as compared to other groups (P <0.001) with no significant difference between them as regards time of recurrence or recurrent bleeding (P > 0.05). there was no significant difference between Child's A and B class regarding recurrence. The recurrence was statistically related to P.V diameter in groups I&III (P=0.003&0.008), and number of setting in group I (P =0.02). No significant increase in PHG occurred with argon plasma in comparison with other groups (P=0.03). Retro-sternal pain and dysphagia significantly occurred in groups I&II; fever significantly occurred in group I while exertional dypsnea occurred in group III. Conclusion: Argon plasma coagulation is a safe and effective consolidation therapy following band ligation in prevention of variceal recurrence, recurrent bleeding in comparison with paravariceal sclerotherapy with ethanolamine oleate and use of beta blockers therapy, but is relatively expensive method.

[Mohamed M. Abdel-Aal, Sahar G. Zaghloul, Mahmoud A. Ashour and Hoda Abdel-aziz El-hady. Evaluation of Different Modalities for Prevention of Esophageal Varices Recurrence. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):408-416]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.51

 

Key Words: Argon plasma coagulation, paravariceal sclerotherapy, esophageal varices, beta blockers.

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Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Fentanyl Patches on Postoperative Pain Relief after Major Abdominal Surgery

 

Samy A. Amr, Mostafa G. Mostafa, and Mohamed A.M. Mostafa

 

Department of Anesthesia, ICU & Pain Management, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, Egypt.

saaerfan62@yahoo.com.ph

 

Abstract: A double blind study was carried out on 100 adult ASA grade I/II patients to evaluate efficacy and safety of transdermal fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, group I (n=50) each patient received transdermal therapeutic system-fentanyl 50µg/h [TDF group], and group II (n=50) each patient received transdermal placebo patch [C group ]. All patches were placed 10 hours preoperatively and covered with adhesive plaster to confirm fixation and to blind the anesthetists and observers for the type of the used patches. Surgery were done under general anesthesia and i.v. morphine were given once patients start to first experienced pain postoperatively. The two groups did not differ significantly as regard age, weights, sex, duration of surgery or anesthesia and hemodynamic parameters throughout the period of the study (48 hours). Pain intensity was lower in TDF group than C group in the immediate postoperative period and at 12th to 48th hours. Percentage of patients with normal postoperative O2 saturation were higher in TDF group than C group (P<0.000), in both groups no patient suffered from severe hypoxia ( O2 saturation < 90%). First time of i.v. morphine administration was short in C group as compared to TDF group, (0.7±0.3hour Vs 1.7±5.8hour, P=0.003). Frequency and total morphine consumption were significantly higher in C group than TDF group (P<0.000). Intraoperative fentanyl consumption was also higher in C group (250.3±35.7) as compared with TDF group (118.2±19.1). Nausea and vomiting were lower in TDF group (32%) than C group (62%),( P<0.05), and no other side effects were observed in the two groups. Conclusion: Transdermal fentanyl patch 50µg/h is an effective non invasive and can be used safely for postoperative pain relief in major abdominal surgery with minimal acceptable side effects.

[Samy A. Amr, Mostafa G. Mostafa, And Mohamed A.M. Mostafa. Efficacy and Safety of Transdermal Fentanyl Patches on Postoperative Pain Relief After Major Abdominal Surgery. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):417-424]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.52

 

Key words: Transdermal fentanyl, Postoperative pain, Major surgery.

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Polyester Water Textured Yarns Examined by a Scanning Electrical Microscope

 

Amr E. Allam

 

Dyeing Printing and Finishing Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Ahmed Zweil st. Orman, Giza, Egypt. amreaallam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: At the University of Manchester some work was done on yarn texturing using a new method of water twisting in order to replace the ordinary friction disc method. Such a new method would be considered an innovation in both yarn texturing and yarn finishing processes. The work done early, at the University of Manchester, proved that water jet twisting would produce yarns of better bulk and dyeing properties. Steam is the key word in such process, it not only helped to provide relatively better bulk yarn than conventional heating methods but also it help to produce better dyed yarns. This piece of work looks at the produced dyed yarns using the scanning electron microscope (S. E. M) as a visual way to asses such process. The scanning process showed that steam heater had an edge on conventional heating methods. It allowed producing textured yarns with bulk results at relatively high speeds. The results also showed that due to the use of steam good dyeing results were achieved. Steam ensures adequate heat energy that would produce new inner spaces that is created during the heating stage and is fixed during the cooling stage. In addition when using water for cooling and twisting it seems that water works as a caution for the running yarn that limits its damage compared to friction disc texturing process, which could also be the reason behind reaching high speeds.

[Amr E. Allam. Scanning Electrical Microscope Results. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):425-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.53

 

Keywords: Yarn texturing – water jet texturing – polyester yarn dyeing – bulk yarn – steam jet heater – contact heater – scanning electron microscope

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Image in Farzaneh Khojandi's Poems

 

SOHEILA HOSSEINI, AHMAD MANSOURIRAZI

 

Farhangian University

 

Abstract: Although the creation of a poem is not related to the image, image is one of the most significant factors of a poem. Some of the contemporary poets have been more interested in the image factor in their poems. Their efforts have resulted in modernism, and have created new images in their poems. The writer of this article has discussed the issue of image in the beginning, and then talks over forming the images processes. In the furtherance, the writer talks about identical characteristics of image wingers. Through introducing Tajikistan literature and especially Farzaneh Khojandi, the author states new and modern images of her poems, and introduces her as an image winger poet.

[SOHEILA HOSSEINI, AHMAD MANSOURIRAZI. Image in Farzaneh Khojandi's Poems. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):430-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.54

 

Keywords: Image, pictorialism, nature, color, tone, personification, symbol

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Maternal and Neonatal Effects of Adding Two Different Doses of Intrathecal Magnesium Sulphate to Bupivacain Fentanyl Spinal Anesthesia in Mild Preeclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section

 

Jehan Ahmed Sayed1 and Mohamed Amir Fathy2

 

1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

jehan.alloul@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Background:Magnesium sulfate (Mg) is an antagonist of N-methyl D Aspartate receptor (NMDA) which improves postoperative analgesia after intrathecal administration for caesarean section helping decrease morbidity, improve patient outcome and facilitates care of the newborn. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the analgesic efficacy and the maternal and neonatal safety of adding two low doses of intrathecal magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine fentanyl in mild preeclamptic patients undergoing caesarean section. Method:By using a double-blinded study design, 60 patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing caesarean section were randomly divided into three groups all received spinal anesthesia with 2ml 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25 g fentanyl either with 1ml preservative free saline in the control group (GC) or 0.5ml of 10% magnesium sulpate (50mg) in the magnesium Group 1(GM1) or 1 ml of 10% magnesium sulphate (100 mg) in the magnesium 2 group (GM2). The characteristic of spinal anesthesia (onset and recovery of sensory and motor block and duration of spinal anesthesia), visual analoge scale (VAS), total analgesic consumption, incidence of adverse effects and neonatal outcome (Apgar score and umbilical pH) were recorded for 24hrs after administration of study drugs. Results: The time taken for the block to reach T4 sensory level and time to complete motor block were slower in the magnesium groups compared to control group. Women who received magnesium had greater duration for sensory and motor block. The duration of spinal anesthesia (540.50 VS 359.00 VS 178.00(min)was longest in the (GM2), next longest in the (GM1), and least in (GC). VAS score was significantly lower with reduction of total analgesic consumption in groups M1 M2 compared to control group with better potentiation of analgesia in M2 group that showed lowest reduction compared to other two groups. Apgar score was satisfied in all neonates and similar incidence of side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, sedation, nausea and vomiting) found among the three groups. There was a significant reduction in shivering among women received intrathecals magnesium (P> 0.05). Conclusion: Our study showed that intrathecal magnesium sulphate (50 mg or 100 mg) enhanced bupivacaine fentanyel spinal anesthesia and produced prolonged postoperative analgesia with a greater potentiation in the 100 mg magnesium dose without producing more maternal or neonatal adverse effects.

[Jehan Ahmed Sayedand Mohamed Amir Fathy. Maternal and Neonatal Effects of Adding Two Different Doses of Intrathecal Magnesium Sulphate to Bupivacain Fentanyl Spinal Anesthesia in Mild Preeclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):435-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.55

 

Keywords: magnesium sulphate; NMDA antagonist; mild preeclampsia; spinal anesthesia; caesarean delivery

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Impact of Hospital Organizational Culture on Patient Safety Management from the Perspective of Nurses and Physicians in Selected Hospitals

 

Abeer, M. Seada

 

Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt

abeerseada@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Healthcare organizational culture is a critical factor in the development of its patient safety climate and in the successful implementation of quality improvement initiatives. Hospitals vary in organizational culture, and the type of culture relates to patient safety management within the hospital. This study aims to investigate the impact of hospital organizational culture on patient safety management from the perspective of nurses and physicians in selected hospitals. Descriptive, correlational and comparative design was utilized in this study. Study was conducted in two hospitals affiliated with private sector, and two hospitals affiliated with governmental sector. A convenient sample of both nurses and physicians (140) who were working in the selected hospitals were constitute the study sample. Data were collected through utilizing two tools, the first is the organizational culture questionnaire used to measure the type of organizational culture. The second tool is patient safety management questionnaire; it explores how respondents perceived reality toward the aspect of patient safety measures in the hospitals they are working in. Results of the present study conclude that: overall, developmental culture and group (team work) culture were found to have significant positive correlations with patient safety management and therefore they are better aligned for patient safety management. While both rational and hierarchical cultures were found to have significant negative correlations with patient safety management and they are less favorable to patient safety management. Statistical significant difference between dominant organizational cultures in both private and governmental hospitals. In addition, significant differences between physicians and nurses mean scores regarding their perception of organizational culture as physicians had higher scores on group culture when compared with nurses. Based on study findings the researcher recommends that: in developing and promoting patient safety both developmental culture and group culture should be cultivated to aid the introduction of the patient safety management. Results support the strategies that promote group orientation and reduced hierarchy, including uses of multidisciplinary team training, continuous quality improvement tools, and human resource practices and policies.

[Abeer Mohamed Seada. Impact of Hospital Organizational Culture on Patient Safety Management from the Perspective of Nurses and Physicians in Selected Hospitals. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):442-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.56

 

Keywords: organizational culture, patient safety management, private and governmental hospitals

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Assessment of the Outcome of the Infragenicular Balloon Angioplasty for Limb Salvage in Patients with Critical Lower Limb Ischaemia (Cli)

 

Abdelaziz Abd Allah Abulela

 

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine for Girls - Al Azhar University

alnour2508@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty in patients suffering from infragenicular arterial diseases in patients with critical lower limb ischaemia. Patients and methods: From March 2008 to June 2011, 32 patients with critical lower limb ischaemia (40 infragenicular lesions) were treated by percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty, clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptoms assessement, Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) and duplex scanning at discharge and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after angioplasty. Results: 40 lower limb arterial lesions (Infragenicular) in 32 patients presented with critical lower limb ischaemia were treated by balloon angioplasty, the age of the patients range from 50 to 72 years (mean age 61 years), the period of follow up range from 12 to 24 months, the primary patency rates were 95%, 87.5%, 80%, 70% and 65% at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months respectively, while the limb salvage rates were 95%, 95%, 90%, 85% and 80% at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months respectively. Conclusion: Primary infragenicular balloon angioplasty for limb salvage in patients presented with critical lower limb ischaemia represents an efficacious method to improve wound healing if present and to improve rest pain taking into consideration the fragile nature and co-morbidities in such patients.

