Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(Am Sci J)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 7, Cumulated No. 53, July 25, 2012

Cover Page (online),  Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0807

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CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Prioritization of Transformational Leadership Dimensions in the Industry (Case study: Aircraft Industry of Iran)

 

Ali Jokar1*, Abdolreza Miri2, Esmaeil Sabzikaran3

 

1Senior lecturer and Instructor of Shahid Sattari Aviation University, Tehran, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3M.A. in Public Administration, Faculty of Management Department, Shahid Sattari Aviation University

*Email: Alj_26478@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : In the recent researches conducted in the field of leadership, interactions of transformational leadership with regards to charisma have been investigated. Interactive leaders mostly emphasize on maintaining the status quo, but in the transformational leadership, leaders inspire followers to change the status quo and cause the sense of emotional commitment to the missions of organization among employees. Hence, the experts consider transformational leadership more effective than interactive leadership. Though, investigating dimensions of transformational leadership in the country provides the possibility of getting benefits from appropriate mechanisms to improve the leadership. This description and surveying was applied, and field research provided to explain aspects of priority of transformational leadership dimensions in the Iran's aircraft industry. The study population randomly selected among top companies in the aircraft industry. Findings show that, based on viewpoint of employees, managers have different priorities for transformational leadership dimensions, in which the personal identification of individuals and their mental stimulations have the least and perspective expression have the highest priority.

[Ali Jokar, Abdolreza Miri, Esmaeil Sabzikaran. Prioritization of Transformational Leadership Dimensions in the Industry (Case study: Aircraft Industry of Iran). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

 

Keywords: dimensions of transformational leadership, perspective expression, personal identification, mental stimulation.

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Knowledge and Attitudes of Final Year Medical Students to Radiation Oncology as a Specialty.

 

Adenipekun  A.A., Elumelu-Kupoluyi T.N., Oladeji A.A.

 

Department of Radiotherapy, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

adenipek2000@yahoo.com,

 

ABSTRACT: Background: Radiation therapy is a medical specialty in which ionizing radiation is used to treat malignant diseases and occasionally benign conditions. The specialty has been in existence since the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895. A student doctor Emil Grubbé in Chicago was reported as the first person to use radiation to treat cancer, and three years later, two Swedish doctors used radiotherapy to cure several cases of cancer of head and neck. In Nigeria like many developing countries Radiation therapy also called Radiation oncology is relatively a new specialty compared to other medical specialties. There are only five centers having Radiotherapy Facilities in Nigeria to a population of over 140 million. There is a general lack of knowledge about Radiation therapy among health professionals including medical graduates, this is worse among general public with unfounded and exaggerated fears about the discipline. In University College Hospital, Ibadan (UCH), Radiotherapy facilities have been in place for more than two decades. This study was conducted among final year medical students at University College Hospital, Ibadan to assess their level of knowledge about the specialty and to estimate the percentage of those who will consider Radiation oncology as career option. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Radiotherapy department of University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria, among final year students of MBBS degree programme.  A total of 114 willing medical students participated in the study.  A semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.  The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections, Section A addressed demographic data, while Section B addressed issues about knowledge of Radiotherapy and Section C addressed attitudes and possibilities of choosing Radiation oncology as a career. The data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 16.0. Results: 114 participant were enrolled, Majority of the student 95.6% responded affirmatively to awareness of radiotherapy as a specialty, Of which 78.8% got the information during their posting lecture, 94.7 of the total responded have rotated through radiotherapy department. Of all the responded, 33.3% believed radiotherapy is not as exciting compare with other specialties, and 21.9% believed radiotherapy is not as rewarding as other specialties. 78.1% were scared of radiation exposure and its danger, 66.7% believed that radiotherapist are at risk of infertility and 74.6% believed that radiotherapist are at risk of cancer. However despite the high percentage of students having negative attitude towards radiotherapy, 57.0% said they would consider radiation oncology as a career. Conclusion: The results of our survey showed that the medical students were not exempted from the group of people that express wrong fears towards radiotherapy which is mainly due to inadequate knowledge.  There is therefore the need to ensure that adequate importance is given to Radiotherapy in the MBBS curriculum so as to enhance awareness regarding the subject and to equip the students with more knowledge on radiation safety and quality control.

[Adenipekun A.A., Elumelu-Kupoluyi T.N., Oladeji A.A. Knowledge and Attitudes of Final Year Medical Students to Radiation Oncology as a Specialty. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):6-10]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 2

 

KEY WORDS: Medical Students, Radiation oncology.

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Transformational Leadership and Employees' Job Satisfaction and Commitment: A Structural Equation Investigation

 

Mohamad Saad Mohamad

 

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Art, Cairo University, Egypt

msm_mones@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study aimed at investigating the relationship between transformational leadership and both employees' generic job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The sample consisted of 160 male employees attending Master of Business Administration program in some private educational institutions in Egypt. Their ages ranged between 25 and 47 years (35.47±6.27 years). Three instruments were used to assess study variables: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used to assess transformational leadership; the Generic Job Satisfaction Scale (GJSS) was used to assess employees' job satisfaction; while Mayer & Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) was used to assess employees' organizational commitment. The results indicated that transformational leadership style is significantly correlated with generic job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Structural investigation of these relationships indicated that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between perceived transformational leadership style and organizational commitment. These results are discussed in line with past theoretical and empirical literature.

[Mohamad Saad Mohamad. Transformational Leadership and Employees' Job Satisfaction and Commitment: A Structural Equation Investigation. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):11-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 3

 

Keywords: Egypt, Work-related attitudes, Islamic leadership, Structural Equation Modeling.

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Evaluation Biological of Cartilaginous Fish in Persian Gulf

*Ashraf JazayeriForogh Papan

 

Shahid chamran university of Ahwaz, Iran

Corresponding Author: Jazayeriashraf@Ymail.com

 

Abstract: Persian Gulf of biodiversity is very richSome of the aquatic area, rare are and they protectedAccurate information about All Species This Sea is not available. Determination Biodiversity Persian GulfFirst Step In recognition of this ecosystem is the marine research field overview and a detailed database about the Persian Gulf ProvidesThe biological properties of deep sea cartilaginous fish and living areas have always beenUnfortunately, information about They little is known. However, several species in the Persian Gulf Cartilaginous fish areThe most important types are flounder and shark.

[Ashraf Jazayeri, Forogh Papan. Evaluation Biological of cartilaginous fish in Persian Gulf. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):20-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

 

Keywords  Cartilaginous fishes, the Persian Gulf, shark, flounder

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   Ardalan's Empire in the Province of "Sina and Ardalan" in Afshariyeh Period

 

Amir Abdulahi

Department of History Science, Islamic Azad University,  Maku Branch, Maku, Iran

Amirabdulahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study is intended to investigate how the reign of Ardalan's dynasty in the Province of "Sina and Ardalan" in Afshariyeh Period was. The historical records of Ardalan's dynasty and their bearing on the history and the political structure of the central governments reigning over Iran are the focus of attention and used in order to understand the political changes in the Province of "Sina and Ardalan" in Afshariyeh Period. Moreover, by looking into issues like Ardalan's rulers' cooperation and opposition with the central government, and their political practice based on their multifaceted relationship to Afshariyeh kings and the incentive and volition of the residents of Ardalan province,  the political ties, interrelations, and changes of this province in the mentioned period are scrutinized in this article. In addition, the article introduces Ardalan's rulers, discusses the reason for their thronement and dethronement in this period, and sheds light on how they dealt with the central government kings and the regional people. There is a focus on different aspects of Ardalan's rulers' lives in this period especially Sobhan-Werdi Khan Ardalan's life.

[Amir Abdulahi. Ardalan's Empire in the Province of "Sina and Ardalan" in Afshariyeh Period. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):24-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 5

 

Key words: Ardalan, Afshariyeh, Kurdish regions, Baban, Ottomani, Kurd Tribes

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Occupational Program for Improving the Health of Gasoline Workers

 

Mahbouba Sobhy Abd El Aziz, and Ebtisam Mohamed Abd -El Aal

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Ebtisam_rohayem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occupational program for improving the health of gasoline workers at stations. Design: A quasi –experimental design was used. Setting: This study was conducted at gasoline stations in Benha City.  Sample: The total sample was used as follows, the total number of gasoline stations in Benha City was (10) stations, all workers at stations were included in the study (41). Tools: Two tools were used for data collection. 1) An interviewing questionnaire, concerning demographic characteristics, and medical history of the workers about health during last month, workers’ knowledge related to effect of gasoline on health and their practices during emergency. 2) Observational checklist was designed to evaluate the gasoline environment, and worker practices related to safety measures during the work. Results: The frequency distribution of workers' age ranged between 30 -<50 years as accounted for 75.6%, while 52% of them had intermediate education, and 68.3% hadn't any training program. The workers’ knowledge about gasoline by age revealed that 32.3% with age 30->40 had poor knowledge about gasoline meaning, and gasoline toxicity. The workers’ knowledge after the program was improved compared to pre program, as well as practices as reported by the workers there were statistically significant differences between pre and post program regarding to knowledge and practices about emergency. Conclusion: The gasoline stations’ workers are in need for more training program to upgrade their knowledge, and improve their practices to protect them from work hazards and improve their health. The occupational program improved workers’ knowledge regarding to gasoline and its dangerous effect on health but the practices slightly improved after the program implementation. Recommendations: Workers at gasoline stations need more attention for safety protective devices, regular training program, and regular checkup for their health status.

[Mahbouba Sobhy Abd El Aziz, and Ebtisam Mohamed Abd -El Aal. Occupational Program for Improving the Health of Gasoline Workers. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):33-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

 

Key Words: Gasoline, environment, emergency care.

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Reconstruction after removal of basal cell carcinoma

 

Mona I. Hassan1 and Doaa Abd El-maleek Hassan2

 

1Plastic Surgery Unit, 2Dermatology and Venereology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University Cairo Egypt

hassandr@hotmail.de   

 

Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is by far the most prevalent skin cancer. Eighty percent of BCC affect the facial skin. The greatest challenge is removing all tumor cells to prevent a recurrence in complicated cases , as recurrent tumor are more difficult to cure. Ten patients with basal cell carcinoma on the nose and five patients with basal cell carcinoma on the ear were operated on between November 2008 to February 2011.The mean age was 55 years (range45-75 years). With follow up from 12-37 months. A shave biopsy under local anesthesia was done for some cases which cannot diagnosed clinically. All cases was treated surgically by Standard surgical excision, with standard surgical margin  is applied (usually 4 mm or more). All cases was reconstructed by local flaps [3 cases by rhomboid flap,4 cases by superiorly based nasolabial flap, 3 cases by bilobe flap  and 5 cases by  superior Pedicle retroauricular island flap (SP-RIF) for ear reconstruction]. A relatively short procedure with  a good results, yields an aesthetically satisfactory looking nose, ear and achieve the goal of primary treatment of basal cell skin cancer is the cure of the tumor and the maximal preservation of function and cosmoses. No recurrence was occurred during the follow up period. The patients satisfaction was very high in all cases.

[Mona I. Hassan and Doaa Abd El-maleek Hassan. Reconstruction after removal of basal cell carcinoma. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):42-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

 

Key words: Basal cell carcinoma. Facial reconstruction

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The Role of rs12979860 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL 28B Gene in Early Virological Response in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4

 

Mohsen M. Maher¹, Mohamed A. Mohamed¹, Hanaa A. Amer², Tarek M. Yosef¹, Moataz M. Sayed¹, Maha M. Hussein¹, Sara H. Abou Agwa³, Mahmod A. Hewaidy¹.

 

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology¹- Ain Shams University. Department of Clinical Pathology²- Ain Shams University. Medical  Research Center³- Ain Shams University.

tarekyosef31@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL28B and host response to pegylated interferon α (PEG-IFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) were shown to be strongly associated. This study aimed to investigate the relation between SNP at rs12979860 allele of IL28B gene and early virological response (EVR) in Egyptian patients with HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4). The HCV RNA level of 27 patients with HCV-4 receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy (P-INF/RBV) was assessed by quantitative measurement at baseline and 24 weeks after start of treatment. Genotyping of IL28B was done by PCR Amplification followed by SNPs of rs12979860 by Direct Sequencing  using Automated Sequencer (ABI system), for all patients during treatment. The results showed that The CC genotype of rs12979860 was identified in 11 (40.74%) patients, 10 of them (90.9%) achieved EVR, while the CT heterozygous was detected in 6 (22.22%) patients, 4 of them (66.7%) achieved EVR and the TT was found in 10 (37.04%) patients and none of them (0%) was responder at 12 weeks. The EVR was significantly associated with CC genotypes compared to other genotypes (p<0.001), the TT genotype was associated with failure to achieve EVR. These results suggest that IL28B genotyping can be used to predict EVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.

[Mohsen M. Maher, Mohamed A. Mohamed, Hanaa A. Amer, Tarek M. Yosef, Moataz M. Sayed, Maha M. Hussein, Sara H. Abou Agwa, Mahmod A. Hewaidy. The Role of rs12979860 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL 28B Gene in Early Virological Response in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):50-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

 

Key words: single nucleotide, Hepatitis C Virus, IL28B gene, Genotype.

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CD81 and CD5+ B lymphocytes and HCV: Trojan horse for a cruel killer.

 

Adel A. Mahmoud1 , Tarek M. Yousef1 , Mohga A. Sabry2 , Khaled R. Alean3  and Manal M.Ahmed3

 

Internal Medicine1 , Clinical Pathology2 and Biochemsitry3 Departments Ain Shams University

tarekyosef31@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: HCV is hepatotrophic and lymphotrophic virus which may partly explain that Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is frequently associated with extra hepatic autoimmune phenomena. Receptors for HCV on B cells include the low density lipoprotein receptor and CD 81 which is a component of the complement receptor 2. CD5+ B cells is reported to be expanded in chronic HCV infection. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work is to study the possible role of peripheral B-cell CD81 and CD5 in the development of HCV-related autoimmunity and their response to interferon therapy . Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 45 subjects divided into two groups; Patient group : included 30 chronic HCV Egyptian patients , 26 males and 4 femaless with mean age 50±2 years, 17 patients were under treatment with interferon alpha plus ribavirin and 13 patients were not under therapy and  Control group; included 15 normal subjects , 10 males and 5 females with mean age 46±14 years . Results: ALT and AST were statistically significantly higher in the patients group compared to the control group; ALT [80.9±45.3 vs. 7.1±2.2…], AST [60.2±51.8 vs. 6.4±3.1] and p <0.001 for both comparisons. The level of B-cells expressing the CD5 antigen in the peripheral blood of patients group was significantly increased over that of control group [23.2±7.2 % vs. 7.15±5.5 % and, p < 0.001]. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD81 expression was significantly higher in patients group than in control group [150±15 vs. 85±13. And, p < 0.001].CD5 percent was significantly positively correlated with the viral load in patients with significant fibrosis ie those planned for treatment [r = + 0.48457 and p < 0.05]  , but after  6 month of therapy  the correlation was statistically non-significant. however,  CD81 was statistically non-significantly correlated with the viral load in that group of patients before starting treatment  , but  showed statistical significant positive correlation with the viral load after  6 month of therapy [ r= 0.55539 and  p < 0.05].ANA, antismooth muscle antibody, rheumatoid factor, and cryoglobulins were significantly more prevalent in HCV patients than healthy controls [30% vs. 6.7%, 60% vs. 6.7%, 60% vs. 13.3% and  40% vs. 0%, respectively and, p < 0.05 for all comparisons ]. The expansion of CD5+B-celIs was found to be significantly associated [ p < 0.05 for all  correlations]with the production of  RF, ANA, LKM, ASMA and MC  . Conclusion: overexpression of CD81 and the expansion of CD5+ peripheral B-cells in HCV infected patients may possibly play a role in the development of HCV associated autoimmunity and that IFN- ribavirin treatment down regulates cell surface CD81.

[Adel A. Mahmoud , Tarek M. Yousef , Mohga A. Sabry, Khaled R. Alean and Manal M.Ahmed. CD81 and CD5+ B lymphocytes and HCV: Trojan horse for a cruel killer. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):56-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

 

Key words: HCV, hepatotrophic, autoimmune phenomena, lipoprotein receptor.

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Effect of Lead Acetate on the Thyroid Gland of Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Zinc Supplementation: A Biochemical, Histological and Morphometric Study

 

Abeer E. El-Mehi1 and Safaa A. Amin2

 

1Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University.

2Forensic and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University.

abeermehi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Lead is a major environmental pollutant. The interaction of micronutrients with toxic metals is of great interest. Aim: To evaluate the effect of lead toxicity on the structure and function of thyroid gland and the role of zinc supplementation. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: group I "control group", group II that received  Zn sulphate (1mg/kg body weight) daily once a time for 30 days by means of a gastric tube, group III, that received 1/8 of lead acetate LD50 (30 mg /Kg body weight) daily once a time for 30 days by means of a gastric tube & group IV, that received lead acetate as in group III followed, after 1 h, by 1mg/kg body weight of Zn sulphate daily once a time for 30 days by means of a gastric tube. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected to measure T3, T4 and TSH serum levels. The thyroid glands were processed for light and electron microscopic examinations. Morphometric analysis, for epithelial height, follicular area and colloidal area percent, was performed and statistically analyzed. Results: Lead treated rats showed significantly decreased T3, T4 and TSH serum levels. Histologically, lead treated rats showed enlarged thyroid follicles lined with flattened epithelium. Their colloid showed minimal peripheral scalloping and faint PAS reaction. Some follicles showed shedded epithelial lining. Ultrastructural findings included dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated mitochondria, increased lysosomes and lack of microvilli of follicular cells. Apoptotic signs were detected in the form of darkly stained cytoplasm, shrunken nuclei with peripheral margination of chromatin and apoptotic bodies. morphometrically, lead treated group showed significantly decreased epithelial height while the follicular area and colloidal area percent were significantly increased when compared to control group.  Zinc coadminstration resulted in improvement of the biochemical, histological and histomorphometric changes resulting from lead treatment. Conclusions:  Lead has harmful effects on the histological structure and the function of the thyroid gland. Zinc, when given to rats in a dose of 1mg/kg for 30 days, minimized these damaging effects.

[Abeer E. El-Mehi and Safaa A. Amin. Effect of Lead Acetate on the Thyroid Gland of Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Zinc Supplementation: A Biochemical, Histological and Morphometric Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):61-71]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

 

Key words: lead acetate – thyroid gland – zinc sulphate

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New Paleozoic – Mesozoic Foraminifera from Egypt-North East Africa

 

Nagwa Ibrahim, Ezzat Abd Elshafy, Sayed Abd El-Azeam and Naglaa Yahia

 

Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

sayedazeam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Eighteen new foraminiferal species have been recorded from the subsurface Lower Paleozoic – Mesozoic rocks in the north western part of the Egyptian Western Desert. These agglutinated species belong to eight genera and five families of the suborder Texetulariina. Two of them were detected from the Ordovician, four from the Silurian and ten from the Devonian while the remaining two have been encountered from the Lower Jurassic and the Lower Cretaceous intervals. All of these species have been described, microphotographed and followed statigraphically throughout the studied succession.

[Nagwa Ibrahim, Ezzat Abd Elshafy, Sayed Abd El-Azeam and Naglaa Yahia. New Paleozoic–Mesozoic Foraminifera from Egypt-North East Africa. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):72-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

 

Key Wards: New species- Ordovician- Silurian- Devonian- Jurassic-Cretaceous

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Computer Aided Design Software development for Welding hollow cylinder.

 

A.A. Adekunle¹ and S. B. Adejuyigbe²

 

¹Mechanical Engineering Department, LadokeAkintola University ofTechnology, Ogbomoso,OyoState, Nigeria.

²Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,  Ogun State, Nigeria.

aaadekunle@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Software development is concerned with the conception, development and verification of a software system. This deals with identifying, defining, realizing and verifying the required characteristics of the resultant software. The software characteristics may include: functionality, reliability; maintainability, availability, testability, ease of use, portability and other. (Wikipedia, 2006). Today, joining metallic material using welding process is the most common method or ways of producing permanent joint for the production of machine parts, equipments and instruments. Welding is the process of joining metals or plastics together through the coalescences of the surface at the point of contact. CAD software for welding was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic.net which was used to weld two cylinders together automatically. The result clearly shows that Robotic welding systems are able to operate continuously, provided appropriate maintenance procedures are adhered to. Continuous production line interruptions can be minimized with proper robotic system design. Robotic welding is faster, error free and uniformly welded all through like that of the CAD welding model developed.

[A.A. Adekunle and S. B. Adejuyigbe. Computer Aided Design Software development for Welding hollow cylinder. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):82-86]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

 

Keywords: Computer Aided Design, Robotics, Software, Cylinder, Welding

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Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) Modeling for Gas Welding Process

 

A.A. Adekunle¹ and S. B. Adejuyigbe²

 

¹Mechanical Engineering Department, LadokeAkintola University ofTechnology, Ogbomoso,OyoState, Nigeria.

²Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

 

Abstract: The application of computer technology offers the potential to reduce a product cycle time through Computer –Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) applications. CADD is the use of computer systems to assist in creation, modification, analysis, drawing or optimization of design. Welding operation is joining two metals together. The need arise for how to minimize or eliminate the error encountered when fatigue sets in, due to low efficiency of the local  welder. CADD software for welding was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 which was used to weld two mild steel plates together automatically. The result of the research clearly shows that robotic welding is faster, error free and uniformly welded all through like that of the CADD welding model developed. It is highly suggested and recommended that further work on robotics can be embark upon to bring Nigeria to the level of Industrialized Nation.

[A.A. Adekunle and S. B. Adejuyigbe. Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) Modeling for Gas Welding Process. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):87-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

 

Keywords: Computer; Design; Drafting; Model; Gas; Welding

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The synthesis and the magnetic properties of Co-Ti Fe2O4 ferrite doped with rare earth ions Nanoparticles

 

 A. Almuhamady1 and N. Aboulfotoh2

 

 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,

2Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University

abdulsalamalmuhamady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Co1+xTix Ry Fe2-2x-yO4  (with x =0.1 & y= 0.02) , (R= Gd, Ho, Er, Nd and Ce) were prepared employing the standard double sintering ceramic technique. The powder was subjected to X-ray diffraction  to demonstrate that spinel structure with  small secondary phases were obtained due to the doping with rare earth. The physical properties were influenced by rare earth doping substitution. The preparation of nanoparticles less than 50 nm was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The samples were more characterized by IR absorption spectroscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometer was employed to probe the magnetic properties of the samples. It was found that rare earth doping enhances the magnetic properties.

[A. Almuhamady  and N. Aboulfotoh. The synthesis and the magnetic properties of Co-Ti Fe2O4 ferrite doped with rare earth ions Nanoparticles. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):94-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

 

Keyword: Rare earth, spinel ferrites, TEM and magnetic properties

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The effect of the prayer on blossoming and raise of spiritual aspect of the human

 

Masumeh Azizi Khadem 1,

 

1. Islamic azad university,Dehloran branch,Dehloran,iran

 

masoomehazizi912@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Worship of the god is one of various factors of raise and ascension of the soul and spirit to high levels .the internal fact of human is not materialistic. It is spiritual which has received from the god .soul through different worlds (divinity-wisdom-martial) reaches to the weakest level of essence to adopt with this martial universe.  Human need to worship is an innate need, which the best instance of that is the prayer.In the prayer, most important principle of Islam is the confessing to monotheism and oneness of god.Everything has an internal and external aspect- the prayer is too.The external aspect of the pray is the religious ritual and the internal aspect is the meditation of the prayers. This paper pays attention to pray and its effects on divine aspect of human. Depending on points mentioned the pray has an effect on evolution of all aspect of human such as personal and social aspect. And make it possible that human reach to divine high levels.

