Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(Am Sci J)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 11, Cumulated No. 57, November 25, 2012

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0811

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Protein to Creatinine Ratio in Urine of Young Male Soccer Players in Response to Aerobic Activity at the altitude of 2500 Meter above the Sea Level

 

Mohammad Ali Kohanpour 1*, Mohammad Hassan Boostani 2, Mohammad Ali Manshadi 3, Mahdiye Nasiri Avanaki 1, Mona Mirsepasi 1, Amir Hamzeh Zare 4, Maghsoud Peeri 1, Mohammad Ali Boostani 2, Malihe Kohanpour 5

 

1 Department of Exercise Physiology, faculty of physical education and sports sciences, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Branch - Young Researchers Club, Iran

3 Ph. D Student in Strategic Management of the Supreme National Defence University

4 Department of Exercise Physiology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

5 BSc. Physical Education and Sport Science

Corresponding author; Email: mkohanpur@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Effect of doing exercise at altitude on proteinuria has not been investigated in details. The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantity of proteinuria in response to aerobic activity at hypoxia and normoxia conditions. 10 young soccer players volunteered to participate in two sessions of aerobic activity including 30 min of running with 70% of maximum heart rate in two normoxia (altitude of 1200 m) and hypoxia (altitude of 2500 m) conditions. Total amount of protein and creatinine of urine was measured before and 10 min after the activity and protein to creatinine ratio of urine was also measured to evaluate 24 h proteinuria excretion. T-student statistical method which was special for dependent groups was used to investigate variations of the variables. No significant difference was found between hypoxia and normoxia conditions in none of the studied variables (P>0.05). Total urine protein after exercise insignificantly increased for both conditions (P>0.05). In contrst, urine creatinine after exercise significantly increased for both conditions (P<0.05). Protein to creatinine ratio in the sample urine also insignificantly increased in both conditions (P>0.05). These variations were not correlated to the hypoxia and normoxia conditions. Evaluation of 24 h protein excretion had a physiologic range and was distant from pathologic and nefrotic proteinuria ranges.

[Kohanpour MA, Boostani MH, Manshadi MA, Avanaki MN, Mirsepasi M, Zare AH, Peeri M, Boostani MA, Kohanpour M. Protein to Creatinine Ratio in Urine of Young Male Soccer Players in Response to Aerobic Activity at the altitude of 2500 Meter above the Sea Level. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.01

 

Keywords: Proteinuria; Hypoxia; Aerobic activity; Protein to creatinine ratio; altitude

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2

Theoretical Analysis in Particle Swarm Optimisation

 

Ahmad Rezaee Jordehi 1, Nouradin Hashemi 1, Roya Hosseini 2

 

1Department of Electrical Engineering, University Putra Malaysia

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Shiraz University

ahmadrezaeejordehi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is considered as one of the most efficient techniques in solving optimisation problems. Implementing theoretical analyses in PSO can lead to a more deep understanding of its behavior and characteristics and may quicken the improvement in its computational behavior. However, almost all the existing findings on PSO are based on experimental observations and just in a few cases, theoretical analysis on PSO has been implemented. In this paper, theoretical analyses implemented on PSO are reviewed and some directions for future research are proposed.

[Jordehi AR, Hashemi N, Hosseini R. Theoretical Analysis in Particle Swarm Optimisation. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):8-14]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.02

 

Keywords: Particle swarm optimisation; optimisation; theoretical analysis

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3

Prevalence of Female Genital Cutting among University Students in Egypt

 

Abeer A. Barakat and Hanan Mosleh

 

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

drabeer789@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Female genital cutting (FGC) is a traditional harmful practice that has been outlawed in Egypt. The objectives of this descriptive study are to investigate the prevalence and the socio-demographic determinants of FGC among female university students and its relation to their sexual history. A total of 308 never married undergraduate female students in a public university in Egypt were surveyed using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Total respondents were 281 students (91.2% response rate). The prevalence of FGC is 50.9%, predominantly performed by a physician / nurse (89.8%). Females submitted to FGC described this procedure as painful and shocking (41.3%), ordinary (32.2%) or unremembered (26.6%). Factors associated with FGC included residence in rural areas (P= 0.001). Lower educational level (less than university) of the mother (P= 0.000) as well as, the father (P= 0.000). There were no statistically significant differences between females submitted to FGC versus those who were not as regards correctly defining orgasm (21.7% versus 21% respectively, P > 0.05), ever experiencing orgasm (26.3% versus 17.7% respectively, P > 0.05) or age of initiation of orgasm (P > 0.05). It is concluded that FGC is prevalent among female university students in Egypt, particularly those from rural areas and with a lower parental educational level with no differences between females submitted to FGC versus those who are not as regards sexual history.

[Abeer A. Barakat and Hanan Mosleh. Prevalence of Female Genital Cutting among University Students in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):15-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.03

 

Key words: Female genital cutting, mutilation, sexuality

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3

4

Protective Effect of Cape gooseberry Fruit against Mutagenicity of Potassium Bromate in Mice

 

Rokaya, H. A. Shalaby1, Abulyazid, I.2 and Thanaa, M. S. Badr1

 

1 Zoology Department Women’s College for Arts, Science and Education Ain Shams University

2Biological Application Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center

rokaya2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cape gooseberry is a widely used medicinal herb for treating cancer, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. In the present study, Cape gooseberry fruit juice demonstrated antioxidant activity against mutation induced by potassium bromate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible modulatory anticlastogenic effects of pre treatment with 500 mg/kg b.wt and 1 g/kg Cape gooseberry (Cg) fruit juice and post treatment interferon-α (INF-α) and 1g/kg Cg& INF-α on somatic cells (bone marrow cells) of potassium bromate treated mice. 90 Male Swiss albino mice weighing 30-35g, were divided into six groups of 15 animals as follows: control group, 1.6 g/liter (196 mg/kg) KBrO3 group for 15 weeks, two groups of pre treatment with 500mg/kg and 1g/kg Cape gooseberry for 2 weeks before KBrO3 and continuous with it, post treatment with 6.5 ×105/kg interferon-α alone and interferon-α & cape gooseberry for 6 weeks. Mice were received KBrO3 and Cg orally. They were injected with interferon-α subcutaneously. Animals were sacrificed to assay chromosomal aberrations of treated animals. It is noticed that KBrO3 increased the percentage of chromosomal aberrations (very highly significant (P<0.001) compared with the control group). The most important result obtained in the present study that this percentage was decreased when Cg, interferon-α and interferon-α & Cg were given before and after KBrO3. The reduction was very highly significant (P<0.001) compared with the control group. Our results supposed that the very important components of Cg juice might be responsible for antioxidant activity and prevention of peroxidative damage to protein and DNA which produced chromosomal aberrations. From these findings it is to be suggested that Cape gooseberry as new source of bioactive phytochemicals and functional foods, should be advised before and during chemotherapy of malignant tumors.

[Rokaya, H. A. Shalaby, Abulyazid, I and Thanaa, M. S. Badr. Protective Effect of Cape gooseberry Fruit against Mutagenicity of Potassium Bromate in Mice. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):22-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.04

 

Keywords: Potassium bromate; Cape gooseberry; interferon-α

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5

Interactions between electronic marketing and electronic business

 

Nasrollah Akbari

 

MA Student of Public Administration, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

 

Abstract: Nowadays, the human society faces lack of resources and various needs more than any other time. Management of skills and knowledge to optimally use limited resources and identifying needs and addressing them by exchanging resources has gained great importance. Following digital revolution we will experience fundamental changes in the concept and methods of electronic marketing and see new principles governing all aspects of electronic marketing. The virtual age holds extreme development of information technology in the 3-d world and a knowledge-based environment. Obviously, the development of the information age along with developed technology will hold the fourth wave of change in the world in near future. Emphasis on entrepreneurship, innovation, creativity, technology-based leadership, effective acculturation and expanding communication skills are the characteristics of dot com age; an age which has made leadership a challenging concept and has dramatically changed the internet, business, and product and service markets. Therefore, most businesses need to adopt electronic methods and tools including electronic marketing to perform well in the highly competitive world. Electronic marketing is an improved form of traditional marketing using the internet. Since the development of information technology is very fast, electronic marketing systems need to use artificial intelligence and the best approaches.

[Nasrollah Akbari. Interactions between electronic marketing and electronic business. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):30-38]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.05

 

Keywords: marketing plan structure, the concept of e-marketing, the performance of e-marketing, e-marketing strategy, e-business model.

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6

Feasibility of increasing the efficiency of primary settling tanks by using thin layer plates

 

Mohammad soleimani* 1, Mirali mohammadi 2

 

1. PhD Student in Environment, Urmia University of medical Sciences, Jahad Ave., Urmia, Iran

2. PhD OF Civil Engineering - Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University,Urmia, Iran

*Health_194@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The increased efficiency of the sedimentation tanks at refineries to the technical and economic reasons are important, therefore the feasibility of increasing the efficiency of sedimentation tanks by modeling and optimization of the tanks, is necessary. Method: In this study, using thin layer plates in mineral sedimentation tanks have been investigated in the laboratory practice and by using mathematical modeling, feasibility and efficiency of the actual volume of the tanks equipped with the usual conditions in the sedimentation tanks, have been compared. Results:Results indicate that efficiency is the same and equal Е = 53%,Time required for settling tanks equipped with thin layer plates in comparison with conventional tanks, equal to 2.64, is lower.The maximum flow rate in tanks equipped with thin layer plates in comparison with conventional tanks, equal to 1.6, is increased. Conclusion: Thin layer plates, improvements the process of mineral sedimentation significantly, this is based on increasing surfaces of sedimentation, the laminar flow, reducing the level of suspended solids from settling and removal of short connections inside the tank, is based.

[Mohammad soleimani, Mirali mohammadi. Feasibility of increasing the efficiency of primary settling tanks by using thin layer plates. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):39-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.06

 

Key words: Settling tanks, efficiency, flow rate, suspended solids, thin layer plates.

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7

Polyethylene Glycol Compounds As Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in 0.5M Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

 

M. Abdallah (1, 3) H.E. Megahed (1), M. A. Radwan (2) E. Abdfattah(2)

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

2Basic Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, British University in Egypt (BUE), Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, metwally555@yahoo.com, Essam.Mosalam@bue.edu.eg.

 

Abstract: Inhibition of corrosion of aluminium in 0.5 M HCl solution using polyethylene glycol compounds (PEG with different molecular weight, 600, 2000, 6000 g mol-1) has been studied using weight loss measurements, glvanostatic,and potentiodynamic anodic polarization techniques. The results drawn from these techniques are comparable and exhibit small discrepancy. The percentage of inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing the concentration of inhibitors and the decrease of temperature. The inhibiting action of these compounds depends on the chemical structure, the concentration of the inhibitors, and the temperature. The efficiency of inhibition increases in the order: PEG600 <PEG2000 < PEG6000 in the studied concentration range. Inhibition is attributed to the adsorption of these compounds on the aluminium surface. The adsorption process fitting a Temkin adsorption isotherm. It was found that PEG compounds protect aluminum surface pitting attack in chloride containing solution by shifting the pitting corrosion potential to more noble direction.

[M. Abdallah, H.E. Megahed, M. A. Radwan and E. Abdfattah. Polyethylene Glycol Compounds As Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in 0.5M Hydrochloric Acid Solution. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):49-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.07

 

Keywords: Aluminium, polyethylene glycol, corrosion inhibitors, adsorption

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8

Evaluation and Characterization of Magnetic Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanocomposite for Removal of Zink and Lead from Waste-water

 

Sameh S. H. Haridi (1, 2), Amina A. Zekry (1), Mostafa A. Radwan (2) and Mohamed A. Sharaf (1)

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

2Basic Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, British University in Egypt (BUE), Cairo, Egypt

Sameh_haridi@Hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The human and animal health is jeopardized by water pollutants such as Zink and lead which are considered globally attention. Herein magnetic carboxymethylchitosan nanocomposites were synthesized for zinc and lead removal form industrial waste-water. The particles sizes were varied according to concentration and pH. The transition electron microscope (TEM) and zeta seizer were employed for nanocomposites characterization. Also, the adsorption of Zink and Lead on nanocomposite from waste-water were evaluated by atomic absorption. The results clearly demonstrated that, the nanocomposites have size in the range of 30-100nm, and maximum adsorption of lead, and zinc were 20.4mg/g, & 36.6mg/g respectively.

[Sameh S. H. Haridi, Amina A. Zekry, Mostafa A. Radwan and Mohamed A. Sharaf. Evaluation and Characterization of Magnetic Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanocomposite for Removal of Zink and Lead from Waste-water. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):56-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.08

 

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, carboxymethyl chitosan, heavy metal removal, lead, zinc, co-precipitation

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9

Utilization of Sodium Silicate Solution as A Curing Compound of Fresh Concrete

 

Gamal El-Din A. Ibrahium, Tarek Y. M. A. El-hariri. Ahmed S. Mousa and Gaber M. AW.

 

Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Exploration Department, Egypt, Cairo, Nasr city

el_hariri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Concrete treated with a sodium silicate solution helps to significantly reduce porosity in most masonry products such as concrete, plasters. A chemical reaction occurs with the excess Ca (OH)2 (portlandite) present in the concrete that permanently binds the silicates with the surface making them far more wearable and water repellent. It is generally advised to apply this treatment only after the initial cure has taken place (7 days or so depending on conditions). These coatings are known as silicate mineral paint. Sodium silicate solution is a clear water-soluble, premium sodium silicate concrete hardener that assists in the curing*, hardening and dust proofing of concrete. It is easy to apply, leaves no residue and dries quickly. It is ideal for use on newly placed or existing, interior or exterior concrete in our present work for sub-sea concrete coated pipelines and its suitable also for floor slabs, sidewalks, driveways, beams, olumns.