[Abdelaziz Abd Allah Abulela. Assessment of the Outcome of the Infragenicular Balloon Angioplasty for Limb Salvage in Patients with Critical Lower Limb Ischaemia (Cli). J Am Sci 2012;8(6):450-455]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.57

 

Keywords: Below knee vessels, endovascular surgery, patency rates.

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Evaluation of Percutaneous Insertion of Caval Filters (Indications and Complications)

 

Abdelaziz Abd Allah Abulela

 

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine for Girls - Al Azhar University

alnour2508@yahoo.com

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous insertion of vena caval filters in different indications and also to assess the complications of vena caval filters. Patients and methods: During the period between Aug. 2009 and Dec. 2011, twenty vena caval filters were inserted in twenty patients at high risk of pulmonary embolism or with contraindications to anticoagulation, percutaneous transfemoral approach was used in all patients under local anaesthesia, pre and post deployment duplex scan was performed. Results: Twenty vena caval filters were inserted in 20 patients at high risk of pulmonary embolism or with contraindications to anticoagulation. All caval filters were inserted, only one case faced technical failure (5%) so the technical success was 95%, two patients died within two months after filter insertion due to unrelated causes, the other patients were followed up for a median time of 14 months (range from 4 to 24 months), filter migration above renal veins was detected in one patient (5%) and groin haematoma in another patient (5%). Conclusion: Vena caval filters represent an important weapon in every clinician for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), these devices are implanted in patients at high risk for life- threatening pulmonary embolism (PE) or for whom the anticoagulation therapy is ineffective or contraindicated. The filters either permanent (permanent filters) or with intent to remove them (retrievable filters).

[Abdelaziz Abd Allah Abulela. Evaluation of Percutaneous Insertion of Caval Filters (Indications and Complications). J Am Sci 2012;8(6):456-461]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.58

 

Keywords: Assessment, endovascular surgery, technical success, migration.

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Mapping a Six Phase Lifecycle Model of SOA Governance and ITIL v3.0

 

Azad Shojaei1, Soma shahvaysi 2

 

1 Department of computer, saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, saqhez, Iran.

2 MSC student of computer science majoring in software, Islamic Azad University, saveh science and research branch

info@shojayi.com

 

Abstract: Movement of Organization to Service Oriented Architecture had those used advantages such as expense reduction by reuse, better unity by standardization and new Business Opportunity by agility. Therefore, Failure of SOA projects is expected, unless organization architecture is managed correctly. There are different model to implementation SOA Governance. One of the models considered is a six-phase lifecycle of SOA Governance. As core of Service Oriented Architecture is service. SOA governance, therefore, focuses on service management. On the other hand, ITIL v3.0 focuses on activities related to creation and service management with reuse ability. By considering service importance in these two areas and by achieving more impressive management and governance on an organization, the new map of SOA governance with ITIL v3.0 has been introduced. So that considers more details for Identification, creation and management of services. Mapping six phases of SOA governance and five phases of ITIL v3.0 are done to improve organization governance by combination of phases and processed connected to any phase in any step of map. So that towards previous work, the purpose as accurate and detailed Investigates, in order to Resolve some weaknesses in SOA governance.

[Azad Shojaei and Soma shahvaysi. Mapping a Six Phase Lifecycle Model of SOA Governance and ITIL v3.0. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):462-467]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.59

 

Key words: IT governance, SOA governance, ITIL v3.0 framework, service.

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The role of Omega 3 on some biochemical, Histological and mRNA expression of PPAR α in rats

 

Bughdadi, F

 

Dean of University College Umm Al-Qura Univ. Makkah – Saudi Arabia

Husseinheshmat43@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to illustrate the effect of EPA Omega-3 on lipogram, glucose, histology and mRNA expression of PPARα in the liver of rats. Two groups of albino rats (n = 24) were equally divided to control and treated. Blood and liver samples were collected before and after the injection of fish oil. Blood and liver samples were prepared and stored after sacrificing the rats. The results indicated a significant decrease in cholesterol, TG, LDL and glucose, while HDL was significantly increased. Fish oil injection revealed no change in histological picture of the liver and the mRNA expression of PPARα increased significantly. In conclusion, the biochemical data was found that EPA possess a hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect, also EPA has no harmful effect on the liver, the increased expression of PPARα in liver after EPA injection may explain the role of omega-3 as hypolipidemic effect and suppression the lipid synthesis in the liver.

[BUGHDADI, F. The role of Omega 3 on some biochemical, Histological and mRNA expression of PPAR α in rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):468-474]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.60

 

Keywords: fish oil, lipogram, glucose, mRNA expression of PPARα, rats

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Plato's Problem: Word of truth and Word of untruth

Apology: a starting point of the problem

 

Pari Sousahabi 1, eza Davari Ardakani 2

 

1. Phd in western philosophy, Islamic Azad University Science and Research branch, Philosophy Department, Tehran, Iran.

2. Phd in western philosophy, Islamic Azad University Science and Research branch, Philosophy Department, Tehran, Iran.

Pari_sousahabi@yahoo.com. rdavari@ias.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Accepting Gadamer’s words, Philosophy begins with Plato’s coherent works and that all philosophers have benefited from his works to present their thoughts throughout the history of philosophy. Yet it seems that a crucial point in Plato's works has been neglected even though he himself has paid attention to it and it would be word of truth and word of untruth. What is word of truth? What is the Wrong word? Who is the speaker of the word of truth? Who is the speaker of word of untruth? What are the characteristics of each one? During the last two thousand and five hundred years, philosophers have not paid proper attention to the subject, whereas it seems to be more fundamental and significant than it is at the first sight to such an extent that one could consider it as Plato’s main problem. During fifty years of his life he scribed more than thirty works concerning this problem. This article tries to illustrate Plato's problems/concerns particularly in his earlier writings. This is an excerpt from my doctoral dissertation under the supervision of my honored professor doctor Reza Davari Ardakani.

[Pari Sousahabi Reza Davari Ardakani. Plato's Problem: Word of truth and Word of untruth - Apology: a starting point of the problem. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):475-478]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.61


Keywords:
word of trurh / honest, word of untruth, Socrates, Plato, the Public/common people

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American Women in Management: Opportunities and Constraints

 Shabnam Dadparvar1, Hosseinali Yarokhi Joshaghani2

1. MA in Regional Studies - University of Tehran, Iran
2. MA in Political Science - University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract: Although women's achievements are considered to prove their desirable conditions in western societies, especially in the United States, women entrepreneur complain about “glass ceiling” and other limitations that have traditionally worked to hinder their access to managerial positions. This paper seeks to show why women’s presence is lower than men at management level in the U.S. In this paper, descriptive-analytical method is used to examine factors leading to women’s lower presence. The factors are: different experiences of women and men socializations and their various consequences, gendered division of labor, and limited different professional networks among women.
[Shabnam Dadparvar, Hosseinali Yarokhi Joshaghani. American Women in Management: Opportunities and Constraints. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):479-489]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.62

Keywords: Women, economy, marketplace, economic elites, socialization

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[Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):490-501]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

Withdrawn

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Efficacy of Curcumin on Lead Induced- Nephrotoxicity in Female Albino Rats

Mervat H.Ghoniem1; Nabela I. El-Sharkawy1; Mohammed A. Hussein2 and Gihan G. Moustafa1

1Departments of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology and 2Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt
dr_mervathassan@yahoo.com

Abstract: Lead (Pb+2) toxicity remains a significant public health problem because of its global pervasiveness and its adverse effects on the renal system. Oxidative stress plays a key role in lead-induced nephrotoxicity. The aim of the present study to clarify the possible corrective role of curcumin on the nephrotoxicity of lead acetate. Thirty mature female albino rats (190 - 225 g) were randomly divided into equal five groups, first group received 500 mg lead acetate / L in drinking water, second group orally received 100 mg curcumin / Kg B. W. dissolved in 1% carboxymethyle cellulose 3 times a week, third group received lead acetate and curcumin as previously mentioned with regard to dose and route for each of them. Fourth and fifth groups were kept as positive and negative controls orally received 1% carboxymethyl cellulose dissolved in distilled water 3 times a week and drinking water daily for 2 months respectively. The results revealed that lead increased levels of serum urea and creatinine and renal MDA concentration but decreased renal antioxidant enzymes comparing with the control groups meanwhile, the co-treated group with lead and curcumin evoked a significant amelioration. There was a significant increase in the renal lead concentration which lowered after concomitant treatment with curcumin. The histopathological investigation confirmed the aforementioned findings. The study indicates that curcumin, an effective antioxidant, may have a protective effect against lead acetate exposure. The current study concluded that curcumin mitigate the nephrotoxic, oxidative, histopathological and residual impacts of lead acetate exposure however the detailed role of metallothionein in the nephrotoxicity mediated by co-exposure to lead and curcumin still remains to be elucidated.
[
Mervat H. Ghoniem; Nabela I. El-Sharkawy; Mohammed A. Hussein and Gihan G. Moustafa. Efficacy of Curcumin on Lead Induced Nephrotoxicity in Female Albino Rats. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(6): 502-510].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.64

Key words: Curcumin, Lead, Nephrotoxicity.

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Evaluation and Designation of Making Agricultural Waste Risk-Free System by Microwaves

Mehrdad Fouj Lali 1, Changiz Ghobadi 2, Masoud Amirkabiri Razian 3, Salar Amirkabiri Razian 4

1 MSc in Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery, Urmia University, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering Department of Urmia University
3 Electrical Engineering Department of Tabriz University
4 Electrical Engineering Department of Tabriz Azad University
Mehrdad.lali@gmail.com

Abstract: Nowadays, according to growing trend of agricultural production and consequently, increase of agricultural waste and their negative effects on environment, having a risk-free system gets a vital role in agriculture. Based on evaluations of WHO reports, approximately three million poisoning had occurred all over the world due to using overdose of pesticides in order to making risk-free waste. On the other hand, use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agricultural areas of Iran, have increased cancer growth in these areas. Because of importance of this issue, designation of waste risk-free systems with high efficiency became one of the main interests of researchers. In this study, true dimensions of waste risk-free systems were investigated. Besides, designation of micro-wave frequency producing systems with 2.45 frequencies and power of 1.3 KW were analyzed. Results of experiments on wastes after radiation showed the loss of 80% of germs and their reduction and reduction of waste volume in 20 minutes.
[Mehrdad Fouj Lali, Changiz Ghobadi, Masoud Amirkabiri Razian, Salar Amirkabiri Razian. Evaluation and Designation of Making Agricultural Waste Risk-Free System by Microwaves. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):511-516]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.65

Keywords: agricultural waste, micro-frequency waves, Magnetron lamp

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Low Load Prolonged Stretch of Hip Flexors Using a Designed Stretch Tool

Fatma Abdel Fattah El-Hamalawy

Musculoskeletal Dept., Misr University for Science and Technology, El motamyez district, 6th October, Egypt.
Fatma_therapy@yahoo.com

Abstract: Background: Tightness of hip flexors and hip joint capsule contributes to excessive force that reaches the lumbo-pelvic joints. Permanent lengthening is most favored by low force and long duration stretch. The effect of low load prolonged stretch of hip flexors on range of motion of hip extension was examined using a designed stretch tool. The study was done on 12 patients complaining of chronic low back pain with accentuated lumbar lordosis more than 50˚. Myrin goniometer was used to apply measurements for hip extension. Stretch tool with a changeable angle was designed to stretch hip flexors. The duration of stretch was 17 minutes; five minutes repeated 3 times with 2 minutes rest in between. There was significant increase in hip extension equal to 6.66˚ after 7 weeks of right hip flexors stretch. The calculated loads were 1.14 and 2.27 Kg at 5 and 10 degrees elevation of stretch tool respectively. Low load prolonged stretch, using the designed stretch tool, had significant improvement on hip extension following 21 sessions of static stretch 3times/week. Low load stretch using 1.3% and 2.7% of body weight at 5˚ and 10˚ elevation of stretch tool respectively is safe for stretching hip flexor in patients with low back pain associated with increased lumbar lordosis.
[Fatma Abdel Fattah El-Hamalawy. Low Load Prolonged Stretch of Hip Flexors Using a Designed Stretch Tool. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(6): 517-523].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.66

Key word: Static stretch; low load; long duration; flexibility; hip flexor; tightness.