[Masumeh Azizi Khadem.  The effect of the prayer on blossoming and raise of spiritual aspect of the human. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):99-104]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

 

Keywords: Worship-pray-soul-ascension-human

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Spatiotemporal Variability of Groundwater Depth in Urmia Plain, Iran

 

Amir Yousefzadeh1*, Ebrahim Pazira1, Mohammad Hassan Masihabadi1, Reza Sokouti Oskouiy2

 

[1]. Department of Soil Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2. Agriculture and Natural Resources Research, Center of West Azarbaijan, Urmia, Iran.

a.yousefzadeh@srbiau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: More often scientists and researchers should be able to expand their measured point’s data set to the desirable entire study area. Therefore, on the basis of available data set, a systematized method for estimating information at unmeasured locations is needed. Kriging is an interpolation method to calculate values at such mentioned points. Currently, Urmia plain with continuous depression in its groundwater depth are encountered. In this article, groundwater table depth variation at unmeasured locations were estimated on the basis of data set available from 57 observation wells during the years 2006, 2008 and 2010 using a kriging model. The results showed that in application of ordinary kriging, experimental semivariogram with the spherical model was suitable, and correlation coefficient for the fitted model was calculated to be 0.938. Also it should be mentioned that the depth of groundwater is at a deeper position in the Eastern parts and gradually decreasing to the Western part of the study area. Surface land area during the same four years that the groundwater level was decreased between 2 and 3 meters, has increased about 2800 hectares. For which in 1360 hectares of land in the mentioned plain, groundwater level declined about 28 to 30 meters, this condition did not exist previously.

[Amir Yousefzadeh, Ebrahim Pazira, Mohammad Hassan Masihabadi, Reza Sokouti Oskouiy. Spatiotemporal Variability of Groundwater Depth in Urmia Plain, Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):105-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

 

Keywords:Groundwater table, Spatial change, Temporal change, Urmia plain, Iran.

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Relation of Vitamin B12, Folate, and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism to Bone Mass Density in Healthy Saudi Men

 

Ayman S. Alharbi1, Jalal A. Awlia 2, Mohammed S. Ardawi 3

 

1Applied Medical Science, Taif University

2Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University

3Clinical Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University

omari_anas_2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Osteoporosis is a global health problem. The magnitude of the disease become larger in the Middle East region than in western countries. Local clinical observations and research data showed that osteoporosis is a common disorder in the Saudi population. Most of these observations were concentrating upon postmenopausal women, but other observations suggested that the disease could affect men to a comparable degree with women. The nutritional deficiencies play important role in osteoporosis development. So our project focused on the relationship between vitamin B12 and folate status with the BMD in healthy Saudi men.Method: Our study was consisted of 315 Saudi men. Based in WHO criteria they were classified according to T-score of their BMD of the anteroposterior lumbar spine (L1-L4), and right and left femoral neck into normal (n=235), osteopenic (n=70), and osteoporotic (n=10). The serum Ca, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, OC, PINP, CTx, and NTx levels were measured for each individual. Also MTHFR C677T genotype was performed for each individual to detect the relation of these different genotypes with BMD. Results: By using ANOVA serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were significantly reduced in osteopenic and osteoporotic patients compared with normal subjects (P<0.05), while serum homocysteine, NTx, and CTx levels were significantly elevated in osteopenic and osteoporotic compared with the normal individuals (P<0.05). Serum vitamin B12 level has a significant negative correlation with serum homocysteine, CTx, and NTx levels (P<0.01) by using Pearson`s correlation coefficient. In addition, serum folate has a significant positive correlation with BMD of right and left femoral neck, and serum Ca levels (P <0.01), while serum homocysteine showed a significant negative correlations with BMD of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and right and left femoral neck (P <0.01). Serum OC, PINP, CTx, and NTx levels were inversely correlated with age and BMI (P <0.01). Homozygous (T677T) was associated with elevated blood homocystiene level compared with wild one. Conclusion: Elevated blood homocysteine level show to play a role in reduction of BMD Lumbar spine (L1-L4) and right and left femoral neck. Vitamin B12 and folate status and MTHFR C677T polymorphism may maintain BMD through their effect on blood homocysteine level.

[Ayman S. Alharbi, Jalal A. Awlia, Mohammed S. Ardawi. Relation of Vitamin B12, Folate, and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism to Bone Mass Density in Healthy Saudi Men. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):110-116]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

 

Key words: Osteoporosis, Bone mass density, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine.

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An intervention study to evaluate compliance with personal protective equipment among workers at Textile industry

 

Howyida S. Abd EL Hameed1 ,  Heba . A . ALY2, and Osama A. Abd El Latif3

 

1 Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Benha University.

2Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Benha University.

3 Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering Benha University

Elmokhtar.mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Workers often need to wear protective equipment to be protected from injury, illness and death caused by exposure to workplace hazards. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implemented educational intervention regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) for textile industrial workers. Quasi-experimental design was utilized to study causal relationships between variables of interest. This study was conducted in Kafr El Dawar textile industry, Behara. One hundred and twenty eight workers exposed to cotton dust were randomly selected and included in the present study. Tools of the study were structured interviewing questionnaire, educational intervention (pre/post-tests were used before and after the intervention to test the worker's knowledge) and an observation checklist was used to indicate the workers' compliance with PPE. The exposed workers' age ranges from 20 to 59 years with a mean of 44.2 ± 8.1 years. The duration of work exposure ranged from 7 to 35 years. More than 3/4 of the workers' sample was suffering from one or more symptoms of respiratory tract syndromes. Statistically significant differences was detected between workers' complains and the duration of work exposure (P<0.01). mean scores of the workers knowledge about the respiratory tract symptoms and hearing loss were increased significantly after the educational intervention (P <0.0001). there were statistical significant differences of the workers' compliance with the using of personal protective equipment, which reflects the raising of workers' awareness after the educational intervention. The study concluded that the educational intervention was effective and its results had marked improvement in workers' knowledge and compliance with the using of PPE than ever before. It is also recommended that health education programs should be developed and carried out by industrial nurse regarding PPE in other textile industries.

[Howyida S. Abd EL Hameed ,  Heba . A . ALY, and Osama A. Abd El Latif. An intervention study to evaluate compliance with personal protective equipment among workers at Textile industry. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):117-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

 

Keywords: personal protective equipment, textile industry.

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The Relationship between Social Support and Academic Self-Efficacy of Students with Mental Health


Mina Shokouhi¹,Alireza Heidari¹


¹. Department of Psychology  , Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
minashokouhi65@gmail.com

   

Abstract:  The main objective of this study investigated the relationship between social support and mental health of students with academic self-efficacy was the Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz. The study sample consisted of 400 undergraduate students at the Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz were selected through sampling. Collect data from the scale of social support  and questionnaire Khvkaramdy students and the Mental Health Inventory  is used. Results of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that psychological variables, social support and self-efficacy has a significant positive relationship. (P <0 / 05). Results of multivariate regression analysis showed that social support and self-efficacy had a significant share of students directly based upon the provision of mental health. The variables of social support and self-efficacy, mental health at the University are expected.

 [Shokouhi M, Heidari A.R. The Relationship between Social Support and Academic Self-Efficacy of Students with Mental Health. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):122-126]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

 

Key words: Social Support; College Academic Self-Efficacy; Mental Health; Student

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Performance analysis of a fault tolerant multistage interconnection network with backpressure blocking mechanism

 

M. Amiri Zarandi 1, N. Hashemi 1, *, F. Safaei2, S. Azizi 1

 

1.        Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2.        Sahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

nhashemi@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In recent years, multistage networks have been suggested as efficient tools in interconnection networks and have been studied by many researchers. In this direction many fault tolerant networks have been introduced and different studies have been performed in the field of evaluating performance of these networks. One of these networks is called Fault tolerant Double Tree (FDOT) networks which have proper efficiency in addition to the feature of cost-efficiency. Most studies performed on different kinds of multistage networks in the past have either been in the form of simulation or in the form of analytical modeling, but they have been performed in very special conditions. We have tried in this research to study the FDOT networks through analytical modeling. In this article a model has been provided for evaluating the efficiency of these networks that can evaluate the efficiency of different kinds of these networks having any size and buffer capacity under uniform traffic.

[M. Amiri Zarandi, N. Hashemi, F. Safaei, S. Azizi. Performance analysis of a fault tolerant multistage interconnection network with backpressure blocking mechanism. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):127-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

 

Key words: multistage interconnection networks; irregular networks; perfarmance analysis; fault tolerance

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Nutritional Evaluation of Some Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Cultivars Grown Under Egyptian Conditions

 

Shaaban, S. H. A.* and Mahmoud M. Shaaban

Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre

*shashaaban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field study was carried out during two consecutive years (2010-2011) at private orchard located in El-Minia governorate (Upper Egypt) on 22 years old Zaghloul, Samany, Hayany date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars to investigate soil and leaf nutritional status and their reflection on yield quantity. Soil test showed that the soil was deficient in Zn and Cu, while leaf analysis showed that the trees suffering from K and Mn deficiency in the first season (2010); K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn deficiency in the second season (2011). Consequently, the yield of the first season was higher than the yield of the second season. However, Samany cultivar gave the highest yields along the two seasons which indicate its higher tolerance to the soil unfavorable conditions than Zaghloul and Hayany cultivars. More studies should be done to design fertilizer programs depend upon soil test and leaf analysis for different date palm cultivars grown under different environmental conditions.

[Shaaban, S. H. A. and Mahmoud M. Shaaban. Nutritional Evaluation of Some Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Cultivars Grown Under Egyptian Conditions. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):135-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

 

Key words: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), var. Zaghloul, Samany, Hayany, Nutrient status.

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Investigation of pollution level of some heavy metals including cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in the flesh of farmed Rainbow Trout in Sepidan City of Fars Province

 

Seyyedeh laleh mousavi 1, Azam Moghimi2

1. Graduate student, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch Khuzestan

 

2. Department Aquaculture , Technical and Vocational Higher Education Institute ,Persian Gulf center , Boushehr, Iran

 

Abstract: According to current statistics, per capita consumption of seafood in the world has increased from 14.3 Kilograms (kg) in 1994 to 18.2 kg in 2008. In Iran it has also increased from 1 kg in 1978 (according to the Iranian calendar) to 11 kg in 2010. Parallel to the increasing consumption of seafood, health of fish has been more of concern. Hence, detection and measurement of heavy metals are very vital due to their biological process and accumulation. In order to measure the concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in the flesh of farmed Rainbow Trout, 240 fish were selected from 10 fish farms in Sepidan, Fars Province during the spring and the summer and the amount of these heavy metals was determined after chemical digestion process and using atomic absorption device. Mean concentration of lead, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in tissue of studied fish (at dry weight of fish) were 0.046, 0.06, 0.053, and 0.3 ppm (part per million), respectively. The results also showed that the concentration of lead, cadmium, Chromium, and nickel exceeded the maximum allowable concentration prescribed by WHO (World Health Organization) in 27%, 8%, 3%, and 25% of studied fish, respectively. Distribution of heavy metals in the tissue of studied fish was nearly identical and no significant statistical difference was observed between their concentrations, but the amount of these heavy metals in farmed fish was more than the marine ones. Comparison of obtained figures with standards of WHO showed that the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium, and nickel were lower than the limits of  WHO.

 [Seyyedeh Laleh Mousavi, Azam Moghimi, Mojtaba nasimi. Investigation of pollution level of some heavy metals including cadmium, lead, chromium, and nickel in the flesh of farmed Rainbow Trout in Sepidan City of Fars Province. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):140-143]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

 

Keywords: Fish; Heavy metals; Sepidan

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Attitude towards online social network service quality and online social network brand personality

(Case study LinkedIn)

 

Sayyed Mohsen Allameh1, Mohammad Mahdi Abrishamkar2,*Mahshid Gharibpoor1, Hadi Abdul-Wahab Al-Abrrow1

 

1 Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Iran

Dr_allameh@yahoo.com

2 PhD. student, Business School, University of Essex, UK

mahdiabrishamkar@gmail.com

3 Master of business administration, Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Iran

* Corresponding author: Gharibpoor@yahoo.com, tell: +9809384096267

4 Business Administration Department, College of Economic and Administration, University of Basrah, Iraq

hadi_967@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Internet and, in particular, the web has enabled a communication revolution. Online social networks have emerged and become increasingly popular. To survive in their competitive environment, online social networks should pay enough attention to their e-services quality. High e-service quality is critical to have favor brand personality. E-service quality is a determining factor of attitude toward brand personality. This study presumes that there is a significant relationship between user's attitude towards social network services and brand personality of them. To test this main hypothesis and some others, this study applied LinkedIn as the large social network for businesses and individual professionals by sample size of 384, and applies the proposal model of measuring e-service quality of social network services and their brand personality as virtual web-based brands. The hypotheses analyses by SEM method and the results proved assumptions.

Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Mohammad Mahdi Abrishamkar,Mahshid Gharibpoor, Hadi Abdul-Wahab Al-Abrrow. Attitude towards online social network service quality and online social network brand personality. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):144-155]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

 

Key words: Social network, e-service, attitude, brand personality, SEM, LinkedIn

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Impact of the Nutritional Status on Yield of Some Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivars Fertilized Through Drip Irrigation and Grown on Sandy Soil

 

Shaaban, S.H.A. and M.M. El-Fouly

 

Department of Fertilization Technology, National Research Centre

*shashaaban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was carried out on 6 years old grapevine grown in private farm, located at Kilo 64 Cairo-Alexandria desert road. Evaluation of nutrient status of two table grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless and Early Superior) were studied at three growth stages over two years; 2008 – 2009.  Soil was sand in texture. The pH of soil was alkaline (8.00 –8.40). It was non saline. The organic content of the soil was very low. The soil was low in available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and micronutrients. Total N in blades ranged between normal and above normal level. Levels of P, K and Ca were low and Mg content was between the end of sufficient and high values. P levels did not change with time. The level of K in the leaf blades was widely differing between the two cultivars and declined significantly between bloom and ripening. Zn levels were below normal or were in the beginning of sufficiency range, leaves Mn content was in the beginning of the normal range levels. Fe, in the end of sufficiency range while, copper levels were low or in the beginning of sufficiency in the two cultivars. Production of Thompson Seedless and Early Superior increased in the second year by 9% and 10%, respectively. This may be because there was improvement in the N/K ratio where N decreased against K concentration in the second season as compared with the first season; Also, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu values were improved in the second season as compared with the first season.

[Shaaban, S.H.A. and M.M. El-Fouly. Impact of the Nutritional Status on Yield of Some Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivars Fertilized Through Drip Irrigation and Grown on Sandy Soil. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):156-163]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

 

Keywords: grape, Vitis vinifera L., nutrients, seasonal variations, Egypt, sandy soils

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Behavior of Arched Strip Footings under Bearing Walls Structures

 

S. S. Abdel-Salam, E.A. El- Shamy and H.E. Abd-El- Mottaleb

 

Dept. of Structural Eng., Faculty of Eng., Zagazig University, Egypt.

Emanelshamy@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The construction of bearing walls structures does not necessarily require using reinforced concrete plane strip footings, but these structures can be constructed using arched plain and reinforced concrete strip footings. This paper aims at analyzing plain and reinforced concrete arched strip footings, as foundation system of bearing walls structures, as an alternative solution to reduce the construction cost of buildings. The effect of soil type, arched strip footing's height and the bearing walls vertical load on the dimensions and capacity of arched strip footings were studied in this paper. A numerical model for the non-linear analysis of arched strip footing-soil interaction problem based on the finite and infinite element was implemented. A computer program was developed to model the arched strip footing-soil installation. The material and geometrical non-linearity of the concrete strip footing taking into account the non-linear stress-strain relation of concrete and presence of cracking were also considered. In addition, Duncan-Mohr-Coulomb Modified model was used to simulate soil non-linearity. The obtained numerical results were compared with the traditional method in designing of strip footings commonly used by structural engineers. Design charts were proposed and presented for structural designers in order to calculate arched P.C & R.C strip footing dimensions according to soil type and vertical load for such strip footings which considerably cost less than traditional bearing walls construction system.

[S. S. Abdel-Salam, E.A. El- Shamy and H.E. Abd-El- Mottaleb. Behavior of Arched Strip Footings under Bearing Walls Structures. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):164-171]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

 

Keywords:  Structural design, Plain and reinforced concrete, Arched Strip footing, Non linear - Finite element

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CD81 and CD5+ B lymphocytes and HCV: Trojan horse for a cruel killer.

 

Adel A. Mahmoud1 , Tarek M. Yousef1 , Mohga A. Sabry2 , Khaled R. Alean3  and Manal M.Ahmed3

 

Internal Medicine1 , Clinical Pathology2 and Biochemsitry3 Departments Ain Shams University

tarekyosef31@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: HCV is hepatotrophic and lymphotrophic virus which may partly explain that Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is frequently associated with extra hepatic autoimmune phenomena. Receptors for HCV on B cells include the low density lipoprotein receptor and CD 81 which is a component of the complement receptor 2. CD5+ B cells is reported to be expanded in chronic HCV infection. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work is to study the possible role of peripheral B-cell CD81 and CD5 in the development of HCV-related autoimmunity and their response to interferon therapy . Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 45 subjects divided into two groups; Patient group : included 30 chronic HCV Egyptian patients , 26 males and 4 femaless with mean age 50±2 years, 17 patients were under treatment with interferon alpha plus ribavirin and 13 patients were not under therapy and  Control group; included 15 normal subjects , 10 males and 5 females with mean age 46±14 years . Results: ALT and AST were statistically significantly higher in the patients group compared to the control group; ALT [80.9±45.3 vs. 7.1±2.2…], AST [60.2±51.8 vs. 6.4±3.1] and p <0.001 for both comparisons. The level of B-cells expressing the CD5 antigen in the peripheral blood of patients group was significantly increased over that of control group [23.2±7.2 % vs. 7.15±5.5 % and, p < 0.001]. In addition, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD81 expression was significantly higher in patients group than in control group [150±15 vs. 85±13. And, p < 0.001].CD5 percent was significantly positively correlated with the viral load in patients with significant fibrosis ie those planned for treatment [r = + 0.48457 and p < 0.05]  , but after  6 month of therapy  the correlation was statistically non-significant. however,  CD81 was statistically non-significantly correlated with the viral load in that group of patients before starting treatment  , but  showed statistical significant positive correlation with the viral load after  6 month of therapy [ r= 0.55539 and  p < 0.05].ANA, antismooth muscle antibody, rheumatoid factor, and cryoglobulins were significantly more prevalent in HCV patients than healthy controls [30% vs. 6.7%, 60% vs. 6.7%, 60% vs. 13.3% and  40% vs. 0%, respectively and, p < 0.05 for all comparisons ]. The expansion of CD5+B-celIs was found to be significantly associated [ p < 0.05 for all  correlations]with the production of  RF, ANA, LKM, ASMA and MC  . Conclusion: overexpression of CD81 and the expansion of CD5+ peripheral B-cells in HCV infected patients may possibly play a role in the development of HCV associated autoimmunity and that IFN- ribavirin treatment down regulates cell surface CD81.

[Adel A. Mahmoud , Tarek M. Yousef , Mohga A. Sabry, Khaled R. Alean and Manal M.Ahmed. CD81 and CD5+ B lymphocytes and HCV: Trojan horse for a cruel killer. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):172-176]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

 

Key words: HCV, hepatotrophic, autoimmune phenomena, lipoprotein receptor.

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Vascular Injuries of the Neck; Decision Making

 

 Abdullah Musleh

 

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Armed Forces Hospital, South Region, Saudi Arabia. shahrani99@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Vascular injuries in the neck have the potential of creating serious morbidities and mortalities. The most important part of these injuries which have very serious outcomes is their having necessity for emergent surgical intervention. This study reviews a recent 6 years experience with 25 vascular injuries in the neck and focuses on the surgical management of the injuries. Material &Methods: A retrospective analysis of 34 patients admitted through ER with a history of suspicious of vascular trauma in the neck, between March 2005 and February 2011 by a team of otolaryngology and vascular surgery.  All the surgically treated vascular injuries in the neck were 25 out of the 34. In our patients who have been taken to immediate operation, hemodynamic parameters were quickly corrected and in order to provide artery wholeness urgent measurements were taken. Results: 25 patients (75%) who were proved to have vascular injuries in the neck from 34 patients admitted with a suspicion of vascular injuries in the neck. 48% were haemodynamically stable and were taken into operation under elective conditions. 13 (52%) patients who were hemodynamically unstable and with hard sign of vascular injuries were immediately taken into operation room. Arterial injuries were 44% of all patients and 56% of them had venous injury. No one of our patients had post operative vascular compromise. Mortality occurred in one of patients at the 12th   postoperative day as a result of multiple organ injury (etiologic agent was severe lung contusion and brain hemorrhage). Conclusion: Patients who have unstable condition, who have hematoma and serious bleeding should be immediately taken into surgery. Expeditious decision making often is required to prevent catastrophic airway, vascular, or neurologic sequelae.           

[A. Musleh. Vascular Injuries of the Neck; Decision Making. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):177-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

 

Key Words: Neck injury, carotid arteries, jugular veins.

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Synthesis, Spectroscopic Studies, Molecular Modeling and Antimicrobial Activity of Binuclear Ni(II) Complexes of 4,6-Diacetylresorcinol

 

Magdy Shebl*, Saied M.E. Khalil, A. Taha and M.A.N. Mahdi

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo 11341, Egypt

magdy_shebl@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Reactions of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol with different Ni(II) salts viz., OAc, Cl, NO3, ClO4 and SO42–, in both presence and absence of LiOH, yielded a new series of binuclear Ni(II) complexes that reflect the non-coordinating or weakly coordinating power of the ClO4, NO3 and SO42– anions as compared to the strongly coordinating power of OAc and Cl anions. Reactions of the ligand with nickel(II) ion in the presence of a secondary ligand (L′) [O,O-donor; acetylacetone (acac), N,O-donor; 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) or, N,N-donor; 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and 2,2'-bipyridyl (Bpy)] in 1:2:2 (L:M:L′) molar ratio yielded mixed-ligand complexes with two molar ratios 2:2:2 (L:M:L′) (complexes 6, 7 and 8) and 1:2:1 (L:M:L′) (complexes 9 and 10). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, IR, electronic and mass spectra as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The analytical and spectroscopic data suggested that the H2L ligand acts as a neutral, monobasic or dibasic tetradentate ligand, depending on the pH of the medium, through the two phenolic and two carbonyl groups. Electronic spectra, magnetic and conductivity measurements showed that all complexes are octahedral with non-electrolytic nature except complex 3 that has a 1:2 electrolytic nature. Molecular orbital calculations were performed for the ligands and their complexes using Hyperchem 7.52 program on the bases of PM3 level and the results were correlated with the experimental data. The free ligand and its nickel(II) complexes showed antimicrobial activity towards some of Gram–positive and Gram–negative bacteria, yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus).

[Magdy Shebl, Saied M.E. Khalil, A. Taha and M.A.N. Mahdi. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Studies, Molecular Modeling and Antimicrobial Activity of Binuclear Ni(II) Complexes of 4,6-Diacetylresorcinol. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):183-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

 

Keywords: 4,6-Diacetylresorcinol; Binuclear complexes; Mixed-ligand complexes; Nickel(II) complexes; Molecular modeling; Antimicrobial activity

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A Novel Feature-Extraction For Classification of RNA Secondary Structure

 

Amir Hosein Kashefi 1*, Mostafa Noruzi Nashalji 2, Ali Kargarnejad3
 

1.                   Young researchers Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2. Young researchers Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3. Islamic Azad University, South Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran

amirdjtj@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: RNA has recently become the interest of scientists because of its catalytic properties, leading to an increased interest in obtaining structural information. This suggests that development of computational tools based on RNA secondary structure is essential for discovery of new non-coding RNAs and classification of their functional roles. In this paper, first we introduce a new method for feature-extraction from a RNA secondary structure sequence; next we use MLP neural networks for classification of six families from Rfam data base. Experiment results show that our represented method vs. previous works on classifying of RNA secondary structure has been improved and the structural complexity desirably has been decreased.