 [Gamal El-Din A. Ibrahium, Tarek Y. M. A. El-hariri. Ahmed S. Mousa and Gaber M. AW. Utilization of Sodium Silicate Solution as A Curing Compound of Fresh Concrete. Journal of American Science 2012;8(11): 61-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.09

 

Key Words: Sodium silicate solution and curing fresh concrete.

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10

Factors Associated with Postpartum Depression among Saudi Females in Riyadh City

 

Salma Moawed*, Nesreen Al-Shami

 

Maternal and Child Health Nursing, Collage of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA *smoawed@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Postpartum depression is one of the major psychological disorders that affect many women from diverse cultures and religion aspects this indicates that postpartum depression is a universal phenomenon and not just limited to industrialized western societies. The aim of this study is to analyze the risk factors contributing to postpartum depression among Saudi mothers; it is descriptive and correlated design. Data was collected using three tools from four hospitals at Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Total sample size was 200 mothers drown by randomized sampling. There is a statistical correlation between education and occupation of the father and postpartum depression. Moreover, there is a correlation found between past medical disease of mother, type of last delivery (Caesarian Section), and presence of antenatal depression. Life stressor scale showed that the entire sample had low stress events, instead those women had postpartum depression. Conclusion: multiple risk factors for postpartum depression have been present among Saudi mothers how suffer from postpartum depression, therefore, all healthcare providers need to help those mothers who have similar risk factors to pass their maternity cycle within the normal range.

[Salma Moawed, Nesreen Al-Shami. Factors Associated with Postpartum Depression among Saudi Females in Riyadh City. Journal of American Science 2012;8(11): 67-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.10

 

Keywords: Postpartum depression, Saudi Women, Risk Factors

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Determining Canonical Variables of Organizational Justice and its Role in Organizational Commitment of the Staff of Iran Oil Industry: The Case of Isfahan Oil Refinery Company

 

1Nahid Naderi, 1Reza Hoveida, 2Arash Shahin, Mohammad 3Reza Naderi

 

1Department of Educational Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3Department of Industrial Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

nanaderi84@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this survey is to determine canonical variables in organizational justice and organizational commitment of the staff of Isfahan Oil Refinery Company and the relationship among them. The survey method is typically descriptive correlation, and sampling has been performed by random classification method. To collect data, two researcher made questionnaires of organizational justice and organizational commitment have been used. Their validity has been approved by experts and their reliability has been calculated as 0.89 and 0.81, respectively using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. To analyze the data, correlation test and regression have been used. The results imply that there is a relationship among organizational justice, organizational commitment and procedural justice; and interactive justice and distributional justice predictor variables have respectively relationship with organizational commitment criterion variable. The procedural justice and interactive justice predict affective commitment and normative commitment, and procedural justice has relationship with continuous commitment. There is also significant relationship between the first pair of canonical variables including distributional justice and linear combination of all indicators of organizational commitment.

[Nahid Naderi, Reza Hoveida, Arash Shahin, Mohammad Reza Naderi. Determining Canonical Variables of Organizational Justice and its Role in Organizational Commitment of the Staff of Iran Oil Industry -The Case of Isfahan Oil Refinery Company. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):74-79]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.11

 

Keywords: Organizational justice, Procedural justice, Organizational commitment, Normative commitment

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A Case Report of a Rare Diaphragmatic Lipoma with Bochdalek Hernia in a 7 Month Old Girl

 

Ahmadipour Shokoufeh1, M.D –Ghadiri Keyghobad2, M.D -Aman Ollahi Omid3, M.D- Babaei Homa2, MD

 

1.Pediatrics Department, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran

2.Pediatrics Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

3. Surgery Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

shokofe57@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)

 

Abstract: Lipoma may be observed in any organ, though in approximately 50% of the cases, it is seen in soft tissues. But diaphragmatic lipoma is extremely rare. Since diaphragmatic lipoma is asymptomatic, it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. No case of diaphragmatic lipoma under 4 years of age has been reported so far [2]. Here we report a diaphragmatic lipoma with Bochdalek hernia in a 7 month old girl.

[Ahmadipour Shokoufeh, Ghadiri Keyghobad, Aman Ollahi Omid, Babaei Homa. A Case Report of a Rare Diaphragmatic Lipoma with Bochdalek Hernia in a 7 Month Old Girl J Am Sci 2012;8(11):80-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.12

 

Key words: Lipoma, Diaphragmatic, Bochdalek, Hernia

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Multiple Intelligences and it’s Relation to Sports Guiders and Teachers Perception of Concepts of Effective Teaching in the Light of Attentions Theory

 

Ahmed M. Abdullah Al-Sayed

 

Curriculum and Teaching Methods Department, Faculty of Physical Education for Boys, Zagazig University. fm13_marhaba2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The research aims to identify the multiple intelligences, their relationship to realize formers and physical education teachers to concepts of effective teaching in light of the theory of interests, and the researcher used the descriptive method on a sample number (100) directed and teacher in the field of physical education, and data collection tools used test of multiple intelligences and test concepts of effective teaching, and was the most important results that there is a positive relationship statistically significant between multiple intelligences and understanding supervisors and teachers of Physical Education of the concepts of effective teaching, there is no statistically significant differences in perception concepts of effective teaching special stage basics teaching attributed to the factor function between mentors and teachers, no statistically significant differences between mentors and teachers in understanding the concepts of effective teaching phase functions of teaching and students' achievement in favor of mentors.

[Ahmed M. Abdullah Al-Sayed. Multiple Intelligences and it’s Relation to Sports Guiders and Teachers Perception of Concepts of Effective Teaching in the Light of Attentions Theory. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):83-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.13

 

Keywords: Multiple intelligences, effective teaching, attentions theory

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Study the chemical characteristics of groundwater to determine the suitable localities desalination processes in the area between Mersa Alam and Ras Banas, Red Sea Coast Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Hosam A. Shawky1,2*, Moustafa M. Said1, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar1, Yousra H. Kotp1, and Mohamed S. A. Abdel Mottaleb3

 

1Water Treatment & Desalination Unit, Desert Research Center, El-Matariya, Cairo, Egypt

2Center of Nanotechnology, School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Nile University, Cairo, Egypt

3Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Shawkydrc@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Egypt is characterized by an arid to semi-aride climate and its population is increasing at an annual rate. With such population growth rate and fast social-economical development, water demand and waste water production are steeply increasing, and the gap between water supply and demand is getting wider. The fast growing development in Egypt has required big movements of investments and people from the Nile Valley towards the east, with the fantastic Red Sea coastal zone, that has promising brackish groundwater potentialities. Fresh water supply is essential and desalination is a feasible option that can cover the wide gap between the available capacities and the accelerating demands. A major misconception in the design of membrane water treatment facilities is that if a groundwater source is used to feed the plant, chemical characteristic of water will be relatively stable with time. There are wide variations in the groundwater chemistry caused by pumping aquifers based on the local geology and hydrology. Modeling of these possible water chemistry studies should be accomplished prior to the final design of any membrane treatment facility. The primary geologic controls on groundwater chemistry within a subsurface aquifer system are the natural barriers which control the vertical inflow of water from adjacent aquifers containing water with different chemistries. This water chemistry change is caused by mixing of the leaked water with the seawater contained in the study area. Due to the complexity of groundwater chemistry, it is classified into several factors, these factors based on the total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, the concentration of major, minor and trace components. The results of the analysis of water samples collected from the area of study show wide ranges of TDS (439-46341 mg/l), total hardness (236-14371 mg/l as CaCO3) and chloride concentration (84-26664 mg/l). Also, the presence of metals such as iron and manganese is observed. Moreover, according to chemical characteristics of the groundwater, best sites for possible desalination projects were selected.

[Hosam A. Shawky, Moustafa M. Said, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar, Yousra H. Kotp, and Mohamed S. A. Abdel Mottaleb. Study the chemical characteristics of groundwater to determine the suitable localities for desalination processes in the area between Mersa Alam and Ras Banas, Red Sea Coast, Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):93-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.14

 

Keywords: Red Sea Coast, Groundwater, Chemical Characteristics, Desalination

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From Platonic love to victimization of women in Mansfield

 

Mostafa Sheikhzade1, Maryam Ebadi Asayesh2, Siamak Saadat Dehgan3, Arezoo Assemi4*, Reza Shadlou5

 

1 Department of Education, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran

2 Faculty Member, Islamic Azad University, Marand Branch, Urmia Iran

3 West Azarbaijan Education Organization, Urmia, Iran

4 Research Deputy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran / PhD Candidate, English Language and Literature Department, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

5 Custom Administration, Maku, Iran

Email: arezoo.assemi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mansfield one of the prominent modernist writers in short fiction created so many fiction that are translated to more than 20 languages and are read all over the world. After a long period of ignoring Katherine Mansfield’s writing, the last decade has been “both Mansfield's centenary and a considerable resurgence of interest in her fiction”. (Hankin, 804) Her stories are usually written in the modernist mode, floating in stream of consciousness, without a set structure, and with many shifts in the narrative. Plotless or unfinished stories are pioneering. She usually focuses on the differences between men and women and her themes are around daily life issues such as love, life, chance, marriage, facts, etc. She tries to focus on male dominance and victimization of women. ‘Something Childish but Very Natural’ and ‘A Birthday’ seem to have very different surface stories but a deep look reveals the opposite.

[Mostafa Sheikhzade, Maryam Ebadi Asayesh, Siamak Saadat Dehgan, Arezoo Assemi, Reza Shadlou. From Platonic love to victimization of women in Mansfield. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):107-110]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.15

 

Keywords: Mansfield; short fiction; stream of consciousness; marriage; love

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Association of different breast cancer treatment modalities with Sexual satisfaction & body image among mastectomized women in Beni-Suif

 

Abeer Mohamed E. Eldeeb1, Shereen Ahmed Qalawa 2, HeshamNafady3

 

Departments of 1Community Health Nursing and 2Medical – Surgical Nursing and 3General Surgery, Faculty of Nursing, 1Beni – Suif *and 2Port- said University, 3Faculty of Medicine, Beni – Suif University. eldeeb1973@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Overview: Breast cancer affects woman’s body image and her feeling of sexuality. Little is known about the perceptions of spouses to the sensitive topics of sexuality feelings and body images. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to explore the relationship among different breast cancer treatment modalities, sexual satisfaction and body image among mastectomized women in Beni–Suif. Subject and methods:The study was carried out on 45 Mastectomized women at University hospital at oncology clinic in Beni- Suif city, descriptive correlational research was used to conduct this study.Results: The study revealed a highly significant relation between sexual satisfaction and body image among mastectomized women, also there are a statistically significant relation among post surgery treatment modalities,types of surgery and body image. Conclusion: The present study concluded that mastectomized women needs to improve their knowledge and attitude regarding post surgery treatment modalities and strategy coping with their sexual life in order to improve their sexual desire and body image. Recommendations:emphasis on the implementation of an-instructional scheme for breast cancer survivors to obtain the highest level of sexual satisfaction and body image.there are dire need to instruct those women throughout media. Within this context, there is a great demand for strategies and programs that take into consideration all the physiological, psychological, social problems that might face those women.

 [Abeer Mohamed E. Eldeeb, Shereen Ahmed Qalawa, Hesham Nafady. Association of different breast cancer treatment modalities with Sexual satisfaction & body image among mastectomized women in Beni-Suif. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):111-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.16

 

Keywords: Treatment Modalities, Sexual satisfaction, Body image, Mastecctomized women

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Risks Appraisal of Information and Communication Technology Project phases By Shannon Entropy Method With improvement approaches

 

Maryam Teimoori rad1, MohammadAli Soukhakian2, Alireza Azizi3, Meisam Ahmadi4

 

1. M.S. Shiraz Payam-e-noor University, 2. PhD faculty member of Shiraz University, 3. M.S. Shiraz Payam-e-noor University, 4. M.S. Shiraz Payam-e-noor University. teimoori.rad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: the risk management comes into existence for improving the quality of decisions, systematizing the project, and considering the each phases of the project more important. Each project has 4phase which the manager encounters with risks in different phases. In this research for the first time using a specialized risk assessment in each of the phases of the project to be specified in each phase of the project is a further risk. Managers in each of the phases should decide to encounter or prevented the risks.Accordingly, at first, it is necessary to specify project achievement, identification and management of the risks and the methods that follow up them. In this research, some risks which threat information and communication technology projects have been identified and introduced by means of risk management techniques. After that for quantifying and prioritizing identified risks, Multi criteria decision making model, according to Shannon Entropy method is used. Shannon Entropy model help us to categorize the risks. After identifying and evaluating the risks According to the amount of the effectiveness, these above mentioned factors are effectively used to make ideal decision. Finally, approaches to improve the risks which have the most effects on information and communication technology projects are presented.

[Maryam Teimoori rad, MohammadAli Soukhakian, Alireza Azizi, Meisam Ahmadi. Risks Appraisal of Information and Communication Technology Project phases By Shannon Entropy Method With improvement approaches. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):120-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.17

 

Key words: project; phase; Risk identification; Risk evaluation; Multi Applied Decision Making Methods (MADM); Shannon Entropy.