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Allometric Scaling Analysis of Metropolitan Areas of Iran

 

Rasol heidary soreshjani1, Asghar zarabi2

1. (Corresponding Author), PhD Student, Department of urban planning, Geography faculty,
University of Isfahan. Iran
2. Professor Department of urban planning, Geography faculty, University of Isfahan. Iran
Email:
rasol_heidary@yahoo.com

Abstract: In this study the correlation of metropolitan areas growth is evaluated. Twelve cities of Iran with a population over 500,000 the total of which constitute more than half of the nation’s population are the subject here. The growth rate in these metropolitan areas has been different in the last few decades. Their growth rates have not been balanced. The Allometric growth model is applied in this work through compares on of all elements with one another. An allometric scaling analysis method based on the idea from fractal theory, general system theory, and analytical hierarchy processes are proposed to make a comprehensive evaluation for the relative level of city development. Through applying Allometric model in the metropolitan areas different growth rates are determined. The recent areas like Karaj and Zahedan with very high growth rate kind of disturb the balanced growth rate of others, while Rasht and Ormieh are just the opposite.
[Rasol heidary soreshjani and Asghar zarabi. Allometric Scaling Analysis of Metropolitan Areas of Iran
. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(6): 524-527]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.67

 

Key words: Iran, Allometric growth, metropolitan, balanced growth

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Comparison of Marginal Fit between Collarless Metal Ceramic and two all Ceramic Restorations

 A. M. Fahmy

 Faculty of Dentistry, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt.

Corresponding Author: yeheaali60@hotmail. com

Abstract: Marginal adaptation of the crown is a crucial factor in determining its clinical acceptability. Crown fit as judged by marginal seal influences the longevity of the cast restorations to a great extent. Metal ceramic restorations have been implicated for the discoloration in area of labio-gingival margin. Attempts to rectify this, by altering the design of metal frame works as eliminating the labial metal collar with substitution with shoulder porcelain may improved the esthetics. Excellent esthetics and superior biocompatibility of all-ceramic restorations making them the best alternative to conventional metal-ceramic restorations. Objectives: This study measured and compared the precision of fit of Collarless metal-ceramic crowns and two types of all ceramic crowns, by measuring the gap dimension between the crowns margin and finishing line of the prepared tooth. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples were prepared for this study. Divided into 3 groups (N=10): Group A, (n=10) metal ceramic with porcelain collar, Group B, (n=10) IPS Empress and Group C, (n=10) IPS Empress CAD. A standardized 2 Stainless Steel dies were machined. The first die for all ceramic samples, and the second for the collarless metal ceramic samples. The Stainless Steel master dies were duplicated with polyether impression material using custom made trays and these were poured with type IV improved stone. For IPS Empress crowns (Group B), wax patterns were made by soft inlay wax over the stone dies. The wax patterns were sprued and invested and casted in special pressing furnace. After pressing, recover the restoration by airborne particle abrasion, remove the sprue, and refit it to the die. For IPS Empress CAD (Group C ), Cerec in lab CAD/CAM system (Sirona, Bensheim, Germany)was used for machining the appropriate ceramic block In order to obtain the final crowns. After that crowns were covered with IPS Empress Universal Glaze and fired in a program at CS Furnace to 770ŗc. The marginal fit of crowns was evaluated with optical micro scope. Results: The results showed that, IPS Empress CAD group C revealed the poorest marginal integrity with 99. 4 ±0.53 µm. IPS Empress Group B was next in line with 72. 8±0.71 µm. Compared to this first group of all-ceramic restorations, the result of 32. 5±0.74 µm obtained with conventional metal ceramic collarless restorations was clearly better. Conclusion: Group C metal ceramic collarless crowns had highest marginal fit when compared with Group B and Group A. Use of Metal ceramic crowns with shoulder porcelain has the potential to improve the esthetical of the restoration especially at marginal area without significantly affecting its marginal fit.
[
A. M. Fahmy. Comparison of Marginal Fit between Collarless Metal Ceramic and two all Ceramic Restorations. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):528-534]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience. org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.68

Key words: Collarless -metal ceramic restoration, direct lift technique, subgingival margin, two planes Reduction.

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Investigation of Specific Energy Consumption and Possible Reduction Measures of Textile Spinning Mills

1Muhammad Furqan Khurshid*, Muhammad Asad, Atif Ali Khan, Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry, 2Ammanullah

1Bahauddin Zakariya University College of Textile Engineering, 60000 Multan, Pakistan
2Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, 60000 Multan, Pakistan
engr.furqan@bzu.edu.pk*

Abstract: Energy plays an important role in the growth of any country in the world. Global energy crises, rapid growth rate, high production demand and increasing energy cost are the major factors for adopting energy conservation techniques. Pakistan energy crisis threatens the textile industry. This crisis reduces the entire textile production capacity by 30%. Keeping this scenario in view, a study and calculation, presented in this paper, has been conducted for the investigation of specific energy consumption (SEC) of 20tex and 30tex cotton yarn. The purpose of this work is not only to investigate the SEC but also employing better processing techniques to reduce SEC. The level of reduction in SEC depends on the amount of investment and the use of modern technology. This study results depicted 8 % energy consumption has been reduced in the spinning mills. It also helps to control the energy crisis of Pakistan.
[Muhammad Furqan Khurshid, Muhammad Asad, Atif Ali Khan, Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry, Ammanullah, Investigation of Specific Energy Consumption and Possible Reduction Measures of Textile Spinning Mills
. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):535-542]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.69

Key Word: Energy, Specific Energy Consumption (SEC), Original Investment Required, Annual Saving, Textile Spinning Mills

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A model to integrate of the ABC and the BSC in the Egyptian companies: Aligning strategic efficiency and performance improvement (Field study)

Mohamed M. El Gibaly and Ahmed Abdelnaby Ahmed Diab

 Accounting Department, Faculty of Commerce, Beni Suef University, Egypt
elgebale_mm@yahoo.com

Abstract: Companies are now operating in intensive competitive environment to make significant process improvements in areas such as quality, productivity, and innovation because the customer expects more product choices, at lower prices, with higher quality and faster delivery. It is also evident that companies nowadays need more accurate, timely, and reliable operational and financial information to permit the managers to make effective strategic and tactical decisions about pricing, product line development, process improvements, product mix, investment decisions, etc. This study introduces the integration of the activity-based costing system (ABC) with the balanced scorecard approach. In an attempt to make the required information available to the organization, a proposed model called activity-based scorecard model (ABS) with an emphasis on the interaction of the two concerned management tools. Research questions tries to reveal the ambiguity concerning whether the organization which applies ABC with the BSC exhibits better performance and higher business efficiency than non adopting firms or firms which apply only a single management system but not the two. Information will be collected through questionnaire responses from a random sample of manufacturing companies and service business units. The proposed integration framework is expected to benefit the organization across its various business stages, e.g. (purchasing, distribution, customer service, etc.) and functions (planning, controlling, analysis, etc.). The frame work is expected also to provide information which is helpful to the organization in decision making, analysis, and managing its strategy. Finally, it is suggested that the Activity- Based Scorecard is a powerful tool that supports a company with its process improvement efforts, leading to higher performance. This work in part depended upon a work done by the authors in a large scale, and some ideas were borrowed to support the current work.
[Mohamed M. El Gibaly and Ahmed Abdelnaby Ahmed Diab. A model to integrate of the ABC and the BSC in the Egyptian companies: Aligning strategic efficiency and performance improvement (Field study). Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):543-554]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.70

Key words: activity-based costing, balanced scorecard, process improvement, financial information, non-financial information.

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Menstrual Attitude and Knowledge among Egyptian Female Adolescents

 

Abeer Eswi 1, Houaida Helal 2 and Wafaa Elarousy3

 

1 Maternity Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

3 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

drabeersaad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: aim of the study was to assess the attitude and knowledge toward menstruation among Egyptian female adolescents. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional design was utilized for the study. The study was conducted in three public schools in Alexandria Governorate in Egypt. A total of 200 female students were recruited randomly for the study. A self administrated questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection, Menstruation attitude questionnaire (MAQ) was utilized as a valid and reliable tool for collecting the data. Results: Results of the study indicated that more than half of the participants reported that menstruation is event that happens to the girl during puberty that occurs monthly and spoiled blood the body gets rid of. Fifty percent of the participants reported that the girl must seek medical advice in case of severe bleeding while 25% of them reported that they should seek medical advice when menstruation is irregular and when menstruation associated with severe pain (21%). As regards to participants' attitude toward menstruation, the participants slightly agree that menstruation is a debilitating (4.22 ± 0.83), a bothersome (4.35 ± 1.20) and natural event (4.95 ± 1.32). Furthermore, they slightly agree that they can anticipate their menstruation (4.25 ± 1.13) and they denial the effect of it (4.28 ± 1.02). Results indicated that participants who have been informed about menarche before its onset have more positive attitude toward menstruation. Conclusion: Egyptian female adolescents were influenced by their mothers as they were the main source of information, followed by mass media, this may consequently affected their knowledge and attitude toward menstruation. Knowledge that preceded menstruation is one of the important factors that affected positively the Egyptian female adolescent’s attitude toward menstruation.

[Abeer Eswi, Houaida Helal, and Wafaa Elarousy. Menstrual Attitude and Knowledge among Egyptian Female Adolescents. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):555-565]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 71


Keywords:
menstruation, attitude, knowledge, adolescents.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.71

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Do Motivations to Work are Motivations to Work Performance and then to Work Progress? Evaluating the Sensitivity/Insensitivity of the Management Motivation Function to the Staff Motives' Impact Factor Change during Their Work Life-Cycle 

 

Amgad Hamed Omara 

 

Business Administration Dept., Faculty of Commerce, Menoufia University, Egypt. 

amgadomara63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Within a methodical context, this problem oriented research embarks upon examining a hypothetical relationship. Between the failure of Menoufia University management to get the academic staff members properly motivated during the different five phases of their work life cycle, as a dependent variable. That's representing the research problem zone, on the one hand. And its failure to be sensitive to those academic staff motives' impact factor change in every single one of the work-life cycle phases, as independent variable. That's containing the individual himself, the individual-to-job, the individual-to-organization, and the individual-to environment relevant motives' impact factors. This in turn was the area of hypothesizing the probable reasons of the research problem on the other hand. Such a relationship, despite it has initially been justified through, reviewing the literature to see that its subject filling up a theoretically uncovered room, exploring practically the problem foundation in reality, constituting a related conceptual framework, and building a particular research model, was substantially subjected to sort of measurement. Thus, an empirical study was conducted. A specifically designed questionnaire was employed as an instrument to get the required primary data collected by targeting an aggregately enumerated research population, which consists of 412 over sixty years' academic staff members. Those are originally working in Menoufia university different faculties and institutes. Then, the collected data were statistically processed to result in; the correction of the dependent variable, the correction of the independent variables, and the correction of the existence of a statistically indicative significant relationship between them. At the level of the relationship between the dependent variable that's repeated five times to express the five phases of the academic staff work-life cycle and each one of the four independent sub-variables in every case. This relationship was proved, not only concerning the significance but also regarding its denotation by type, form, direction, and strength. In discussing such previously pointed out conclusions, positivism orientation was the preferable to take and/or commit with, so the related comment was tending to be interpretative rather than analytical. Therefore, the justification of conclusions has just come only within what have been asked about before in questionnaire. However the recommendations were rather provided in an extended way to highlight three aspects. First, there was a focus on providing the prerequisite conditions for establishing the incentive systems, which could be available for targeting the motives' impact factors. Second, there was sort of proposition to what's called motives' impact factor qualitative-map technique that's suggested for identifying the academic staff common and/or single impact factors and also impact factors' changes during the five decades of their work-life cycle. Third, there was a particular concern to show the necessity of subjecting the fitness and effectiveness of the incentive system, concerning the target motives impact factor as well as its vulnerability to normal change during the five phases of the staff work-life cycle, to kind of proficiently continuous following up and reporting system.