[Amir Hosein Kashefi, Mostafa Noruzi Nashalji, Ali Kargarnejad. A Novel Feature-Extraction For Classification of RNA Secondary Structure. J Am Sci. 2012;8(7):198-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 29

 

Keywords: feature extraction; RNA secondary structure; RNA classification; neural networks

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Human β-Defensin-3 In Plasma of Egyptian Asthmatic Children

 

Mona Sallam1, Tarek S. Ibrahim1, Alaa Ali1, Ahmed S. Amer1, Seham A. Awad2, Nadia A. Mohamed3

 

1Child Health Dept., 3Medical Biochemistry Dept., National Research Center, and

 2Pediatric Dept., Ophthalmology Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

(tareksalah2000@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Defensin are antimicrobial peptide components of the innate immune system. According to structural features at the gene and protein levels there are three subfamilies, α-defensin, β-defensin, and θ-defensin; they are produced in a tissue-restricted manner in response to microbial products or pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated that defensin is also able to modulate inflammatory responses, to stimulate adaptive immunity and contribute to tissue repair. Neutrophil defensins, originally identified as broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, have been implicated in the regulation of inflammatory and immunological processes. AIM: To estimate plasma level of human β-defensin-3 in asthmatic children and its relation to disease severity. METHODS: The concentrations of Human β-definsin-3 (HβD-3) in the plasma from 26 patients with moderate asthma and 16 normal children were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: Increased plasma concentrations of HβD-3, was found in patients with moderate asthma compared with control subjects with highly positive correlation with pulmonary score. Conclusion: these findings will help to elucidate the role of HβD-3 in host immune responses and identify the pathophysiological significance of this molecule in bronchial asthma.

[Mona Sallam, Hisham Waheed, Tarek S. Ibrahim,  Alaa Ali, Seham A. Awad, Nadia A. Mohamed. Human β-Defensin-3 In Plasma of Egyptian Asthmatic Children. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):203-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

 

Keywords: Asthmatic children, Pulmonary score, Human β-defensin-3.

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Meld Score as a Predictor for Hepato Adrenal Syndrome

 

Mervat ElDamarawy1, Gamal Hamed2 Ayman Heikal2, Hesham Darwish1 and Mohamed Badr1

 

1Intensive Care Department, Theodor Bilharz Institute

2Critical Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

drwesh123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: MELD is a prospectively developed and validated chronic liver disease severity scoring system that uses a patient's laboratory values for serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, and the INR to predict survival. The term hepatoadrenal syndrome has been used to describe such an association between liver disease and adrenal failure and the definition of this term extends beyond the occurrence of sepsis, which is a frequent complication of liver failure. We planned this study to detect MELD Score as a predictor for hepatoadrenal syndrome. Our study was conducted on three groups of patients ( total 45 patients) 21 patients were males 24 patients were females with mean age 57.44± 9.95 years(Cross sectional study) in whom adrenal function was assessed by synacthen test which was performed within the first 24 hours of admission. They were divided into 3 groups All included patients were subjected to full clinical evaluation, MELD scoring and child classification, routine laboratory investigations, synacthen test was performed within the first 24 hours of admission we found that Cirrhotic patients with high MELD score have higher incidence of adrenocortical insufficiency (P=0.008). MELD score may be a good predictor for adrenocortical insufficiency With MELD cut off score 25.5 sensitivity was 0.727 and specificity was 0.750 Cirrhotic .So In conclusion, adrenal dysfunction is common in patients with cirrhosis and It occurs more frequently in patients with more severe liver disease and Correlates with disease severity scores. According to our study MELD score.

[Mervat ElDamarawy, Gamal Hamed, Ayman Heikal, Hesham Darwish and Mohamed Badr. Meld Score as a Predictor for Hepato Adrenal Syndrome. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):208-211]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

 

Key words: liver cirrhosis, hepatoadrenal syndrome, adrenocortical insufficiency, MELD score

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Nature in Nima Yushij's Letters

 

AHMAD HOSSEINI MAKAREM

 

Department of General Courses, Kashan Technical College (shahid Rajaee), Kashan, Iran

 

Abstract: Humans have always considered love and interest to nature and its effects: because nature is the secret of the world, and the human and nature have something in common. Interest in nature and the phenomena of that are not related to only one special period of human's life; however, human has taken the advantage of one kind of nature in each part of his life. The permanent presence of human in the nature has led her to be closely associated with nature, and the same issue has led the poets and writers to move toward exploring the relationship between human and nature, and to add beauty and depth to their works. Nima is among the artists who has been grown up in the nature and has a chronic friendship and dependence to the manifestations and effects of nature. His naturalism is not an imitation from his previous narrators. In fact, his existence is completely stirred with nature. He had a close friendship with the mountain and jungle, and his works indicate and verify this issue. In this article, the writer is going to scrutinize the issue of nature in Nima's letters by mentioning to several documents and witnesses.

[AHMAD HOSSEINI MAKAREM. Nature in Nima Yushij's Letters. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):212-217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  32

 

Keywords: nature, written works, Nima Yushij, letters

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Socioeconomic Changes Effects on Women-Headed Households in View of Experts of Labour and Social Welfare General Offices

 

MAHMOUD ASKARDOUN

scientificgroup@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of the present research is to explain superior experts' attitude of Labour and Social Welfare General Offices from effect of socioeconomic changes on women-headed households. Therefore, regarding research literature, a questionnaire was prepared on basis of tow social and economic categories as required tool. Made tool was explained with respect of validity and reliability. Validity was measured as formal validity and reliability was measured as conformity between questions by Cronbach's Alpha for made tool. The tool reliability was obtained about 86% in social category and about 90% in economic category. Studied society was 55 superior experts of Labour and Social Welfare General Offices and correspondent sample size was 216 people in the research. Totally, 211 questionnaires were analyzed after performing questionnaire procedures. Data were analyzed using one sample t-test. Analysis results show that there is no difference between views of participant experts in this research with views in other researches. Hence, this group of experts can make proper decisions for woman-headed households at least regarding type of attitude.

[MAHMOUD ASKARDOUN. Socioeconomic Changes Effects on Women-Headed Households in View of Experts of Labor and Social Welfare General Offices. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):218-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

 

Keywords: Change, Social, Economic, Woman, Head of Household, Expert, Labor, Social Welfare

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The Evaluation of Relationship between Shares Liquidity and Capital Structure

 

Seyed Ali Lajevardi, Hassan Ghodrati

 

Accounting & Management Department, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran

 

Abstract: The main goal of this paper is the Evaluation of relationship between shares liquidity and capital structure. We selected 60 corporations from Iranian corporations and gathered Data about these firms for 2006-2010 Financial years. We utilized Data panel Regression for statistical analysis and hypothesis tests. Our analysis showed that: 1. There is a direct relation between liquidities and book- value of liabilities ratio. 2. There is a reverse relationship between shares turn-over and liabilities ratios. 3. There is a reverse relationship between shares liquidity and liabilities ratios.

[Seyyed Ali Lajevardi, Hassan Ghodrati. The Evaluation of Relationship between Shares Liquidity and Capital Structure. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):226-232]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

 

Keywords: Capital structure, liabilities ratio, shares liquidity

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The Gas Consumption Rate Anticipation by Neurotic Network 

 

Rahim rashidi1, Azad Shojaei 2*, Saeid Yousefpour3

 

1 Department of Computer,Boukan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boukan, Iran

2 Department of Computer, Saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saqhez, Iran

3Department of Computer, Boukan Branch,Islamic Azad University, Boukan, Iran

*Azad.Shojaei@gmail.com

 

Abstract: the consumption rate anticipation for gas power and telecommunication companies is an essential task. For gas companies managers the prediction of the amount of gas consumption and also the customer behavior determination can be a management tool for planning and the supply and demand levels coordination as well as offering a consumption pattern method in this Organization. An adequate anticipation of the customer consumption rate in next periods can solve the problems which managers and this Organization encountered with. In this paper the anticipation bas been done by the neurotic net algorithms. The suggested system accuracy has been evaluated by SQl server and WEKA software. The data was the information of 400 gas consumers. The outcomes showed that the offered system was desirable. [Rahim rashidi, Azad Shojaei and Saeid Yousefpour., The gas consumption rate anticipation by neurotic network. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):233-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

 

Key words: Neurotic net, Consumption, Anticipation WEKA

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Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity: Technique and Preliminary Results

 

Mahmoud Abd Allah; Abdelaziz Abulela; El-Sayed Mahmoud; Kamal Abdel Rahman; Ashraf El-Sayed

 

Department of general surgery – Faculty of medicine for girls, Al–Azhar University, Egypt

Kamal.sonna@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background  Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was originally used as a bridge to definitive surgery in high risk patients. Recently it has been considered as a stand- alone procedure due to its effectiveness on weight loss and co-morbidities resolution.  Aim: To evaluate the outcome of LSG as a single therapy in the treatment of morbid obesity. Methods: Forty patients with morbid obesity and or obesity related co-morbidities were included in this study. Their body mass index (BMI) ranged from 35k/m2 to 45kg/m2 was managed from June 2009 to January 2012 at Al-Zahraa University Hospital. Preoperative demographic data, operative procedure, immediate and long-term follow-up results of LSG are analyzed according to a prospective database. Results: SG was performed laparoscopically in 39 cases (97.5%) with 2.5% conversion rate "in one case". The mean operative time was 105±25min. There was an acceptable excess weight loss 46.7% at 12 months and 58.8% at 18 months. Early postoperative complications revealed one case (2.5%) developed gastric outlet stenosis who died after re-operation(mortality rate); however, no leakage from stapler line, dumping syndrome, marginal ulcer, or nutritional problems were observed during postoperative follow-up. All of the main co-morbidities improved after this procedure. Conclusion: According to short – term follow-up LSG is a safe and effective treatment for morbid obesity. Also LSG is effective for co-morbidities resolution. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm the effectiveness of LSG as a single therapy in the treatment of morbid obesity.

[Mahmoud Abd Allah; Abdelaziz Abulela; El-Sayed Mahmoud; Kamal Abdel Rahman; Ashraf El-Sayed. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity: Technique and Preliminary Results. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):227-231]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

 

Key words: Bariatric surgery; metabolic surgery; obesity, weight loss.

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The effects of ZrO2 nanopowders on compressive damage and pore structure properties of lightweight concrete specimens

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Flexural of concrete containing ZrO2 nanoparticles which were cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. ZrO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of Portland cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as nano-fillers. The specimens were cured in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting and then their strength was evaluated by flexural strength test. The results showed that replacement of Portland cement with ZrO2 nanoparticles up to 1.0 weight percent for the specimens cured in water and 2.0% for the specimens cured in saturated limewater produces concrete with the best strength. It has been obtained that curing the specimens in saturated limewater for 28 days and then in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened concrete than those cured only in saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days, when the specimens cured in limewater, reduces the effect of strengthening gels which form until the 90 days hence reduces the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more strengthening gel results in a concrete with higher strength. The pore structure of different mixtures was studied. The addition of nanoparticles improves the pore structure of concretes, the refined extent of pore structure increase with decreasing nanoparticles’ content. The pore structure of concretes which were cured in saturated limewater is better than that of concretes cured in water.

[Farzad Soleymani. The effects of ZrO2 nanopowders on compressive damage and pore structure properties of lightweight concrete specimens. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):232-239]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

 

Key words: ZrO2 nanoparticles; flexural strength; optimized properties; pore structure; palm oil clinker; lightweight concrete.

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Filler effects of ZrO2 nanopowders for improving split tensile damage and pore structure of lightweight cementitious composites

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. However the palm oil refineries also produce tones of waste products known as palm oil clinker or POC. POC is normally disposed of in landfill or incinerated, incurring costs and causing negative environmental impact, such as pollution. Therefore the appropriate use of POC can help preserve the environment from undesirable effects, while at the same time contributes to cost reduction for the palm oil industry. Split tensile of concrete containing ZrO2 nanoparticles which were cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. ZrO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of Portland cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as nano-fillers. The specimens were cured in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting and then their strength was evaluated by split tensile strength test. The results showed that replacement of Portland cement with ZrO2 nanoparticles up to 1.0 weight percent for the specimens cured in water and 2.0% for the specimens cured in saturated limewater produces concrete with the best strength. It has been obtained that curing the specimens in saturated limewater for 28 days and then in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened concrete than those cured only in saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days, when the specimens cured in limewater, reduces the effect of strengthening gels which form until the 90 days hence reduces the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more strengthening gel results in a concrete with higher strength. The pore structure of different mixtures was studied. The addition of nanoparticles improves the pore structure of concretes, the refined extent of pore structure increase with decreasing nanoparticles’ content. The pore structure of concretes which were cured in saturated limewater is better than that of concretes cured in water.

[Farzad S. Filler effects of ZrO2 nanopowders for improving split tensile damage and pore structure of lightweight cementitious composites. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):240-246]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

 

Key words: ZrO2 nanoparticles; split tensile strength; optimized properties; pore structure; palm oil clinker; lightweight concrete.

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Studies on the adsorption characteristics of some heavy elements using Vermiculite

 

A. A. Ezz El-Deen 1, S. A. Waly 1, K. A. EL.Adham 2, A. M. Dakroury3 and M. M. Shoukry4

 

1 Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, 2 Safe Gard Center ,  3 Hot lab Center and waste management,  Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt,  4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

Aishaw95@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The uncontrolled release of liquid wastes into the environment may lead to hazard to the human and the environment. There have been extensive studies for development of various technologies for removal of  Cd2+ and Co2+ from wastes The removal of Cd2+ and Co2+ ions from aqueous solution by Vermiculite has been investigated. The Vermiculite was characterized by Particle size, Surface area, and chemical analysis. The adsorption behavior of Vermiculite has been studied as a function of the solution agitation time, pH, initial metal concentration in solution, particle size, and temperature. Kinetic studies were undertaken to show the mechanistic aspects of the process. It was showed that the process was first order reaction for the two metal ions.  Sorption data have been correlated with both, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔHo, ΔSo, and ΔGo were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnKD against 1/T. The ΔHo and ΔGo values of metal ions adsorption on the two adsorbents show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of ions adsorption is favored at high temperatures.
[A. A. Ezz El-Deen , S. A. Waly , K. A. EL.Adham , A. M. Dakroury and M. M. Shoukry
. Studies on the adsorption characteristics of some heavy elements using Vermiculite. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):247-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

Keywords:  Cd2+ and Co2+, vermiculite, sorption kinetics, isotherm.  

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Lingual Mucosal Graft as a Long Segment Ureteric Replacement: An Experimental Study in Dogs

1Hassan M.M and 2Elbakry A.M

1Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Vet. Med. Suez Canal University 2Department of Urology, Faculty of Med. Suez Canal University
dr_zaghlol68@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the exact healing and tissue integration process of lingual mucosal graft (LMG) when used to reconstruct the long segment ureteric defects in dogs. Materials & Methods: Nine cross-breed clinically healthy adult dogs (5 males and 4 females) were used. The required grafts were harvested and over a double J ureteral stent, the free LMG replaced a 10 cm. in length of the right ureteral defect as onlay graft. Intravenous pyelography (IVP) was performed at the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks. At the 12th week, all dogs were euthanized to evaluate potency of the right ureter and the kidney as well as to get specimens for histopathological analysis. Results: There were no evidence of postoperative complications. IVP showed good drainage of the kidney with intact right ureter. Necropsy findings revealed maintenance of a wide right ureteral calliber without any sings of stricture or extravasation. The typical sequamous epithelium of lingual mucosa and patent junction of the LMG with the reconstructed ureter were identified histopathologically. Conclusions: Lingual mucosal free onlay graft is a safe and effective reconstructive procedure in dogs with long segment ureteral defects.
[Hassan M.M and Elbakry A.M
. Lingual Mucosal Graft as a Long Segment Ureteric Replacement: An Experimental Study in Dogs. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):256-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

 

Key words: Lingual mucosal graft- Ureter-Dogs.

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Consequences of bribery on the Iranian economy

 

Behnam Akbari, Arsalan Ashrafi, Hamed Ansari Moghadam

 

Iran. scientificgroup@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Bribery, as clear example of economic crimes, has an undeniable impact on the economy of all countries. It directly or indirectly damages the domestic and foreign parts of a country's economy through underlying for committing other crimes such as customs offenses, good and currency smuggling, counterfeiting, and money laundering. There is a negative relationship between the rate of economic crimes, especially bribery and confidence degree of investors. The lower rate of these crimes, the higher confidence degree of investors and vice versa.  High-income classes and the wealthy are the kind of bribes as a tool to protect their assets and even add to it and try to offset these costs in their next economic measures. Recouping these costs burdens more pressure on the poor and low-income strata. Financial corruption and bribery directly or indirectly affect the trading costs, and consequently decrease the investment. These halt economic growth and achievement of economic goals. Exports and imports is way for criminals to transfer their illegal properties to other countries. As this is subjected to specific rules and regulations, bribes is used as a lever to open the legal nodes. It raises the investment costs and affects the quality of project implementation. A sense of pessimism among entrepreneurs and decreased investment, lack of optimal allocation of public spending, creation of a more deep gap between the poor and the rich, and increased transaction costs are the main effects of bribery on the Iranian economy which are discussed in this paper.

[Behnam Akbari, Arsalan Ashrafi, Hamed Ansari Moghadam. Consequences of bribery on the Iranian economy.

J Am Sci 2012;8(7):262-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

 

Keywords: Bribes, Economics of crime, Commercial transactions, Operational costs, Exports and imports, Economic corruption

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Developing a Measurement Model for Evaluating CRM Effectiveness (In service-based industries)

 

Mahshid Gharibpoor 1, Milad Kouchekian 2, Sahar Jamshidi 3

 

1 Master of Business Administration, Department Of Management, University Of Isfahan, Iran gharibpoor@yahoo.com

2 Master of Business Administration, Department Of Management, University Of Isfahan, Iran

3 Master of Business Administration, Sharif University of technology- international campus, Kish Island, Iran

 

Abstract: In today's competitive business environment, the success of firm increasingly depends on the ability to operate customer relationship management (CRM) that empowers the development and implementation of more efficient and effective customer-focused strategies. Based on this belief, many companies have planed enormous investment in CRM technology as a means to fulfill CRM effectively and efficiently. The main aim of this study was to providing a measurement model of assessing CRM effectiveness as a variable which not paid enough attention in previous researches. Therefore, by reviewing previous literature we have developed a comprehensive model which is more appropriate for service-based industries.

[Mahshid Gharibpoor, Milad Kouchekian, Sahar Jamshidi. Developing a Measurement Model for Evaluating CRM Effectiveness (In service-based industries). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):270-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

 

Keywords: CRM, CRM measurement, CRM effectiveness

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Assessing Patient Safety Culture and Factors Affecting It among Health Care Providers at Cairo University Hospitals

Rehab Abdelhai1, Shaimaa B. Abdelaziz 1 and Nashwa S.Ghanem2

1Department of Public Health and 2Internal Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
rehababdelhai@yahoo.com

Abstract: Patient safety is a critical component to the quality of health care. Increasingly, health care organization is becoming aware of the importance to improve safety culture. Assessing healthcare provider’s attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety is the first stage of developing a safety culture. The current study aimed to assess patient safety culture perceptions among health care providers and to identify factors that may critically affect patient safety culture at randomly selected departments of Cairo University Teaching Hospitals. An analytic cross-sectional design was utilized for this study. During a period of 4 months, from December, 2011 till March, 2012, four hundred healthcare providers were identified and voluntarily approved to participate. The study adapted the “Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture” (HSOPSC). The Patient Safety grade and number of events reported are the two outcome variables of the survey. The study results revealed that dimensions of the overall perceptions of safety and frequency of events reporting mean scores were significantly highest for physicians that differed from scores of nurses and paramedical personnel. Overall, physicians showed the highest significant positive composite scores while nurses showed the lowest scores in most dimensions of the HSOPSC. The non-punitive response to error composite received one of the lowest scores(33.3%).The highest percentage of participants that reported “Excellent/Very good” patient safety grades were paramedical personnel (52.4%). Only 48.5% of the study participants reported the occurrence of patient safety events in their corresponding departments. Also the number of events reported increased as the years of work experience increased. Study findings provide evidence that can be used by policy makers, managers and leaders who are able to create the culture and commitment needed to identify and solve underlying systemic causes related to patient safety.
[Rehab Abdelhai, Shaimaa B. Abdelaziz and Nashwa
S. Ghanem. Assessing Patient Safety Culture And Factors Affecting It Among Health Care Providers At Cairo University HospitalS. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):277-285]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43


Keywords:
Patient Safety Culture, Healthcare Providers, Hospitals.

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The relationship between psychological needs and learning strategies with academic performance

 

Karim Sevari1, Mohammad Ardeshiri2,Mahdi Hashemipure 3

 

1,2. Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697,Tehran, Iran

3. Azad University student of Ahwaz, Iran

Sevari1347@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the relationship between psychological needs and learning strategies with academic performance among Payam Noor university students of Ahwaz(Iran) was investigated. In this research 200 students were selected (100 boys and 100 girls) by stratified random manner. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Result showed that there were positive relation between psychological needs & deep learning strategies with academic performance, & there was negative relation between surface learning strategies & academic performance.

[Karim Sevari, Mohammad Ardeshiri, Mahdi Hashemipure. The relationship between psychological needs and learning strategies with academic performance. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):286-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

 

Keywords: psychological needs, deep & surface learning strategies ,academic performance

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Evaluation of Impact of Birth trauma on Female Sexual Activity in Primiparous women: A Comparative Study using Female Sexual Function Index

 Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology - Faculty of Medicine- Benha University
MF_Sherbeny@yahoo.com

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the impact of labor trauma on postpartum (PP) sexual activity (SA) of low risk healthy PP primipara women. Patients & Methods: The study included 417 primipara with mean age of 24.2±2.7 years. All women completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) including 6 domain scoring; namely, desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain constituting 19 principle components. Sexual activity was graduated as good (FSFI=30), intermediate (FSFI=22-29) and poor if FSFI<22. Baseline FSFI score was determined at the 1st antenatal care visit and was repeated at one (1-m) and 3-m after resuming SA. Results: At 1-m, FSFI scoring showed significantly decreased frequency of women had good SA, irrespective of mode of delivery compared to antenatal frequency. Women had cesarean section (CS) showed significantly higher frequency of good SA compared to those had vaginal delivery. Women had unrepaired perineal tear had significantly higher intermediate SA and non-significantly higher good SA compared to those had episiotomy or repaired perineal tear. At 3-m, FSFI scoring showed significantly decreased frequency of good SA compared to antenatal scoring, but women had CS and un-repaired perineal tears showed significantly higher frequency of good SA compared to those had episiotomy or repaired perineal tear. In comparison to antenatal scores, numerical mean FSFI scores at 1-m was significantly lower in all women and at 3-m PP in women had either episiotomy or repaired perineal tear, while was non-significantly lower in women had CS or unrepaired perineal tear. Mean 3-m FSFI scores were significantly higher in all studied women compared to mean 1-m scores. At 1-m PP, all women had vaginal delivery showed significantly lower FSFI compared to those had CS, while at 3-m PP, women had CS and unrepaired perineal tears reported significantly higher FSFI scores compared to those had episiotomy or repaired perineal tears.
Conclusion: Labor trauma induced diminution of sexual activity both as frequency and score as judged by FSFI till 3-m after resumption of ability to get intercourse. Vaginal delivery has more deleterious effect especially if associated with episiotomy or repaired perineal tear than CS or spontaneously healed perineal tear. It is recommended to include FSFI as essential part of postpartum evaluation.
[Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny
. Evaluation of Impact of Birth trauma on Female Sexual Activity in Primiparous women: A Comparative Study using Female Sexual Function Index. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):289-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

Keywords::

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Attitude toward SMS Advertising and Derived Behavioral Intension, an Empirical Study Using TPB (SEM method)

 

Bahram Ranjbarian 1, Mahshid Gharibpoor 2, Azita Lari 3

 

1 Professor of Marketing, Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Corresponding author: Master of business administration, Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Master of business administration, Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

E-mail: gharibpoor@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The rapid technology developing of mobile phones and other mobile devices has created a new channel for marketing. The use of short messaging service to access customers through their handheld devices is now popular and making the mobile phone as an ultimate tool for one-to-one marketing. What seems important is the consumer attitude toward such marketing methods. Therefore, the main aim of this study is identifying attitude toward SMS advertising and derived behavioral intension among Iranian mobile users for the first time. A measurement scale was developed for measuring attitudes toward mobile advertising based on theory of planed behavior (TPB) and the results were evaluated by structural equation modeling method (SEM). The participants of the study were 246 mobile users in two cities: Shiraz and Isfahan. The results indicate that, attitude toward SMS ads can affects positively on intension and on post-behavior. But there is no relationship between intention toward SMS ads and post-behavior.