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Lipid content and Fatty acid composition in Muscle Tissue of Perca fluviatilis in the South of the Caspian Sea

 

Abdolhossein Rustaiyan 1, Keivandokht Samiee 2, Maryam vahedi3

 

1. Department of Chemistry, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University,P.O. Box 14515-775,Tehran, Iran

2. Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3. Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology,North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. arustaiyan@yahoo.it

 

Abstract: This study was aimed to gain knowledge on lipid content and fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of Perca fluviatilis from the port of Anzali in the south of the Caspian Sea, Iran in Sep 2012 using the method of Blight & Dyer (1959).The Compounds were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). The components detected in both male and female species, including saturated fatty acids (SFA) Palmitic acid and Stearic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) Oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).The fatty acid composition of muscle tissue in Perca fluviatilis was characterized by a high percent of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

[Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Keivandokht Samiee, Maryam vahedi. Lipid content and Fatty acid composition in Muscle Tissue of Perca fluviatilis in the South of the Caspian Sea. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):128-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.18

 

Keywords: Lipid content, Fatty acid composition, muscle tissue, liver tissue, Perca fluviatilis, Caspian Sea

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Vitamin D level Among Female Students in College of Nursing in Saudi Arabia and its Relation to Students’ Symptoms

 

Abeer Ali1, Lamiaa Amin2 and Amein Al-Ali3

 

1 Rheumatologist, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, University of Dammam,Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Community Health Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

3 Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: Objective: To assess the vitamin D level of a cohort of apparently healthy female students in College of Nursing at the University of Dammam in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. To determine whether there is a relationship between vitamin D levels and students' symptoms. Subjects and methods: The study was carried out over 4 months period and included ninety-six Saudi Arabian female students aged between 18- 23 years from the College of Nursing at University of Dammam. They answered a questionnaire about their clinical history, including intake of vitamin D and calcium-rich foods and exposure to sunshine and blood samples were taken for routine biochemistry, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD], calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels. Results: Thirty students (31%) were found to have vitamin D insufficiency and 27 students (28%) were found to have vitamin D deficiency. However, only 39 students (41%) were found to have normal level of vitamin D despite adequate exposure to sunlight. No statistically significant difference was found between the three groups regarding the number of food serving of different food items rich in vitamin D and calcium. Moreover, the percentage of students who were complaining from fatigue, insomnia and bone ache with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more than those with normal vitamin D level. Conclusion: Even in a sunny country like Saudi Arabia the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young female is high. Most likely this is due to a racial difference in vitamin D concentration or a genetic predisposition to vitamin D deficiency among Saudi Arabians.. A policy of vitamin D food fortification should be considered in the future, and in the meantime greater use of vitamin D supplements in this population group should be encouraged.

[Abeer Ali, Lamiaa Amin and Amein Al-Ali. Vitamin D level Among Healthy Female Students in College of Nursing in Saudi Arabia and its Relation to Students’ Symptoms. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):132-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.19

 

Keywords: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Hypovitaminosis D

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Physiochemical Properties of Nectar Prepared From Nectarine Juice with Different Ratios of Date Syrup

 

Ginat, El-Sherief; G, B. Gado; E. M. Rizk

 

Food Technology Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

ginat.elsherif@yahoo.com; effatmahdy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to produce nectar prepared with nectarine juice and partially replacement of sucrose with date syrup using five different portions T1 (100% sucrose), T2 (75% sucrose + 25% date syrup), T3 (50% sucrose + 50% date syrup), T4 (25% sucrose + 75% date syrup) and T5 (100% date syrup) in the preparation of nectar samples. Physicochemical constituents and sensory characteristics were determined for date syrup, nectarine juice and prepared nectar samples. Date syrup contained 16% moisture content, 6.8% ash, 1.98% fat, 0.83% protein and 79.70% total sugars, while the nectarine juice contained 86.8% moisture content, 0.80% ash, 0.50% fat, 0.50% protein and9.86 % total sugars. On the other hand total solids, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH values were 84%, 80%, 0.18%and 6.11 in date syrup and 13.2%, 10.5%, 0.39% and 4.14% in nectarine juice, respectively. The total acidity of nectar samples decreased with increasing ratios of date syrup. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds (mg gallic acid/ 100g F.W.), purity and ash content increased gradually with increasing the partial replacement of sucrose with date syrup in nectar samples. The color parameters were evaluated with hunter lab. and sensory attributes of nectar samples, indicated that, nectar prepared from T2 (25% date syrup + 75% sucrose), T3 (50% date syrup + 50% sucrose) had the highest organoleptic score followed by T1 (100% sucrose), T4 (75% date syrup + 25% sucrose) and T5 (100% date syrup respectively.

[Ginat, El-Sherief; G, B. Gado; E. M. Rizk. Physiochemical Properties of Nectar Prepared From Nectarine Juice with Different Ratios of Date. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):139-143]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.20

 

Key Word: Date syrup – Nectarine fruits – Siwi dates – Fruit juice - Rosaceae family - Nectar.

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Green Marketing in Saudi Arabia Rising Challenges and Opportunities, for better future

 

Aftab Alam *, Dr. Mohammad Almotairi **, Dr. Kamisan Gaadar ***

 

* Department of Marketing College of Business Administration, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2459 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. aftabalam112@gmail.com

** Department of Marketing College of Business Administration, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2459 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

*** University of Kuala Lumpur Business School Kuala Lumpur Malaysia

 

Abstract: Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particularly important in the modern market, this concept has enabled for the thrill and the existing packaging Products that already comply with these guidelines. In addition, the development has opened the green marketing connect the door of opportunity for companies the praised quality green products in separate line, some while ignoring the other. This organization of the market Techniques are explained as the direct result of the movement the spirit of the consumer market. As a result of this Companies have increased targeted their consumers if you are concerned about the environment. These same Consumers by their concern are interested in integration by buy to environmental issues in their decisions. Their involvement in the process and content of the each product marketing strategy may be necessary. This article describes, as companies thought to have their Rate targeted green consumers, those who are affected. On the environment and it can have effect on all their purchases decisions? The document identifies three segments green consumers and examines the challenges and the opportunities companies with green marketing. We examine the trends of green marketing in Saudi and describe the reason why the companies are adopting the green marketing, and the future of the green marketing and finds that green Marketing is something that constantly grow in both Practice and application

[Aftab Alam, Mohammad Almotairi, Kamisan Gaadar. Green Marketing in Saudi Arabia Rising Challenges and Opportunities, for better future. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):144-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.21

 

Keywords: Phenomenon, Products, Consumer, Involvement, Purchase, Companies, Opportunities

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Perception of Health Care Providers, Patient’s Families and Patients Towards Family Presence During Invasive Procedures in Emergency Care Units

 

Afaf A.Basal, Om Ebrahim A. Al Sai, Hend M. Elazazy

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt

afaf_bassal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Family presence is constant with nursing's holistic view of patient and the basic tents of comprehensive needs of patients and their families across the care continuum. Family presence is most commonly defined as "the presence of family in the patient care, in a location that affords visual or physical contact with the patient during invasive procedures. Because family member often bring patients to the emergency department, the family member are becoming a part of the treatment process. Aim: to describe the perception of physicians, nurses, patients' family members and patients toward presence of patient’s family members during invasive procedure in emergency care units. Method: the study was carried out on different emergency care units of Tanta University Emergency Hospital. The sample consisted of 100 ofboth nurses and physicians, and 200 from both patients and patient's families' members. Three tools were developed and used to collect data, tool one was used to assess health care providers opinion regarding the presence of the patient’s family members during invasive procedures, tool two was developed to gather information from patient regarding their perception of the presence of their family members during invasive procedures and tool three was developed to collect information from patient’s family members regarding their presence with their patients during invasive procedures. Data were collected from June to November 2010.The results revealed that nearly less than half about 43% of physician and 48% of nurses in our study allowed or preferred the presence of patient's family during invasive procedures while majority of patients 77.5% and patients 'family 87% preferred their presence during the procedures and most of them preferred written policies allowing their presents during the procedures. Conclusions and recommendationsPatient, and patient's family members had a positive attitude toward family presence during invasive procedures. Nurse had a more favorable attitude toward family presence than physician do. The study recommended that health care providers should offer patient's family member the option to remain with their patient during invasive procedures if it is possible.

[AfafA.Basal, Om Ebrahim A. Al Sai, Hend M. Elazazy. Perception of Health Care Providers, Patient’s Families and Patients Towards Family Presence During Invasive Procedures in Emergency Care Units. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):152-161]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.22

 

Key words: Family presence, Invasive procedure, Health care providers.

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Evaluation of Pivka-II as a Predictor Marker for Portal Vein Obstruction in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

 

Khaled Hemida, Wafaa Kamal, George S. Riad, Nanees A. Adel, Maryse S. Ayoub and Dena Fekry*

 

Internal Medicine Department; Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

* Clinical Pathology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

maryseayoub@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While the survival of patients with most malignancies has improved over the last decade, 5-year survival of patients with HCC has remained less than 10%. Presence of portal vein thrombosis hinders prognosis and limits therapeutic options of management in HCC. Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), also known as protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), is an abnormal form of the coagulation protein, prothrombin. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of PIVKA-II measurement as a predictor of portal vein obstruction among other factors when HCC on liver cirrhosis is diagnosed with trans-abdominal ultrasound. Patients and Methods: The present study included fifty newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 13females) with proved histopathological diagnosis of HCC who were diagnosed at Hepatology Unit at Ain Shams University hospital. Patients were subjected to history taking, physical examination and radiological assessment with abdominal ultrasonography and computerized tomography. The following laboratory investigations were done, -Complete blood picture (CBC), Prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR).,Liver function tests (ALT, AST, ALP, serum albumin and serum bilirubin):,Kidney function tests (serum creatinine).,Alpha feto protein (AFP) determination).and Serum PIVKA-II level determination using micro cup type enzyme immunoassay test kit Results: In the present study, a statistically higher PIVKA-II (z=2.575; p=0.010) has been found in patients with PVT on comparison with patients without PVT. PIVKA-II levels were 97.0mAu/ml±81.3, with a range from 0.8 to 266.3 for patients with PVT and 40.2 mAu/ml±40.6), with a range from 0.2 to 146.3 for patients without PVT In conclusion serum PIVKA II levels >100mAu/ml is a predictor for development of PVT in patients with HCC and which influences the therapeutic options available for the patients.

[Kalid Hemida, Wafaa kamal, George S. Riad, Nanees A.Adel and Maryse S.Ayoub,Dena Fekry. Evaluation of Pivka-II as a Predictor Marker for Portal Vein Obstruction in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):162-170]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.23

 

Keywords: PIVKA II,Hepatocellular carcinoma,portal vein obstruction.

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Take advantage of Passive defense against soft war

 

Mahdi Bigdeloo (M.A.)*

 

Farabi College, Tehran, Iran. * Mahdi.bigdeloo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to test hypothesis "That take advantage of passive defense against soft war" and there is a significant relationship, in this regard. Method of present study was investigated the quantitative data, purpose of Application and the nature of the survey. This study constructed using a questionnaire. 79 volunteers with 32 questions with consider comments from Tehran University’s professors have been selected through stratified random manner. After reviewing the data using the Spearman test, results was achieved between the using passive defense (UPD) against soft war correlation significant at 99% 0.53 is satisfied. In other word there is a strong relationship between UPD and fighting against soft war. from the results of this study it can concluded, that we can use some unrelated ideas about soft war against it and localization of these theories will be a positive step in reducing the threats of soft war.

 [Mahdi Bigdeloo. Take advantage of Passive defense against soft war. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):171-179]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.24

 

Keywords: National Security, War, Passive Defense, Locate, Design, Infra Structure Networks, Restoration, Multi - Functional Spaces

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Exploring the link between job motivation, work environment and job satisfaction

 

Amir Abou Elnaga

 

Vice Dean of College of Business Administration, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. amirzaki78@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Job satisfaction represents one of the most complex areas facing today’s managers when it comes to managing their employees. Many studies have demonstrated an unusually large impact on the job satisfaction on the motivation of workers. The objective of this research was to investigate how the relationship between motivation, work environment and Job satisfaction. This study found through descriptive approach based on the collection and analysis of results of studies, reports, periodicals and books related to the topic of study that the motivation and work environment are considered as a most critical factor which affect on Job satisfaction. literature review and motivation theories declare that not all people are motivated by money that is why researcher devised a set of proposed guidelines for motivate employees and create a satisfying work environment in order to increase their Job satisfaction without raising their pay.

[Amir Abou Elnaga. Exploring the link between job motivation, work environment and job satisfaction. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):180-185]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.25

 

Keywords: Job satisfaction, motivation, work environment.

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Measuring the impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Organization Performance in pharmaceutical Multinational Companies in Egypt

 

Osama Abdel-Monem

 

Business Administration Department, Faculty of commerce, Benha University

omamam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Changing competitiveness in the global markets has created new challenges for business organizations as well as individuals. To cope with this changing environment, human resource management (HRM) practices are expected to play a more vital role in company performance improvement especially those in pharmaceutical area in less developed economies like Egypt. This study investigates the impact of HRM practices on company performance in 33 companies representing all multinational companies operating in the pharmaceutical area in Egypt, with a sample of 231 respondents. Formulated hypotheses on the HRM bundles of practices were analyzed using factor analysis and regression analysis. It is found that HRM practices had a significant and positive association with company performance. Finally, a conclusion is given based on the empirical findings of this study which have implications for HRM practices in the studied companies.