[Amgad Hamed Omara. Do Motivations to Work are Motivations to Work Performance and then to Work Progress? Evaluating the Sensitivity/Insensitivity of the Management Motivation Function to the Staff Motives' Impact Factor Change during Their Work Life-Cycle. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):566-597]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.72

 

Keywords: incentives, motives, motivators, intrinsic factors, extrinsic factors, motivation sensitivity/insensitivity, motives' impact factor, impact factor change, individual self-relevant motives, individual-to-job relevant motives, individual-to-organization relevant motives, individual-to-environment relevant motives, staff work-life cycle, pre-requisite conditions, qualitative-map technique, fitness to impact factor.

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Transport Properties of GaInSe2 Crystals

 T. Nagat 1, R. H. Al-Orainy 1, F.S.Bahabri1, E. M. Saed 2 and H. I. Elsaeedy 1

1 Physics Department, Sciences of Faculty of Girls, King Abdulaziz University – KSA
2 Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, South Valley University –Qena, Egypt
f_s_bahabri@hotmail.com

Abstract: High quality of GaInSe2 crystals were prepared by modified Bridgman technique, the transport properties were investigated. The dependence of electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Hall mobility and charge carriers concentration on temperatures was performed in the temperature range (203 K - 443 K) while thermoelectric power measurements were carried out in the temperature range (280 K - 495 K). From these measurements the conductivity of the crystals was found to be p – type, the electrical conductivity, Hall coefficient and hole concentration at 300 K were found to be 2.92 x 10-6W-1 cm-1, 4.18 x 109cm3/C and 1.49 x 109 cm-3 respectively. The Hall mobility was found to be 12.19 x 103 cm2V-1s-1. The energy gap was evaluated to be 1.8 eV. Throughout joining the electrical with thermoelectric power measurements many physical parameters were estimated. The effective mass of holes and electrons were determined at room temperature to be 1.95 X 10-32 kg, and 7.01 X 10-39 kg respectively. The hole and electron diffusion coefficient were found to be 315.4 cm2/s and 782.94 cm2/s respectively. The relaxation times for holes and electrons were calculated and yields the values 1.49 x 10 –16 s and 1.33 x 10 –22 s respectively. Also the diffusion length for holes and electrons were obtained as 2.17 x 10 –7 cm 3.22 x 10 –10 cm respectively. In addition to these pronounced parameters the efficiency of the thermoelectric elements was evaluated which leads to better application in the field of energy conversation technique.
[T. Nagat, R. H. Al-Orainy, F.S.Bahabri, E. M. Saed, and H. I. Elsaeedy. Transport Properties of GaInSe2 Crystals. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(6):595-599]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.73

Keywords: Crystal Growth, Semiconductors, Transport Properties, GaInSe2.

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A Community- Based Cohort Study for the Risk Factors of Low Birth Weights, in an Upper Egypt Governorate

 Eman Abdel-Baset Mohamed

Community Med. Dep., Sohag, University, Sohag, Egypt

Abstract: The prevention of low birth weight (LBW) is a major challenge because it affects many babies, is not restricted to an easily identifiable group, and has multiple risk factors and much uncertainty about the underlying causal mechanisms. Furthermore, low birth weight involves many health care providers and is not amenable to one simple effective intervention. Objective: To detect risk factors affecting the pregnancy outcome; LBW in Sohag region. Design: A community-based, cohort study. Subjects: 1082 pregnant women; were interviewed 3 times; once while pregnant, then after labour –within a week- and again during 40 days after parturition. Timing: On the period of July 2007 till Jan. 2011. Settings: 5 rural and 4 urban locations; 2 were under-served in each location. Methods: A) During antenatal visit: women had been subjected to history taking, general examination and obstetrical evaluation, blood pressure, weight and height measuring, haemoglobin estimation and urine examination. B) During postnatal visits: women and neonates examined twice, during the first week postpartum and after a one month. Results: 1082 deliveries, of whom 1073 (98.8%) babies born alive, 56.6 % were males and 43.4 % were females, while 1.2% born dead, of whom one-third, 4 (0.4%) died intrapartum while 8 (0.8%) were stillbirths. Early neonatal deaths represented 11 (1.0 %) neonates and 3 (0.3 %) died in the late neonatal period and another 3 died before the end of the study. 1056 babies were surviving till the end of this study, comprising (97.2%) of the studied cases. There were 72 out of 1059 newborns being of LBW; 6.8 %. Risk factors affecting the LBW: Biologic and socioeconomic differentials, ANC utilization, mother's health status, exposure to smoking, past obstetric bad experience, current obstetric morbidity (risky pregnancy), mode of labour and morbidity arising during labour or in early neonatal period of major congenital anomalies or severe birth trauma were found to be risky for the LBW. Conclusion: Collaborative efforts from all who concerned are needed for the development, approval, implementation and revisal for clinical and classroom experiences to personnel concerned with LBW care provision and registry.
[Eman Abdel-Baset Mohamed. A Community- Based Cohort Study for the Risk Factors of Low Birth Weights, in an Upper Egypt Governorate. Journal of American Science. 2012; 8(6): 600-607].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.74

Key words: Low Birth Weight- Risk Factors- Antenatal care- Obstetric morbidities.

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The Ameliorative Role of Grape Seed Oil on Irradiated Rat Fungiform Papillae

 Samah S Mehanni1 Eman M El- Maghraby2*, Alyaa R Hassan3, Dalia A H El-Baz4

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Future University, Cairo, Egypt.
2Health Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo, Egypt.
3Zoology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Future University, Cairo, Egypt
4Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
emey_maghraby@hotmail.com

Abstract: This study was held to clarify changes in the epithelium of the fungiform papillae after irradiation at the microscopic level as well as the effect of grape seed oil (GSO) on these changes and the changes in the innervation of these papillae. Thirty five male Swiss Albino rats were included in this study. The animals were divided into, Grape seed irradiated group (GSI gp): GSO was administrated orally in accompanied with radiation. Irradiated group (IR gp): The same protocol was applied to this group except that the animals received distilled water instead. Control group(C gp): only distilled water was administrated orally. The right tongue halves were prepared for Ultrastructural studies. The left halves were used for detection of the innervations using S100. Degeneration of the cell nuclei and organelles in stratum basale and spinosum of the fungiform papillae in IR gp was obvious. In the GSI gp the nuclei had prominent nucleoli and granulated chromatin. The regeneration of the epithelium in the IR gp was delayed compared with GSI gp. Regeneration of the cytoskeleton was advanced in the GSI gp. Significant obvious decrease in the innervations was indicated in the IR gp at the third day post irradiation compared with both GSI gp and C gp. Toward the end of the experiment, increase in the innervations was more detectable in GSI gp. For these reasons, grape seed oil is recommended to be consumed as a dietary supplement and could be useful in synergizing the hazardous of radiation on the tongue papillae.
[Samah S Mehanni, Eman M El- Maghraby, Alyaa R Hassan, and Dalia A H El-Baz. The Ameliorative Role of Grape Seed Oil on Irradiated Rat Fungiform Papillae. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):608-614]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.75

Keywords: Grape Seed oil, radiation, tongue papillae, ultrastructure, innervation.

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Study of Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury

Said S. Khamis1; Ashraf G. Dala1; Hasan A. Ahmad1; Gehan K. El-Saeed2 and Enas S. Essa2

 1. Internal Medicine and 2.Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menofiya University Hospital, Egypt.
drashrafgharieb@yahoo.com

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media is a well-recognized cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which in turn, is associated with in-hospital morbidity and mortality. In the absence of effective, specific therapies for AKI, the early and accurate detection of AKI is crucial to prevent its progression, and thereby, to potentially improve its outcome. The quest to improve early diagnosis of AKI is an area of intense research. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the value of estimation of urinary NGAL in the early detection of contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The study included 43 patients; 31 males and 12 females in addition to 10 apparently healthy controls. They underwent elective PCI in Elmehala Elkobra cardiology center. Our study defined contrast induced acute kidney injury as increased serum creatinine after contrast injection more than 0.3mg/dl or 25% from the base line. Patients were subjected to full history, clinical examination with calculation of body weight and routine radiological & laboratory investigations including serum creatinine (pre PCI, 48 hours post PCI and 72 hours post PCI) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urine NGAL (pre PCI and 4 hours post PCI). RESULTS: Thirteen out of the 43 studied patients (30.2%) developed CIAKI. There was a significant difference between CIAKI group and non-CIAKI group regarding the volume of contrast, hematocrit, blood urea, eGFR, 48 hours post PCI serum creatinine, 72 hours post PCI serum creatinine and 4 hours post PCI urine NGAL. Four hours post PCI urine NGAL was significantly higher than base line urine NGAL in CIAKI group. Four hours post PCI urine NGAL was significantly higher in proteinuric than non proteinuric patients. Four hours post PCI urine NGAL correlated significantly positive with 72 hours post PCI serum creatinine. CONCLUSION: A Significant rise in urine NGAL was demonstrated 4 hours after contrast administration and was significantly correlated with a rise in serum creatinine 72 hours after contrast. Thus urine NGAL can be a promising early predictive biomarker for diagnosing CIAKI. NGAL might facilitate earlier intervention to prevent CIAKI and improve outcome.
[Said S. Khamis; Ashraf G. Dala; Hasan A. Ahmad; Gehan K. El-Saeed; and Enas S. Essa. Study of Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):615-623]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.76

Key words: Urine NGAL, PCI, AKI

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Effect of Antenatal Breast Feeding Education and Counseling on Mothers’ Attitude and Intention to Practice

 1Ghada. M. Khalil and 2Ghada Mahmoud

1Department of Public Health Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt
2Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Qassim University
ghadamahmoud1@hotmail.com

Abstract: Background: In Saudi Arabia, recent studies reported rapid and continuous decline in breast feeding practice and duration in urban area specially among young mothers; only 33.08% of infant breast feed exclusively for the first four months, which indicate that health care providers are failed to promote breast feeding culture in between Saudis women. Objective: Assessment of attitude and intention to practice considering breast feeding of two study groups, Study the effect of intervention in changing female‘s attitude and intention to practice, compare females’ attitude and intention of practice between intervention and control group. Methodology: randomized controlled study: 114 women divided randomly into 57 study group and 57 in control group. Structured questionnaire was used through personal interview with mothers. Result: intervention and control group showed high attitude toward breast feeding, barriers include; embarrassment from lactating in public places, breast milk not sufficient, exclusive breastfeeding was in pre-test intervention group 26.3%and increased after intervention to 45.61%. Conclusion: causes behind decreased breastfeeding were: painful practice, father did not support lactation and absence of health care team support, after intervention intention to practice of breast feeding were improved.
[
Ghada. M. Khalil and Ghada Mahmoud. Effect of Antenatal Breast Feeding Education and Counseling on Mothers’ Attitude and Intention to Practice. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):624-629]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.77

Keywords: Breastfeeding, attitude, practice, intervention.