[Ranjbarian B, Gharibpoor M, Lari A. Attitude toward SMS Advertising and Derived Behavioral Intension, an Empirical Study Using TPB (SEM method). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):297-307]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

 

Keywords: Consumer, Attitude, intension, TPB, SMS advertisement, SEM  

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Impact of Hospital Accreditation on Quality of Care as perceived by Nursing Staff in King Khaled Hospital in Najran at Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Abeer Mohamed Seada

 

Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt(College of Nursing, Najran University, Najran , KSA)
abeerseada@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Background: Accreditation has attracted great interest in recent years as a comprehensive approach for improving and maintaining healthcare quality .The accreditation movement is gaining prominence due to globalization and especially the global expansion of trade in health services. Aim: To assess the perceived impact of hospital accreditation on quality of care through the health care professionals, specifically nurses. Design: descriptive exploratory design was utilized. This research study followed a cross-sectional survey design. Methods: The study was conducted in king khaled hospital (KKH) in Najran at Saudi Arabia that successfully passed the accreditation requirements. (both national and international surveys).A purposive sample (120 nurses) that was limited to only nurses who have been working in the hospital for at least 3 years (i.e. had passed through both accreditation surveys were constitute the study sample. Data was collected through utilizing quality implementation scale. It composed of two parts; the first part is related to demographic data of the respondents. The second part is consisted of nine scales and subscales subdivided into 54 items to evaluate quality implementation and outcomes in health care organizations particularly in the context of accreditation. Results: Hospital accreditation is a good tool for improving quality of care as the high score of ‘quality results’ variable indicates that nurses perceived an improvement in quality during and after the accreditation process. The most important predictors of better quality results were leadership, commitment and support, use of data, education and training, rewards and recognition and benefits of accreditation. Recommendations: In order to ensure that accreditation brings effective quality improvement practices, there is a need to assess quality based on patient outcome indicators, This can be done by strengthening the current accreditation program to be more outcomes oriented.  Senior management of the hospitals undergoing accreditation program should be highly committed to accreditation process and should support hospital staff.  Staff involvement at all stages of accreditation program is crucial to achieve the ultimate goals and benefits of accreditation.
[Abeer Mohamed Seada
. Impact of Hospital Accreditation on Quality of Care as perceived by Nursing Staff in King Khaled Hospital in Najran at Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):308-315]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

Keywords: hospital accreditation, quality of care, nursing staff

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Comparison between Saudi and British nursing students toward working with older people

 Samira Alsenany1 and Amer Al Saif 2

 

1Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Salsenany@kau.edu.sa.

2Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Aalsaif@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Globally, the ageing population is currently one of the main issues facing international health care systems. The kingdom of Saudi Arabia, like the rest of the world, has a growing older population with urgent health care needs (Al Saif et al, 2012). The current acute shortage of qualified Saudi nurses in the hospitals and health centers dictates an urgent review of the kingdom's present and future nursing training, especially in the older people care. However little prior research has been undertaken on this topic. The general objective of this study was to explore the intentions of Saudi nursing students toward working with older people as baseline data for Saudi nursing students’ perspectives using the scale developed by Nolan et al (2002). A comparison was made between British and Saudi nursing students to explore similarities and differences in intentions towards working with older people. Consequently, specific geographical and historical nursing organizational factors relevant to the status of gerontological nursing in Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom may have elaborated their endorsement of specific items on the intentions of working with older people scale. The results of this comparison revealed similarities in responses to most of the statements about working with older people in general between Saudi nursing students and British nursing students. Significantly, this study, for the first time, shed light on potential similarities and differences in intentions towards working with older people between student nurses in two geographically dissimilar locations in the East and West. The results of this comparison revealed similarities in responses to most of the statements about working with older people in general between Saudi and British nursing students. However, there was a diversification of opinions about the status of gerontology between Saudi nursing students and British nursing students. The reason may be ascribable to culture diversity and concerned with the values of older people in society, it may be because of aspects of different gerontological education and student nursing training with older people in clinical placement, or it may be because of the meaning of the status of gerontological work, and the nursing history in each country might be varied. In conclusion, there was widespread agreement that more active measures should be taken in gerontological nursing, especially in education and training in both countries, to increase the proportion of nursing students who will seek to choose working with older people as a first choice in their future careers. Having gerontological courses with an emphasis on the clinical skills and knowledge required in caring for older people as human beings in the nursing curriculum will help nurses to understand the ageing process, including changes in physical, psychological and social needs, and will encourage more nurses to begin the challenge of caring for older people. The widespread preparation of nurses by gerontological specialists could have a positive impact on students‘ knowledge of ageing and care for older people in the clinical arena. Such preparation would not only affect the quality of nursing care toward older people, but would also increase the potential of the graduates to become influential in manpower, community and political activities affecting the welfare of the older people in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

[Samira Alsenany and Amer Al Saif. Comparison between Saudi and British nursing students toward working with older people. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):316-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

 

Keywords: gerontology, geriatric, nursing ,intention, attitude, older people, older people scale.

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49

PRIME NUMBERS 2012

 

Vinoo Cameron MD, Theo Den otter

 

Hope research, 704 Pine Street, Athens, Wisconsin 54411.

E mail: Hope 9900@frontier.com

 

Abstract: We have held back complexity because of the culture in American science that lifts up those that are Spartan and labels those that they do not understand as cranks .We intend to repay and  reverse the sentiment sooner or later with this  paper and the much larger one on axiom 1:3. This manuscript clearly shows that that prime number distribution is absolutely predictable and as a mathematical fact , predictability is defined by a new prime number theorem that is based on absolute precision of numbers that it does not need further proof .These number are divergent with a half-line numbers that have been delineated. This divergence as proved separately is at 1:3, -1 at-1 offset at the base. The latter is far too expensive to include in this manuscript.  Indivisibility is not only predictable; it has a method and a palpable form. Science may be much better understood, if it understood prime numbers better, not just the big prime numbers. We have discovered the basis of the unpredictability of prime numbers and have shown that these numbers are predictable by the fact that they can be mathematically created from the base 1:3 upwards by hand calculus in a continuous mode, which we have done. We have shown and demonstrated the key half-line numbers that hold the divergence of prime numbers .The mathematics is presented in several original displays of natural fixed prime number numerations, both that cannot be deduced, and those that can be deduced.  We also have briefly demonstrated a new direct prime number sieve based on the number 6. Prime numbers are divergent, and we have shown some of that proof in the manuscript. Since the mathematics of the axiom of 1:3 is extremely complex and difficult we intend to produce a manuscript in that regard with the Journal of American Science in the near future, only if we are asked.  We have added at the end of this manuscript a few snippets of the axiom 1:3 resolution, including a new trigonometric basic coordinate and the direct mathematical derivation of the correct precise π value. These are related to prime numbers. When we say axiom 1:3 at -1 ,19 , it makes little sense to most of you unless you understand the calculus of 19 at the base of mathematics,  and understand that there is a mathematical  trigonometry , a mathematically derived π value, and both the current π and trigonometry standards are clearly in error and not derived from pure mathematics . We cannot explain all that in this manuscript, perhaps if the editor would invite us to produce a 50 page manuscript on the new mathematics of axiom 1:3 then we will do so, only in this journal and “only” for this editor Dr Hong Bao Ma. Till then please reference what we have on axiom 1:3 at the end of this manuscript and take a drink of cold water, it is as hard as our sieve as shown here with some difficulty.

[Cameron V, Denotter T. Prime numbers 2012. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):329-334]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

 

Key words: Half-line numbers, Prime numbers

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Distributed Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Wireless Networks

 
Azad Shojaei 1,  Abdoljabar Asadi 2,
Rahim Rashidi 3

1 Department of Computer, Saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saqhez, Iran
2 Department of Computer, Saqhez Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saqhez, Iran
3 Department of Computer,Boukan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boukan, Iran
*Azad.Shojaei@gmail.com

Abstract: In this article, first wireless networks and their characteristics are introduced. Then distributed routing algorithms problem in these networks is investigated and their categorization is proposed. Afterwards, a distributed routing algorithm for dynamic wireless networks is suggested. This algorithm is from link reversal algorithm family and is highly adaptive. It is also efficient, measurable, and highly appropriate to use in large, compact, dynamic networks. The protocol used in this routing algorithm is Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA).
[Azad Shojaei,  Samrand sharifi, Rahim rashidi, Distributed Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Wireless Network. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):
335-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

 Key words: wireless networks, distributed algorithm, link reversal, TORA

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Computer-aided prediction of physical and mechanical properties of high strength concrete containing Fe2O3 nanoparticles

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present paper, a model based on artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting flexural strength of concretes containing Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been developed at different ages of curing. According to the input parameters, in the model the flexural strength of concretes was predicted. Neural network have trained results good and the new data can be predicted by the trained network as well. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):338-345]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

 

Keywords: Concrete; Fe2O3 nanoparticles; artificial neural network; genetic programming; flexural strength

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Microbial Inactivation by Chlorine in the Presence and Absence of a Chlorine-Demanding Substrate and Its Effect on ß-D-Galactosidase in Egypt

Rasha Y. Mahmoud1*, M. S. Moussa2 and Tareq Youssef3

 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University,
Ain Helwan, P.O.11795, Cairo – Egypt
2Faculty of engineering, El Matareia, Helwan University
3 National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences – Cairo University, Gamma St., P. O. 12613, Giza - Egypt.
rasha_kotab@pharm.helwan.edu.eg 

Abstract: Chlorine is a powerful antimicrobial substance due to its potential oxidizing capacity. However, decrease of the actual chlorine level through the oxidation of organic matter contaminated water sources is observed. This study reveals that the germicidal effect (GE) of chlorine doses in aqueous contact media is significantly higher than that in organic matter containing contact media. The effect of chlorine on cultivability and ß-D-Galactosidase (GALase) activity of Escherichia coli isolates were compared and revealed that GALase activities were more resistant to chlorine than their cultivability.  Therefore, the determination of enzymatic activity as a method for quantification of the waterborne pathogens is more suitable with the chlorinated water sources that may have stressed pathogens (can be called viable but are nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria), which do not have the ability to grow properly on the solid media.
[
Rasha Y. Mahmoud, M. S. Moussa and  Tareq Youssef Microbial Inactivation by Chlorine in the Presence and Absence of a Chlorine-Demanding Substrate and Its Effect on ß-D-Galactosidase in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):346-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

Key words: ß-D-Galactosidase, chlorine, Germicidal effect, viable but nonculturable cells.   

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Inhibition of Bovine Rotavirus by Neomycin

 

Abuelyazeed A. Elsheikh1 and Abdulrahman M. Al-qurashi2

 

1Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia

eaa000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: The effects of neomycin on field isolates of Bovine Rotavirus (BRV) were studied. Neomycin decreased BRV cytopathogenicity, virus titer and viral RNA concentration in dose dependent manner. The effect of neomycin on the virus was optimum when applied at the time of infection or postinfection while the drug was kept during the time of infection. Pre-treatment of cells with neomycin had no effect on the virus.
[Abuelyazeed A. Elsheikh and Abdulrahman M. Al-qurashi Inhibition of Bovine Rotavirus by Neomycin. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):353-357]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

Keywords: Neomycin, rotavirus, treatment, inhibition

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Tobacco Smoking after Egypt's Revolution among Male Students Living in Assiut University Hostels

 Asmaa G. M. Mohamed1; Safaa A. M. Kotb1 and Ekram M. Abdel Khalek2

1 Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing. 2 Public Health & Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

Abstract: Smoking is a worldwide health problem. Tobacco smoking among the young is a health priority in Egypt. This study was conducted to determine smoking prevalence among male students living in Assiut University hostels and their knowledge and perceptions about this habit after Egypt's revolution using descriptive cross-sectional design. 400 students were randomly selected. A self-administrative questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data, smoking status, as well as students' knowledge and perceptions concerning tobacco smoking. The mean age of the participants was 20.47 ±1.33 years. More than one third (36.2%) were in theoretical faculties and 63.8% were in practical faculties.  13.2% were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 30.2% started smoking before 15 years. The currently smokers were more frequently in theoretical faculties, their fathers were smokers and did not living with both parents (P <0.05). Cancer was the common smoking hazard that reported by 33.2% of the participants followed by chest disease (30.0%). More than one fifth (22.8%) of the students in the present study affected by the Egypt's revolution on 25 January 2011 as regards smoking habit. Conclusion: An educational program aimed at changing behavior and attitude to tobacco smoking and including healthy life style with high emphasis on the adolescence may be a successful primary prevention. In addition; projects designed to improve university performance may lead to a reduction in smoking rates while providing an investment in the future of youth.

[Asmaa G. M. Mohamed, Safaa A. M. Kotb and Ekram M. Abdel Khalek. Tobacco Smoking after Egypt's Revolution among Male Students Living in Assiut University Hostels. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):358-365]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 54 

 

Key words: Tobacco smoking; male students, university hostels, Egypt

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Evolution of Land Nationalization in the Iranian legislation system

 

Mostafa Salari

 

salari.m@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Evolution of Land Nationalization in Iran falls into four time periods. The first period began with ratification of Nationalization of Forests and Pastures Act in 1962. Article 1 of this Act announces all natural pastures and forests national, even if they were previously occupied and owned by persons. In this act and until 1985, no way and reference was predicted to protest it. The second period started with the approval of Article 56 of Protection and Exploitation Act in 1067. This article set a commission to address the complaints of people about nationalization of their lands. This period continued 1988 that an article was ratified and a commission with different combination and presence of a judge was set to address the complaints of people. The third period began with establishment of commission of aforesaid article ratified in 1988 and continued until the dissolution of this commission according to Article 9 of Increased Productivity in Agriculture approved in 2010. Final decision and verdict was only taken by the only judge of commission. With the ratification of aforesaid act the Commission was dissolved and addressing the complaints has been appointed to special courts in the center of provinces. It is obvious that in these three periods decision were made with the idea of majority of members in the commission of Article 56. In the next period and after the legal establishment of commission in 1988, the right of verdict and final decision making was assigned exclusively to the member judge. In recent period in 2010, the commission as an expert group consisting of representatives of trustee organizations of national lands and local representatives was eliminated and the judge himself make decision about this important issue even without the need to obtain expertise. This is against the increasing complexity of issues related to the identification of the nature of lands and a movement from collective decision to individual decision.

[Mostafa Salari. Evolution of Land Nationalization in the Iranian legislation system. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):366-370]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

 

Keywords: Land Nationalization; Public lands; public domain; National lands identification; Protesting the nationalization of land; Reference to address objections; Special court

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Making index for financial risk and measuring

 

Jaber Jamalsirat

 

Jamalsirat_J@gmx.com

 

Abstract: financial decisions are one of important competitive zones for preparing optimal financial resources for surviving in commercial turbulent environment. In this research, according to subject importance, we try to identifying important dimension with concentration on financial risk, designing theoretic model for measuring financial risk optimally. In this way, financial risk categorization model and its measuring indexes, is a result that derived from current research.

[Jaber Jamalsirat. Making index for financial risk and measuring. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):371-373]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

 

Keywords: financial risk; measuring indexes; categorization of risk; profitability structure

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Quantum Pumping Driven by an AC-field in Graphene Field Effect Transistor

 1Mina D. Asham, 2Walid A. Zein, 2Adel H. Phillips

 1Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.
2
Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
minadanial@yahoo.com, adel.phillips@gmail.com 

Abstract: Spin dependent transport characteristics through normal graphene/ ferromagnetic graphene/ normal graphene junction is investigated. The conduction of this junction is derived by solving Dirac equation for both parallel and anti-parallel spin alignments of electrons. Numerical calculations are performed for the conductance for both spin alignments. Oscillatory behavior of the conductance for the two cases is due to the interplay between the photons of the induced AC-signal with both spin-up and spin-down subbands. These oscillations are due to the modulation of the Fermi energy by the potential of the magnetic insulator and photon-energy. Also, the calculations of spin polarization and giant magneto-resistance show that these parameters could be modified by the barrier height and the angle of incidence of electrons on the corresponding region of the present device. Quantum pumping by induction of external photons could enhance spin transport mechanism through such investigated device. The present results show that the cut-off frequency for both parallel and anti-parallel spin alignments varies strongly in the range of THz to 1019 Hz. The present investigation could be found for designing very high speed nano-electronic devices and applications in the field of nano-biotechnology, for example, imaging processing.

[Mina D. Asham, Walid A. Zein, Adel H. Phillips. Quantum Pumping Driven by an AC-field in Graphene Field Effect Transistor. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):374-381]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

 

Keywords: Graphene Field-Effect Transistor (GFET), Spin Transport, AC-field, Cutoff frequency.

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Usefulness of Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic Marker of Pleural Effusion

 

Maha Yousif 1,  Rana El-Helbawy1, AmrDarwish1, HebaFathy2 andNesreen El-Helbawy2

 

1Chest and 2Biochemistry Departments, Faculty of Medicine,Minoufiya University, Egypt

drmahayousif@gmail.com

 

Abstract:Background Pleural effusions are common and are associated with many different diseases. Procalcitonin (PCT) is normally produced in the C-cells of the thyroid gland. It has recently become of interest as a possible marker of the systemic inflammatory response to infection. Objective Evaluating the usefulness and reliability of PCT level of pleural fluid & serum in determining the cause of pleural effusion. Methods This study was carried out on 54 adult patients with pleural effusion divided into five groups; transudate (n=6), empyema (n=9), Tuberculosis (T.B.) (n=8), parapneumonic effusions (PPE) (n=9) and malignant effusions (n=22).  Levels of procalcitonin (PCT) were measured in serum & pleural fluid from the patients. Results Pleural fluid procalcitonin was highest in empyema, then in PPE, third in malignant effusions, fourth in tuberculous effusions & lowest in transudative effusions. Serum PCT showed similar trends. Pleural fluid & serum PCT levels positively correlated in patients with empyema & in patients with PPE. The optimal discrimination of patients with empyema and PPE could be performed at a cut-off point of pleural fluid PCT 0.9 and 0.08 ng/ml with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 and 0.66 respectively (sensitivity 80% and 78%, specificity 95% and 53% respectively) and at a cut-off point of serum PCT 0.08 and 0.054 ng/ml with AUC of 0.74 and 0.66 respectively (sensitivity 80% and 89%, specificity 60% and 33% respectively).  Conclusion pleural fluid PCT is a good marker for early detection of infection in the pleural space and correlates with the serum PCT in patients with PPE or empyema. Pleural PCT has better diagnostic accuracy than the serum PCT in cases of PPE and empyema.

[Maha Yousif, Rana El-Helbawy, Amr Darwish, HebaFathy and Nesreen El-Helbawy. Usefulness of Procalcitonin as a Diagnostic Marker of Pleural Effusion. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):382-387]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

Key words: Pleural effusion, parapneumonic effusion, empyema, procalcitonin

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59

The Non-hero of Postmodern Drama (i.e. absurd)

 

Yousef Afarini

 

Department of Art and Architecture, Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran.

yafarini@yahoo.com; sepidanfaculty@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The non-hero is the main person in new novel or drama and his/her personality is very different from the characteristics we used to attribute to main character or traditional hero in a classical literature . In addition, we shouldn’t make mistake between the opponent character, who was stand against the hero in classical dramas, and the non- hero. Non- hero appears only in postmodern and absurdist dramas. Instead of having qualities such as magnanimity, power, dignity, and heroic characteristics, he is an incompetent, abject, disgraceful and dishonest person. This non-hero perhaps is similar much to Nietzsche's Superman or a man who is thrown to a corner of universe introduced by Heidegger.

[Yousef Afarini. The Non-hero of Postmodern Drama (i.e. absurd). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):388-390]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

 

Keywords: hero, non-hero, modernism, post modernism, absurd

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61

Effect of binder content, pozzolanic admixtures and SiO2 nanoparticles on thermal properties and capillary water absorption of high performance concrete

 

Mostafa Jalala,b٭, Ali Noorzadb

 

a Concrete Technology and Durability Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

b Department of Civil Engineering, Power and Water University of Technology (PWUT), Tehran, Iran

٭ Corresponding author, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of some admixtures including silica nanoparticles, silica fume and Fly Ash along with binder content on thermal properties and capillary water absorption of high performance concrete (HPC). For this purpose, a fraction of Portland cement was replaced by silica fume, silica nanoparticles, blend of silica fume and silica nanoparticles and three percentages of fly ash as 10, 2, 10+2% and 5, 10 , 15% respectively. Specimens were prepared with two binder contents as 400 and 500 kg/m3. Thermal properties were investigated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Capillary water absorption tests of the specimens were carried out at the age of 90 days. The results showed that the pozzolanic admixtures especially blend of silica fume and SiO2 nanoparticles have an significant effect on thermal properties and particularly capillary water absorption.

[Jalal M, Noorzad A. Effect of binder content, pozzolanic admixtures and SiO2 nanoparticles on thermal properties and capillary water absorption of high performance concrete. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):395-399]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

 

Keywords: high performance concrete (HPC), SiO2 nanoparticles, capillary water absorption, TGA

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Enhancement of heat transfer utilizing γAl2O3-water nanofluid designed by Taguchi method

 

Mostafa Jalala٭, Mohammad Mahdi pouyagoharb, Majid Sedghib

 

a Department of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

b Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

٭ Corresponding author, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: Enhancement of heat transfer in a channel utilizing γAl2O3-water nanofluid with an array of impinging jets has been designed and predicted using Taguchi method. Variations of heat transfer were investigated at different Reynolds numbers (Re=50, 100, 150, 200), nanofluid volume fraction (φ=0,1, 3, 5%) and jet–to-cross flow velocity ratio (R=1, 2.5, 5, 7.5). Five in-line jets subjected to across-flow were also used in this study. To use Taguchi method, first the strongest factor on heat transfer were determined as Re, φ and R. Then, different levels of each factor were recognized as 4 levels and orthogonal arrays were prepared for design. the results of the analysis showed that the Nusselt number is optimized at maximum Reynolds number and nanoparticles' volume fraction and minimum velocity ratio in the range of designed factors. The prediction results of Nusselt for randomly selected combinations of the factors and optimum choice showed that the error was rather small and the method could successfully be used to design and prediction of heat transfer enhancement in the channels.

[Jalal M, Pouyagohar M M, Sedghi M. Enhancement of heat transfer utilizing γAl2O3-water nanofluid designed by Taguchi method. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):400-405]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

 

Keywords: heat transfer, γAl2O3-water nanofluid, Taguchi method, prediction

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Effect of nanofluid on heat transfer enhancement in a channel with jet impingement

 

 

Mohammad Mahdi Pouyagohara, Mostafa Jalalb٭, Majid Sedghia

a. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

b. Department of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

٭ Corresponding author, Email: mjalal@aut.ac.ir or m.jalal.civil@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: In this study heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in a channel with the jets impinging the bottom plate and perpendicular to the cross flow utilizing nanofluid have been investigated. The fluid temperature at the channel inlet (Tin) is taken less than that of the walls (Tw). A wide spectrum of numerical simulations has been done over a range of Reynolds number (50 up to 200) and nanofluid volume fraction (0 up to 5%). Five in-line jets subjected to across-flow were used in this study. The influence of these parameters has been investigated on the local and average Nusselt numbers and also on convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study, it was concluded that heat transfer in the channel with jet impinging can be enhanced by addition of nanoparticles and usage of jets impinging on the hot wall. The results also showed that the effect of nanoparticles' addition could be higher at higher Reynolds numbers. The present work can provide helpful guidelines to the manufactures of the compact heat exchangers.

[Pouyagohar M M, Jalal M, Sedghi M. Effect of nanofluid on heat transfer enhancement in a channel with jet impingement. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):406-412]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

 

Keywords: nanofluid, heat transfer enhancement, jet impingement, laminar forced convection

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Molecular and Biochemical Studies on Stem Cells in Relation to Diabetes Mellitus

 

Manal A. Khaled1, Hussein I. El-belbesi1, Medhat F. Mahmoud1 and Ahmed M. Balah2

 

                             Departments of 1Biochemistry and 2Histology, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig University

mannalmohmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: In recent years, islet transplantation for diabetes has shown signs of the treatment efficiency, but its application is limited due to lack of donor organizations, sources and immune rejection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have become a new resource of islet cell substitutes. Aims: we aimed to study the differentiation ability of adult rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to form insulin-producing cells and their ability to treat chemically induced diabetic rats. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of female white albino rats. After their expansion and at the end of passage 3, flow Cytometric analysis of undifferentiated cells showed purified mesenchymal cells as they were negative for CD45, meanwhile they positive for CD90, CD146 and CD105. The cells were cultured for 14 days in high glucose medium, then in media containing nicotinamide and exendin-4 for another 7 days. After 21 days of differentiation culture, the cells formed islet-like clusters. They were positively stained for insulin. They were then transplanted into female rats which were made diabetic by IV injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The rats were divided into control, diabetic and treated group. Serum insulin and glucose were estimated and pancreas tissues were examined in all groups. Results: Diabetic rats which received differentiated mesenchymal stem cells showed significantly lower serum glucose and increased serum insulin levels compared with the diabetic group also treated group showed increasing in the size of Langerhans islets and regranulation of islet cells was appeared and undifferentiated stem cells with irregular nucleus appeared around blood capillaries  compared with diabetic group. Conclusions: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) can isolate from bone marrow, culturing, propagation and differentiated into insulin producing cells in vitro and when transplanted into diabetic rats it can reverse hyperglycemia and repair pancreatic damage this can provide a new strategies for diabetic treatment.