[Osama Abdel-Monem. Measuring the impact of human resource management practices on Organization Performance in pharmaceutical Multinational Companies in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):186-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.26

 

Keywords: Human resource management – Pharmaceutical Companies - Recruitment and Selection - Performance Appraisal – Unionisation - Training and Development - Compensation.

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Effect of Noise Stress on Pituitary Gonadal Axis in Albino Rats

 

Diab, A.A.1; Hendawy, A.1; Asala, A.K.2; Ibrahim, S.S.1 and Hassan, M.A.1

 

1Faculty of Science, 2Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Loud noise is an environmental stressor, not only affects the auditory apparatus but also other body functions. The effect of loud noise strss on sexual hormones and gonadal histology were reported in this study. Male and female albino rats weighting 150–200 grams were exposed to 100 dB of noise for 6 hours daily for 30 days. The serum sexual hormones (testosterone, LH, FSH, progesterone, estradiol and prolactin) levels were measured and testicular and ovarian histological sections were taken for microscopic study. A significant reduction in sexual hormones levels with moderate abnormal histological changes in testes and ovaries were detected. Thus, the noise may be acts as severe deteriorative stress on other organs in the body.

[Diab, A.A.; Hendawy, A.; Asala, A.K.; Ibrahim, S.S. and Hassan, M.A. Effect of Noise Stress on Pituitary Gonadal Axis in Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):198-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.27

 

Key words: Noise stress, gonads, sex, hormones.

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Studies on the adsorption characteristics of some heavy elements using Vermiculite

 

A. A. Ezz El-Deen 1, S. A. Waly 1, K. A. EL.Adham 2, A. M. Dakroury3 and M. M. Shoukry4

 

1 Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, 2 Safe Gard Center, 3 Hot lab Center and waste management, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt. Aishaw95@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The uncontrolled release of liquid wastes into the environment may lead to hazard to the human and the environment. There have been extensive studies for development of various technologies for removal of Cd2+ and Co2+ from wastes The removal of Cd2+ and Co2+ ions from aqueous solution by Vermiculite has been investigated. The Vermiculite was characterized by Particle size, Surface area, and chemical analysis. The adsorption behavior of Vermiculite has been studied as a function of the solution agitation time, pH, initial metal concentration in solution, particle size, and temperature. Kinetic studies were undertaken to show the mechanistic aspects of the process. It was showed that the process was first order reaction for the two metal ions. Sorption data have been correlated with both, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔHo, ΔSo, and ΔGo were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnKD against 1/T. The ΔHo and ΔGo values of metal ions adsorption on the two adsorbents show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of ions adsorption is favored at high temperatures.

[A. A. Ezz El-Deen, S. A. Waly, K. A. EL.Adham, A. M. Dakroury and M. M. Shoukry. Studies on the adsorption characteristics of some heavy elements using Vermiculite. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):203-211]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.28

 

Keywords: Cd2+ and Co2+, vermiculite, sorption kinetics, isotherm.

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Efficiency of Exercise Program on CD 34+ Stem Cell, Blood components and Some Physical and Skill Variables

 

Amany Waheed Ebrahim and Abeer Waheed Abd Elghany

 

Department of Rhythmic Exercise and Artistic Gymnastic Training, Faculty of Physical Education, Helwan University, Egypt. Emy.W123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Exercise is one of the most powerful non pharmacological strategies, which is able to affect nearly all cells and organs in the body. Changes in the behavior of adult stem cells have been shown to occur in response to exercise program. The aim of this study is to reveal the role of exercise program on CD34+ stem cells, some blood components, physical and skill levels for Third year with low levels in physical education. 10 healthy female athletes aged (19-21 yrs) were recruited for this study. Exercise program for 8 weeks (3 days / week) were used aerobic exercise steps, bar exercise and skills Training.They were estimated using Immunophenotyping CD34+ stem cells, Complete blood count (CBC), Harvard step Test for Physical Assessment and Assessment of skills. Results: revealed to significant increases of HB, MCH, RDW, MCV, MCHC, Leucocytic count (WBCs), CD 34+ %, CD34+ Count. It is concluded that exercise program affect all parameters positively.

[Amany Waheed Ebrahim and Abeer Waheed Abd Elghany Amany. Efficiency of Exercise Program on CD 34+ Stem Cell, Blood components and Some Physical and Skill Variables. Journal of American Science 2012; 8(11): 212-219]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.29

 

Key words: Exercise Program, CD34+ stem cells, Blood components, Harvard step test for Physical Assessment, Aerobic exercise steps, bar exercise, Skills training.

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Morphometric Study of Genus Rattus in Tehran City

 

Somayeh Keshtkar1*, Ahmad-Reza Katouzian1, Hassan Rajabi-Maham1, Zohreh Yousefi2

 

Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran, Iran

Young Researchers Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*somayehkeshtkar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Throughout its worldwide range, Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most common species of rat found in Tehran city. It is not native to and like other introduced species has become a serious problem in Tehran and other large cities in Iran. Morphologic differentiation among Rattus genus from Tehran city was investigated using morphometric characters. 50 Rats were trapped alive and 15 cranial and body morphological characters were measured. In preliminary evaluations of samples, we certified 99% of individuals as Rattus norvegicus and only 1% as other species. In this study, both discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups of Rattus norvegicus in Tehran; probably corresponding to two different subspecies. Principal Component Analysis was used in order to group populations. According to this analysis our samples were almost clustered in two partially overlapped groups. Using Canonical Function Analysis for evaluation of morphometric variables separately for their contribution to discrimination of groups we observed that ratio of characters as Zygomatic Width/Least Interorbital Width, Cranial Width/Skull Height, Occipitonasal Length/Conddylobasal Length, Diastema Length/Zygomatic Width, Diastema Length/Tympanic Bullae Width and Zygomatic Width/ Tympanic Bullae Width are the most determinative values for distinction of two groups. Also, Discriminant Analysis showed that character ratios, Diastema Length/Zygomatic Width, Diastema Length/Tympanic Bullae Width and Zygomatic Width/ Tympanic Bullae Width are most significant in groupings according to districts.

[Keshtkar S, Katouzian AR, Rajabi-Maham H, Yousefi Z. Morphometric Study of Genus Rattus in Tehran City. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):220-224]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.30

 

Keywords: Rattus norvegicus, Tehran city, morphometric, cranial and body characters

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Efficacy of use of forskolin plant extract in control of toxic effects of aflatoxicosis.

 

Atef, A. Hassan1; Nahed, M. El-Mokhttar1; Mogda, K. Mansour2; Randa, A. Hassan3; Mona, Abdel Hadi4 and Hoda, M. Lotfi4

 

Departments of 1Mycology, 2Biochemistry and 3Pathology, 4Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki-Giza; Veterinary Laboratory, El-Zagazig, El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. mogdasamei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of use of forskoline in control the dangerous changes caused by aflatoxicosis. Out of 150 samples of frozen and minced meat, raw milk, kareish cheese, wheat and yellow corn (25 of each); the aflatoxigenic moulds of A.flavus and A.parasiticus were recovered from samples of cereals of wheat and yellow corn (72%, 12% and 60%, 16%), followed by samples of kareish cheese and frozen meat (44%, 4% and 40%, 4%) respectively. Whereas, the lowest level of isolation were detected in minced meat and raw milk (24%, 8% and 20%, 4%), respectively. The maximum levels of aflatoxins were obtained from A. flavus and A.parasiticus isolated from yellow corn and wheat (66.6%, 75% of isolates produced mean level of 600 ± 6.2ppb, 120± 8.0 ppb in yellow corn and 66.6% of isolates produced mean level of 300±4.5 ppb, 75±0.3 in wheat), respectively. The isolates of A. flavus and A.parasiticus from frozen and minced meat were detected in 50%, 100% and 66.6%, 50% with the mean level of 10.5 ± 1.2 ppb, 12±00 ppb and 25±0.5 ppb, 22±00 ppb). On the other hand, the samples of raw milk and kareish cheese, showed a relatively lower levels of aflastoxins that produced by A. flavus and A.parasiticus which isolated from these samples. Whenever, (60, % of isolated A. flavus from raw milk produced mean level of aflatoxin 13±0.3 ppb and the A. flavus and A.parasiticus that recovered from 54.5%, 100% of kareish cheese produced 25±2.6 ppb and 15 ±00ppb) respectively. The evaluation of experimental administration of forskoline against aflatoxicated rats showed significant elevation in the liver and kidney function enzymes and decrease in concentrations of serum total protein, albumin, alpha globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin together with A/G ratio. The serum NO level significantly increased in AFB1 treated rats. Also, a significant decreased in catalase activity, GSH levels and increased TBARS levels were shown after Af treatment. However, supplementation of forskolin extract for toxicated rats with AFB1 increased CAT activities and TBARS and eliminates the possibility of oxidative stress due to the administration of AFB1 to rats. Histopathological changes of lung, liver, kidneys, spleen and skeletal muscle in aflatoxicated rats were discussed briefly. Receiving of forskolin decreased the destructive effect of aflatoxin B1 in the tissues examined specially liver, where cytoplasmic regeneration of hepatocytes was detected. Whenever, the aflatoxicated rates received forskolin, a significant improvement in all lesions appeared in most organs which represented by minimizing of histopathological and biochemical alteration. Hence, the supplementation of forskolin in food and feed is valuable in reduction the severity of the toxicity and the histopathological and biochemical alteration produced by aflatoxin B1.

 [Atef, A. Hassan; Nahed, M. El-Mokhttar; Mogda, K. Mansour; Randa, A. Hassan; Mona, Abdel Hadi and Hoda, M. Lotfi. Efficacy of use of forskolin plant extract in control of toxic effects of aflatoxicosis. J Am Sci 2012;8(11): 225-236]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.31

 

Keyword: Efficacy, forskolin, plant extract in control of toxic effects of aflatoxicosis

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Impact of a Designed Educational Program on Thyroidectomy Patients’ Discharge Compliance Instructions

 

Asmaa Diab Abdel Fattah Hassan1, Suzan Atteya Abd El-sayed1 and Mohamed Esam Taha Elkousy2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University,

2General Surgery Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University2

Assmaa.diab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Complications following surgical removal of the thyroid gland can often be life-threatening. The risk for these complications illustrates the importance of long-term follow-up of patients treated for thyroid disorders. Health education emphasizes the importance of following medical advice in order to improve adherence to treatment. Thus the aim of this study was to design an educational program to fit with thyroidectomy patients, and to evaluate the effect of a designed educational program on discharge compliance. The PRECEDE/PROCEED model was used as theoretical framework. Aquasi-experimental design was used. Sample recruited in the study was 60 adult male and female patients admitted to general surgical wards at El Manial University Hospital affiliated to Cairo University. Data were collected utilizing four tools; 1) Socio-demographic and Medical Data Sheet; 2) Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire, 3) Discharge Knowledge Questionnaire, and 4) Compliance Discharge Instructions. The study finding revealed that, there is a statistical significant improvement in discharge knowledge and compliance. Discharge compliance instructions including (Lifestyle and medication compliance) were gradually improved by time throughout the study period (3months) among the studied subjects (N=60). Conclusion: implementation of the designed educational program for thyroidectomy patients’ improved patient acquisition of knowledge and discharge compliance instructions. Application of such a designed program is highly recommended for thyroidectomy patients at general surgical wards to improve patients’ compliance and knowledge. Thus, this educational program could help in preventing complication, and re-hospitalization. Therefore, thyroidectomy patients’ outcome will be improved.

[Asmaa Diab Abdel Fattah Hassan, Suzan Atteya Abd El-Sayed and Mohamed Esam Taha Elkousy. Impact of a Designed Educational Program on Thyroidectomy Patients’ Discharge Compliance Instructions. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):237-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.32

 

Keywords: Thyroidectomy, Discharge, Knowledge, Compliance, Lifestyle, Educational, Program.

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Evaluation of the velvet revolutions in terms of being a revolution or not (Analysis of the velvet revolutions in comparison to the classical revolutions)

 

Morteza Ashrafi

 

PHD student in political science, Tajikistan Academy of Sciences, Tajikistan.

 

Abstract: If some common ideas about why the revolutions and also the velvet revolutions occur are taken into account, basic issues making a theory of revolution will be revealed. It can be said that the revolutions, whether classical revolutions or the velvet ones, are occurred due to economic crisis and poor conditions of people's livelihood, when governments are faced with an uncontrollable volume of problem, or when a foreign government is going to create crisis and foreclose the independence of local government. However, according to the material in this paper, although the velvet revolutions have some of the outward signs of common revolutions of the modern world, these movements cannot be named as "Revolution" because their internal features are completely different from the big revolutions of the world and everything else we know as a revolution.