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Primary Prevention of Genetic Disorders among Secondary School Students in a Rural Area

Hanan Ibrahim Ahmed1, Hemat Abd Elmonem Elsayied1 and Naglaa. Girgis

 1Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University
2
Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University
mohamed.hemat@yahoo.com

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of primary prevention program of genetic disorders among secondary school students in a rural area. Design: A quasi-experimental design was used Setting: The study was conducted at secondary school representing in a rural area in Egypt (El-khosos District, El Qalubia Governorate). Sample: All students in all classes (from the three grades) of the selected school, the total numbers were 750 students (380 male students & 370 female students). Tool: Self Administrated questionnaire was used by the researchers in Arabic language to assess socio-demographic characteristics, and students' knowledge. Results: Less than half of the male students 1st degree have family history consanguinity, while more than half of the studied sample do not prefer consanguinity marriage. The male and female students' knowledge regarding the reproductive health concepts, fertilization, risk of consanguinity marriage, causes of increasing genetic disorders, transmission of genetic traits from parents to children, also primary prevention of genetic disorders were improved after the program from poor to good. There was a highly statistically significant difference between socio-demographic characteristics of secondary school students and their total knowledge. Conclusion: This study showed highly statistical significant differences between pre / post program implementation and revealed highly statistically significant differences between socio-demographic characteristics of secondary school students and their total knowledge. Recommendations: Continuous health educational programs for students in different grades focusing on primary prevention of genetic disorders such as premarital care, consanguineous marriage, and reproductive health. Different mass media especially TV messages to give information for youth, family, and community.
[Hanan Ibrahim Ahmed, Hemat Abd Elmonem Esayied and Naglaa. Girgis. Primary Prevention of Genetic Disorders among Secondary School Students in a Rural Area
. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):630-639]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.78

Key word: Primary prevention, Genetic disorder

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Effect of Self Perineal Care Instructions on Episiotomy Pain and Wound Healing of Postpartum Women

 

Hoda Abed El-Azim Mohamed 1 & Nahed Saied El-Nagger 2

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, El-Minia University,

 2 Department of Paediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

hodaazim@yahoo.com
 

Abstract: Background: Most women have some degree of discomfort during the first few postpartum days. One of the common causes of discomfort is episiotomy. Nursing interventions are intended to reduce the discomfort and allow the woman to take care of herself and her baby. Simple interventions that can decrease the discomfort associated with perineal trauma is applying an ice pack, moist or dry or topical applications, cleansing the perineum with a squeeze bottle and taking a warm shower or a sitz bath. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of self perineal care instructions on episiotomy pain and wound healing of postpartum women. The research design used for the current study was quasi experimental design. A total of eighty postpartum women (experimental and control groups each group consisted of 40 women) were recruited randomly for this study from the postpartum ward at El- Minia General Hospital. Tools used for data collection consisted of interviewing sheet, the numerical rating scale (NRS), the standardized REEDA Scale and follow up sheet. The Results of the study revealed that statistically significant reduction in the level of perineal pain at 4, 24, & 48 hours and seven days postpartum between the two groups. A highly statistical significant difference between groups in relation to the interference of pain with walking, sitting, and urination at 24 & 48 hours, and at seven days postpartum. Reduction in the REEDA scores of wound healing in experimental group as compared to control group. The current study concluded that, women who received and practice self perineal care instructions on episiotomy pain and wound healing during postpartum period have, lower the level of postpartum episiotomy pain scores, decrease pain related to perineal episiotomy which interfere with women’s daily activities postpartum, such as walking, sitting, urination and defecation, and better wound healing progress. On the light of the study findings it is recommended that self perineal pain instruction can be introduced to the women antenatal and then it can be used postnatal, the nursing students should be taught the importance of relieving episiotomy pain and enhancing wound healing in postnatal mothers, and there is a need for extensive and intensive research in this area.

[Hoda Abed El-Azim Mohamed and Nahed Saied El-Nagger. Effect of Self Perineal Care Instructions on Episiotomy Pain and Wound Healing of Postpartum Women. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):640-650]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.79


Key words: self perineal instruction, episiotomy, wound healing.

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[Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):651-656]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

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Student's Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Infected Patients with Blood Borne Pathogenesis in College of Applied Medical Science at Kingdom Saudi Arabian

 1Dr. Sabah M. A. Mahran. PhD and 2 Dr. Shereen A. A. Qalawa. PhD 

1Nursing Administration Department and 2Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Port- Said University- Egypt

Abstract: Overview: Today’s student nurses are tomorrow’s staff nurses. Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of encountering needle stick injuries, blood and body fluid exposure and therefore acquiring blood borne infections especially Hepatitis B & C, which may be followed by serious long term squeal in a significant number of cases. Estimated reported incidence of injuries in hospital health care workers is approximately 30/100 bed /yr. Aim: the present study is to investigate student's knowledge and attitude regarding infected patients with blood borne pathogenesis in Jeddah Setting: descriptive exploratory with nonrandomized sampling was used which calculated 69 from second year students and 31 from fourth year students and carried out in College of Applied Medical Science at Nursing Department- King Abdul-Aziz University in Jeddah in Kingdom of Saudi Arabian. Methods: One modified tool for data collection after translation from English to Arabic language was used divided into 5 main parts related to sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge towards Hepatitis, attitude towards Hepatitis, knowledge towards AIDS, attitude towards AIDS respectively. Results: results of the present study revealed significance difference in many items related to student's knowledge regarding hepatitis and AIDS. in addition to, negative attitude towards infected patients with blood borne diseases is a remarkable behavior of attitude scale noticed among second year students in comparing with fourth year students attitude. Conclusion: The present study concluded that second year students had low total scores of satisfactory knowledge level regarding blood borne diseases in comparing with fourth year students, also, there are +negative attitude present from attitude scale sheet among second year students in comparing with fourth year.
[Sabah M. Mahran and Shreen A. A. Kalawa. Student's Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Infected Patients with Blood Borne Pathogenesis in College of Applied Medical Science at Kingdom Saudi Arabian. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):657-665]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www. americanscience. org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.81

Key Words: Knowledge, attitude, students, Blood borne pathogenesis, high risk group, prevention.

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Ezzatina: A new Foraminiferal Genus from the Upper Eocene in Egypt

 Sayed Abd El-Azeam

 Geology Department, Faculty of Science Zagazig University
sayedazeam@yahoo.com

Abstract: A new foraminiferal genus Ezzatina with relative 6 new species, Ezzatina abdallahi, E. bassiounii, E. egyptiaca, E. faragi, E. hassaneini, and E. fayoumensis, have been recorded from the basal part of the Upper Eocene sediments exposed at west of Fayoum area. The newly recorded foraminifers are benthic, fine, calcareous, perforate, planispiral to biserial chamber arrangement, twisted during the growth. These morphologic features assigned this genus and its species to the family Bolivinidae. The genotype and the six type species were described and microphotographed. The probable phylogenitic trend and the evolutionary relationships of the genus Ezzatina among the genera of the family Bolivinidae are demonstrated in the suggested phylogenitic tree.
[Sayed Abd El-Azeam. Ezzatina: A new Foraminiferal Genus from the Upper Eocene in Egypt. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):666-675]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.82

Key wards: New Genus, Ezzatina, Foraminifera, Upper Eocene, Phylogeny.

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Axillary Reverse Mapping for Preservation of Arm Lymphatics during Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Cases of Breast Cancer

El-sayed M. Abd-Elwahab; Ashraf I. A. Elsharkawy; Ashraf E. Ahmed and Hany A. El-Hady

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Sayed_hemdana@yahoo.com

Abstract: Background: Axillary lymph node dissection represents the standard surgical treatment for breast cancer patients with clinically or histologically involved axillary lymph nodes. However, it is associated with significant morbidity, including postoperative arm lymphedema and neuropathy of the involved extremity, and seroma formation in the axilla. Recently, the axillary reverse mapping technique has been developed to map and preserve arm lymphatic drainage during axillary lymph node dissection. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, in our surgical department, we attempted to preserve arm lymphatics during axillary lymph node dissection in 50 breast cancer patients, between December 2010 and March 2012. All patients undergoing axillary reserve mapping (ARM) by injection of 2-5 mL blue dye dermally or subcutaneously into the upper inner arm of the ipsilateral arm on average 30 minutes before axillary exposure. RESULTS: The average time between blue dye injection and axillary exposure was 30 minutes (range, 10-50 minutes). ARM procedure successful in 34 patients(68%) and failed in 16 patients(32%). The number of ARM lymph nodes histological were negative in 30 patients (60%) and positive in 4 patients (8%). No lymphedema recorded in this study but Tattooing in 3 patients (6%).CONCLUSIONS: ARM appears to be a feasible technique for identification of upper arm lymphatics during axillary surgery. On the other hand, it is not always possible to preserve ARM nodes and/or lymphatics during axillary lymph node dissection. However, the presence of lymph node metastasis involving ARM lymph nodes in this study suggested that preservation of these lymphatics is not oncologically safe during axillary lymph node dissection in patients with breast cancer and clinically palpable axillary lymph nodes and however success ARM rate was relatively high.
[El-sayed M. Abd-Elwahab; Ashraf I. A. Elsharkawy; Ashraf E. Ahmed, and Hany A. El-Hady. Axillary Reverse Mapping for Preservation of Arm Lymphatics during Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in Cases of Breast Cancer. Journal of American Science
. 2012;8(6):676-681]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.83

Key words: Sentinel lymph node biopsy, Axillary lymph node dissection, Arm Lymphedema.

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Analysis of demographic and cultural tourism, religious pilgrimage (Case Study: Ilam Province)

 

Malek Malekshahi
Payame Noor University, Ilam, Iran, Postal code: 6931135478

 

Abstract: Travel and tourism, travel and rotation of the oldest human activates is common. Man in his social life has always tried to know your environment; this recognition has been associated with mobility. All God's creatures in the course of travel from place to place and move towards perfection. Meeting places and lands, travel and migration work better for the environment in order to achieve these goals Religious tourism is a profitable and efficient in the word of cultural activity that it cannot be ignore, But it should be viewed as an objective phenomenon. Ilam province, with tens of thousands of years of civilization, culture, beautiful piece is a glimpse of Iran all the beauty and wonders of creation. Wonderful climate variability, climate differences, and their descendants and the descendants of Ilam Monument religious, having been in the path of pilgrim to atabat aleeh very large open every day and lovers. Enthusiasts bits (AS) are, A religious tourist hub of the country into the Ilam. This study analyzes the demographic and cultural tourism, religious pilgrimage to pay in Ilam. Using analytical methods and data collected through field studies and surveys, questionnaires (92) Interviews with experts and data from the second category, the situation and condition in the tourism areas of Ilam province is Cranach coefficient for the questionnaire to 0/867 respectively. This study ahowed that 51/1 percent of the sample agree. The knowledge and understanding of indigenous culture and tourism attractions to attract tourists is the religious the factor with the 4/9810 has the highest average. 49/5 percent of the sample agrees that the lack of transport (train, Plan) that is non-religious tourists. 46/7 percent sample agree that the lack of welfare facilities and accommodation of religion is important in attracting tourists to the agent with the 7935/3 has the lowest average 63/2 percent agree that the sample distribution and the holy places of pilgrimage, religious tourism has been the proliferation.