[Manal A. Khaled, Hussein I. El-belbesi, Medhat F. Mahmoud and Ahmed M. Balah. Molecular and Biochemical Studies on Stem Cells in Relation to Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):413-420]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

 

Keywords: Molecular; Biochemical; Stem Cell; Diabetes Mellitus

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Does Religiosity have Unsuitable Effect on Civic Engagement of Older Adults? A research within aged citizens in the Southwest of Iran

 

Abdolrahim Asadollahi 1-**, Parvin Rezaei 2, Nasrin Faraji 2, Laleh Fani Saberi 3

 

1 Assistant Professor, Social Gerontology, SUCPS at University of Salford, Manchester, UK

2 Dept. of Social Work, UAST, Amanieh Region, Modares St., No. 22, P.O Box: 6133733871, Iran

3 Dept. of Community Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 4816715793, Vesal St., Amir Mazandarani Ave., Sari, Iran

* Address for Correspondence: *-Tel: +60-173004435 & +98-9122498890; E-mail: a.asadollahi@hotmail.co.uk. No. 20, 2nd Floor, Gerayemi Ave. Asadi Alley, P.O. Box: 63616-53585, Behbahan, Khuzistan Province, IRAN. Email Address for the Authors: P Rezaei (rezaei.parvin@gmail.com), N Faraji (farajii.nasr@gmail.com) and LF Saberi (fanisaberi@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: the problematic reduction of civic engagement in local communities of Khuzistan province in the southwest of Iran has became a serious issue for research in social planning and policy making.  It has occasioned an attempt to search for risk factors as deterrents to engaging in the society. The aim of this study was investigating factors that affect civic engagement among gray citizens, focusing on the role of their religiosity as reducer or active factor. The community of study is 201 senior citizens from selected municipal zones of Ahwaz city that selected through cluster sampling method. The independent variables were gender, socioeconomic status, membership in non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and duration of living in the city, a sense of satisfaction towards urban services, traditionalism, and fatalism. It was noticeable that religiosity has no significant relationship with civic engagement of elderly, though religious elders have less participating interactions in this study. Finally, some discussions and offers within the research itself were recognized as potential improvement and reinforcement energies toward participative planning within the population, especially among women and seniors. The growth of social networks and societal links, along with some revival of social trust appeared helpful.

[Abdolrahim Asadollahi, Parvin Rezaei, Nasrin Faraji, Laleh Fani Saberi. Does Religiosity have Unsuitable Effect on Civic Engagement of Older Adults? A research within aged citizens in the Southwest of Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):421-426]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

 

Key Words: Religiosity, Civic Engagement, SES, Public Health, Aged People, Iran

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CO2 Emission Reduction by using Renewable Energy in Iran:Towards Sustainable Development

 

Abdolhamid Papzan 1, Ali Papzan 2

 

  1. Associate professor of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran, and Guest Researcher of BC-CARE, FU., Berlin, Germany

2.   School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Penang, Malaysia

a.papzan @fu-berlin.de; papzanabdolhamid89 @gmail.com

 

Abstract  In general terms, energy sources are classified as renewable and non- renewable energy types. Renewable energy is fuelled by a source that is sustainable in economic, social and environmental terms. It is usually defined the fuel source, for example, solar, wind, biomass, tidal, etc., but it has other relevant characteristics that are important. Renewable energy has the capacity to provide cost- effective energy to remote communities’ without the added investment of providing fossil generation. Because of high CO2 generated by fossil fuel in Iran and necessity of changing in energy consumption in this country, this Meta-Analysis study was conducted for showing Iran’s situations regarding to use of RE for CO2 emission reduction. For doing this, all of the available related and published papers have gathered and analyzed by content analysis method. From 110 papers, 35 cases were desired and discussed about CO2 emission and the role of renewable energy to reduce the amount of GHG, particularly CO2 in Iran. For content analysis, these papers were read and reviewed, line by line for several times and extracted main concepts. Then by categorizing these concepts, the main influence factors on CO2 emission reduction were recognized. The results of this study showed those seven categories such as: GHG, Generation of RE, Energy Consumption, Environment, Government Orientation, Rural Development, and Economy shall be considered. The paper refers some suggestions according to the findings.

[Papzan A, Papzan A. CO2 Emission Reduction by using Renewable Energy in Iran: Towards Sustainable Development. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):427-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

 

Keywords: CO2 Emission Reduction, Renewable Energy, Iran

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Descriptive Analysis of Postoperative Psychomimetic Side Effects of Subanesthetic Dose of Ketamine in Surgical Patients.

 

Hala S. Abdel-Ghaffar.

 

Anesthesia Department, Assiut University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

hallasaad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Most of clinical experience gained with the use of low dose ketamine focused in its analgesic efficacy. psychomimetic side effects of ketamine were reported as secondary outcome parameters and  most of studies recorded event counts rather than severity. The aim of this study was the detailed analysis of postoperative psychomimetic side effects of subanesthetic dose of ketamine. Methods:  The study included 100 consented patients (aged 18-55 yrs), ASA I-II who were scheduled for different elective surgeries (including upper abdominal operations such as open cholecystectomy and epigastric hernia repair, thyroid, ear, nasal) under general anesthesia. Ketamine HcL (Ketalar®) 0.9mg/kg iv bolus was administered intraoperatively before skin incision. Patients were strictly observed postoperatively for occurrence of ketamine psychomimetic side effects e.g. hallucination, euphoria, excitation, agitation, illusions whether visual or auditory, fear, slurred speech, nystagmus and photophobia. The onset (time since discontinuation of anesthesia till appearance of side effect) and duration of each side effect were recorded. Results:  45 patients were free from ketamine side effects. Not all side effects occurred in the same patient. 12 patients had one side effect, 25 patients had two side effects, 16 patients had 3 side effects, 2 patients had 4 side effects and no patient had more than 4 side effects. The observed ketamine side effects included nystagmus (n=29), Photophobia (n=35), slurred speech (n=24), euphoria (n=3), agitation (n=2), and hallucination (n=20). Their mean onset and duration times were: nystagmus (20.55±6.9 and 4.79±2.26 min.), photophobia (39.71±8.89 and 31.03±12.57 min.), slurred speech (72.2±9.49 and 89.78±14.84 min.), euphoria (57.0±4.24 and 105.00±21.21min.), agitation (55.6±2.5 and treated with 3mg midazolam), and hallucination (70.85±10.52 and 118.45±36.18 min.). A highly significant association was recorded between the incidence and severity of recorded psychomimetic side effects of ketamine and older age, female gender, upper abdominal operations and longer surgical times. Conclusion:  Since neuropsychiatric disturbances remain an issue with the use of ketamine, one must weigh the risks and benefits of this intervention. Outcomes other than pain and analgesic use ( eg. Adverse effects, duration of hospital stay and cost-benefit analysis) should be included in future research on ketamine whenever possible.

[Hala S. Abdel-Ghaffar. Descriptive Analysis of Postoperative Psychomimetic Side Effects of Subanesthetic Dose of Ketamine in Surgical Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):435-439]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

 

Key words: Anesthesia, analgesia, Ketamine, side effects.

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Geographic Factors Affecting the Endemism Industrial in Hail Area

 

Safa S. Sababhi

 

Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

safasb76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study endemism industrial and factors affecting it important in industrial planning, due to its importance in providing a database of industrial decision makers. The aim of this study was to analyze the industrial structure in the Hail region, To identify the factors influencing the decision to choose the industrial Location, Function-based approach has been used to study industrial structure, In addition to using statistical methods to see the effects of geographic factors in determining industrial location. The study found that the Hail is still not attractive for industrial investment, why are only (7%) of the factories Kingdom, constitute the food industry (26.5%) of them, the study found also that the proximity of the market is one of the most important factors influencing the choose a location food industries, wood industries and crafts semi-metallic, while the factor availability of labor did not affect the industrial endemism in the study area because of the dependence on foreign workers. The study recommended the need for attention to infrastructure in the Hail region, and the need for more serious studies to find out reasons for the low proportion of national employment in the industrial sector.

[Safa S. Sababhi. Geographic Factors Affecting the Endemism Industrial in Hail Area. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):440-447]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

 

Key words: endemism industrial, industrial structure, the proximity of the market, the industrial association.

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Physicians and Nurses Perception of Organizational Performance and Organizational Culture in Egypt

 

Olfat A. Salem1;Fatma M. Baddar2, GusrinaKomara Putri3; Suha A. Mohamad4 and Nora A. Bassiouni5

 

1, 2, 3Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing, Riyadh, King Saud University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

1Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing. Menofiya University, Egypt

2, 5Department of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

4University of Teshreen, Nurse Supervisor, Training and Orientation Office, Ministry of Health, Syria

olfatsalem@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract:A major challenge to healthcare executives is to maximize organization productivity, and providing quality of care. One of the way to established it by conducting a high level of organizational performance. This study aimed to assess organizational performance of intensive care units (ICU) and determine the interrelations between different dimensions of its. A descriptive, cross sectional used as research design. It was conducted in 19 ICUs at Alexandria University Hospital. 59 physicians and 135 nurses were participated in this study. Convenience random sampling method established. The Multidimensional Organizational Performance Questionnaire developed by Mienvielleet al. (2004) was translated into Arabic and was used as data collection tool. It was found a statistically significance difference between total mean score of the physicians' and the nurse' perception towards organizational culture, the four elements of the performance unit effectiveness and individual well-being dimensions of the organizational performance. It is recommended for hospital administrators to create a collaborative and constructive culture within healthcare members.

[Olfat A. Salem;Fatma M. Baddar, GusrinaKomaraPutri; Suha A. Mohamadand Nora A. Bassiouni. Physicians and Nurses Perception of Organizational Performance and Organizational Culture in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):448-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

 

Keywords: Organizational performance,  Organizational  Culture, Effectiveness, intensive care units, physicians/ Doctors , nurses, Egypt

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Subclinical Epileptiform Abnormalities in ADHD Children: Effect of Stimulant Medications.

 

Riad M .Elsayed 1*, Hala E. Sayyah 2, Abd Elazeez Shabaan3 and Maha Nada 4

 

1Pediatric Department, Pediatric Neurology unit, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Psychiatric Department, Benisuef University, Egypt .

3Pediatric Department, Neonatology unit, Mansoura University, Egypt

4Neurology Department ,Ain Shams University, Egypt  .

shewaka1971@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in children. The relationship between ADHD and subclinical epileptiform abnormalities still vague. In addition, there are controversies about the use of stimulant medications in such case. Aim of the study: To assess the effects of stimulant medications on subclinical epileptiform abnormalities in children with ADHD. Patients and methods: We recruited 50 newly diagnosed children with ADHD without clinical seizures; they were assessed by EEG before and after 6 months of stimulant medications. Patients were aged from 6 to 12years, including 33males (66%) and 17 females (34%). Patients were categorized according to the subtype of ADHD into hyperactive subtype (n=19, 38%), inattentive subtype (n=10, 20%), and combined type (n=21, 42%).We used 20 channels EEG under standard condition for assessing children before and 6 months after treatment with stimulant medications.  Results: Epileptiform abnormalities were detected in 16 (32%) of ADHD children before start of stimulant medication (methylphenidate), in comparison with 7 (14%) after stimulant therapy (p= 0.349) .We didn't find any correlation between ADHD subtypes and pattern of epileptiform discharge before and after therapy. Therefore stimulant treatment has nothing to do with epileptiform activity, moreover there is increased percent of normal EEG after treatment to be 86%, which was 68% before stimulant treatment. Conclusion: Stimulant medication can be used safely in ADHD children even in the presence of EEG changes without increased seizure risk.

 [Riad M .Elsayed, Hala E. Sayyah 2Abd Elazeez Shabaan and Maha Nada Subclinical Epileptiform Abnormalities in ADHD Children: Effect of Stimulant Medications. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):454-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

 

Key words: subclinical, EEG abnormalities, Children, ADHD, stimulant medication

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Routing Protocol Based on Fuzzy Logic in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

 

Aziz Hanifi, Tofig Kazimova

 

Institute of Information Technology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Science

hanifi_aziz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Taxonomic Ad hoc network usages have been investigated in military services, conferences and transport and et al., environment, network performance is intensively affected by routing protocols. A variety of routing algorithms has been suggested and their performance has been studied. Among them, those algorithms that are based on nods position are noticeable and these methods have been emphasized on this article. Since fuzzy calculation has opened a new door to most of engineering fields a routing based on fuzzy logic is presented on this article. A fuzzy logic usage assures path reliability in specific of time.On the other hand, we present a combination of two distinct algorithms – proactive and packet request. Finally, a mathematical model is presented that approves improve ness compared to other methods.

[Hanifi A, Tofig K. Routing Protocol Based on Fuzzy Logic in Mobile Ad hoc Networks. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):459-465]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

 

Keywords: Ad hoc Network, fuzzy, routine, performance, position.

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The rule of action in guaranty and civic responsibility

 

 

1Abolfazl Amini Mehtarlo, 2Nader Fouladpanjeh

 

1Fculty member of Azad University of Varzgan and Basic Lawyer of Justice

2MA student of Private Law in Tehran University

naderfu@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The rule of action is one of apparent rule in jurisprudence which has an important role in guaranty and civic responsibility. Guaranty is divided into contractive and Qhry. In contractive guaranty, responsibility is included in contracts and in Qhry it is out of contract and it is created forcibly in charge of person. Also guaranty is divided into Fake and Real one. Fake guaranty is a Msmy guaranty in which a person undertake to pay off the value and change of goods that he bought, with the same characteristic and material. Real guaranty is a like or price one in which an order of judge for proving property of someone in another Zmh is bring up. In first division Qhry guaranty is gain without story and essay of judge and law. In this way the rule of action can be examined in two meaning: an action for guaranty or loss. An action to guaranty cause Qhry guaranty. Here the loss as a result of guaranty a responsibility can be compensated. The instance for this is Mavzy contract in which the contract is invalid and taking money is not supported by Shari and laws. Daye of other person is lost and like guaranty or price being raised. Because with awareness do the invalid contract and cause guaranty and an action to loss which is a Muscat of Qhry guaranty. Jurisprudence principle from this narrative: in permissible transaction with awareness and result of loss, it can't be demanded by curious and is a Muscat of Qhry guaranty.

[Abolfazl Amine Mehtarlo and Nader Fouladpanjeh. The rule of action in guaranty and civic responsibility. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):466-470]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  72

 

Keywords: Guaranty, Action, Civic, Rule.

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Parallel Matrix Transposition Using Stream Programming Paradigm

 

Saeid Yousefpour 1, Azad Shojaei 2*,  Rahim Rashidi 3

 

1 Department of Computer,Boukan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boukan, Iran

2 Department of Computer, Saghez Branch, Islamic Azad University,  Saghez, Iran

3Department of Computer, Boukan Branch,Islamic Azad University, Boukan, Iran

*Azad.Shojaei@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: Parallel computing has become the dominant paradigm in computer science, mainly in the form of multi core processors. One software approach for parallel programming, is writing programs in streaming model. A stream program is type of computer program such that the input data is stream of data. In this paper we have used stream programming model, and developed the parallel version of matrix transposition algorithm. Our source codes are simple java code and used JStream java library. Matrix transposition is a fundamental matrix operation of linear algebra and arises in many scientific and engineering applications. For example, matrix transposition is one of the major tasks in image and signal processing and matrix decompositions. Also matrix transposition is a permutation frequently performed in various techniques involving systems of liner equations. Partial differential equations are typically solved using the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) method by transposing the data between the solution phases in different directions. Another example in which data transposition may be advantageous is solving Poisson's problem using the Fourier Analysis Cyclic Reduction (FACR) method. Also our code shows that writing parallel programs in streaming model would be very simple.

[Saeid Yousefpour, Azad Shojaei, Rahim rashidi. Parallel Matrix Transposition Using Stream Programming Paradigm. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):471-475]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

 

Key words: Data Stream; Stream Programming; Parallel Computation; Parallel Matrix Transposition; Multi Core

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How Family Cultural Spaces Affect Children's Learning Performance and Educational Achievement

 

Hasanali Mirzabeigi

 

Professor of, Islamic Azad University Tehran Center,Tehran, Iran

drmirzabeigi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify family cultural spaces and their effects on learning formats and performance in families and children's educational achievement. A sample of 54 families was selected randomly from four boy's and girl's high schools in two districts in North and South of Tehran.  Specialized counselors interviewed these families.  They asked fathers to answer Baumrind Child rearing Pattern Questionnaire.  The grade point averages of the previous semester were taken as the representative of children educational achievement. The result of long observations and interviews showed that the studied parents had differing cultural spaces influenced by their cultural assets, including their educational background, time and type of reading, time and type of television programs, and other cultural activities.  These factors are known to have considerable influence on family cultural spaces and family educational achievement. Study findings showed that each family had differing levels of family cultural space.  The majority of families in each group had created spaces and had performances conforming to their own cultural spaces with high bearing on their child rearing patterns.  The results also showed that the family child rearing patterns had direct bearing on children's educational achievement.

[Hasanali Mirzabeigi. How Family Cultural Spaces Affect Children's Learning Performance and Educational Achievement. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):476-482]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

 

Keywords: Cultural spaces, family learning form, family learning performance, child rearing, and educational achievement

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The Relationship between Social Trust and Political Participation (Case Study of Iranian Youth)

 

Hoseyn Masoudnia1, Zohre Marandi 2, Reza Mahmoodoghli 3 , Mahmoodreza Rahbargazi 4

 

1,2,3,4 Department of Political Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

zohremarandi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: People’s participation in different matters in life is an important subject in political and social sciences. One of the major groups of the society whose participation is necessary for running the society and for social, political and cultural development is the youth. Political participation of the youth who are considered the largest population group in developing countries and future managers of the society is especially important for political stability and society’s dynamism. The purpose of writing this article is to investigate the relationship between the effects of social trust as one of the dimensions of social capital on the political participation of Iranian youths in the city of Mashhad. Survey method was employed for collecting and analyzing the data. This study was performed on 234 males and females; for data collection, a questionnaire was used whose validity was formally assessed and its reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s α; data were analyzed using SPSS software. By dividing social trust into the four variables of conventional trust, unconventional trust, generalized trust and environment trust capability along with consideration of two aspects of political participation, namely, psychological-attitude factors and manner of political participation (conventional or unconventional), it is observed that significant correlations exist between social trust dimensions and the respondents’ level of political participation.

[Hoseyn Masoudnia, Zohre Marandi, Reza Mahmoodoghli, Mahmoodreza Rahbargazi. The Relationship between Social Trust and Political Participation (Case Study of Iranian Youth). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):483-487]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

 

Keywords: conventional trust; unconventional trust; generalized trust; environment trust capability; feeling of social security; attitude toward political participation; manner of political participation.

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The relationship between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism and smoking-related Ischemic Heart Disease

 

Mona A. Abdel-hamid1, Hanan M. F. Abdel-wahab2, Inas A. Ahmed3, Soheir M. Ibrahim3.

 

1Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Biochemistry and Nutrition Department Women's College for Art, Science and Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3Cairo University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

m_zahry@med.asu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background: Smoking as a major risk factor for development of IHD is thought to be partially genetically determined. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of ACE gene polymorphism on the development of cardiovascular diseases among smokers. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Cairo university hospital, Egypt. An interviewed questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 subjects. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The frequencies of DD, ID, and II genotypes among smokers with IHD were 16.3%, 77.5% and 6.2% respectively. Their frequencies among smokers with no IHD were 25.0%, 60.0% and 15.0% respectively; the difference between the IHD group and non-IHD group was statistically significant (P= 0.046). Conclusion: According to this Egyptian Study, ID genotype may be a risk factor in the occurrence of IHD among Egyptian smokers.

[Mona A. Abdel-hamid, Hanan M. F. Abdel-wahab, Inas A. Ahmed, Soheir M. Ibrahim. The relationship between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism and smoking-related Ischemic Heart Disease. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):488-493]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Smoking, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Gene Polymorphism, Ischemic Heart Disease

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Nutritional Awareness of Women during Pregnancy

 

Latifa M. Fouda1;   Manal H. Ahmed2 and   Nihal S. Shehab3

 

1Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University

2Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Department,  Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University.

3Public Health Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

Manalhassan_444@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Nutrition throughout life has a major effect on health .This is true for pregnant women as adequate maternal nutrition is one of the best ways to ensure maternal and fetal wellbeing in developed and developing countries. The aim of the present study was conducted to investigate the nutritional awareness of women represented in their knowledge, attitude, and the dietary practice regarding the meaning, the importance and constituents of a well balanced diet and the necessary nutrients during pregnancy. This study is an observational – cross sectional study. The participants were 124 pregnant females; their ages ranged from 18 to 35 years old, attending the outpatient clinics of obstetrics and gynecology at El-Menshawy General Hospital .Data were collected through: An interviewing questionnaire schedule sheet was designed to collect data related to socio-demographic data, general and obstetrical history, data about the present pregnancy and women Knowledge, Attitude, and practices regarding nutrition during pregnancy. The results of present study revealed that more than half of women (54%) had a poor level of knowledge and practices regarding the intake of essential nutrients and basic food elements meeting the nutritional demands of the mother and the fetus. They found to be failed to meet their high physiological requirements necessary for themselves and their growing fetus. It can be concluded that, most of women had a very poor level of knowledge about nutrition during pregnancy. Where more than half of women in the present study lacked the essential knowledge regarding the basic nutrients and adequate nutrition during pregnancy, also  the importance and sources of most of the types of vitamins and minerals and other essential food elements. Unhealthy food practice was also observed among them. The study recommended that it is necessary to encourage pre-pregnancy teaching and counseling for future mothers and during early pregnancy about proper and balanced maternal nutrition, also to enforce good prenatal care nutritional counseling of supplementation of iron and folic acid and other basic nutrients that are crucial for the mother and her growing fetus.

[Latifa M. Fouda;  Manal H. Ahmed and. Nihal S. Shehab. Nutritional Awareness of Women during Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):494-502]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 77

 

Key words:   Nutrition, Pregnancy, Pregnant women, Awareness regarding nutrition

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Effect of Implementing an Oral Care Protocol on Minimizing Rate of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia among Mechanically Ventilated Patients at Mansoura Emergency Hospital

 

Hala Zaiton1, Karima Elshamy2 Fatma Elesawy3, Mohammed Sultan4

 

1.       Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University.

2.       Department of Adult Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University

3.       B.SC.N Faculty of Nursing Mansoura University

4.       Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

Karima_elshamy2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Oral hygiene has been proposed as a key study for reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia .It considered basic and potentially essential nursing care, bad oral hygiene increase oropharyngeal colonization with pathogenic organisms contributes to the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units. Aim of the Study: This study was conducted to assess the effect of implementing an oral care protocol on Minimizing ventilator associated pneumonia among mechanically ventilated patients at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Materials and Methods: A quasi- experimental design was used in this study. The study subjects includes two groups Group I, consisted of 40 patients received routine oral care (control group )Group II, includes 40 patients received oral care protocol (study group). Tools of the study consist of two tools, the first tool was Patients' assessment sheet of VAP, and the second tool was oral assessment form for assessment of oral health condition . Conclusion The protocol of oral care used reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia among mechanically ventilated patients than the hospital routine mouth care. Recommendations: 1- Replication of the study using a large probability samples acquired from different geographic areas. 2- A longitudinal study should be designed to determine the long term effect of the developed oral care protocol over a large period of time. 3- An educational program should be established for nurses caring for mechanically ventilated patients in the ICUs. 4- Written oral care should be initiated in the ICU.