[Morteza Ashrafi. Evaluation of the velvet revolutions in terms of being a revolution or not (Analysis of the velvet revolutions in comparison to the classical revolutions). J Am Sci 2012;8(11):250-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.33

 

Keywords: Revolution; The velvet revolution; Classical revolution; Power transfer; Political sciences

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Radiodensitometric Assessment Of Alveolar Cleft Grafting Using Two Different Softwares

 

* Nermeen H. Mohammed; ** Hany M. Omar

 

* Lecturer of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, OMFS Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University

** Ass.Professor of Oral Radiology, Oral Radiology Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University

Corresponding Author: sorournermeen@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: the aim of this study was to assess the bone healing after alveolar cleft grafting using IDRISI Kilimanjaro software versus direct intraoral digital radiographs (DIGORA). Materials and Methods: Ten alveolar clefts were grafted in nine patients (1 bilateral & 8 unilateral) of both sex (7 males & 2 females) with average age of 11.5 years at time of surgery. All alveolar clefts were grafted with autogenous bone graft harvested from mandibular symphysis. All alveolar clefts were radiographed using DIGORA immediate, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively, densitometric analysis was performed within alveolar clefts on DIGORA image at these 3 time intervals. Another radiodensitometric analysis was performed on the same radiographic image taken by DIGORA and on the same time intervals using new computer software called”IDRISI Kilimanjaro”. “Microstat 7” for windows statistical package, paired "t" test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis of the results. Results: Paired “t” test, revealed that there was a statistically significant increase in bone density of the grafted alveolar cleft after 12 months measured by both techniques indicating a high significant bone healing of alveolar clefts involved in this study. There was a very high positive correlation between bone density values measured by DIGORA and IDRISI techniques at all time intervals that indicate the reliability of IDRISI Kilimanjaro software for densitometric analysis of alveolar clefts Conclusion: IDRISI Kilimanjaro software is a valid and reliable alternative to DIGORA for radiodensitometric assessment of bone healing.

[Nermeen H. Mohammed; Hany M. Omar. Radiodensitometric Assessment Of Alveolar Cleft Grafting Using Two Different Softwares. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):253-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.34

 

Keywords: DIGORA, IDRISI Kilimanjaro, alveolar cleft grafting

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Treatment Outcome of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

 

Alaa Maria1; Mohamed El-Shebiney1; Emad Sadaka1 and Mohamed Ramadan2

 

1Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Consultant Internal Medicine, Tanta Cancer Center, Tanta, Egypt

alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To assess the outcome of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasias (GTN) after treatment, also to analysis the prognostic factors with respect to response to initial chemotherapy (CT) and survival rate. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Clinical Oncology Tanta University Hospital and Tanta Cancer Center from Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2008. The files of all diagnosed patients with GTN during the study period were reviewed regarding their history, clinical examination, investigations, treatment and follow-up. Results: During the study period there were 62 proved patients with GTN. Out of 62 patients, 35 (56.5%) patients treated with single agent initial CT, 27 (43.5%) patients treated with initial multi-agent CT. Suction curettage was applied for 55 (88.7%) patients while total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) was initially applied for 7 (11.3%) patients. Complete remission (CR) with first-line treatment was achieved in 74.2% of all patients. Complete remission had achieved in 86.5% (32/37) low risk patients and in 56% (14/25) of intermediate and high risk patients. Factors that significantly affecting the response rate were; pathologic type (p>0.001), disease stage (p<0.001), risk score (p<0.007), presence of metastases (p=0.001) and type of CT (p=0.018). The 5-year overall survival rate for all patients was 74.9 % with a mean survival time of 53.2 ± 28.3 months. With multivariable analysis, WHO scoring and disease stage were found to be independent prognostic factors for survival rate (p= 0.008 & 0.004 respectively). The recurrence rate was 11.3% with a median interval of relapse was 7 months (range, 4 to 32 months). Conclusion: It is important to individualize treatment for women with malignant GTN based upon known risk factors. WHO scoring and FIGO staging were found to be independent prognostic factors for survival rate. Although GTN was found to be a highly chemosensitive, a significant proportion of patients die of the disease, so more effective therapeutic protocols may be required in such patients to improve the survival rate.

[Alaa Maria; Mohamed El-Shebiney; Emad Sadaka and Mohamed Ramadan: Treatment outcome of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. J Am Sci 2012; 8(11):261-267]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.35

 

Key words: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, Invasive mole, Choriocarcinoma

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The historical research on the rights of child with an approach to the international documents

 

Esmail Ykhkshy Far

 

Department of law, Tajikistan Academy of Sciences, Tajikistan. Yakhkeshifar47@gmx.com

 

Abstract: The problem from exploitation of children and their sufferings caused that UN approved a declaration namely declaration on the rights of the child. Following this action, the international association of school psychology of Iran provided and approved a declaration on the mental rights of child. Now after 30 years of approval of that declaration on the rights of child and 10 years of approval of declaration on the mental rights of child, the countries of world practically and seriously haven’t proceed to maintain the rights of child. It obviously observed in the imposed war and slaughter of thousands Iraqi Kurds children. The present paper is a script to more introduction of covenant of the rights of child and brief description for the occurrences about that covenant.

[Esmail Ykhkshy Far. The historical research on the rights of child with an approach to the international documents. J Am Sci 2012;8(1):268-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.36

 

 Keywords: the rights of child covenant of the rights of child, Islam, UN.

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Effectiveness of using active learning strategy to achieve certain objectives of the physical education lesson for preparatory-stage students

 

 Ahmed Youssef Mohamed Ashour

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Curricula and teaching Methods, Faculty of Physical Education (Boys - Girls), University of Port Said. zyad_eyad_2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research aims to identify the effectiveness of using active learning strategy to achieve certain objectives of the physical education lesson for preparatory-stage students. The researcher used the experimental method and choose the research sample through the intentional, random method from first preparatory students of Port Fouad Preparatory School for the academic year 2009 / 2010. The research sample consisted of 50 students. The researcher achieved the scientific factors for the tests used, in which he used the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, median, skewness coefficient, correlation coefficient, coefficient of analysis of variance (eta squared) and t-test for a single group and for the two groups. The results showed: (1) The use of the technique of demonstration and presentation has a positive impact on the growth of the special physical qualities of basketball, the performance level of the basketball basic skills under research, and increase in the cognitive achievement of basketball. (2) Learning by using active learning strategy is more positive than learning using demonstration and presentation, on the development the special of physical qualities of basketball, basketball basic skills under discussion, and cognitive test of basketball. (3) Learning by using the active learning strategy has changed the roles of both teacher and student, leading to the positive participation of students in the educational process, and reflected on their motivation, leading to increase in their cognitive achievement, further development of the special physical qualities and of the performance level of the basketball-basic skills under discussion.

[Assistant Professor Ahmed Youssef Mohamed Ashour. Effectiveness of using active learning strategy to achieve certain objectives of the physical education lesson for preparatory-stage students. J Am Sci 2012;8(11): 272-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.37

 

Keywords: Teaching strategies, teaching styles and methods in physical education, active learning,the physical education lesson.

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An analysis on role of tourism service in the strategic development plans of Iran

 

Sima Hemmati

 

hemmatisima1@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Tourism and the related activities to it assigned in recent half a century, a significant place to own in the farthest parts of world, as many countries of world noticed features and powers of that industry in short-term, mid-term and long-term development programs considering it as one of the driving powers of economic growth and development of own urban and rural Settlements. So the special programs have been performed for related problems to tourism in Iran during rule of time governments. So in the present research with using the descriptive and analysis research method, tourism role in the strategic development plans of Iran was examined. As in this study has examined two main parts of these development programs before and after the revolution. The obtained results shows that in the development programs before the revolution mainly the problems related to the residential and hospitality premises have been considered and with reviewing these programs the quantity of the problems related to tourism i.e. construction of residential premises has been considered. But in development programs after the revolution from 1367 until now mainly the cultural, religious and historical tourism have been considered and hotel industry was unpopular and it hasn’t been considered as a needed industry of country especially in the economic structure collection, but it was meet as luxury goods. Consequently the heedlessly to tourism caused to face the hotel industry with stagnation. With existing of increasing the number of residential premises in country it wasn’t sufficient and it caused many problems and failures in management method of hotels with the high grade, also lack of support and sufficient protection of related organizations caused the crisis and calm in that industry.

[Sima Hemmati. An analysis on role of tourism service in the strategic development plans of Iran. J Am Sci 2012; 8(11):277-282]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.38

 

Keywords: Tourism, development programs, growth and development, Iran

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The role of natural, historical, and cultural places of Sistan in attracting tourists

 

Hamidreza Lashkari1, Seyed Ali Moosavi Nor2, Prof. Delavrav Rahmat Shah3

 

1 Pardis Motahari Zahedian of Farhangian, University. Zahedan. Iran; 2Hakim Ferdowsi of Farhangian University, karaj. Iran; 3Faculty Member and Director of Department of Geography of Tourism Planning in National University of Tajikistan. lashkari_tji@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Understanding the concept of sustainable development and the value of natural, historical, and cultural heritage has been raised in the issue of tourism in most countries. Tourism is primarily considered the activities in leisure time, in which the tourist desirably spends his/her purchasing power from the source to the destination. In other words, tourism, from an economic perspective, is a kind of purchasing power transfer from the source to the destination. On the other hand, from a social and cultural view, tourism is an effective factor in cultural exchange and consolidation of human bonds that encourages the national coherence in various regions of a country through domestic tourism and international bonds by foreign tourists. Iran, due to its privileged geographical position which is situated at the intersection of economic and cultural exchanges between the East and the West of the world and given its rich civilization and cultural legacies (Iran is among the top ten countries in the world in this regard), can improve and consolidate its position in tourism industry. Sistan and Baluchestan Province is located in the extreme southeast of Iran and is the entrance and exit gate of Iran to the Indian subcontinent, South-East Asia, and the southern coasts of the Oman Sea (both through land and sea). This province, with its ancient civilization and rich cultural heritage and also diverse climate, is considered one of the potential areas for tourism development. Sistan, as an independent region with a rich history and culture, has significant advantages in tourism industry compared with other parts of the province. Since many infrastructures of transport (Road, rail, air, and sea), facilities, tourism services, and tours are not available in this region or are at a low level, findings of the present study which are based on the documents of plans before and after the Islamic Revolution in Iran not only have proved the anonymity of Sistan as a tourism hub but also have emphasized on the necessity of special attention to this province and particularly Sistan region by planners and national and regional policy-makers.

[Hamidreza Lashkari, Seyed Ali Moosavi nor, Delavrav Rahmat Shah. The role of natural, historical and cultural places of Sistan in attracting tourists. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):283-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.39

 

Keywords: sustainable development; cultural heritage; Sistan attracting tourists

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Comparing student achievement in single and multi-grade classes

 

Moslem Pesarakloo

 

Shahid beheshti Farhangian University, Gonbad, Golestan, Iran; Postal code: 497194693

pesarakloom432@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims to deal with the definition of multi-grade classes, its history in Iran and the world, learning objectives of these classes, the causes of using these classes in Iran, teaching style in these classes considering the presence of special students, problems, limitations, and disadvantages of this type of classes, the need for this type of classes regarding the demographic situation, roles and responsibilities of teachers in these classes, and the goals of these classes.

[Moslem Pesarakloo. Comparing student achievement in single and multi-grade classes. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):289-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.40

 

Keywords: student achievement, multi-grade classes, single grade classes

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Evaluation of different phenotypic assays for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase production in carbapenem susceptible and resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates

 

Enas A. Daef1, Ismail S..Mohamed1, Ahmed S. Ahmed1, Nahla M Elsherbiny1, Ibrahim M. Sayed1.

 

1Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. nahlaelsherbiny@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the combined disc test and the double disc synergy test for MBL detection among imipenem sensitive and resistant A. baumanni strains, to study the co-resistance to other classes of antibiotics and to determine the prevalence of some antibiotic resistance determinants (bla OXA 51 like gene and class I integron) among these isolates. We isolated a total of 51 A. baumannii strains. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. For imipenem, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Epsilometer (E test). The isolates were tested for the presence of MBLs by the combined disc test (CDT) and the double disc synergy test (DDST). For all isolates, PCR was performed for the detection of the bla OXA-51-like and Class I integrase genes. The highest rates of resistance were against ciprofloxacin (64.7%), amoxacillin clavulanic acid (58.8%), amikacin (58.8%), ceftriaxone (56.9%) and chloramphenicol (52.9%). Lower rates of resistance were to imipenem (31.4%) and tetracyclines (25.5%). MBLs were detected in both imipenem sensitive and resistant A. baumannii isolates. The CDT had a sensitivity ranging from 92% to 100%, while the DDST had a sensitivity ranging from 86.2% to 100%. The bla OXA-51 like gene was detected in 96.1% and Class I integrase gene was detected in (72.5%) of A. baumannii strains. The later conferred significantly higher resistance rates to various antibiotics.

[Enas A. Daef, Ismail S..Mohamed, Ahmed S. Ahmed, Nahla M Elsherbiny, Ibrahim M. Sayed. Evaluation of different phenotypic assays for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase production in carbapenem susceptible and resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):292-299]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.41

 

Keywords: A. baumanii, Metallo beta lactamase, phenotypic methods.

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Determination of the Best Method for the Extension of Discharge Rating Curve in order to Estimate the corresponding Discharges with Maximum Stages 

 

Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi1, Mohammad Ozhan2 

 

1- Department of water engineering, Lorestan University, Iran (corresponding author)

2-MS.c graduate student in watershed management, Khorramabad, Iran

haghiabi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Direct discharge measurement in rivers costly and time-consuming, and at times, impossible under flood conditions. Therefore, the discharge-stage relation, known as Discharge Rating Curve is used. Moreover, to design hydraulical constituents, the maximum flood discharge and its maximum height are required. Therefore, to calculate the flood discharges, one should extend the discharge rating curve by using appropriate methods. In this study, in order to determine the best method for the extension of discharge-stage curve, and in order to estimate the corresponding discharge with high stages, the logarithmic method, the Manning method, the Chezy method, and the Area-Velocity method were compared and contrasted. In order to verify the methods, 13 hydrometric stations were selected at the Karkheh Area Water Management in Lorestan province. Data measured at each station were gathered for a ten-year statistical period. Results showed that the logarithmic method was more accurate than other methods, and that it was more appropriate for the extension of the curve at the average or lower average discharge stations. The Area-Velocity method, after the logarithmic method especially at the stations with higher average discharge, showed good results. The Manning and Chezy methods showed the least accuracy.

[Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi, Mohammad Ozhan. Determination of the Best Method for the Extension of Discharge Rating Curve in order to Estimate the corresponding Discharges with Maximum Stages J Am Sci 2012;8(11):300-305]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.42

 

Key Words: Discharge-stage relation, Discharge Rating Curve, curve extension, Lorestan, Iran.

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Kurdish imitations of Nizami’s Quintet

 

Siavash Morshedi, Dr. Aliasghar Halabi

 

Abstract: Kurdish poets composed imitative poems of Nizami’s mathnavis (quintet). They paid attention to Khosrow & Shirin more than other Nizam’s works; so that between 11 imitations that are introduced in this article, 6 items are considered imitation of Nizami’s Shirin & Khosrow. These Kurdish poets, more than being impressed by Nizami’s works, have been impressed by oral and written resources. In this article we deal with these imitative poetries and in some cases deal with items of differences. Kurdish poets paid attention to Shirin & Khosrow more than other Nizami’s mathnavis; as Leyli & Majnun, Eskandarname (story of Alexander) and the other imitative Nizami’s poems are scarce; whereas poetries of Khosrow & Shirin (Shirn & Farhad) either published copies or the manuscripts remained in Iran or other countries libraries. On the other hand, most of these imitative Kurdish poems that are introduced in this article – except Mem & Zin which it’s poet didn’t adapted story of Nizami’s works and Saghināme of Ahmad Khani – are composed in syllabic meters (non-prosodic meters).

[Siavash Morshedi, Aliasghar Halabi. Kurdish imitations of Nizami’s Quintet. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):306-311]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.43

 

Keywords: Nizami, quintet, Kurdish poem. Imitative poems, Khosrow & Shirin

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Effect of Shortenings on Qualitative Properties of Typical Iranian Flour and Dough

 

Behrooz Pirayeshfar1*, Aram I. Nazaryan2, Flora Farrokhi3

 

1Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Iran

2Armenian State Agrarian University, Armenia

3Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding authorۥ s email: spadfze@rakfzbc.ae

 

Abstract: In the present study, the effect of treating Star, Branless and Whole Wheat flours by different shortenings including FRYINGOL, MARGARIN, BUTTER, HYDROOL and OLIVEOL in different levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%) on qualitative and rheological properties of the obtained dough were investigated. The results indicate that shortenings led to strengthening gluten formation. Shortenings in low amounts increased STABT, ARVT and PROT in all flour treatments. MARGARIN was found as the only one increased GLUTINDX. FRYINGOL and MARGARIN led to WA increase in all flour treatments. Strengthening gluten network and consequently increasing DGLUT, WGLUT, PROT, MAXR, EXT, E, PT and STABT by adding BUTTER and MARGARIN, resulted to find them as the best suitable shortenings for the Star, Branless and Whole Wheat commercial flours.

[Behrooz Pirayeshfar, Aram I. Nazaryan, Flora Farrokhi. Effect of Shortenings on Qualitative Properties of Typical Iranian Flour and Dough. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):312-316]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.44

 

Keywords: Shortening; Qualitative; Iranian; Flour; Dough

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Effect of Olive Oil Supplementation on PAI-1 Expression in Old Rats

 

Manal L Louka1*, Haidy Z Habib1, Magda H M Youssef 2, Noha A H Nassef 2

 

1 Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

manal_louka71@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Background: Although Mediterranean diet has grown worldwide due to its link with lower cardiovascular disease rate and greater longevity, the effect of olive oil, which is the principal component of Mediterranean diet, on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations in aged rats is not clear. This study was performed on 28aged male Wistar albino rats allocated into 2 groups: 1- Olive oil-treated group (14rats), 2- Control group (14 rats). Results: Using Real Time-PCR, the expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the retroperitoneal adipose tissues was decreased significantly in the olive oil treated group versus the control group (32.36% ± 15.97 versus 100% ± 6.04 respectively, p< 0.01). In parallel, the plasma concentrations of PAI-1 were reduced significantly in the olive oil treated group versus the control group (3.14 ± 1.07 versus 7.16 ± 0.76 respectively, p<0.01). Olive oil produced significant decrease in mean serum cholesterol in aged rats (76.32 ± 9.18 mg/dl in the treated group versus 84.03 ± 7.15 mg/dl in the control group, P<0.05) and triglycerides (40.73 ± 12.52 mg/dl in the treated group versus 61.17 ± 5.52 mg/dl in the control group, P<0.01). No significant difference was seen in mean serum LDL-cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol levels between both groups (31.06 ± 4.88 and 36.5 ± 5.61 mg/dl in the treated group versus 32.24 ± 2.07 and 36.57 ± 5.07 mg/dl in the control group respectively). As regards the BMI, no change was observed after olive oil intake. Conclusion: Our results indicate that olive oil intake may reduce the cardiovascular risk in old age via decreasing PAI-1 at level of gene expression.

[Manal L Louka, Haidy Z Habib, Magda H M Youssef, Noha A H Nassef. Effect of Olive Oil Supplementation on PAI-1 Expression in Old Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):317-321]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.45

 

Keywords:PAI-1, olive oil, aging, lipid profile.

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An Overview the relationship between anxiety and depression and the emergence of social deviance among students

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During the different period, people with antisocial personality disorder is defined as many titles by researchers and experts, but the symptoms of this disorder remains as featured the same. Origins of antisocial personality disorder and social deviance is in childhood, means when the symptoms may be seem in actions such as, away from school, constantly lying, robberies and fights. This practice often continues into adulthood. Antisocial personality disorder is first recognized disorder. This disorder is characterized by continuously antisocial and criminal acts, but is not criminality equivalent and is inability to adapt to social norms. Actions such as: behaviors such as aggression to people and their property, failure to pay the debts and financial obligations, criminality and committing acts unlike ethics and law. Antisocial personality disorder including anti-social features, such as no sense of shame or regret, failure to learn from past experiences, weakness and failure in the emotion and excitement, stay away from others, anxiety and stress and asthma. Antisocial personality disorder is 2 to 3 percent, and in male is four times more than women. Antisocial personality disorder is a long-lasting and durable. Four potential sources considered for this disorder, which include: 1- family and social context; 2 learning disorders; 3 – genetics; 4 - bad performance physiology of the central nervous system.

[Shahsavari M. An Overview the relationship between anxiety and depression and the emergence of social deviance among students. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):322-324]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.46

 

Keywords: Anxiety, depression, social, deviance, students

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The effect of anxiety and depression on social distortions in high school students: A case study in Aligoudarz, Iran

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between depression and social deviations between male and female students and whether social deviations and anti moral laws can cause depression and withdrawal from others, and whether depression and social deviations is difference between boys and girls. In the present study methods was scientific-comparison to find the possible cause of a behavior pattern. Thus, the subjects with the studied behavior are compared with the subjects that this behavior is not observed in whom. Statistical population in this study was 480 male and female students (220 subjects were female and 260 subjects were male). 50 individuals were selected randomly as the sample size of statistical population, and sampling method was a stratified. Measuring instrument in this study was Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Independent variables, such as t-tests, and Pearson's correlation coefficient formula were used to testing research hypothesis and the relationship between depression and social deviations. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between depression and social deviations (Table 1). Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.615. Also tc (4.461) was larger than tt (4.461); so we can say that research hypothesis is confirmed, and we can conclude That there is a significant relationship between depression and social deviations (α = 0.05). Consequently that personality trait such as depression can be involved on social deviance. Moreover there was no significant difference between male and female high school students in terms of social deviance. Also there was no a significant difference between personality characteristics of high school male and female students.

[Shahsavari M. The effect of anxiety and depression on social distortions in high school students: A case study in Aligoudarz, Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):325-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.47

 

Keywords: Depression, social deviations, personality, students, behavior

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Relationship between anxiety and achievement motivation among male and female students

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There is widening divisions between human adaptation and advancement industry, which eventually leads to anxiety. Anxiety is refers to a reaction against a threatening situation. Anxiety has a major role in psychological trauma. Achievement motivation is an inner motivation in person for successful completion of a task, to achieve a goal, or achieve a certain degree of competence in a work. In general, the purpose of anxiety is an unpleasant sensation. Anxiety can cause symptoms which include worry, hot flashes of heat, in some cases, irregular breathing, feel a headache, sudden fear, palpitation, sleep disorders, etc. Most students actually suffer from test anxiety. Test anxiety is a form of preoccupation that is characterized by consciousness itself incredulity and inferiority. Diagnosis and treatment of anxiety in children and adolescents is very important, because their personalities take shape during this period. Anxiety and fear have closely associated with each other. Motivation is probably one of the most common and widespread of psychological concepts. Application of motivation theories is combined with other disciplines such as learning, personality, and behavior and job satisfaction of employees.

[Shahsavari M. Relationship between anxiety and achievement motivation among male and female students. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):329-332]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.48

 

Keywords: Anxiety, students, achievement, motivation, personality

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Prevalence of Escherichia albertii and Other Escherichia species in Raw Milk and Some Dairy Products in Assiut City, Egypt

 

Nagah M. Saad, Mohammed S. Sabreen, Wallaa F. Amin and Mira K. Gendi

 

Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

wallaa_800@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To determine the incidence of Escherichia albertii and other Escherichia species in raw milk and some dairy products in Assiut city, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 random samples of raw milk, Damietta cheese, kareish cheese and cooking butter, (30 samples each) were collected from different localities in Assiut city, Egypt. Two media Hugh and Leifson agar (H&L) and Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (E.M.B.) were used for isolation of Escherichia spp. The strains were biochemically characterized. Latex agglutination test was performed on Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed on Escherichia albertii (E. albertii) strains that were biochemically identified. Results: The incidence of Escherichia spp. was 70% on H&L medium and 59.17% on E.M.B. medium. The strains were divided into 6 species; E. coli, Escherichia (E. fergusonii), Escherichia vulneris (E. vulneris), Escherichia hermanni(E. hermanni), Escherichia blattae (E. blattae) & Escherichia albertii(E. albertii E.albertii was isolated in an incidence of 0.83% on each medium. Three strains of E.coli were positive for E. coli O157:H7 by Latex agglutination test. One of the tested E. albertii strains was confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Considering the fact that Escherichia species contribute to the burden of food borne illness, and since its presence in milk & milk products could be attributed to their contamination during milking, handling or processing, more hygienic measures should be applied to improve the quality of the produced milk & milk products to ensure maximum safety to consumers.

 [Nagah M. Saad, Mohammed S. Sabreen, Wallaa F. Amin and Mira K. Gendi. Prevalence of Escherichia albertii and Other Escherichia species in Raw Milk and Some Dairy Products in Assiut City, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):333-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.49

 

Key words: Raw milk, dairy products, Escherichia albertii, Latex agglutination, PCR

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Examines the impact of various issues of education on students’ creativity in Aligoudarz

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, the main goal of education system is training of dynamic and creative people. The present study was conducted to investigate education issues on the creativity. The research method was correlated and statistical population was all segments and community of the city Aligoudarz on 2011. The study sample was 100 students, who were selected by cluster sampling between the organizations and public schools of Aligoudarz city, and were tested According to raised purpose and hypotheses. Research hypothesis was that, styles of creativity, social support and education issues had relationship with creativity and education issues. Used tools in this study were creativity questionnaire, social support inventory (SSI). Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis were used for data analysis. Findings of this study by using SPSS-15 software showed that, there was a significant relationship between creativity style and education problem. Moreover there was a significant relationship between social support in the family support and creativity and education issues. Also there was a significant relationship between innovation and brightest talent and education issues.

[Shahsavari M. Examines the impact of various issues of education on students’ creativity in Aligoudarz. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):342-344]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.50

 

Keywords: Education, creativity, social support, student

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51

Divorce comparison in traditional marriage and modern marriage

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Divorce is considered among the most important and most social damage. The word of divorce means release and separation of marriage and the marriage bond, and is terminating the marriage and is a phenomenon that caused ability to disrupt marital ties. Personal relationships with others, includes: individuals, groups and institutions are ingredients implementation of life. Only the living can have many components, but usually only a few of them, which are associated with marriage, family and career, are vital for life. The reports indicate that early adulthood (young), is the most of the energy in their favor, conflict and stress. Physical separation is different from the actual subtraction (That is due to the cessation of cohabitation), and must be done by court order also couples living separated without divorce without duties in common life. Adolescence and young thinks to marriage as a target, with diverse experience, growing relationship with the social environment, development dimensions of intellectual, understanding many aspects and reality of life, considering the material and spiritual, depending on their character and with influence of family life. Today the kind of marriages among youth can have an influence on the prevalence of divorce and lack of understanding between couples.