[Malek Malekshahi. Analysis of demographic and cultural tourism, religious pilgrimage (Case Study: Ilam Province. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):682-691]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.84

 

Keywords: anthropology, Religious tourism, pilgrim culture, Ilam province

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 The Prediction of Falls Among older people in Saudi Arabia

Amer Al Saif a, Ehab Waly b and Samira Alsenany c

a Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. dr_amer112@hotmail.com.
b Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. drehabwaly@yahoo.com.
c Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. ssenany@hotmail.com

Abstract: Falls and fall-induced injuries are a common problem in older people worldwide, and the current ageing population will further increase the burden and cost associated with this type of injury (Wayland et al, 2010). The main purpose of the study was to provide statistical data on the prediction of falls among older people in Saudi Arabia, and to examine which factors make the greatest contribution to the prediction of falls among this population. The Institutional Review Board at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital approved this study for a one-year period. One hundred and twenty older adults (age range between 59 and 69) participated in the study. All subjects were asked to complete two experimental tasks involving answering questionnaires and performing tasks that assessed their specific balance and motor skills. Firstly, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire, which consisted of fall history and health status. Secondly, the subjects were asked to complete the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results showed that age strongly correlated with Berg Balance Score (r = -.93, p <.001). A stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the effect of age on Berg Balance Score. Results indicated that Age was a significant predictor of Berg Balance Score (R2 =.88, p <.001). Approximately ninety percent of the variability in the Berg Balance Scale sore was explained by its relationship to Age. Results showed that the number of medications taken per day was also strongly correlated with the Berg Balance Score (r = -.86, p <.001): approximately ninety percent of the variability in the Berg Balance Score was explained by its relationship to the number of medications taken per day. Significant correlations were observed between subjects’ activity level (active vs. sedentary) and Berg Balance Score (r = -.79, p <.001). A stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the effect of activity level on Berg Balance Score. Results indicated that participants’ activity level was a significant predictor of Berg Balance Score (R2 =.70, p <.001). Approximately seventy percent of the variability in the Berg Balance Score was explained by its relationship to subject’s activity level. Finally, the results showed that the subject’s ambulatory status is strongly correlated with the Berg Balance Score (r = -.82, p <.001). A stepwise linear regression was conducted to determine the effect of ambulatory status on Berg Balance Score. Results indicated that ambulatory status was a significant predictor of BBS (R2 =.77, p <.001). This study found that the three main factors that affect older persons’ likelihood of falling are number of medications taken per day, sedentary lifestyle and use of assistive devices to help with ambulation. Thus, no single risk factor causes all falls, but the greater the number of risk factors to which an individual is exposed, the greater the probability of a fall. The results from this study indicate that efforts to reduce the risk from fall-related injuries should be directed at the development of a prevention program that identifies those at greatest risk due to factors such as age, medication and the use of assistive devices and the actions to modify these risk factors. This study recommends that reducing the incidence of falls must continue to be one of the highest priorities in health policy among Saudi care institutions for older people and more research is needed to better understand the prediction of fall among older patients in Saudi Arabia.
[
Amer Al Saif, Ehab Waly, Samira Alsenany. The Prediction of Falls Among older people in Saudi Arabia. Journal of American Science. 2012;8(6):692-700]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.85

Keywords: Elderly, prediction, older people, risk factors, falls, sedentary lifestyle assessment of falls.

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 The Preparation of Ethical Codes and Mission Statement of Koomeh Company, Iran

Abbas Sadeghi

Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran
sad100eghi@gmail.com

Abstract: Given the importance of strategic management in organizations and companies around the world, this research aims to develop ethical and Mission statement of Koomeh Company in Iran. In this study, after the necessary studies, by distributing and collecting questionnaires mission statement and ethical codes of the company is prepared.
[Abbas Sadeghi. The Preparation of Ethical Codes and Mission Statement of Koomeh Company, Iran. J Am Sci. 2012;8(6):701-702]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.86

Keywords: Koomeh, Mission Statement, Ethical Codes, Strategic Planning

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 Mutagenic effect of X-rays on Vicia faba plant

Norah H. Al-zahrani

 Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Corresponding Author: nlalzhrani@kau,edu.sa

Abstract: The mutagenic effect of different x-rays doses were examined on Vicia faba plant by measuring some growth traits, photosynthetic pigments and changes in DNA using RAPD (PCR) analysis. X-rays treatments caused a significant reduction in plant height, plant fresh weight and both chlorophyll (a) and (b) contents. Consequently, there is in strong correlation between the DNA alterations as shown a polymorphic number of genetic bands using RAPD_PCR products comparing with control. Results strongly suggest that x-rays have a mutagenic effect on Vicia faba plant.
[Norah H. Al-zahrani. Mutagenic effect of X-rays on Vicia faba plant. J Am Sci. 2012;8(6):703-707]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 87 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.87

Key words: X-rays,mutation,RAPD (PCR) analysis, DNA alterations

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 In Situ Investigation on Color change of Resin Composite Restoratives Cured by Two Different Curing Units

 Dalia Mostafa Abu ElMagd, PhD1,2; Ahmed Adel AbdelAziz, MSc3; Ola Ibrahim Fahmy, PhD4;

Hebat-Allah Mohamed Taher, PhD5

 1Professor, Restorative Department,King Abdulaziz University,College of Dentistry,Jedda,Saudi Arabia
2 Professor, Restorative Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
3 Technical Specialist, 3M Unitek (Health Care Division), Egypt.
4 Professor and head, Restorative department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Misr International University (MIU), Egypt.
5 Lecturer, Restorative Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
Corresponding Author: daliamagd@gmail.com

Abstract: Purpose: To investigate and compare in situ the effect of halogen and high-performance light emitting diode light curing unit on the colour change of resin composite. Methods: 240 standardized disc-shaped resin composite specimens (4 x 1.5 mm) were prepared;120 using microhybrid composite and 120 using nanofilled composite (60 bleaching shade and 60 enamel shade for each group). Each subgroup of 60 specimens was divided into two subclasses (30 specimens each) one was polymerized using halogen and the other using HP LED. Twenty patients with partial or complete dentures participated after written consent. They were divided into two groups of ten patients. The first group received 80 specimens (10 from each subclass) investigated after one week, then received another 80 investigated after 6 months and the second group received 80 specimens investigated after one year. Colour assessment was performed by correlating data obtained using two methods: (1) A reflectance spectrophotometer. (2) A digital determination method. Data were analysed using ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference of mean color change for both curing lights. Good agreement was found between the contemporary spectrophotometer and the digital spectroradiometer at p < 0.001. Conclusions: Biodegradation of resin composite by the oral environmental factor has a direct effect on its optical properties. Discoloration properties of the resin composite are material, shade and time dependant. However, the curing unit has no effect on discoloration. Clinical Significance: Esthetics of resin composite restoration should be routinely re-examined since aging may cause significant influence on the color stability of the resin composites. From an esthetic point of view, it is recommended to use nanocomposites because it has proven to be more efficient with regards to color stability.
[Dalia Mostafa Abu ElMagd, Ahmed Adel AbdelAziz, Ola Ibrahim Fahmy, Hebat-Allah Mohamed Taher. In Situ Investigation on Color change of Resin Composite Restoratives Cured by Two Different Curing Units. J Am Sci. 2012;8(6):708-715]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.88

Key Words: In situ, Resin Composite, Bleach Shade, Color Change, Light Curing Unit, Spectrophotometer, Spectroradiometer.

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Investigation of Critical Wind Speed of Suspension Bridges with Multiple Main Cables

 

Ahmed A. Bayoumey1 and Walid A. Attia2

 

1Senior Structural Engineer, Raafat Miller Consulting, Cairo, Egypt

2Associate Professor, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

amin2ahmed@gmail.com, waattia@link.net

 

Abstract: This paper investigated the critical wind velocity of long-span suspension bridges with multiple main cables. It should be noted here that due to the inherent flexibility of long-span bridges, self-excited forces play a role in the overall stiffness and damping of the structure, making them wind speed dependent. This characteristic is modelled through the flutter derivatives, which show a range of values for each mode. A comparative study has been conducted three virtual suspension bridges, first one with two central spans of 1500 m and a navigation clearance of 152 m; the second one with a central span of 1500 m and a navigation clearance of 152 m; the third one with a central span of 2100m and a navigation clearance of 90 m.

[Ahmed A. Bayoumey and Walid A. Attia. Investigation of Critical Wind Speed of Suspension Bridges with Multiple Main Cables. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):716-721]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.89

 

Keywords: suspension; critical; velocity; multiple; main cables; selberg; displacement; flutter; aerodynamic

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Study of Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury

 

Said S. Khamis1; Ashraf G. Dala1; Hasan A. Ahmad1; Gehan K. El-Saeed2 and Enas S. Essa2

 

1. Internal Medicine and 2.Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menofiya University hospital, Egypt.

drashrafgharieb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media is a well-recognized cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which in turn, is associated with in-hospital morbidity and mortality. In the absence of effective, specific therapies for AKI, the early and accurate detection of AKI is crucial to prevent its progression, and thereby, to potentially improve its outcome. The quest to improve early diagnosis of AKI is an area of intense research. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the value of estimation of urinary NGAL in the early detection of contrast induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The study included 43 patients; 31 males and 12 females in addition to 10 apparently healthy controls. They underwent elective PCI in Elmehala Elkobra cardiology center. Our study defined contrast induced acute kidney injury as increased serum creatinine after contrast injection more than 0.3mg/dl or 25% from the base line. Patients were subjected to full history, clinical examination with calculation of body weight and routine radiological & laboratory investigations including serum creatinine (pre PCI, 48 hours post PCI and 72 hours post PCI) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urine NGAL (pre PCI and 4 hours post PCI). RESULTS: Thirteen out of the 43 studied patients (30.2%) developed CIAKI. There was a significant difference between CIAKI group and non-CIAKI group regarding the volume of contrast, hematocrit, blood urea, eGFR, 48 hours post PCI serum creatinine, 72 hours post PCI serum creatinine and 4 hours post PCI urine NGAL. Four hours post PCI urine NGAL was significantly higher than base line urine NGAL in CIAKI group. Four hours post PCI urine NGAL was significantly higher in proteinuric than non proteinuric patients. Four hours post PCI urine NGAL correlated significantly positive with 72 hours post PCI serum creatinine. CONCLUSION: A Significant rise in urine NGAL was demonstrated 4 hours after contrast administration and was significantly correlated with a rise in serum creatinine 72 hours after contrast. Thus urine NGAL can be a promising early predictive biomarker for diagnosing CIAKI. NGAL might facilitate earlier intervention to prevent CIAKI and improve outcome.

[Said S. Khamis; Ashraf G. Dala; Hasan A. Ahmad; Gehan K. El-Saeed and Enas S. Essa. Study of Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in Post Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):722-730]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.90

 

Key words: Urine NGAL, PCI, AKI

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Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Mediated Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients

 

Nariman zahran, Iman William, Azza Sayed, Manal Zahran, Omar Sabry and Manar Raafat*

 

 Haematology and Nephrology* Departments, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

zahranmanolia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introductions: Protein factors accumulating in the sera of patients suffering from end stage renal disease interfere with nonspecific immune response by inhibiting essential functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). Aim: The study aimed to assess the neutrophil functions which may be responsible for bacterial infections encountered in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition to evaluation of the potential therapeutic impact of the survival factor GM-CSF on neutrophil functions in these patients. Methods: The study was conducted on 59 patients, 34 cases with CKD and 25 HD cases. In addition to 15 normal subjects served as a control group. Neutrophil function was evaluated (before and after culture, with and without GM-CSF), by flowcytometric study of β2 integrin (CD18) and unstimulated and GM-CSF stimulated Nitroblue Tetrazolium test (NBT). The chronic inflammatory state known to be present in CKD was evaluated by estimation of C-reactive protein (CRP) using latex agglutination and serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) using ELISA technique. Results: Neutrophils CD18 expression was significantly higher in CKD and HD patients compared to controls. Also neutrophil NBT reduction was significantly increased in HD group compared to control subjects. GM-CSF resulted in a highly significant increase of surface CD18 expression in both HD and CKD groups compared to their corresponding culture levels without GM-CSF. Both HD and CKD groups showed a highly significant increase in GM-CSF stimulated NBT reduction. Conclusions: These data clarify the potential therapeutic benefit of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and course of superimposed bacterial infections in those immunocompromised patients.