[Hala Zaiton, Karima Elshamy Fatma Elesawy, Mohammed Sultan. Effect of Implementing an Oral Care Protocol on Minimizing Rate of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia among Mechanically Ventilated Patients at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):503-514]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

 

Key words: Oral Care Protocol -Ventilator Associated Pneumonia –Intensive Care unit

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Economomical Application of Initiator Mix Approach in suspension Polyvinyl Chloride Production

 

A.A. Ezzat

 

Chemical and Petrochemical Engineering, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, EJUST University, Alexandria-Egypt

abbassezzat@yahoo.com; abbas.ezzat@ejust.edu.eg

 

Abstract: In suspension polymerization process water is applied as the continuous phase, with vinyl chloride monomer dispersed in suspending agents. Polymerization process starts with an emulation of vinyl chloride monomer in water. Selection of polymerization initiators are based on reactor design criteria. The application of single initiators has resulted in higher peak rate with higher concentration of peroxide, and adverse impact on polymerizer temperature profile, reactor performance and product quality. On the other hand, the application of initiator mix approach has proven to be an economical optimum solution with high quality products. On the other hand, the application of initiator mix approach has proven to be an economical optimum solution with high quality products.

[A.A. Ezzat. Economomical Application of Initiator Mix Approach in suspension Polyvinyl Chloride Production. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):515-519]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 79

  

Key words: Initiator, Mix, Polyvinyl Chloride, Suspension

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Role of IL10 and Total IgE Induced by Helminths Infection in Protection from Allergy among School Children

 

Nadia El nahas, Nancy Harba and Shaimaa Sharaf

 

Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

dr_nsalah@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Epidemiological evidence confirms that helminths infection inversely correlate with allergic manifestations. Its protective effect against allergic diseases was evaluated in this   study which carried out on 204 school children aging from 6-14 years old from El shohada center of Menouifiya Governorate. They classified into 113 children representing the urban community and 91 representing the rural community.  Comparison of both prevalence of helminths infections and allergic diseases among children was done, and the relationship between each helminths infection and different allergic diseases was also recorded. In addition, the serum level of ; interlukien 10,total IgE were determined in both allergic and parasitic diseases with evaluation  of eosinophilia in both conditions.  Helminths infections was significantly higher in rural, than in urban areas while the distribution of allergic diseases showed non significant difference between rural and urban children. The occurrence of different types of allergic disease were significantly lower in parasite positive children p<0.001.  E. vermicularis infection was the most prevalent, with significant decrease in allergic manifestation. Also helminths infections produce significant large values of total IgE and IL10 comparing with allergic diseases with significant level of eosinophilia in both conditions. It was concluded that the protective effect of helminths infection may be mediated by high concentration of total IgE suggesting IgE  blocking  hypothesis and enhanced helminths induced IL10 production with its suppressive effect to allergic response.

[Nadia El nahas, Nancy Harba and Shaimaa Sharaf. Role of IL10 and Total IgE Induced by Helminths Infection in Protection from Allergy among School Children. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):520-527]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.80

 

Key words: IL10, Total IgE, Allergic disease, Parasitic infection

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Psychological Motives and Vulnerability for Pulmonary Dysfunction among Tobacco Smokers

 

1Amal I., Khali and 2Hala M. Bayoumy

 

1Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Al Minufyia University, Egypt

2Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Tobacco smoking has multidimensional motives which might lead to compulsive or problematic nicotine use. Pulmonary diseases associated with tobacco smoking are a complex group of disorders the early diagnosis of which as well as identification of motives behind smoking would allow effective management. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess motives that influence smokers’ decision to use tobacco, the impact on pulmonary function and possible associations among those outcomes as well as with related background characteristics of study participants. METHODS: Participants in this descriptive correlational study comprised of 96 smokers. Majority was students, with average age of 22.01±5.87 years. Age, weight, height, BMI and pack-years were recorded, smoking dependence motives were assessed and spirometry was performed. RESULTS: Smoking dependence motives revealed equivocal mean ranged between (2.5 – 2.8) with increasing mean value of nicotine dependence motives. Mean tobacco consumption was 9.80 ± 10.82 pack-years. Study participants exhibited mild airflow limitation, mean percentage of predicted values for FEV1 was 83% ± 0.9, mean FVC was 4.6 ± 1.3, and FEV1/FVC ratio was as low as 45% ± 1.2. Psychological motives had shown weak correlations with FEV1, FVC and PEF. Certain motives however, showed significant differences with number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age at start of smoking as well as intensity of smoking showed significant relation with FEV1 decline. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers had shown mild airflow limitation. Various smoking motives affected study participants equally. The implementation of a coordinated tobacco control program is therefore required.

[Amal I., Khali and Hala M. Bayoumy. Psychological Motives and Vulnerability for Pulmonary Dysfunction among Tobacco Smokers. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):528-538]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

 

Key Words: Smoking, Motives, Pulmonary function, University

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The survey of information technology statuesque in Iran's National Olympic Committee (NOC) and presents the current situation

 

Jahan Jamalsirat

 

Department of Physical Education، Yasuj Branch، Islamic Azad university، Yasuj، Iran

jamalsiratj@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Nowadays, the emergence of information technology has made changes in proceedings and tasks of sports organizations. This paper aims to study the current state of information technology in the National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Khosravizadeh (2008) has introduced information technology and information management system as one of the weaknesses of the National Olympic Committee of Iran. Sy-Tak-Chy stated that using information technology was one of the achievements and successes of the first strategic plan of Malaysia's Olympic Association. Kim & Robinson mentioned that inadequate utilization of information technology is a weak point of that committee. The present study is a descriptive research in which a questionnaire was designed by the author to investigate the state of information technology. The study population included all workers employed at the National Olympic Committee. Given the equality of population size with sample size, sampling was done by total number method, and consequently the survey sample was set equal to 86. Data obtained from above-mentioned questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics by SPSS software. The results showed that the state of software, hardware, and human resources indices in the National Olympic Committee was evaluated poor, good, and poor respectively by the respondents. Failure to develop information technology seems to be a problem in most third world countries and any transformation in this field is subjected to attitude change of top managers toward software and human development of information technology. Such a situation in the National Olympic Committee can be considered as a weakness and threat, while the existing hardware state can be a strength and opportunity to this committee.

[Jahan Jamalsirat. The survey of information technology statuesque in Iran's National Olympic Committee (NOC) and presents the current situation. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):539-542]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

 

Keywords: Information; Technology; Information technology; National Olympic Committee, SWOT analysis

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Epic Love in Khavran Nameh and Shahnameh

 

Shahrbanoo Haghshenas

 

Department of Persian Language and Literature, farrashband branch, Islamic Azad University, farrashband,Iran

Haghsenassh@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Love is a reality and falling in love and being lover are human's natural moods. Each human is a lover inevitably.We finds farrashband effects of lyrics thoughts in the epic works. In Shahnameh, the love affairs of Zal and Roudabeh, Tahmineh, and Rostam, Soudabeh and Siavash, and Manijeh and Bijan, and the descriptions of beautiful women and beloveds, are the best samples of lyrics and epic verses of Persian. Khavaran Nameh that is composed by the imitation of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, In both cases (Khavaran Nameh, and Shahnameh), love is the benchmark, and the scale to recognize the internal characteristics of kings, champions, and women; in addition, their real countenances are revealed in the field of love. In these two works, when real and true love is stated, it brings humans to perfection, and causes them to be successful, and brings clear and beautiful future for them.

[Shahrbanoo Haghshenas. Epic Love in Khavran Nameh and Shahnameh. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):543-546]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 83

 

Keywords: Love, Lust,Khavran Nameh, Shahnameh

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Formulation of structural model for predicts academic progress via global self- esteem, academic self- concept and self- adjustment learning

 

Omid Isanejad1, Mariam Shojaheidari1, Fahime Raji2, Mahin Naderi1, Omolbanin Roodbari1

 

1 Department of Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Education, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Iran

E-mail: m_sh.heidari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was examination of conceptual model of structural equivalents for predict academic progress of students based variables such as global self esteem, academic self- concept, autonomous- academic motivation, self- adjustment learning strategies and social category of family. 417 one grade of high school students (226 boy and 191 girl) answered to global self-esteem questionnaire (Rozenberg, 1965), scale of academic motivation (Valernd and Colleagues, 1992) learning strategies questionnaire (Pintrich and Degrith, 1990), and self- concept questionnaire (Sarasuat, 1984). The result obtained from the structural equivalents method showed that self-concept variables and learning methods effect on academic progress directly. Global self- esteem variable via academic self- concept and learning method was effective on academic progress indirectly. Standard Coefficient of rout of autonomous academic motivation toward academic progress wasn't meaningful. Social category of family had a meaningful effect on self-esteem.

[Isanejad O, Shojaheidari M, Raji F, Naderi M, Roodbari O. Formulation of structural model for predicts academic progress via global self- esteem, academic self- concept and self- adjustment learning. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):547-552]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84

 

Keywords: Academic progress, global self esteem, academic self concept, learning methods.

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The Biography of the Writer of First Shia’s Hadith Document

 

Naser Sadeghian

 

Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

 

Abstract: Reviewing the Islamic history, can lead us to know about peoples that have been collecting the holly prophet’s notes and hadith as well as collecting the hadith from Shia Imams. Regardless of their aims and objectives, one of the most famous collectors of Shia hadith is Mohammad Ibn Ya`qub al Kulayni. This article reviews the life of Kulayni focusing his contribution to Shia Sharia.

[Naser Sadeghian. The Biography of the Writer of First Shia’s Hadith Document. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):553-554]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

 

Keywords: Kulayni, Life, Death, Books, Alkafi

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Identifying and Prioritization Effective Factors on performance appraisal of R&D sector by AHP technique (Case Study: production units of guilan Province)

 

Amid Pourghafar Maghferati1* ‚ Allahyar Daghbandan 2 ‚ Mahmoud Modiri 3

 

*1Department of Industrial Management, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Qazvin, Iran

E-mail: a.pourghafar@qiau.ac.ir

2PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of engineering, University of guilan, guilan, Iran

3PhD, Assistant Professor, Faculty of accounting and Management, South Tehran Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran     E-mail: m.modiri@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Today, research and development activities are main factor for economic and industrial development to all firms. Developing countries to get to the level of developed countries would be in R&D units and its research activities, new strategies are developed at the university level whether in the public sector and small and large production units. The purpose of this study is Identifying and Prioritization Effective Factors on performance appraisal of R&D sector by AHP technique. The results show that financial aspect is the most important factor that influence on performance appraisal of R&D units and moreover, the less important factor is research performance that influence on performance appraisal of R&D units.

[Amid Pourghafar Maghferati‚ Allahyar Daghbandan‚ Mahmoud Modiri. Identifying and Prioritization Effective Factors on performance appraisal of R&D sector by AHP technique (Case Study: production units of guilan Province). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):555-559]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 86

 

Keywords: performance appraisal, research and development, production units, AHP

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The role of Bi and Sb on the electrical properties of Mg doped copper Ferrites

 

M.A. Ahmed1, I. K. El Zawawia2, A. Azab2 and A.Almuhamady1

 

1Materials Science Lab, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2. National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

a.almuhamady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A series of Cu0.7Mg0.3MyFe2-yO4 spinel ferrites with M = Bi, Sb and 0.0 £ y £ 0.25, have been prepared by standard ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed a single phase spinel structure with small secondary phase at some concentrations. Lattice parameter and X-ray density were calculated and reported. Seebeck coefficient was measured, their values for all samples were positive, indicate the majority of charge carriers were holes (p-type). ac conductivity and dielectric constant as a function frequency and temperature were carried out. The measured transport  properties  were decreased with increasing of Sb3+  while increased with Bi3+ content up to y=0.15 and then decreased again. .

[M.A. Ahmed, I. K. El Zawawia, A. Azab and A. Almuhamady. The role of Bi and Sb on the electrical properties of Mg doped copper Ferrites. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):560-574]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 87

 

Key words: Cu-ferrite, dielectric, conductivity, Bi and Sb

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Intraoperative estimation of serum MEGX as a prognostic parameter in cirrhotic patients undergoing laparoscopic Surgery under Sevoflurane anaesthesia

 

Wael ahmed Ibrahim1; Ahmed abdalla Mohamed2 and Tamer Fayez safan2

 

1 Anaesthesia Department, NCI Cairo University

2 Anaesthesia Department, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University

waelahmed60@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of serum mono-ethyl-glycine-xylidide (MGEX) estimation as a prognostic parameter in cirrhotic patients exposed to inhalational anesthesia for varied laparoscopic surgeries.  Patients & Methods: The study included 30 cirrhotic patients and 10 controls non-cirrhotic patients assigned to undergo surgical procedures under general inhalational anesthesia. Preoperative evaluation included clinical, ultrasonographic examination and laboratory investigations for the patients, and they are categorized according to Child-Pugh (CP) score. Only patients with CP class A and B were enrolled in the study. Serum MEGX was estimated 15 and 30 minutes after intravenous injection of lidocaine 1 mg/kg over 1 min. The amount of MEGX produced as a measure for detoxification and excretion liver functions was calculated as serum MEGX level at 30 minutes (S30) minus serum MEGX at 15 minutes (S15).  Results: Nineteen patients were CP class A and 11 were class B. Mean operative and anesthesia times showed non-significant difference between studied patients. Mean sevoflurane consumption was 310±30.9 MAC/hr  with a non-significant difference between studied patients. All patients developed significantly higher heart rate and blood pressure measures at time of abdominal insufflations compared to baseline but returned to near baseline levels after exsufflation. Serum MEGX was non-significantly higher in S30 sample compared to S15 sample. No patient approached the level of ≥90 ng/ml. Patients of CP class B  showed significantly lower serum levels of MEGX in both samples compared to CP class A patients. The extent of increase of MEGX serum levels showed a negative significant correlation with occurrence of postoperative deterioration of CP class and postoperative morbidities that ended fatally in two patients. Conclusion: Estimation of serum MEGX is applicable and could be used as discriminative test for patients with varied degrees of liver cirrhosis and as predictor for prognosis after exposure to anesthetic and surgical risks.

[Wael ahmed Ibrahim; Ahmed abdalla Mohamed and Tamer Fayez safan. Intraoperative estimation of serum MEGX as a prognostic parameter in cirrhotic patients undergoing laparoscopic Surgery under Sevoflurane anaesthesia. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):575-580]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 88

               

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Inhalational anesthesia, Laparoscopic surgery, MEGX

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Nursing Intervention to Promote Self Care Management Practices for Clients with Hepatitis ''C'' Virus

 

Naglaa M. Girgis1, Nadia Hamed Farahat2, and Hanan Ibrahim Ahmed2

 

1Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University,

2Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

naglaagerges@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim: was to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention to promote self care management practices for clients with Hepatitis ''C'' virus Design: a quasi-experimental design was used in carrying out this study. Setting: the study was conducted at the Medical Outpatients' Clinics of the Benha University Hospital in Benha City. The sample: A convenience sample was used included 100 HCV patients chosen randomly. Tools: utilized in this study comprised a structured interview questionnaire for assessment of the socio-demographic characteristics of HCV clients, the medical health status, their knowledge, self-care management practices, and an observational checklist through asking question for assessment of home environment. Results: the main results revealed that post the nursing intervention there was a significant improvement of client's knowledge about viral disease as causative agents of HCV, preventive measures, and self-care management about HCV practices of common health problems such as nutrition, itching, rest and exercises, depression, and muscle cramps. And, there was a positive correlation between client's knowledge, self care management practices, and home environment. This study concluded that, there was a significant positive effect of nursing intervention on knowledge and self-care management practices of HCV clients The study recommended that, promotion and enhancement of the self-care modalities to HCV clients, and mass media should be included in preventive measures programs of HCV problems, and further researches is proposed to explore factors affecting self care management in rural areas.

[Naglaa M. Girgis, Nadia Hamed Farahat, and Hanan Ibrahim Ahmed . Nursing Intervention to Promote Self Care Management Practices for Clients with Hepatitis ''C'' Virus. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):581-591]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 89

 

Keywords: HCV clients, self-care management practices

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Mothers’ Satisfaction with the quality of Maternal and Child Services (out patient Pediatric unit) in Assiut and Beni-Suef Governorates

 

Mervat A. Elkader Ahmed Mohamed

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Beni-Suif University

M_Rahma2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, quality of life is one of the important aspects in promotion, prevention, and referral of at risk infancy is the major component of MCH services. Primary health-care centers provide outpatient health care and primary preventive activities for people in general and for mothers and children in particular. Medical care aims not only to improve health status, but also to respond to patients’ needs and wishes and to ensure their satisfaction with care. The patient-clinician relationship is a central feature of primary care. Health services and health education are the basic services provide to babies and mothers to achieve many objectives for example; protect our children, prevent any complication during life and maintain normal growth and development. Primary health care have many elements which facilities are established to provide communities with basic diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitate health services and medical outcomes, and are greatly influenced by client satisfaction with health care services. Client satisfaction has become a specific organizational goal and is used as an indicator of provider performance .This study aimed to assess mother' satisfactions regarding services in pediatric outpatient clinic and recommended how improve its quality. Subject and Methodology; the studied clients were 240 mothers, 126 mothers of them were from MCH centers at Assiut governorate (Kolta and El-Walidia) and 114 mothers from MCH centers at Beni-Seuf governorate (El Reiadi and El-Shorafa). The total sample were selected randomly which they attendant to these centers (Mothers attendant for seeking medical care or follow up of vaccinations for their children). Descriptive cross sectional research design was used in this study. This study is divided to two tools; was consists of demographic data of services health providers' team in the four studied centers, and observation checklist: of the place and persons that give services to the child. A cross sectional study was conducted during six months from January to June 2010.  Was used in collecting data for this study, a descriptive study has been chosen, and the Maternal and Child Health Units selected randomly. The Results revealed that. The most of health care providers spent many years working in this facility (OPD). The majority of the clients were satisfying from follow up service, regarding geographic accessibility; most of interviewed clients in the studied were about the time reach to the center, the major number from them needs less than 15 minute (47% in Kolta, 49% in El Reiadi, 38% in El-Walidia and 41% in El-Shorafa). And they were satisfying from the waiting time tell see the doctors, it was short time for most of the interviewed clients as follow ( 82. 4%,  82. 8%, 93.8% & 75.5%) in Kolta, El Reiadi, El-Walidia and El-Shorafa). And there is no satisfaction significant difference between the MCH and RHCs as P.value = >0.05. And all of them satisfying from "doctors and nurses listen in good way" as follow (91%, 61.5%, and 86 % and 94%) in (Kolta, El Reiadi, El-Walidia, and El-Shorafa).  It’s concluded OPD services in MCH have high quality and large number of the clients receive the services are more satisfactory, this is probably due to increase the health awareness and educational status among clients in urban areas. Still low/ lack of training courses of the health care providers. Increase the price of the service after renovation of this centers, lack of health education, especially in rural area. Until now the worker personnel lost motivating development factors.  Recommendation; Health education sessions should be planned for increase awareness of the mothers about ideal baby care methods, available a new trends /follow up training program for health care providers and should be suitable to the duty, supervision system should be adequately developed.

[Mervat A. Elkader Ahmed Mohamed. Mothers’ Satisfaction with the quality of Maternal and Child Services (out patient Pediatric unit) in Assiut and Beni-Suef Governorates. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):592-601]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 90

 

Key Words: Assess, mother, satisfactions, pediatric, outpatient clinic, services, improve, quality

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Hypothyroidism impairs oxidant/ antioxidant status and testicular functions of adult male rats

 

Mervat E. Asker a; Wafaa A. Hassan b and Akram M. El-kashlan b

 

a Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig,  Egypt.

b Department of Hormone Evaluation, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt.

Dr.Mervatasker@hotmail.com,   Dr_wafaa_ahmed_hassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study describes the effect of hypothyroidism on testicular functions and oxidant / antioxidant status of adult male rats. Rats were made hypothyroidism by i.p. injection of 6-n propyl 2-thiouracil (PTU, 10mg/Kg body wt / day) for 4 and/ or 8 weeks.  Induction of hypothyroidism caused a reduction in body weight as well as in genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time dependent manner following PTU treatment. A reduction in serum levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, and an elevation in serum estradiol level were also noticed in hypothyroid rats. Significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and nitric oxid (NO) levels were observed in testicular homogenate of hypothyroid rats. Increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity with a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were also found following PTU-induced hypothyroidism. Marked histological changes were observed in the testicular section of hypothyroid rats. These results suggest a direct regulatory role of thyroid hormone on testicular physiology and oxidant / antioxidant state in adult animals. 

[Mervat E. Asker; Wafaa A. Hassan and Akram M. El-kashlan. Hypothyroidism impairs oxidant/ antioxidant status and testicular functions of adult male rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):602-616]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 91

 

Key words: hypothyroidism; 6-n propyl 2-thiouracil; antioxidant; oxidative stress; sex hormones and testis.

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Evaluation of the Correlation between Antegonial and Mental Indices with Age, Gender, and Dental Status

 

Ehsan Khayam 1, Mohammad Amin Tavakoli2, Masoud Varshosaz 3, Malihe Moeini4, Seyed Hossein Razavi5 Niloufar Amin Tavakoli6

 

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Shaheed-Sadoughy University of Medical Sciences, Yazd

2. Professor, Department of Radiology, Shaheed-Beheshty University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

3. Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Shaheed-Beheshty University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

4. Resident of oral & maxillofacial radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahid-Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd (corresponding)

5. Resident of oral & maxillofacial radiology, Faculty of  Dentistry, Shahid-Sadoughi University of  Medical Sciences ,Yazd

6. Dentist, Department of Radiology, Shaheed-Beheshty University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

mlh_moeini@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There is evidence that the panoramic indices can be utilized as tools in the detection of low mineral bone density. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of mental and antegonial indices with age, gender, and dental status. This historical cohort study was conducted from March 2005 to December 2006 in the School of Dental Medicine (Shaheed-Beheshty University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran). The sample included people in the age range of 40-79 years who were referred for evaluation by panoramic radiography for dental treatment purposes. The correlation of mental and antegonial indices with age, gender, and dental status was evaluated. A total of 212 people participated in the study, consisting of 118 females (55.7%) and 94 males (44.3%). Antegonial index (AI) showed a statistically significant decrease with age in females (P < 0.05). However, in males, AI increased until age 60 years, after which there was a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05). Mental index was statistically lower in females who were age 60 and older compared with males (P < 0.05). In males, this index increased until age 60 and decreased thereafter, just as was observed for AI. Dentate persons had statistically higher AI means compared with partially dentate and edentulous persons in all age groups (P < 0.05).There was no relationship between mental indices( MI) and dental status (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicated that the antegonial index is influenced by dental status. Therefore, this index is not sufficient for determining bone loss. Future studies for determining the relationship between MI and bone marrow densitometry are recommended.

[Ehsan Khayam, Mohammad Amin Tavakoli, Masoud Varshosaz, Malihe Moeini, Seyyed Hossein Razavi , Niloufar Amin Tavakoli. Evaluation of the Correlation between Antegonial and Mental Indices with Age, Gender, and Dental Status. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):617-620]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 92

 

Keywords: Antegonial index; Mental index; Panoramic; BMD; Age; Gender

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Comparison of the effect of qualitative and quantitative evaluations on realization of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives in students

 

Mahin Naderi1, Fahimeh Raji2, Maryam ShojaHiedari1, Fatemeh Mehrabifar3

 

1 Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Science & Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Education, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Iran

3 Department of Education, Azad Thahghighat University, Tehran Branch, Iran

 m_sh.heidari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of present study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative evaluation on the realization of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objective in students. This investigation is based on causal- comparative approach. 160 students of third grade were sampled using multistage cluster sampling and completed the questionnaire of mathematics educational progress, assessment of affective characteristics, and teachers also completed physical skills checklists. Results has shown that between two groups there's a meaningful difference and the Quantitative group earned higher scores in comparison to Qualitative group of cognitive variable. Results shown there was not any meaningful difference between the two groups (Quantitative and Qualitative) in terms of affective variable. Results also expressed there is not any meaningful difference between the two groups in terms of psychomotor.