[Shahsavari M. Divorce comparison in traditional marriage and modern marriage. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):345-348]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.51

 

Keywords: Adolescence, divorce, marriages, social, family

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Effect of different type of marriage (traditional and modern marriage) on the amount of divorce

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare divorce among the couples with traditional and modern marriage. Research hypothesis was the incidence of divorce is different between couples that have traditional marriage and the couples that have modern marriage. In this study, 80 subjects were selected; that sample selection was through the probability sampling method. The divorce test was carried out on them. Independent t tests were used for statistical assumptions. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the prevalence of divorce between couples that have traditional marriage and the couples that have modern marriage. In other words, the prevalence of divorce in couples who were married in as the traditional was more than the couples that have modern marriage.

[Shahsavari M. Effect of different type of marriage (traditional and modern marriage) on the amount of divorce. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):349-351]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.52

 

Keywords: Divorce, marriage, traditional, modern, couples

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Evaluation of teacher knowledge with teaching patterns and its application in the teaching process

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Select the teaching model is one of the important steps in instructional design. In today's sophisticated world, must rely on the education system for training specialists and experienced. This is the greatest art of teachers that provide the conditions that brains and hands of students will work together, and make them engage with science content; rather than rely solely on data and information transfer. Because development of students with accumulated minds of information and hands without any technical skills is not too difficult work. In the process of new teaching transfer of knowledge and concepts has less performance, and more attention is to the process of knowledge production. This process provides ability to identify opportunities, selection suitable solutions, understanding and careful analysis of the issue, and finally discovers the truth for learners. Many factors influence the quality of teacher education, including: Teacher personality, his areas of scientific and practical, background and social and family relationships of students, academic background and personal characteristics of students, the importance of the subject matter, rules and regulations of educational system and In general, communities that teacher and student live in it. Deductive thought process is as follows: Problematise by the teacher; the issue explained by pervasive; group discussion; analysis of the discussions, and extraction of common points; conclusions and provide the clearest answers to the question.

[Shahsavari M. Evaluation of teacher knowledge with teaching patterns and its application in the teaching process. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):352-355]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.53

 

Keywords: Teacher, deductive thought, teaching, students, education

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The effect of music on human behavioral characteristics and music therapy

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was investigated the effect of music on human behavioral characteristics. History of using music as a method of treatment returns to the time of Aristotle and Plato. Music is the art of expressing emotions by sound, and music therapy is a string that uses of music to treatment and rehabilitation of physical and mental disorders. Application of music is inevitable for understand the health and beauty of life. Musician can be very influential if understand the mood of the listener. Type of music therapy programs and activities are depends on the types of discomfort, defects, and disease problems. Another definition, the therapist has planned according to referred discomfort. A rhythmic program that helps to control movement is considered for children with motion problems. Dynamic rhythms are considered for motion problems and muscle contraction, and rhythm and gentle music is considered for involuntary movements. Overall, activities of music therapy are established based on multi-core generally which are: Listening, playing, making music, reading, talk about the music, musical movement, musical view and making style with music. As a result, training of School children is better with music; moreover music increases immune cells and their balance. Music is effective on individuals’ emotional contexts such as happiness, sadness, love, hate. Application of music therapy is for those who are health impaired.

[Shahsavari M. The effect of music on human behavioral characteristics and music therapy. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):356-359]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.54

 

Keywords: Music, therapy, listening, rhythmic, health

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Benefits of Hijab and its history in Islam

 

Fatemeh Shahsavari 1, Mahmood Shahsavari 2

 

1. Aligoudarz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aligoudarz, Iran

2. Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Provide appropriate coverage for their organs, is one of the privileges of man, in comparison with other organisms. Based on researches, since the beginning of human development, Men and women have tried to provide proper coverage. Accordingly, the getting dressed is one of dignity and human features. The issue of dress and veil for women is a historical fact that had a song and color in each time, and everyone has reviewed it with their own view. Clothing, in addition to protecting people from cold, heat, rain and snow, plays an important role in maintaining modesty and shame, the symmetry and beauty of the human. Clothing can also indicative believe tendency in individual and his allocated to specific cultural. Holy Quran knows clothes as God's grace and gift, and refers to its various applications, and stated: Heigh children of Adam, I sent raiment for you to cover your extremities and to decorate you, and virtue clothing is better. This is of God revelations for remember and mentioned. Hijab means covering the female body in front of non-confidant, and is essential religious commandments of Islam. In other religions, including Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity, this rule is with some differences. Some authors have suggested that Islamic covering is result of cultural interaction between Arabs and Persians and Romans. In general, the difference between men and women clothing have a direct relationship with their physical and psychological differences. Islam looks at a woman with respect and dignity; therefore veil is guarantee between man and woman, that those two survivals are the most important of its effects.

[Shahsavari F. Shahsavari M. Benefits of Hijab and its history in Islam. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):360-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.55

 

Keywords: Hijab, Islam, covering, clothing, women

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Analytical Assessment of Parsian bank customers' satisfaction levels of service quality using Servqual model

 

Hassan Darvish[1], Parizad Tilekoo2

 

[1]- Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN,
E-mail:dr.darvish43@yahoo.com
2-Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN,
E-mail: tilekoo88@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is investigating the relation between levels of services quality and customers’ satisfaction. Population of this study includes customers of Parsian Bank. In this study, it has been used Servqual model for evaluating the customers’ satisfaction levels and for data analysis; there has been used Parametric T test. Results indicated that there is a significant difference between dimensions of study variables (i.e. tangible and physical dimensions, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and concordance) in the perceptual level and expectations.

J Am Sci 2012;8(11):364-369]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.56

 

Keywords: Validity, Assurance, Tangible, Empathy, Responsiveness

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Effect of Number of Fibres per Yarn Cross-section on Moisture Vapour Transport in Knitted Garment

 

Nahla Abd El - Mohsen Hassan Ahmed 1 and Ghada Abd Alla El- Kholy2

 

Departments of 1Spinning, Weaving and Knitting and 2Apparel Design and Technology, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo – Egypt. nahla_a_m@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: With increasing demand for garment comfort, many studies have focused on the comfort properties of the fabrics. Comfort here refers to the psychological comfort such as the moisture vapor transport rate (MVTR). For wearer comfort, this sweat should be transported away from the skin surface, in the form of liquid or vapour, so that the fabric touching the skin feels dry. The rate at which water vapor moves through a fabric plays an important role in determining the comfort as it influences the human perception and the cool/warmth feeling. The study reported in this paper focuses on the effect of number of fibres per yarn cross-section on moisture vapour transport in MVTR. Two different samples with different number of fibres and the same linear density were knitted. Samples were produced with the same machine and loop-length to obtain the same fabrics specification. Results indicate that there is a relationship between MVTR and number of fibres per yarn cross section. Water vapour permeability increases with the lower of number of fibres per yarn cross section with the same linear density. Spaces between the fibres per yarn cross section had the greatest effect in increasing the rate of moisture vapour transportation. However this result has to be followed up with a thorough study. This study, for the first time has attempted to link effects on the number of fibres per yarn cross section and MVTR.

[Nahla Abd El-Mohsen Hassan Ahmed and Ghada Abd Alla El- Kholy. Effect of Number of Fibres per Yarn Cross-section on Moisture Vapour Transport in Knitted Garment. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):370-378]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.57

 

Key words: Moisture Vapour Transport – Knitted Fabric – Cloth comfort - Cup Method

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The Impact of Sparkling Mechanism on Improving Oil Recovery in Nano-Particle Injection through Pseudo-3-Dimensional Micromodels

 

Ali Heydarian 1, Riyaz Kharrat 1, Abdolnabi Hashemi 1

 

1 Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran. heydarian.put@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nano-materials and nano-particles are used in oilfields to enhance injection processes by changing wettability of porous media, increasing the viscosity of injecting fluid, decreasing the interfacial tension between injection fluid and reservoir fluid. Light alcohol-based nano-fluid slugs (here neutrally wettable nano-silicon) decrease the underriding of injection fluid and improve the vertical sweep efficiency. In addition, small size of nano-particles makes it possible to push the oil in the small pores that remain unrecoverable in polymer injection (named Inaccessible Pore Volumes). Despite of continuous fluid bulks, there is another advantage about dispersed particles; dispersed particles can hit the porous media wall and remove the oil on the wall. This mechanism that is here called "Sparkling Mechanism" significantly improves the oil recovery factor in comparison with the same viscosity polymeric fluid through "Pseudo-3-Dimensional" glass micromodels which are using innovatively in this work.

[Heydarian A, Kharrat R, Hashemi A. The Impact of Sparkling Mechanism on Improving Oil Recovery in Nano-Particle Injection through Pseudo-3-Dimensional Micromodels. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):379-384]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.58

 

Keywords: Sparkling mechanism, nano-particle, underriding, inaccessible pore volume, pseudo-3-dimensional micromodel

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Emotional Intelligence: A Key for Nurses' Performance

 

Manal Mohamed Bakr and Sanaa M. Safaan

 

Nursing Administration Department, College of Nursing, Menoufiya University

dc_manal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, emotional intelligence (EI) is probed as an important characteristic for building successful nursing leadership, enhancing nursing performance and reducing nurse burnout. In nursing profession nurse-patient interaction is the pulse of the nursing practice. This interaction is not just conversation. It is a complex process that involves nurse perception, understanding of the patient emotions and utilization of the perceptions to manage patient situations towards the goal of effective patient care. Nurses with higher EI contribute to a higher-performing and more harmonious workplace. The aim of the study: is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence & Job performance among the nurses. Material and methods: this study was conducted at Shebin Elkom University Hospital a convenience sample of 143 staff nurses and total number of nurse mangers (20) were recruited from Shebin El Kom University Hospital working in different units and departments, at least having two years of experience. Two tools were used: first tool, structured questionnaire sheet developed by the researchers to assess nurses emotional intelligence and second tool, job performance questionnaire to determine their level of job performance. Results: the main findings of this study revealed that: there is a statistical significant between overall score of job performance & emotional intelligence. The total score of the emotional intelligence of studied nurses were low level, with a mean115.2 ranging 64- 178 while the total score of job performance of studied nurses were a moderate level with a mean 145.8 ranging between 69-199. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a positive correlation between overall score of job performance & emotional intelligence. Recommendations: several recommendations have been drown in nursing practice, nursing education and nursing research. Emotional intelligence based training program must be held and focus on up to date knowledge, relevant skills and good moral values for nurses and nurse mangers. Educational preparation of nurses by incorporating emotional intelligence lessons into the nursing curricula for graduate and undergraduate, and further nursing research is needed to explore the model of emotional intelligence which is most appropriate for nursing practices.

 [Manal Mohamed Bakr and Sanaa M. Safaan. Emotional Intelligence: A Key for Nurses' Performance. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):385-393]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.59

 

Key words: Emotional Intelligence (EI), Nursing Performance

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Prevalence of Colonic Polyps among Egyptians, Retrospective Study

 

Ahmed I. El-Badry1, Mohamed Naguib Abdalla1, Wael M. Aref1, Mohamed H. Kamel2, Elia A. Ishak3

and Beshoy S.H. Farah4

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

3Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

4Tropical Medicine Department, National Liver Institute, Cairo, Egypt

mnwifi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: the development from premalignant adenoma to invasive cancer is a long term, multiple-step process, which makes the disease preventable. Our aim is studying the prevalence of colorectal polyps and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in the Egyptian population and their distribution throughout the colon. Patients and methods: a retrospective review of the lower GIT endoscopy performed for 2613 patients attended to the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. Results: showed that the number of polyps is greater in the left side of colon (n=234) than that of the right side (n=101) and this difference is statistically significant with p-value=0.0001. However, malignant polyps were significantly higher in number in the right side of colon (27.7%) versus (12.4%) in the left side with p-value=0.0006. A statistical significance was also found between polyps and age, family history and smoking. In our study the commonest site for colonic polyps was in the rectosigmoid region while the prevalence of the malignant polyps was higher proximal to the splenic flexure. Conclusion: Full endoscopic examination of the colon is recommended in the colorectal cancers screening.

 [Ahmed I. El-Badry, Mohamed Naguib, Wael M. Aref, Mohamed H. Kamel, Elia A. Ishak and Beshoy S.H. Farah. Prevalence of Colonic Polyps among Egyptians, Retrospective Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):394-396]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.60

 

Keywords: Polyps, adenocarcinoma, left sided colon, right sided colon

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Nurses’ Knowledge and Practices regarding Enteral Nutrition at the Critical Care Department of Al- Manial University Hospital in Egypt: Impact of a Designed Instructional Program.