[Nariman zahran, Iman William, Azza Sayed, Manal Zahran, Omar Sabry and Manar Raafat. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Mediated Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):731-737]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.91

Key words: Neutrophil function, CD18, nitroblue tetrazolium test, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, GM-CSF.

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Investigation of Relationships between Learning Organization and Transformational Leadership in Iranian Civil Industries

 

Ali Jokar1*, Abdolreza Miri2, Esmaeil Sabzikaran3

 

1Senior lecturer and Instructor of Shahid Sattari Aviation University, Tehran, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3M.A. in Public Administration, Faculty of Management Department, Shahid Sattari Aviation University

*Email: Alj_26478@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, the external environment for many companies is characterized by turbulence associated with globalization, changing customers and investor demands, increase product market competition, technology growth, considering knowledge and learning as the main assets of organizations and rapid change and chaos would increase. Some management leaders advocated new “generative transformational” forms of learning to deal with an external reality in which everything is constantly evolving or “becoming”. These assumptions rise based on the notion of learning organization. However, examining the relationship between learning organization dimensions and other organizational elements makes it possible to draw on suitable strategies in order to improve learning. The population of the research consists of 950 people of managers of the companies of Iranian civil industries. A sample of 295 subjects was selected as statistical sampling. The findings of the present research illustrated that there is a significant relationship between transformational leadership and learning organization dimensions. In addition, this research shows a significant relationship between transformational leadership and three dimensions (among 7 dimensions) of learning organization (LO), which consist of "continuous learning", "team learning" and "embedded system". In considering the triple levels of learning organization, the results illustrate a significant relationship between transformational leadership and two levels (group and organizational).

[Ali Jokar, Abdolreza Miri, Esmaeil Sabzikaran. Investigation of Relationships between Learning Organization and Transformational Leadership in Iranian Civil Industries. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):738-744]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.92

 

Keywords: organizational learning, learning organization dimensions, transformational leadership, continuous learning, team learning, embedded system.

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Secondary mathematics teachers’ filed dependency and its effects on their cognitive abilities

 

Safoura Azari 1, Farzad Radmehr 2, Hassan Alamolhodaei 3

 

1. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, Email: safouraazari@gmail.com

2 School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, Email: f.radmehr65@gmail.com

3. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, Email: alamolhodaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Teachers’ Spatial ability, Numerical Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning and Verbal Critical Reasoning based on mathematics education literature seem to relate to teaching mathematics. As a relationship exist between the levels of individuals’ abilities and strategy choice and efficiency in mathematics education and base on the important role of field dependencies in Science education, this study investigate the possible relationship between mathematics teachers’ cognitive abilities and their cognitive style. The results of this study shown that mathematics secondary teachers with field dependent style have significantly lower Spatial ability, Numerical Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning and Verbal Critical Reasoning in contrast to mathematics teachers with Field intermediate and Field independent style. Recognizing teachers’ field dependencies helps us to know which type of teachers need more in-service classes to developing their cognitive abilities and help them to teach mathematics in a more scientific way and provide opportunities for their students to make connections, explore mathematics ideas, and develop mathematical understanding.

[Azari, S, Radmehr, F, Alamolhodaei, H: Secondary mathematics teachers’ filed dependency and its effects on their cognitive abilities. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):745-757]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.93

 

Keywords: Secondary Mathematics teacher, Field dependency, cognitive abilities

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 MACROBUTTON MTEditEquationSection2 Equation Chapter 1 Section 1 SEQ MTEqn \r \h \* MERGEFORMAT SEQ MTSec \r 1 \h \* MERGEFORMAT SEQ MTChap \r 1 \h \* MERGEFORMAT A Novel Accurate Algorithm to Ellipse Fitting for Iris Boundary Using Most Iris Edges

 

Mohammad Reza Mohammadi 1, Abolghasem Raie 2

 

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran. mrmohammadi@aut.ac.ir

  2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran. raie@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Ellipse fitting for iris boundary is an important step in eye gaze estimation and iris recognition applications. In most of the proposed algorithms only the edge image is used for ellipse fitting. In these algorithms, the undesired edges may lead to erroneous iris ellipse. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to ellipse fitting for iris boundary which uses gray and edge images simultaneously. In this algorithm, edges of eye region are computed and refined by some proposed constraints. Then, remainder segments merge together by an optimization process and the best ellipse is fitted for the merged segments. In this algorithm, most edges of iris boundary are used for ellipse fitting and hence, its accuracy is high. The performance of the method has been evaluated on real images.

J Am Sci 2012;8(6):758-763]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.94

 

Keywords: Ellipse fitting, Split points, Merge of segments.

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An Investigating to the relationship between emotional intelligence and Styles of Conflict in high school Administrators

 

Abbas Gholtash1, Moslem Salehi 2, Fatemeh Mazarei3

 

  1. Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.

  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

3. M.A in Educational Administration, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.

Gholtash578@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and Styles of Conflict of high school Administrators. The target sampling frame of this descriptive-correlation study was 122 secondary school principals from 1 region of educational department of Shiraz. Random stratified sampling strategy was employed to select a sample of 107 women and men with a reference to Morgan's table. The data of the study came from two questioners, that is, Stephen Robbins (1985) questionnaire for conflict styles and SiberYashring (1990) questionnaire for emotional intelligence. In order to analyze the data, a use was made of Pearson product moment correlation and independent group's t-test. The results of the study revealed that there was significant relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict styles. It was also indicated that there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict styles components. Additionally, no significant difference was found between male and female administrators in terms of conflict styles.

[Gholtash, A., Salehi, M., Mazarei, F. An Investigating to the relationship between emotional intelligence and Styles of Conflict in high school Administrators. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):764-767]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.95

 

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence; Conflict Styles; administrators

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Study of Biology and Reproductive Strategies in Snakes

 

Ashraf Jazayeri

 

Shahid chamran university of Ahwaz, Iran

jazayeriashraf@Ymail.com

 

Abstract: Snakes are reptiles and mysterious, even though most people are terrified of them also are popular wildlife animals. I suspect, between 100 to 150 million years ago the first time snakes have emerged. No one knows quite what the ancestors of snakes, but I suspect that the species of lizards have started to pierce the ground and the other to their feet because they did not need, in the end they have lost. Common theory is that the lizards, snakes are the ancestors of the display; some evidence also proves this theory. For example, a language they both branched and limbs are track. Until about 3000 species of organisms have been identified in only about 400 species. Among them only 50 species are poisonous and dangerous to humans can be problematic. These creatures, except in Antarctica almost "there are in other parts of the world. Most snakes live on or below it but there are also some types of trees or water, location of their choosing. Along rivers, wetlands among the reptiles are favorite places for life. Interesting species of snakes have been observed in Southeast Asia also has the ability to jump easily from a tree branch and jump to the other branches.

[Ashraf Jazayeri. Study of biology and reproductive strategies in snakes. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):768-771]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.96

 

Keywords: Snake, biology, reproduction

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Review the reflection of the cultural realities of Tajikistan in Iranian press

 

Mahnaz Zaheri

 

Email: scientificgroup@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Given the current state of the world and devastating wave of globalization, the importance of interaction and relations between countries in the context of old governments-nations and the current stable governments in order to counter the wave of globalization is undeniable. Interaction between developing countries, especially neighboring countries in a region or geographical area works for preserving the cultural identity, maintaining the boundaries, consolidating the national authority, having efficient workforce, and gaining economic income. Establishment and development of optimum interactions and relations are the first step for knowing the situation, interaction features, and mutual interests and expectations which can provide the groundwork for connection from different dimensions. Part of this knowledge is achieved through the media for communities. Since the media reflect the cultural ideas and information and various knowledge of each community, social and cultural components and the condition of cultural interaction between communities can be realized by reviewing them. Content analysis method was used in this study and its trend was deductive. The unit of analysis was news and statistical society included all issues of newspapers and magazines of Kayhan, Ettela'at, Shargh, and Abrar, news agencies, Central Asian Studies Quarterly, and so on from 2005 to 2008. The results show that among notable cultural issues, identity and issues related to Persian culture have attracted most attention (30.3%), while issues such as intellectual freedom, religious rituals, and women's issues have gained the least attention. Orientation in presenting the contents was 28% positive and 2.5% negative; contents emphasizing on cultural relations were maximum (49.8%) and contents emphasizing on social relations were minimum (3.5%). In terms of presentation style, news and translation had the highest and the lowest share with 43% and 0.5%, respectively. Contents with educational and press function showed the highest figures with 62.3% and those with recreational and promotional function showed the lowest figures with 6.5%. Contents aimed at developing the personal aspect of knowledge had the highest share with 75.3%, while those aimed at enhancing the behaviors had the lowest share with 3.5%.

[Mahnaz Zaheri. Review the reflection of the cultural realities of Tajikistan in Iranian press. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):772-778]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.97

 

Keywords: Reflecting the realities; Tajikistan; Cultural components; Iranian press; Content orientation; Interaction theory 

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Optimization of Security Performance in MANET

 

Monire Norouzi1, Mohammad esmaeel Akbari 2, Alireza Souri 3

 

1, 3 Department of Computer Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran

E-mail: m-norouzi@iau-Ahar.ac.ir, m-Akbari@iau-Ahar.ac.ir, a-souri@iau-Ahar.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Nowadays wireless technology is widely used in variety of handheld devices which required different security requirements. All this mobile computing devices enable to form mobile ad hoc network or MANET. To ensure all the transmission secured, we need suitable encryption algorithm. It can protect the confidentiality of data from malicious attack. Beside that it can be used as a mechanism to ensure that data were equipped with security features such as authentication, integrity and confidentiality. This paper will focus on the impact of performance security environment in an ad hoc wireless with a suitable encryption algorithm and transmission rate that has been determined. One simulation had been done using Matlab. Based on the result are showed that the data had been encrypted with AES algorithm gained smallest time transfer. AES produced high throughput with 50 bytes size when transmission rate is 11 Mbps and when both size and transmission increased. Meanwhile Blowfish algorithm produced high throughput in larger size when transmission rate is low. Besides that, throughput gave low impact to size in same transmission rate but high produces throughput when the value was increased.

[Monire Norouzi, Mohammad esmaeel Akbari, Alireza Souri. Optimization of Security Performance in MANET. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):779-784]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.98

 

Keywords: Computer Security; Ad-Hoc Wireless; Encryption Algorithm; Transmission Rate; throughput.

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Individual features affecting the students’ entrepreneurship capability in agricultural scientific-applied higher education centers of Iran

 

Bahman Khosravipour1, Mohammad Reza Soleimanpour2

 

1. Assistant professor of agriculture and natural resources university of Ramin-Ahvaz, Iran

2. Young Researchers Club, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

m_soleimanpour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to identify individual features affecting the students’ entrepreneurship capability in Iranian agricultural scientific-applied higher education centers. Analysis of relationships between personal characteristics and entrepreneurship capability showed that there is significant relation between age, family income, and work experience with graduates` entrepreneurship capability. Based on the results of regression analysis, the most effective variable in students’ entrepreneurship capability is work experience.