[Naderi M, Raji F, Mehrabifar F. Comparison of the effect of qualitative and quantitative evaluations on realization of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives in students. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):621-625]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 93

 

Keywords: Quantitative evaluation, Qualitative evaluation, Psychomotor objective, Cognitive objective, Affective objective

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The Speed of Light is not the Greatest in the Universe!

 

Salah Eid

 

Faculty of Arts – Suez Canal University – Ismailia – Egypt

Salaheid050@gmail.com

 

Abstract: By analyzing Maxwell's well known equation that proved the electromagnetic nature of light, we find that it contains an electron interacting with another particle with the same charge in magnitude ( like or unlike) this interaction takes place at the nuclear diameter . Maxwell's equation in its analytical form gives gamma ray energy of for two electrons with opposite charges, where the speed of light c appears here ,but with greater gamma energies the distance between the two particles is shorter and accordingly the speed is greater. We applied the analytical form of this equation on gamma of 2.17 Mev used by Bethe in 1938 where he succeeded in separating a neutron from a proton in deuteron , the speed of the electron here exceeded that of light. This led us to conclude that the energy determined for breaking down the bind energy of helium nucleus according to S. theory of relativity, this determination must be strongly reconsidered, as it had been based on that nothing in the universe can travel faster than light.

[Salah Eid. The Speed of Light is not the Greatest in the Universe. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):626-627]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 94

 

Key words: Maxwell's equation, gamma ray, nuclear diameter, speed of light, deuteron

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Effects of Precipitation/aging Temperature on Catalytic Activity of γ-Al2O3 Nanocatalysts for Dehydration of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether

 

Seyyed Ya’ghoob Hosseini and Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou*

 

.Gas Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, P. O. Box 63431, Ahwaz, Iran

* mr.khosravi@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This research includes synthesis of nano-sized γ-Al2O3 catalysts via precipitation method at different precipitation/aging temperatures comprising 65 °C and room temperature. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The results of characterization tests showed serious effects of precipitation/aging temperature on physical/chemical characteristics of catalyst.  Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) on synthesized catalysts was studied in a fixed bed micro reactor at different operating temperatures and WHSVs. It was found that γ-Al2O3 catalyst prepared at 65 °C exhibited higher yield of DME at all operating conditions.

[Seyyed Ya’ghoob Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou. Effects of Precipitation/aging Temperature on Catalytic Activity of γ-Al2O3 Nanocatalysts for Dehydration of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):628-632]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

 

Keywords: Precipitation/aging temperature; Catalytic process; Dimethyl ether; γ-Al2O3; Methanol dehydration.

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Ocular Manifestations in Children with Β Thalassemia Major and Visual Toxicity of Iron Chelating Agents

 

Dalia S. M. Abdel-Malak1; Ola A. E. Dabbous2; Mohamed Y. S. Saif3 and Ahmed T. Sayed Saif4

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty Medicine, Beni-Sueif University

2 Department of Pediatrics, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES) – Cairo University

3 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Sueif University

4 Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University

daliasabermorgan@yahoo.com, dalia.abdelmalak@med.bsu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Objectives: This study was planned to determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations in multiple transfused β Thalassemia major patients and to determine the association of these manifestations with 2 types of iron chelating agents. Materials and methods: Cross sectional study included 80 β Thalassemia major patients, these patients were divided into 3 groups based on Thalassemia treatment regimens received at time of presentation. Full medical history, thorough physical examinations were done to all patients groups, and ophthalmological examination to determine the prevalence of ocular manifestations for all patient groups and to correlate these manifestations or changes with iron chelating agents. Results:  In eighty patients (46males, 34 females) with age ranging between 6 to 16 years, ocular involvements were detected in 85% of cases in the form of lens opacity (10%) (more in patients receiving Desferrioxamine), decreased visual acuity(45%), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) mottling (25%), disc hyperemia(12.5%) and increased cup/disc ratio (37.5%) and these involvements were observed to be more in younger age. Conclusion: Most of the ocular changes of beta Thalassemia are attributed to the course and severity of the disease. Reduction in serum iron and serum Ferritin levels by iron- chelating agents and regular ocular examination to look for side-effects of such agents can aid in preventing or delaying ocular complications.

[Dalia S. M. Abdel-Malak; Ola A. E. Dabbous; Mohamed Y. S. Saif and Ahmed T. Sayed Saif. Ocular Manifestations in Children with Β Thalassemia Major and Visual Toxicity of Iron Chelating Agents. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):633-638]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 96

 

Keywords: β Thalassemia, ocular, children, iron chelating agent.

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The Biography of the Writer of First Shia’s Hadith Document

 

Naser Sadeghian

 

Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

 

Abstract: Reviewing the Islamic history, can lead us to know about peoples that have been collecting the holly prophet’s notes and hadith as well as collecting the hadith from Shia Imams. Regardless of their aims and objectives, one of the most famous collectors of Shia hadith is Mohammad Ibn Ya`qub al Kulayni. This article reviews the life of Kulayni focusing his contribution to Shia Sharia.

[Naser Sadeghian. The Biography of the Writer of First Shia’s Hadith Document. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):639-641]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 97

 

Keywords: Kulayni, Life, Death, Books, Alkafi

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Analysis of spatial development pattern of urban neighborhoods (A case study: Zahedan urban neighborhoods in Iran)

 

Hamid-Reza Rakhshaninasab1, Asghar Zarabi2, Hamid-Reza Varesi3

 

1. Ph.D student of geography and urban planning, University of Isfahan, Iran

2. Professor of urban and regional planning, University of Isfahan, Iran

3. Associate professor of geography and urban planning, University of Isfahan, Iran

Rakhshaninasab_h@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, attention to the smallest levels of spatial divisions of cities i.e. neighborhoods in urban environments in the third world has gained importance more and more in order to increase the quality of life, upgrading the income level, employment, education, health and nutrition, housing, making healthy environment, and eradicating poverty. Zahedan city is located in southeast of Iran and is the center of the most undeveloped (deprived) province (Sisstan and Baluchestan Province) in Iran. In spite of having the highest level of development in the province, this city is encountered with quite a lot of inequalities the inside the neighboring boundaries. In the present study, spatial development level of neighborhoods of Zahedan has been studied from the viewpoint of having different indices of development. Research methodology is “descriptive-analytic and suvey”. The required data have been collected through 1650 questionnaires from neighbors of Zahedan. For data analysis, factor analysis and TOPSIS models were used. The findings of the study indicated that from the first 171 indices, 90 indices as effective indices in six groups of sociology, physical, educational and cultural, relations and infrastructures, economic, and environmental were effective in spatial development of Zahedan. Also the findings showed that 16.37 percent neighborhoods of Zahedan are in developed level, 76.37 percent in semi-developed level and 7.27 percent in undeveloped level. In order to decrease the inequalities of neighborhoods, it is necessary to develop undeveloped, semi-developed and developed neighborhoods respectively.

[Rakhshaninasab H.R, Zarabi A, Varesi H.R. Analysis of spatial development pattern of urban neighborhoods (A case study: Zahedan urban neighborhoods in Iran). J Am Sci 2012;8(7):642-648]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 98

 

Keywords: development, neighboring development, spatial inequality, TOPSIS, Zahedan.

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Impact of Implementing Nursing Care Protocol on Moderate Head Injured Patient’s Outcome

 

Nagwa I. A. Ghoneim1, Sanaa M. Alaa Elden2, Mohammad E. Okab3 and Om Ebrahiem A. E. Elsaay1

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University.

2Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

3Anesthesia and critical care, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

omebrahiem_ali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Traumatic head injury associated with polytrauma is common, with potentially devastating consequences. Cardiopulmonary, neurological, metabolic, gastrointestinal, urinary, and integumentary complications all remain potentially avoidable insults, which are associated with worse outcome after TBI. This study aimed to compare the impact of implementing nursing care protocol on moderate head injured patient’s outcome. The study was carried out in Intensive Care Unit at Tanta Emergency Hospital. The subjects were divided into two groups 30 patients in each. Control group was treated according to the routine ICU management. Study group was received nursing care protocol for moderate head injury associated with polytrauma. Three tools were used for data collection. A tool 1 includes sociodemographic, and neurologic data assessment; it was developed by the researcher for data collection. Tool II was Trauma Scales and (APACHE II) checklist. It was used for assessing Injury severity score, trauma score, and APACHE II score. Tool III was Systemic Assessment Observational checklist tool. It comprised three parts: Part A was Airway, Part B was respiratory. Part C was cardiovascular, Part D was neurologic, Part E was gastrointestinal, Part F was urinary, and Part G was integumentary evaluation. Data were collected over a period of 14 months started from May 2009 to July 2010. Result revealed that 56.7% patients had died in control group compared with 26.7% patients in study group after two weeks from admission, while 43% of patients had referred to neurologic department in control group compared with 73% in study group. Also, the current study showed that a positive correlation between APACHE II score and expected death rate among control group in day 15th. Conclusion revealed that the implementing nursing care protocol for moderate head injured patients associated with polytrauma had best effect on minimize the incidence of all systemic complications, decrease morbidity as well as mortality rate. The study recommended that explained that the Critical care nurse managers should be responsible for planning educational programs for the critical care nurses.

[Nagwa I. A. Ghoneim, Sanaa M. Alaa Elden, Mohammad E. Okab and Om Ebrahiem A. E. Elsaay. Impact of Implementing Nursing Care Protocol on Moderate Head Injured Patient’s Outcome. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):649-664]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 99

 

Key words:- (APACHE II) ("Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II") 

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Child Abuse and Neglect: Student Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes

 

 Wafaa Elarousy 1,4,5,  Houaida Helal 2,4,5 and Louise de Villiers3,4

 

1 Pediatric Nursing Department, 2 Community Health Nursing Department,3 Nursing education and research

4College of Nursing Jeddah, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science

5 Faculty of Nursing, Alexanderia Univerity

wafaaelarousy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Child abuse and neglect is a significant global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives – and, by extension, on society in general. Nurses therefore require adequate educational preparation to equip them with the required knowledge, skills and attitudes to manage child maltreatment effectively. This descriptive - correlational study involved student nurses in the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, College of Nursing – Jeddah. The purpose was to describe the participants’ knowledge and attitudes on child abuse and neglect and to explore the interrelationships between knowledge, attitudes and their biographical variables, including the courses which they had completed.  A structured questionnaire was completed by 156 female students (response rate 70%). Regarding the knowledge about child abuse and neglect of student nurses, it was found that about half and more of the participants answered the questions related to identifying suspected cases of child abuse and neglect correctly. In addition, about 85% of participants agreed that child abuse and neglect can occur anywhere in the community and it is mandatory for all nurses to report suspected cases, while 82.7% of agreed that nurses should have adequate knowledge, skills and attitudes to manage child abuse and neglect adequately and effectively. It was concluded that completed courses related to the studied issue benefited students in improving their knowledge and attitudes about child abuse and neglect.

[Wafaa Elarousy Houaida Helal and Louise de Villiers. Child Abuse and Neglect: Student Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):665-674]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 100

 

Key words: Child abuse and neglect, attitudes, knowledge, student nurses

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Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs with Depression in Shear and Flexure Zones

 

A.M. Elbehairy and M.Rabie

 

 Structural engineering Department, faculty of Eng. Cairo University, Egypt.

rabie_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Depressions in flat slabs are a common design problem whenever sanitary needs are required. Presence of depression affects the overall behavior of the slab. This effect is dependent on depression size and location. In this research the effect of depression in shear & flexure zones of both column and field strips on the behavior of flat slabs is investigated. A finite element model of a single floor of a flat slab building is used for investigation. Linear analysis is conducted for the study.  A slab composed of three square panels is analyzed for one hundred eight different study cases of depression sizes and locations. Bending moments and deflections of the different study cases were investigated and compared with recommendations of different building codes. Design aids in chart form are concluded. Finally recommendations for the design of flat slabs with depression are given.

[A.M. Elbehairy,  M.Rabie  . Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs with Depression in Shear and Flexure Zones. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):675-686 ] (ISSN: 1545-1003) http://www.americanscience.org. 101

 

Keywords: Flat slabs; Depression; Field strip; Column strip; Shear zone; Flexural zone

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Insecticidal activity of Calotropis procera extracted groups on some biochemical aspects of the house fly, Musca domestica vicina (Diptera: Muscadae)

 

Najat A. Khatter and Faten F. Abuldahab

 

King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science for Girls- Biology Department Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

                                                                                    najat.khatter4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Calotropis procera (Family: Asclepidaceae) is known to contain alkaloids, steroids and resinous substance. Fresh leaf extract of milkweed juice showed larvicidal properties against Musca domestica larvae. The methanolic extracted groups (clalactin, calotoxin and calotropin) were tested at the dose of 80 µg / larvae, topically to 3rd larval instar. The effect of latex active groups is most probably enzymatic in nature. A significant increase in the mean total carbohydrate content was noticed as a result of calotoxin treatment, the increase was 89.6% and 29.75% after 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. The tested groups were arranged according to their efficiency in increasing of total lipid contents as follow Calactin, Calotropin and calotoxin. An increase in lipid contents was observed and explained as, the toxic groups increase the conversion rate of carbohydrates to lipids and stored in fat tissues.  It is evident that all tested groups cause reduction in total protein content the groups were arranged ascendingly according to their efficiency in decreasing the mean total protein as follows : Calotoxin, Calotropin and Calactin. The results of this study suggest the utility of C. procera extracted groups as potential technology for control of M. domestica larvae in breeding places.

[Najat A. Khatter and Faten F. Abuldahab. Insecticidal activity of Calotropis procera extracted groups on some biochemical aspects of the house fly, Musca domestica vicina (Diptera: Muscadae). J Am Sci 2012; 8(7): 687-693]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.102

 

Key words: Toxicity – metabolism – larvicide – medicinal plants – house fly – pests – proteolytic enzymes – alkaloids.

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Design Assessment 0F Cobalt-60 Irradiator Leads to Prevent Operation Problems and Maintains Development of Radiation Safety

 

Keshk A.B

 

Radiation Engineering Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy authority

afifibelal485@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A necessity need to re- assessment dinger stick accidents which were recorded inside industrial irradiators on worldwide through last four decades, causing bad results on their future operation especially overlap metallic container irradiators. Safe operation needs to maintain safe falling for radiation source rack inside storage pool. Operators usually use the gravity (repetition old idea) to raise radiation source rack over irradiator concrete roof and leave it to fall under gravity to strike with plocked metallic container, to free radiation source rack. The work leads to prevent using the gravity idea, to prevent dinger strike between radiation source racks (vertical motion) and an edge of metallic containers (horizontal motion), which leads to repetitions falling cobalt-60 radiation capsules (pencils) from their modules positions, causing very bad results on irradiator systems, environment and also leads to use and new  scale small irradiators (Brevion). The work shows a proposed electrical control system P.L.C (programmable logic controller) which is located outside industrial irradiator to operate and control a modified (moveable) mechanical design which is constructed on the mechanical conveyor system inside irradiation room. Any moveable inner shelf was carried by metallic containers and the jammed one (main horizontal motion on conveyor system). The moveable shelve will move far away radiation source rack (vertical motion) caring the jammed container whom will be trance outside irradiator by operators to prevent dinger sticking. And also prevents the dinger repetition falling of cobalt-60 radiation pencils inside storage pool. The work shows also modified designs for (modules, rack and source shroud) to prevent the probability for dinger bending or broking cobalt-60 radiation pencils and also preventing water contamination inside storage pool.

 [Keshk A.B. Design Assessment 0F Cobalt-60 Irradiator Leads to Prevent Operation Problems and Maintains Development of Radiation Safety.  J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):694-703]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.103

Keywords: Re-Assessment, Metallic container, Gravity, Vertical motion Horizontal motion, Programmable logic control, Moveable mechanical design, encapsulated and Contamination

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An Evaluation of Online Shopping and Its Effect on Customers’ Satisfaction and Behaviour in Malaysia

 

 

Hadi Farid 1, *, Zahra Sadeghi 2,  Sohel Rana 3

 

1.  Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

 

2. Graduate Institute of Management, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100, Cyberjaya, Selangor,Malaysia.

 

3. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; and Laboratory of Computational Statistics and Operations Research, Institute for Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

hadifarid@putra.upm.edu.my; hd.farid@gmail.com

 

Abstract: As there is an increased number of personal computers, laptops and a wide use of Internet, nowadays, many people prefer and enjoy online shopping. People have many reasons to do online shopping instead of going to the stores and malls. User-friendly interfaces, ease of comparing products’ prices, convenience of shipping and delivery to the home are the most important reasons behind shopping online. There is no need to drive to the stores, be worried about getting a parking spot, and confront any crowds. Everyone can shop round-the-clock and there is no store working hours. Time and money to travel back and forth for purchasing a product will be saved.  This paper investigates the most important influencing factors such as website design, information quality, and delivery on customer satisfaction through online shopping among the MBA students of Multimedia University, Malaysia.  A widely applied analytical tool, Multiple regressions, is used to identify the most effective factors in online shopping. [Farid H, Sadeghi Z, Rana S. An Evaluation of Online Shopping and Its Effect on Customers’ Satisfaction and Behaviour in Malaysia. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):704-707]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 104

 

Keywords: Customer satisfaction; delivery; information quality; online shopping; website

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Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: Ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant

 

Eman E. Elsharkawy1, Doha Yahia1 and Neveen A.El-Nisr2

 

1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty. of Veterinary Medicine, Assuit University, Egypt

2 Animal Health Institute of Research- Egypt

medicine1971@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of adult rat exposed to Chlorpyriphos (CPF).  CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days/ twice/ weekly. Co- administration of water soluble non enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was given in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, oral, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone hormone level in the serum was significantly decreased. The decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Co-dministration of GSH restored these parameters. 

[Eman E. Elsharkawy, Doha Yahia and Neveen A.El-Nisr. Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: Ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):708-716]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.105

 

Keywords: Chlorpyriphos; Testosterone; Alkaline phosphatase ;  Oxidative stress; Spermatogenesis

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Compensation of Time Delay Effect in Active Controlled MDOF Structures Using Neural Networks

 

S. Abdel Salam, H. Soliman, A.E. Bakeri and M. Galal

 

Department of Structural Eng., Faculty of Eng., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

aebakeri@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: During last few decades, Active control of civil structures has grown to an incredible limit that attracted a big deal of researchers in civil engineering. The problem of time delay effect is standing in the way of real world and wide spread of the active control application as it drives most of stable control strategies to an unstable case when its effect increases. This paper introduces a new technique in compensating the time delay in active control of structures. This technique uses an Artificial Neural Network to estimate the future earthquake record for a number of ahead steps online. By estimating the coming forces for few steps, and starting from the current state of the controlled structure, the future response is calculated and the required control force can be estimated. In this way the control force will be applied at nearly the same state from which it was calculated. This algorithm can be joined with any control law and any control device to overcome its inherent time delay. In this paper, optimal control with tendon controller is used. Different MDOF structures and different earthquakes were used to study the effect of time delay and to investigate the efficiency of the proposed technique in compensating it.

[S. Abdel Salam, H. Soliman, A.E. Bakeri and M. Galal. Compensation of Time Delay Effect in Active Controlled MDOF Structures Using Neural Networks. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):717-724]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 106

 

Keywords: Active control, Tendon Control, Time Delay, Neural Networks, Earthquake Resistance.

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Smart System for Generating Plane Frame Problems with Joint Loads in Structural Analysis Education

 

A.E. Bakeri

 

Department of Structural Eng., Faculty of Eng., Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

 aebakeri@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: One of the main problems that face teaching structural analysis is the creation of problems to evaluate the student level. The professor has to create many problems as solved examples, make effort to solve these problems, and try to create other problems to evaluate the students. A main challenge that faces the professor is the high possibility of errors and repeating some problems. The main aim of this paper is to construct a smart system that generates automatically a huge number of plane frame problems using the principals of database to be used in structural analysis education. This paper shows how to convert the ideas that are stored in the professor brain into a database rules.

[A.E. Bakeri. Smart System for Generating Plane Frame Problems with Joint Loads in Structural Analysis Education. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):725-734].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 107

 

Keywords: structural analysis – generates problems – education – database.

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Impact of Financial Leasing Decision on Industrial Companies

 

Hoda Ahmed Ebraheem

 

Faculty of Management, Modern University

noura_ahmed2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of the study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the leasing market in Egypt, the analysis of the regulatory, tax, legal, and marketing framework related to leasing for the sake of development and improvement of such market activities in order to promote the impact of different variables in case of applying financial leasing. This paper will contribute to the literature of the non-bank financial institutions and specifically on financial leasing decision in industrial companies. The ultimate goal of the paper is to influence policies, regulatory frameworks and institutional setups, in order to enhance enterprises' access to financial services, especially small-scale ones. This paper will help to understand the critical role the financial leasing sector could play in developing the financial markets and ultimately come up with policy recommendations on how to reap the benefits of such an underutilized non-bank financial institution, which could enhance growth and development in the industrial companies. In that context, this paper is divided into three sections. The first section Introduction & Theoretical backgrounds.  Section two Literature review Section three research methodology, equivalent ways to analyze& conclusions. This research concludes with specific policy the   implications identifying the necessary financial, legal, regulatory, and institutional framework for developing the financial leasing decision in industrial companies, and enhancing its potentials in improving firms’ access to finance.

[Hoda Ahmed Ebraheem. Impact of Financial Leasing Decision on Industrial Companies.  J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):735-742]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.108

 

Keywords: Impact; Financial ;Industrial Companies

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Zea Mays Cultivar Behavior as Affected by Rhizobium radiobacter Inoculation in Salt-Stressed Environments

 

Lobna A. Moussa1, Mohy E.A.1 and El Banna Ib.M.2

 

1Soil Microbiology Department, Soils, Water and Environmental Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center.

2Soil Physical and Chemical Research Department, Soils, Water and Environmental Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center.

ameaefe2006@yaoo.com

 

Abstract: Response variation for salt tolerance was assessed in two Zea mays L. cultivars; Giza 2 (salt tolerant) and Hybrid triple 314 (salt sensitive) amended in presence of Rhizobium radiobacter strain (HQ 395610-Egypt) under two N fertilization regimes (75% and 100%). Soil samples tested for enzymatic activities revealed that R. radiobacter  inoculation increased nitrogenase and hydrolases activities particularly after 90 and 45 days. The leaf sample analyzed for inorganic osmolytes (potassium and sodium) showed that both cultivars had high K/Na ratio when treated with R. radiobacter, while total chlorophyll, soluble sugars and peroxidase activity increased. Proline stress-response was also reduced by R. radiobacter inoculation. Substantial variations were observed in the grain quality and yield for both cultivars due to the different treatments. The grain yield increased by 71% in cv. Giza and 48% in cv. Hybrid when R. radiobacter treatment was combined with full N fertilization level.

[Lobna A. Moussa, Mohy E.A. and El Banna Ib.M. Zea Mays Cultivar Behavior as Affected by Rhizobium Radiobacter Inoculation in Salt-Stressed Environments. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):743-750]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.109

 

Key words: Zea mays L.; Rhizobium radiobacter; salinity; N-fertilization; growth parameters.

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Power System Stabilizer Design based on Model Reference Adaptive System

 

Fariborz Parandin, Ali Mohammadi, Hosain Sariri

 

Islamabad Gharb Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

parandinf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Power System Stabilizers (PSS) are used to generate supplementary damping control signals for the excitation system in order to damp the Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO) of the electric power system. The PSS is usually designed based on classical control approaches but this Conventional PSS (CPSS) has some problems in power system control and stability enhancement. To overcome the drawbacks of CPSS, numerous techniques have been proposed in literatures. In this paper a new method based on Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) is considered to design PSS. To show effectiveness of the proposed method, the MRAS-PSS is compared with a conventional PSS which is tuned by using Genetic Algorithms (GA) (GA-PSS). The simulation results clearly indicate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed method.