[Bahman Khosravipour, Mohammad Reza Soleimanpour. Individual features affecting the students’ entrepreneurship capability in agricultural scientific-applied higher education centers of Iran. J Am Sci 2012; 8(6):785-789]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.99

 

Keywords: Higher agriculture education, Scientific-applied higher education, entrepreneurship capability, Iran.

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Awareness of Personnel in Direct Contact with Animals Regarding Brucellosis

 

1 Howyida S. Abd El Hameed, 2 Lamiaa T. Abd El Hameed and 3 Kamel A. Zayan

 

1 Community Health Nursing Department Faculty of Nursing Benha University,

2Agriculture Economic Department Faculty of Agriculture Benha University,

3 Polluter Health Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Benha University

Elmokhtar.mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Brucellosis is still an endemic serious disease among domestic animals and human, constituting a public health problem in Kalyobia Governorate; hence this descriptive study was carried out to evaluate awareness (knowledge, attitude and practices ) of Personnel in Direct Contact with Animals Regarding Brucellosis in Kalyobia governorate. A total of 300 persons of direct animal contacts were interviewed by using questionnaire form. The findings from 'the study revealed that, a significant difference between the 3 groups regarding knowledge (p value=0.001) with higher mean score among animal examinations. The attitude toward preventive measures of brucellosis was positive. Good knowledge and positive attitude especially from veterinary doctors not always translated into sound practices, mainly due to lack of supplies (masks, gloves, coat and vaccines). The general practices of animal breeders regarding, cleaning, disposal of animal waste and vaccination of animals was bad. This study Concluded that the awareness of studied participant was low, also the training and health education about brucellosis not enough with availability protective supplies and equipment. The study finding recommended that veterinal doctors should give health education to all work in direct contact with animal about preventive measures, and communication messages about brucellosis should be available in each veterinary health unit.

[Howyida S. Abd El Hameed, Lamiaa T. Abd El Hameed and Kamel A. Zayan. Awareness of Personnel in Direct Contact with Animals Regarding Brucellosis. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):790-796]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.100

 

Keywords: Brucellosis, Knowledge, Practice, in Direct Contact with Animals, Animal Breeders

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Image Reconstruction for CT Scanner by Using Filtered Back projection Approach

 

Mohd Soyapi Mohd Yusoff 1, Riza Sulaiman 1, Shafinah Kamarudin 1,2

 

1. Faculty of Information Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Malaysia.

2. Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Putra University of Malaysia, Bintulu, Sarawak, Campus (UPMKB), Nyabau Road, P.O. Box 396, 97008, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

soyapi81@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Image reconstruction in computed tomography (CT) has been extensively studied from different angles, to find new methods and algorithms for better execution of the reconstruction tasks. In this study, three challenging problems in developing a prototype for image reconstruction system using summation back projection approach are addressed namely; blurring effect of the summation back projection computational processes, computational complexity and the necessity for a graphical user interface. Our proposed solutions, which respectively address these problems, are; to exploit Ram-Lak filter, to utilize a scientific and industrial programming language (FORTRAN) and to use Visual Basic Studio (VB). To examine the solutions, prototype software has been developed, by which sinograms and slice form of an object’s image can be generated. Furthermore, this article presents a comprehensive background study on image reconstruction using filtered back projection (FBP) approaches to develop the CT scanner software application.

[Yusoff MSM, Sulaiman R, Kamarudin S. Image Reconstruction for CT Scanner by Using Filtered Back projection Approach. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):797-803]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.101

 

Keywords: Tomography; non-destructive testing; Radon Transform; Fourier Slice Theorem; sinogram; back projection; image reconstruction; filtered; fan-beam; convolution; attenuation coefficient

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Effect of different finishing techniques on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of cast Nickel-chromium alloy

 

A.M.Fahmy*, A.F. Hamed** & M.O.I. Gobashy***

 

*Faculty of Dentistry, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt

**Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Faculty of Dentistry, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt

***Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding Author: Yeheaali60@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The formation of biofilm and bacterial accumulation on dental materials may lead to the development of gingival inflammation and secondary caries. Finishing and Polishing constitutes an essential requisite after the fabrication of fixed partial dentures. Improper finishing and polishing of cast restoration will adversely affect the quality of functional of it. The roughness of intra oral hard surfaces plays an important role in bacterial adhesion and colonization. The adhesion of this bacterium to fixed partial denture materials can be responsible for secondary caries and periodontal disease around the restoration. Modification of dental alloy surfaces with new techniques of finishing and polishing in order to obtain highly polished surface may be beneficial for preventing these problems. Aim of the study: To develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two different methods of surface finishing techniques (conventional method and electrochemical finishing) on the surface roughness and adhesion and colonization of Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Twenty Specimens from Ni Cr alloy were made for this study by using lost wax technique. Specimens were divided into 2 groups: group A in which the specimens were finished and polished by conventional methods. While in group B the specimens were polished by using electrochemical procedures using special equipment. The surface roughness for all specimens was evaluated using Rugosimeter. After that specimens were cleaned and autoclaved. The tested organism (Streptococus mutans) was isolated and counted. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. Results: Group A with conventional methods of finishing showed high surface roughness with total count of bacteria (9 x 104CFU/ml) which was greater than that of group B of electrochemical finishing with lower surface roughness associated with the absence of bacteria count. Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between the surface roughness value of specimen and the amount of S. mutans adhesion to these surfaces

[A.M.Fahmy, A.F.Hamed & M.O.I.Gobashy. Effect of different finishing techniques on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of cast Nickel-chromium alloy. J Am Sci 2012; 8(6):804-810]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.102

 

Key words: Surface roughness, electro-chemical polishing, Streptococus mutans, adhesion and colonization

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Presenting a Parallel Algorithm for Constructing Cartesian Trees and its Application in Generating Separate and Free Trees

 

Azad Shojaei 1*, Amjad Osmani2, Abdoljabar Asadi3

 

1 Department of Computer, Saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saqhez, Iran

2Department of Computer, Saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saqhez, Iran

3 Department of Computer, Saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saqhez, Iran

*Azad.Shojaei@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, an n-element array is introduced in order to present a parallel algorithm for generating Cartesian trees. Furthermore, required time, space, and operations of the algorithm are investigated. The all nearest smaller values problem is explained briefly because it influences on the problems of Cartesian trees. Two applications of Cartesian trees in generating suffix and separating trees are explored. Suffix trees and separating trees are among the most important data structures in processing fields.

[Azad Shojaei, Amjad osmani, Abdoljabar Asadi. Presenting a Parallel Algorithm for Constructing Cartesian Trees and its Application in Generating Separate and Free Trees. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):811-813]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.103

 

Key words: Parallel algorithm, Cartesian tree, ANSV, Separating tree, Suffix tree

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Application of geometry in brick decoration of Islamic architecture of Iran In Seljuk period

 

Ahmad Panahi

 

Ph.D Student, Architecture Department, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

 

Abstract: Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for buildings of lesser importance such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. Architecture through the ages, has embraced a wide variety of arts and sciences. By using mathematics, Iranian architecture has achieved a high level of beauty and perfection. It is evident that advanced geometry was used by the prominent architects at that time. Geometry was used not only to solve structural problems, but also in the details of the designs of various structures. These range from the immense high entrances of Friday Mosques in important cities, to entrances of ordinary homes. By reviewing examples of medieval Iranian architecture, one becomes aware of its close relationship to scientific fields such as mathematics, geometry, cosmology, and astrology. This Relationship made it possible to achieve perfection, monumentality and poetic beauty. This paper interest to study about geometry using in Iranian architecture in the seljuk period.

[Ahmad Panahi. Application of geometry in brick decoration of Islamic architecture of Iran In Seljuk period. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):814-821]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.104

 

Keywords: Geometry, Islamic architecture, Iran, Seljuk period

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Causal model of attachment impact on academic achievement, emphasizing the mediatory of openness

 

Abas Marzban1, Nafise Eslamian2, Omid Isanejad3

 

1 Department of Counseling, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Psychology, Branch of Karaj, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

3 Department of Psychology and Counseling, University of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iran.

farhangmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Causal pathway model of attachment impact on academic achievement emphasizing on the mediatory openness has been fitted. Four hundred fifty students from schools of Iran were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. They answered the following questionnaires: Attachment scale (Armsden Greenberg, 1987), Cognitive openness (Kashdan, 2004); and their academic performance were measured at the end of the academic year 2010-2011. Pierson's correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and pathway analysis were used to analyze the results. The results revealed that the father and friend attachment had a positive and significant relation with cognitive openness and academic progress, but mother attachment did not. On the other hand, cognitive openness had a positive and significant relation with academic progress. The attachment way had a positive and significant effect on academic progress due to cognitive openness.

[Abas Marzban, Nafise Eslamian, Omid Isanejad. Causal model of attachment impact on academic achievement, emphasizing the mediatory of openness. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):822-826]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.105

 

Key words: Academic progress, Attachment, Cognitive openness.

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Integration of Linear Goal Programming and Fuzzy VIKOR Method for Marketing Strategy Selection: A Case Study

 

Ali Mohaghar 1, Mohammad Reza Fathi 2, Ali Sasani 3 and Ehsan Khanmohammadi 2

 

1 Associated Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.A. Candidates of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 M.A. Candidate of Entrepreneurship Management, University of Tehran, Iran

E-mail: Ali_sasani@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology for selecting of marketing strategy by integration of Linear Goal Programming model and Fuzzy VIKOR. LGP method is used to determine the fuzzy weights of criteria and Fuzzy VIKOR aims to rank strategies. We apply the integrated approach in real case to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

[Ali Mohaghar, Mohammad Reza Fathi, Ali Sasani and Ehsan Khanmohammadi. Integration of Linear Goal Programming and Fuzzy VIKOR Method for Marketing Strategy Selection: A Case Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):827-834]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 106

 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.106

Keywords: Linear Goal Programming, Marketing strategy, Fuzzy logic and Fuzzy VIKOR

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(6):835-839]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 107

Withdrawn

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Solar energy: Important Element of Economical Development

 

Javad Davoudi1, Andishe Ghomi2, Mehri Jalali1

 

1. Payam-e-Noor University (PNU), Saveh, Iran

2. Islamic Azad University (IAU), Najafabad, Iran

javad.davoudi@gmail.com, andishe370@yahoo.com, m.jalali21@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Producing electricity is one of the basic economical powers of a country, so increasing electricity production and its additional value has been the focus of attention in recent ten years. Meanwhile, by achieving the advanced technology, using of clean energy and reproducible systems in energy supply has had noticeable increase. Facility in access and use of solar energy are two factors that change it into a put it in a suitable source. Sun is the biggest and the only source of energy supply of the earth which is used to supply the energy in different ways, such as fossil and non-fossil fuels. In this article the role of improving efficiency of solar energy as a dynamic and constant source of economical development is studied. Also Iran situation in receiving and exploiting it in comparison with other countries have been reviewed. Fortunately, a huge number of solar projects in our country have been run in recent years. Generating solar power houses in Shiraz، Yazd and some other cities are some of the examples. Salient increase in electrification to rural areas of Iran by photo voltaic systems in recent ten years at industry and its effect on employment, private investment development and improvement of economy have been preceded.

[Javad Davoudi, Andishe Ghomi, Mehri Jalali. Solar energy: Important Element of Economical Development. J Am Sci 2012;8(6):840-845]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 108

doi:10.7537/marsjas080612.108

Key words: solar energy, solar powerhouse, employment, private investment, Iran

Full Text

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