[Fariborz Parandin, Ali Mohammadi, Hosain Sariri. Power System Stabilizer Design based on Model Reference Adaptive System. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):751-755]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 110

 

 Keywords: Power System Stabilizer, Low Frequency Oscillations, Model Reference Adaptive Control, Genetic Algorithms

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Distraction Osteogenesis Using Ilizarov External Fixator for Radical Treatment of Post-Traumatic Osteomyelitis of the Tibia

 

Abdel Rahman Hafez¹ and Mona Fattouh ²

 

Departments of ¹ Orthopedic Surgery ² Medical Microbiology and Immunology Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

monarahman2002@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Callus distraction used technique for the reconstruction of intercalary defects of the femur and tibia after radical debridement of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitic foci is an excellent technique for management of resistant diaphyseal infections of long bones. The aim of this study is to summarize our experience with distraction osteogenesis performed with Ilizarov device for the treatment of bone defects resulting from radical debridement of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis. Our study was carried out in Sohag University Hospital during the period from January 2009 to July 2011. In our study we reported thirty patients (25 males and 5 females) with age range from 22 to 50 years with compound diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, treated elsewhere with plate and screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators and presented to our department with infected non-union of the tibial fracture after failure of one or more of the these procedures. The fractures evolved towards post-traumatic osteomyelitis, growing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); combined with a large overlying soft tissue gap. The infected fractures were treated by debridement including removal of implants and bone resection, and longitudinal bone transport after doing proximal or distal corticotomy of the tibia. An Ilizarov frame was used to treat both the bone and the skin defects. Infection was eradicated in all cases, and union was achieved in all thirty cases (100%).  Mean duration of treatment was 13 months. Both the bone and the soft tissues healed without further complications. According to ASAMI (Association for the study and application of the method of Ilizarov) criteria, bone results were excellent in all patients. Functional results were excellent in 26 patients, good in 3, and fair in 1 patient. From our study it can be concluded that; distraction osteogenesis performed with Ilizarov device is an excellent technique for bridging large post-traumatic infected tibial defects by resection of the infected segment, and gradual bone transport.

[Abdel Rahman Hafez and Mona Fattouh. Distraction Osteogenesis Using Ilizarov External Fixator for Radical Treatment of Post-Traumatic Osteomyelitis of the Tibia. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):756-763]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.111

 

Keywords: Ilizarov, Treatment, Osteomyelitis, Tibia.

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Differential Transformation Approach to A SIR  Epidemic Model with Constant Vaccination

 

S.F.M. Ibrahim1 and Soad Moftah Ismail2

 

1 King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of science For Girls, Dept. of Mathematics, Jeddah, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia.,

Primitive address: Ain Shams University, Faculty of Education, Department of Mathematics, Heliopolis, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt.

2Misr University For Science &Technology Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Basic science, Al-Motamayez District, 6Th of October City, Egypt.

s_f_ibrahim@hotmail.com;        soadmoftah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this article SIR model that monitors the temporal dynamics of a childhood disease in the presence of preventive vaccine is developed. The qualitative analysis reveals the vaccination reproductive number  for disease control and eradication. The aim of this paper is to apply the differential transformation method (DTM) which is used to compute an approximation to the solution of the non-linear system of differential equations governing the problem. Graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively to illustrate the solutions.

[S.F.M. Ibrahim and Soad Moftah Ismail Differential Transformation Approach to A SIR Epidemic Model with Constant Vaccination. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):764-769]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.112

 

Key words: SIR model, Epidemic model, Stability, Differential transformation method.

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Evaluation of Cystatin C, Fibronectin and Alpha-Feto Protein as Biochemical Markers in Patients with Liver Diseases

 

El-Saeid, M. E. El-Bawab1, Mousa, M. Moustafa1, Hamdy, M. Moustafa2 Ibrahim, H. Mohamed1, Magdi, M. Salama1 and Mohamed, H. Abd-Elzaher1

 

Medical Biochemistry1 and Tropical Medicine2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine,  Al-Azhar University

Ibrahim_hazzah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: We investigate the serum level of cystatin C as biochemical marker that can determine the severity of tissue injury resulting from chronic liver diseases. Also we investigate other two parameters - alph-fetoprotein & fibronectin- serum levels as biomarkers of chronic liver disease progression. Study design: This study was carried out on 66 patients (50 males & 16 female). We assessed serum levels of cystatin C, alpha-fetoprtotein, albumin,ALT,AST,creatinine, urea, plasma level of  fibronectin and HCV genotype. Results: We found that (a positive & a negative) correlations between serum levels of cyctatin C and plasma level of fibronectin (respectively) and progression of liver diseases. Also we found that a positive correlation between plasma level of fibronectin and both serum level of albumin and prothrombin time. We found a positive correlation between serum level of alpha-fetoprotein and liver bilharzial hepatic fibrosis. In addition we found that HCV genotype 4 was the prevalent type in Egyptian patients. Conclusion: Serum levels of cystatin C, alpha-fetoprotein and plasma level of fibronectin can be useful markers in long-term monitoring of the progression of liver diseases.

[El-Saeid, M. E. El-Bawab, Mousa, M. Moustafa, Hamdy, M. Moustaf, a Ibrahim, H. Mohamed, Magdi, M. Salama and Mohamed, H. Abd-Elzaher. Evaluation of Cystatin C, Fibronectin and Alpha-Feto Protein as Biochemical Markers in Patients with Liver Diseases. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):770-779]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 113

 

Keywords: Cystatin; Fibronectin; Alpha-Feto Protein; Biochemical Marker; Patient; Liver; Disease

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The Effect of Therapeutic Exercises and Fish Oil in Treatment of Muscle Tear

 

Hany Abdel Aleem Hassan Abdel Rahman

 

Fac. of PE, Health Depart., Mansoura Univ.

Hanyhassan15@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the role of therapeutic exercises and fish oil in treatment of muscle tear. 12 soccer players affected with minor injuries to the hamstring, they were divided to two groups, therapeutic exercises and therapeutic exercises plus Omega-3 treatment (3 capsules) daily with a dose of 1000 mg fish oil). The sample age was between 16-22 yrs. Biochemical variables: CK, LDH, T. protein, urea, creatinine, potassium and cortisol before and after treatment were determined, isotonic leg muscle strength was also performed before and after treatment, also healing tine was detected. Results indicated a reduction in biochemical variables in the two groups and a further reduction after exercise plus fish oil treatment. Muscle strength increased after treatment in both groups.  In conclusion, the use of fish oil plus exercise by soccer players significantly reduces serum concentrations of T-protein and protein metabolism, and decreased potassium and cortisol levels associated with muscle damage and increased muscle strength in both groups, healing time was in favor of the two groups.

[Hany Abdel Aleem Hassan Abdel Rahman. The Effect of Therapeutic Exercises and Fish Oil in Treatment of Muscle Tear. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):780-785]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 114

 

Key words: Therapeutic exercises, fish oil, biochemical variables, muscle tear, muscle strength.

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Optimizing the Placement of Semi-Active Hydraulic Dampers in Buildings Using FEA

 

S. Abdel Salam, Osman Shallan , Yasser Ibrahim and Ebtsam Fathy

 

1 Department of Structural Engineering, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt

s.salam@link.net. Osmacon2@yahoo.com. yibrahim@vt.edu  efsadik@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A new idea for the number and placement of semi-active hydraulic dampers (SHDs) achieving high performance is developed in this paper.  This proposed method depends on using a few number of semi-active control devices distributed along the building’s height instead of the uniform distribution of these devices in all stories (traditional placement). Also, a design methodology for this proposed method is demonstrated.  Two different strategies for structural designers are introduced; to obtain overall reduction in structural responses (strategy (A)) or to have more reduction in floor displacements with smaller reduction in total base shear (strategy (B)). The efficiency of proposed method, is compared firstly with the traditional placement of SHDs on low, medium, and high rise buildings. Secondly, it is investigated under different earthquake intensities using material nonlinearity. Several semi-actively controlled structures were considered in this paper starting gradually from three to sixty-story buildings. These buildings are modeled and analyzed using the finite element program ANSYS. Semi-active control forces are derived according to the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) algorithm. However, to get control force for Proposed New Placement of SHDs some adoptions are done on inputs of LQR algorithm to be appropriated for this method. The results demonstrated that, compared to the traditional placement of SHDs, the new proposed arrangement of SHDs provides better structural performance in addition to being less costly

[S. Abdel Salam, Osman Shallan , Yasser Ibrahim and Ebtsam Fathy. Optimizing the Placement of Semi-Active Hydraulic Dampers in Buildings Using FEA. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):786-794]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 115

 

Keywords: Semi-active structural control, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) Algorithm, Semi-active hydraulic damper, Placement of dampers.

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Pre-Emptive Topical 2% Lignocaine Gel Soaked Pledget Improves Postoperative Analgesia After Endoscopic Nasal Surgery

 

Hala S. Abdel-Ghaffar

 

Anesthesia Department, Assiut University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

hallasaad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The primary objective of this randomized double-blind controlled trial was to determine whether pre-emptive intranasal 2% lignocaine gel decreases postoperative pain and lessens the use of rescue analgesics. Methods: Forty ASA I-II patients (aged 18-65yr) underwent Endoscopic nasal surgery under general anesthesia, were randomly assigned to one of two groups, either pre-emptive topical intranasal saline (Placebo group, n=20) or pre-emptive intranasal 2% lignocaine gel soaked pledgets (lignocaine group, n=20). The postoperative pain assessed by the verbal rating pain scale, time to first postoperative analgesic request, total analgesic consumption during 1st 24hrs postoperative, surgeon and patient satisfaction and adverse effects were recorded.  Results: Topical lignocaine gel significantly reduced pain scores in the 1st 4hrs postoperative (P<0.001) and at the 24th hr postoperative (P<0.02). Pain scores at the 6th and 12th hrs postoperative were lower but failed to reach a statistical significance. Patients in the lignocaine group had prolonged time to first request for rescue analgesia (239.50±36.45 min. vs. 92.40±38.02 min., P<0.000) and lower diclofenac consumption in the 1st 24hrs postoperative (107.14±26.73mg vs. 178.94±41.89mg, P<0.000). A higher surgeon and patient satisfaction were recorded in lignocaine group (P<0.000). No significant side effects were recorded in either groups.  Conclusion:  Pre-emptive lignocaine gel soaked pledgets applied in the nasal cavity is a simple and effective method that enhanced intraoperative surgical conditions and accentuated postoperative analgesia.

[Hala S. Abdel-Ghaffar. Pre-Emptive Topical 2% Lignocaine Gel Soaked Pledget Improves Postoperative Analgesia After Endoscopic Nasal Surgery. J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):795-798]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.116

 

Key words: Anesthesia, endoscopic, nasal, analgesia, local anesthetics, lignocaine gel.

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Detection of Bacterial Colonization around Cobalt Chromium versus Zirconium Copings on Natural Teeth Supporting Overdenture. Two different in vitro studies

 

Mohamed E. Elsayed1, Khaled O. Sultan1., Hala M. Abd EL hameed1, and Abeer E. Elsayed2

 

1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University

2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University

kh.omran@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare between two copings materials covering natural teeth abutments supporting overdentures including Cobalt-Chromium and zirconia as regard to bacterial adherence and biofilm mass formation. Material & methods: Sixteen completely edentulous patients with remaining lower canines of age ranged (50-65years) were selected according to bacterial sample inclusion criteria. The patients were divided  into two equal groups( n=8):First group had received complete maxillary dentures and tooth supported mandibular overdentures constructed with primary and secondary  metal copings (Cobalt Chromium) .Second group had received complete maxillary dentures and tooth supported mandibular overdentures constructed with primary and secondary  zirconia copings.  First in vitro study (Quantitative assessment study): Microbiological swabs were collected from buccal, lingual, mesial and distal  surfaces of the canines by using sterile endodontic paper points, Then the paper points were put  immediately  in  vials containing sterile nutrient Broth Typicase Soy Broth (TSB). After incubation, bacterial colonies specially (Streptococcus sanguinus) counted in Colonial Forming Units( CFU/Ml).   Second in vitro study (Bacterial adhesion assay): After incubation of bacterial colonies, an inoculums were then transferred to another fresh TSB broth, then bacteria were allowed to adhere to the prepared discs (12x12 x2mm3) of Cobalt Chromium and Zirconium Oxide  which finished and gradually polished like mirror  surfaces, the tested biofilm mass adherence between the two materials was analyzed using microplate reader (Bio-Rad Laboratories, CA, USA). The data were collected and statistically analyzed.Results: The quantitative bacterial culture from each group of patients ( n=8) had revealed higher percentage of bacterial count in (group1) of patients that were wearing overdentures with metal copings compared to the other group of patients (group 2) of  zirconium copings with statistical significant difference( p<.0.001), The second in vitro study of both materials (Cobalt  Chromium and Zirconium ) according to the absorbent value  that were investigated as regard to bacterial biofilm adherence revealed that, there was biofilm adherence for both materials, but that of Cobalt Chromium 0.400±0.08 was higher than of Zirconium material 0.100±0.03  with statistical significant difference (p<.0.001). Conclusion: Zirconium copings as regard to biological and bacterial adherence is much better for oral hygiene maintenance than metal Cobalt Chromium copings. Further studies are recommended by other experimental means like Electron Microscopy, other bacterial species to support this research.

[Mohamed E. Elsayed, Khaled O. Sultan, Hala M. Abd EL hameed, and Abeer E. Elsayed, Detection of Bacterial Colonization around Cobalt Chromium versus Zirconium Copings on Natural Teeth Supporting Overdenture.  Two different In Vitro Studies. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):799-803].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.117

 

Key words: Overdenture; Coping materials; Bacterial biofilm.

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Prevalence of TMJ Symptoms in Traumatized Patients Previously Treated for Mandibular Fractures "Retrospective Study"

 

Hala M.Abdel-Alim1, Hassan Abdel-Dayem1 and Khaled M. Mohamed2

 

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (King Abdulaziz University, SA, Alexandria University, Egypt)

2Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (King Abdulaziz University, SA, Suez Canal University, Egypt)

hala.mokhtar@live.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Indirect trauma to the temporomandibular jointTMJcan lead to temporomandibular disordersTMD) because the mechanisms by which indirect trauma develops to TMD are unclear.  Joint problems due to indirect trauma can cause immediate or delayed symptoms, which are often misdiagnosed . Aim of the work: The present work is a retrospective study aiming at evaluating the persistent  TMJ symptoms in previously treated patients suffering from mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with condylar and subcondylar fractures due to direct or indirect blows with or without associated mandibular fractures were treated by reduction and fixation. The patients were monitored after at least  6 months for persistent TMD using clinical examination, subjective and functional indices and correlated to MRI findings.  Symptomatic joints were treated and re-evaluated. Results: The results proved that indirect trauma showed greater correlation with TMD as compared to direct trauma. This is more obvious when the trauma did not cause condylar or subcondylar fracture. MRI confirmed the results positively where findings as joint effusion of TMD conformed with clinical findings and helped in designing treatment plan. Conclusion: Before treating  condylar or subcondylar fractures, the condition of the TMJ should be evaluated  at the time of injury regarding the presence of soft tissue inflammation within the joint, fluid effusion  or disc involvement.  Adequate realignment and fixation of the fractured bone is not enough for avoiding or treating the progressive TMD associated with the injury.

[Hala M. Abdel-Alim, Hassan Abdel-Dayem and Khaled M. Mohamed. Prevalence of Tmj Symptoms in Traumatized Patients Previously Treated for Mandibular Fractures "Retrospective Study". J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):804-812]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 118

 

Keywords: Temporomandibular joint, trauma, MRI, indirect trauma, direct trauma, joint effusion.

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Mixed Use Space, a Pattern to Achieve a Dynamic Urban Space

(Case Study: Soltanie)

 

Faeze mehri

 

Urban Planning and Designing Professor, Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, Iran

eliza.urban@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mixed use as a several destination in one place, is a key element that has many advantages in social, economical and physical aspects. Mixed use is an element of rehabilitation in the developed regions, economic mobility, and one of the best methods in order to join different types of residentials in small scales. But builders and developers underestimate opportunities and advantages of mixed use developments. Mixed residential developments that have increased since ten years ago, devote only a little percent of new residential developments. This paper intends to obtain some objects like achieving a pattern of sustainable design in urban space, managing brown fields and revival of social life increasing environment quality, economic mobility and managing brown fields by using mixed use theory in city of Soltanieh. This paper presents suggestions in the fields of environment quality, sustainable design, economic and social mobility by surveying viewpoints, different aspects of mixed use development, residents' opinions, city's existing condition and suggested sanctums. It is necessary to mention that Soltanie is one of Iran's cities located in the province of Zanjan.

[Mehri F. Mixed Use Space, a Pattern to Achieve a Dynamic Urban Space (Case Study: Soltanie). J Am Sci 2012; 8(7):813-820]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 119

 

Key words: Land use- Zoning- Mixed use- Mixed use development- Sustainable development

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Effect of Periodontal Therapy Using Minocycline Gel On Gingival Crevicular Fluid Osteoprotegerin In Chronic Periodontitis

 

Alaa I. Abdelhamid

Department of Periodontology and Head, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Research Center (TEBRU), College of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA, Saudi Arabia

dr.alaa.abdelhamid@qudent.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the levels of Gingival Crevicular Fluid Osteoprotegerin (GCFOPG) in patients with chronic periodontitis prior to and following nonsurgical periodontal therapy, with or without the application of minocycline gel 2% for a period of 32 weeks. GCF samples were obtained from 24 diseased sites of 12 periodontal patients prior to as well as at 8, 16, and 32 weeks following non-surgical periodontal therapy. Gingival Crevicular Fluid Osteoprotegerin (GCFOPG) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Periodontal treatment was found to improve all clinical parameters. In both treatments osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly elevated, but it was found to be significantly increased in minocycline treated group. The data suggested that periodontal therapy increases the level of Gingival Crevicular Fluid Osteoprotegerin (GCFOPG). However, a strong relationship was found between its amount in GCF and the degree of periodontal destruction and the amount of inflammation.

[Abdelhamid A.I. Effect Of Periodontal Therapy Using Minocycline Gel On Gingival Crevicular Fluid Osteoprotegerin In Chronic Periodontitis. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):821-829]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 120

 

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Non surgical treatment, Osteoprotegerin

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Evaluation of the Utilization of e-blackboard system among students and faculties in King Saud Ben Abdulaziz University for Health Science

 

Farida Habib1.  ; Zahrah H Assiri2 ; Ebtesam A Alenizi2 and Nouf A Althufairi.2

 

1Nursing College, Menoufia University

2Coolege of Nursing, King Saud Bib Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

fmh226@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Blackboard course management system is used by hundreds of universities. Blackboard system is a web based comprehensive learning management system that has been used worldwide in high education 20 years ago. It is easy to use and can be used without any knowledge of HTML. It is also allow the instructor to deliver their courses material, as a hybrid course or as an online course. Blackboard system nowadays becomes an effective educational system to improve the quality of learning in high education institutions. Blackboard system includes many features which are easy to reach at anytime, anywhere. The user only needs a user name and password to start using the system. All of course materials could be found in the blackboard system features such as lectures, course syllabus and assignments. Most research about Blackboard has focused on how to encourage faculty to use it.  Little research has been done to determine how students and faculty use Blackboard to enhance learning.  Purpose: This study aimed at evaluating the utilization of E-blackboard system tools based on a target sample of undergraduate students and their instructors. The study was designed to find out whether undergraduates and instructors have a shared vision for how Blackboard is currently being used and how it should be used to support instruction. Methods: A cross sectional design was conducted to collect data for the study. Sample included both undergraduate students and instructors from different departments at KSAU-HS.  Sample consisted of 194 students and 46 instructors. Tow Likert's scale questionnaires were developed to assess the effectiveness of the blackboard for both students and instructors. The Questionnaire included different factors such as: ease of using the system, perception of usefulness from both of students and instructor’s point of view, and impact of using blackboard system in the students and instructors’ performance.   Results: The majority of the students in the sample were females (85%) while only 15% were males. About 64% were nursing students and 36 % were medical students. More than half of the students (52.1%) have been using the blackboard system for 2 years. Fifty one percent of the students agreed that the blackboard system was difficult when they started using it. The blackboard features that are used by most of the students at least three times a week were announcements (73.2%), course information (62.9%), course contents (58.8%, contacts (56.7%), and assignments (54.1%), More female students indicated that blackboard system facilitate third learning than male students (P =0.000). The majority of the instructors in the sample were female (69.9%) while only 30.4% were males. About 41.3% were nursing instructors and 58.7 % were medical instructors.  Half of the instructors (50%) have been using the blackboard system for only one year. Sixty point eight percent of the instructors indicated that they use the blackboard system at least three times a week. Sixty three percent of the instructors believed that students’ performance has improved as a result of using blackboard.  Conclusion: The data obtained as a result of this study will help students, faculty/instructors, and Blackboard developers to understand how Blackboard is currently being used to enhance instruction and discover possible ways that it could be used even more effectively. As reported by the majority of the students that eblackboard system was helpful to facilitate their learning process and facilitate their communication with their instructors and other students.

[Farida Habib; Zahrah H Assiri; Ebtesam A Alenizi  and Nouf A Althufairi. Evaluation of the Utilization of e-blackboard system among students and faculties in King Saud Ben Abdulaziz University for Health Science. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):830-835]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 121

 

Key words: E-Blackboard System, Distance learning

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Structural Studies of the Ni-Doped Cu-Cr Ferrites

 

M. A. Amer and D. El.Kony

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

drdohaelkony@yahoo.com

                                                                                                                                

Abstract: A series of Cu1-xNixCrFeO4 ferrites, with x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1, were prepared using the usual ceramic technique. The samples were studied using MÖssbauer,. IR and X-ray patterns. The MÖssbauer spectra were analysed to two magnetic subpatterns A and B and a central paramagnetic phase C. The hyperfine magnetic fields A and B and the paramagnetic phase C are dependent on x, while the isomer shift and quadrupole shift do not show dependence on x. The cation distribution are estimated.  Six absorption bands ν1, ν2, ν4, ν0, νA and νB were observed in the infrared spectra IR. The Mossbauer parameters and IR peaks revealed the existence of Fe2+ ions in the samples. The x-ray patterns confirmed that the samples have a single phase cubic spinel structure of the system.  The x-ray parameters show dependence on x-additions.

[M. A. Amer and D. El.Kony Structural Studies of the Ni-Doped Cu-Cr Ferrites. Journal of American Science 2012;8(7):836-843]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 122

 

Key words: Ferrites-MÖssbauer spectra-X-ray-Cation distribution.

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Preparation and Physical Properties of (La, Pr)BaMnMoO6  Double Perovskite Series

 

Meaz1*T.M., S. Tajima2, S. A. Saafan1, S. Miyasaka2, M. K. El Nimr1, and R. E. El Shater1&2

 

1 Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta, Egypt.

2 Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.

tmeaz@yahoo.com;    tmeaz@science.tanta.edu.eg

 

Abstract: 文本框: - 
A series of La1-xPrxBaMnMoO6 double perovskite has been prepared, and their physical properties have been investigated. Polycrystalline samples of this system with x=0 – 1.0 could be synthesized at high temperature of 1623 K in the flowing of Ar+H2 forming gas with relatively high H2 concentration of 7 %. The results of powder X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld analysis indicate that the crystal structure of the La1-xPrxBaMnMoO6 series is cubic with space group of Fm3m. The lattice parameters and bond lengths of La/Pr/Ba-O and Mn/Mo-O have been estimated too, and they have been found to reduce with Pr doping. The decrease of bond length by Pr doping enhances the nearest-neighbor interaction between Mn2+ and Mo5+ spins, and increases the ferrimagnetic transition temperature, which has been observed in the temperature-dependent susceptibility. The shrinkage of crystal structure by the substitution of Pr increases not only the nearest-neighbor interaction but also the next-nearest-neighbor ones between spins on Mn2+ sites or on Mo5+ ones. In addition, the results of magnetic-field-dependent magnetic moment indicate that the Pr doping enhances the ferromagnetic interactions, and changes the behavior of low-temperature susceptibility from spin-glass like behavior to cluster-glass one. The reduction of bond length by Pr doping also increases carrier hopping, and reduces the magnitude of resistivity. Moreover, all the samples show semiconducting behavior which is well explained by the variable range hopping model in the whole temperature range.

[Meaz T.M., S. Tajima, S. A. Saafan, S. Miyasaka, M. K. El Nimr and R. E. El Shater. Preparation and Physical Properties of (La, Pr)BaMnMoO6  Double Perovskite Series. J Am Sci 2012;8(7):844-852]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 123

 

Keywords: Double Perovskites; Magnetic Susceptibility; Magnetic Moment; Resistivity

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 5, 2012.

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