 

*1Mahmoud A. Shahin, 2Warda Yousef Mohamed and 2Manal Sayed

 

1Faculty of Nursing, Al-Isra University, Amman, Jordan

2Critical Care &Emergency Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

mahmood81us@yahoo.com; dr.wardayoussef@yahoo.com; manalsayed20@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Patients in the critical care setting are at high risk of malnutrition due to the nature of their illness, stressors and their hyper-metabolic state. Enteral nutrition is the preferred route of nutrient administration in critically ill patient. Compared with total parenteral nutrition; the enteral route is safer, more physiologic and less expensive. As the nursing role in tube insertion, enteral feeding delivery and care is crucial, the nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding enteral nutrition will affect the patient clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a designed instructional program on the nurses’ knowledge and practices regarding enteral nutrition in the critical care department of Al-Manial University Hospital. A quasi-experimental (time series) design was used in the current study. A convenient sample of 85 nurses representing approximately all practitioner nurses at the critical care department at Al-Manial University Hospital. Data were obtained through three main tools; knowledge assessment questionnaire with the socio-demographic data sheet, observational checklist and session evaluation form. The instructional program was designed based on an extensive revision of the related materials, recent medical textbooks, studies and literature. Method; The instructional program was conducted over 21 repeated lectures during different working shifts in an average of 6 sessions per week for one month, 90 minutes each.; lectures included watching some educational videos for the practical skills related to enteral nutrition. Results revealed that the designed instructional program was having an effective, sustainable impact on improving nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding enteral nutrition in the critical care department. The study concluded that nurses had lack of knowledge and some unsafe practices regarding enteral feeding in the critical care department, however, the instructional program showed a positive impact in improving nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding enteral nutrition in the critical care department. The study recommended establishing a written updated protocol of enteral nutrition to ensure enough knowledge, unified and safe nursing practice; it’s recommended to implement this study on other hospitals in Cairo and Egypt. Moreover, the implementation of continuous education programs regarding enteral nutrition can play a part in supporting clinical practice.

 [Mahmoud A. Shahin, Warda Yousef Mohamed and Manal Sayed. Nurses’ Knowledge and Practices regarding Enteral Nutrition at the Critical Care Department of Al- Manial University Hospital in Egypt: Impact of a Designed Instructional Program. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):397-405]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.61

 

Key words: Designed Instructional Program, Nurses' Knowledge, Nurses' Practice, Enteral Nutrition (EN)

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Compatibility of Hospitals with the Principles of Sustainable Architecture (Case Study: Tabriz)

 

*Niousha Behmanesh Rad1, Bahram Vaziri Farhany2, Mohamad reza Khakzad3

 

1&2&3 Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

*Corresponding Author Email: Nioosha_b@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The utilization of sustainable architecture for hospitals is of utmost importance because they are regarded as one of the greatest pollutants of the urban areas. The excess of energy use and the incompatibility of structures with the environment, has made the need to the sustainable architecture in to a great challenge. Sustainable architecture has a high position among the experts. The aim of this study is to examine how hospitals in Tabriz are compatible with the sustainable architecture. This study has made use of descriptive and then analytic method. The sources and data in this research has been compiled according to the reliable sources and documentations as well as expert’s opinions. Sustainable architecture tries to minimize the building impacts on environment, and emphasizes on the three principles of water, energy and materials.

[Niousha Behmanesh Rad, Bahram Vaziri Farhany, Mohamad reza Khakzad. Compatibility of Hospitals with the Principles of Sustainable Architecture (Case Study: Tabriz). J Am Sci 2012;8(11):406-410]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.62

 

Keywords: architecture, sustainable architecture, hospital, Tabriz

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Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Salvia officinalis L. (Sage) Infusion on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Hala A.H. Khattab; Reham A. Mohamed and Jamilah M Hashemi

 

Home Economic Dept., Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University

haya_khattab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is reported to have a wide range of biological activities and possess hypoglycemic effects in diabetic animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible curative role of sage using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The animals were rendered diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 50 mg/kg STZ. Blood samples were obtained from retro-orbital sinus after four weeks from oral administration of sage tea. The results showed that i.p. injection with STZ induced very highly significant elevation in blood glucose concentration as compared with control group. Diabetic rats also revealed highly significant elevation in lipid peroxide (MDA) level, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concurrent with highly significant reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared with control group. Injection of sage tea had no effect on normal rats. Meanwhile, treatment with sage to diabetic rats induced significant improvement in all tested parameters, it reduced significantly blood glucose and MDA levels, as well as induced significantly amelioration in lipid profile parameters as compared with non treated diabetic group. Therefore, it could be concluded that sage had a potent hypoglycemic activity, this effect may be attributed to its antioxidant activities.

[Hala A.H. Khattab, Reham A. Mohamed and Jamilah M Hashemi. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Salvia officinalis L. (Sage) Infusion on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):406-410]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.63

 

Key words: Salvia officinalis (sage), diabetic rats, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA).

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Effect of Smoking on Serum Amylase and Lipase Enzymes

 

Nourane Y. Azab1, Alaa Dawood2

 

1Chest and 2Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Minoufiya University, Egypt

nourane-azab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for the induction of pancreatic diseases and is suspected to play a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome. It has been demonstrated that nicotine may also alter normal exocrine pancreatic function. However, these changes have not been fully elucidated. Aim of the work: To assess the effect of smoking on serum amylase and lipase as markers of exocrine pancreatic function. Methods: Fifty smokers and 20 age matched non smokers were compared as regards the level of serum amylase and lipase. There was18 mild, 11 moderate and 21 heavy smokers. Then, non smokers and mild smokers were compared to moderate and heavy smokers as regards the level of the same enzymes. Results: Both serum amylase and lipase were significantly decreased in smokers than non smokers (p=0.002 and 0.000, respectively). There was a significant difference between mild smokers and both moderate and heavy smokers as regards the same enzymes and a significant negative correlation between Pack. Year index and their levels. Conclusions: Low serum amylase levels may reflect impaired exocrine-endocrine relationship in the pancreas. Lipase level decreased (undiscriminating its different types), with a net result of dyslipidaemia.

[Nourane Y. Azab and Alaa Dawood. Effect of Smoking on Serum Amylase and Lipase Enzymes. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):406-410]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.64

 

Key words: Smoking, Lipase, Amylase.

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Comparative Study between Submuscular Biological Fixation and Open Reduction Intenal Fixation for Comminuted Subtrochanteric Fracture Femur in Adults Using Dynamic Condylar Screw

 

1 Mohamed Gamal, 2Ahmed Hashem Amin and 2Omar Kelany

 

1Orthopedic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Orthopedic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

hashmdr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term results of two groups of patients with comminuted subtrochanteric fractures of the femur treated with dynamic condylar screw (DCS) by two different techniques either submuscular biological technique or open surgical technique. Patients and methods: Between January 2007 to March 2011, thirty patients with comminuted subtrochanteric fractures of the femur were treated with dynamic condylar screw (DCS) by two different techniques either submuscular biological or open surgical technique. Group I included 14 patients operated with biological submuscular internal fixation with DCS plate and screws. Group II consisted of 16 patients operated with open reduction internal fixation with (DCS) plate and screws. There were 27 men and 3 women with the average age thirty seven and half years (range: 17- 58 years) for group I and forty one years (range: 20-62 years) for group II. The mean follow-up period was 2.5 years (range: 1.2 - 5 years) for both groups. Results: The average operating time was 84 minutes (range: 55-120 minutes) for group I and 135 minutes (range: 90-180 minutes) for group II. The average blood loss was 250 ml (range: 100 - 500 ml) for group I and 525 ml (range: 250 - 800 ml) for group II. The average hospital stay was 8.5 days (range: 5 to 14 days) for group I and 14 days (range: 7 to 21 days) for group II. Implant failure was not observed and union was achieved in all patients, except one female patient from group I needed bone graft after 9 months from the first operation. Leg shortening was the commonest complication encountered, occurring in 3 (21.4%) patients in group I, average 1 cm and none in group II. Superficial wound infection occurred in 3 patients (18.8%) in group II and was rapidly controlled by repeated dressings and broad spectrum antibiotics and none in group I. No deep infection was observed in both groups. No deep vein thrombosis occurred in our patients. There was no significant varus/valgus malunion and no patient had significant rotational mal-alignment as determined by clinical examination. Conclusion: According to our results, no superiority of either technique was demonstrated with respect to fracture union time and functional results. Submuscular biological plating had superiority regarding the hospital stay, average operative time and intraoperative blood loss.

[Mohamed Gamal, Ahmed Hashem Amin and Omar Kelany. Comparative Study between Submuscular Biological Fixation and Open Reduction Intenal Fixation for Comminuted Subtrochanteric Fracture Femur in Adults Using Dynamic Condylar Screw. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):421-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.65

 

Keywords: Subtrochanteric fracture, biologic fixation, dynamic condylar screw.

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Impact of Ascorbic Acid Adjuvant Therapy on CD117 (C-Kit Gene) Expression and Apoptosis in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Egyptian Single Centre Analysis

 

Inas A Asfour ¹, Shaza A.A.Elkourashy ¹, Maryse S.Ayoub ¹, Samar Refaat ¹, Soha R. Youssef ² and Walaa A. Salakawy ¹

 

¹Clinical Hematology, Internal Medicine Department, ²Clinical Laboratory and Pathology Department Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. (maryseayoub@hotmail.com)

 

Abstract: Background: It has been established that growth of leukemic progenitor cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be profoundly modulated by L Ascorbic Acid (AA). CD117 (c-kit gene) is a receptor tyrosine kinase and its expression is important in the pathogenesis of AML. In this study we evaluated the effect of AA adjuvant therapy on apoptosis and CD117 (c-kit gene) expression in AML patients. Design and Methods: 47 newly diagnosed AML had been divided into 2 groups according to the use of AA adjuvant treatment versus use of conventional 7+3 chemotherapy alone. Results: AA had a significant negative impact on CD117 expression (p value 0.03 and 0.02) for % and MFI respectively while apoptosis wasn’t affected significantly (p value 0.37 and 0.83) for % and MFI respectively. Conclusion: AA adjuvant therapy can decrease expression of the adverse prognostic marker CD117 (c-kit gene) which may be another possible mechanism in inducing apoptosis.

[Inas A Asfour, Shaza A.A. Elkourashy, Maryse S. Ayoub, Samar Refaat, Soha R.Youssef and Walaa A. Salakawy. Impact of Ascorbic Acid Adjuvant Therapy on CD117 (C-Kit Gene) Expression and Apoptosis in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Egyptian Single Centre Analysis. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):430-435]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.66

 

Key words: Adult AML, c-kit gene, ascorbic acid, apoptosis

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Some Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Cynodiplostomum Azimi ‎‎(Trematode, Digenea) Parasite on Hepatoxic Rats

 

Nemaat M. El-Kewaisny

 

Home Economic Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

dr_elkewaisny@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess some biochemical and histopathological changes in the hepatotixic rats infected with the parasite Cynodiplostomum azimi. In this study twenty four adult male rats were used, each weighting about 100-‎‎120 g. These animals were divided into four groups. Group (A) used as control (uninfected rats), group (B) contains infected rats with parasite (Cynodiplostomum azimi), animals of group (C) received Carbontetrachloride (CCl4 99%) to induce liver injury, and animals of group (D) were infected with the parasite followed by CCl4 treatment. The results of the biochemical analysis revealed significant decrease in the activity of the AST enzyme in group (D), in total protein in groups (B, C and D), albumin in groups (C and D), globulin in groups (B and C) and total bilirubin in groups (B and D) compared to control. On the other hand, a significant decrease was observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) in group (D), SOD in group (B) and in GPx in group (B, C and D) compared to control. From the histopathological point of view liver sections taken from the liver of animals infected with the Cynodiplostomum azimi group (B) was manifested vacuolation of the hepatocytes together with nuclear pyknosis in addition to sinusoidal cells activation. Mononuclear cells aggregations specially around blood vessels were also observed. Moreover, mild focal hepatic cells necrosis was also observed. On the other hand the histopathological changes were manifested in the liver of animals treated with CCl4 (group C) showed apoptosis and necrosis of hepatic cells, but the liver belonged of animals infected with the parasite followed CCl4 treatment (group D) showed congestion of the blood vessels. In some cases hemorrhages in addition to obvious increase in the apoptotic figures. Mononuclear cells infiltrations specially around the blood vessels and bile ducts have been obviously detected.

[Nemaat M. El-Kewaisny. Some Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Cynodiplostomum Azimi ‎‎(Trematode, Digenea) Parasite on Hepatoxic Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):436-443]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.67

 

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes (MDA - SOD- CAT-GPX) -Total protein- Albumin -Globulin- Total bilirubin- Aspartate and alanine aminotransferases AST and ALT Cynodiplostomum azimi– hepatotoxic rats.

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Computer Literacy of the Employees of Iranian Industries (A Case Study)

 

Ali Fakhraeian

 

BE in Software Technology Engineering; IT Manager of Khormooj, Iran hospital

ali_dariush69@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research aims to study the rate of computer literacy among the employees of Iranian Industries. The case study is conducted on Saipa auto manufacturer company (Société Anonyme Iranienne de Production Automobile). Regarding the objective, this research is an applied research and regarding the methodology, it is a descriptive one. The statistical population of the study includes all employees of SAIPA, containing 1080 employees. Since these employees are in different levels of education, we first classified them in three groups (experts, administrative staff, and worker). The sample size was determined by Krejcie& Morgan's table. Accordingly, regarding the sample size of each group, 50 experts, 200 administrative staff, and 240 workers were selected through cluster random sampling method. To collect the needed data, we used a researcher- based questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts of the field and its reliability, using Cronbach's alpha was obtained as 98. The results of the research showed that generally, the computer literacy of the employees of Iranian industries is lower than average. Of course the computer literacy of the expert group is better than two other groups because of their education level and the training courses they have passed.

[Fakhraeian A. Computer Literacy of the Employees of Iranian Industries (A Case Study). J Am Sci 2012;8(11):444-447]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.68

 

Keywords: Computer Literacy, Employees, Information Technology

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Explicit series solution of Boussinesq equation by homotopy analysis method

 

Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi and Amir Fallahzadeh

 

Department of mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, P.O. Box 13185.768, Tehran, Iran.

fariborzi.araghi@gmail.com; amir_falah6@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to solve the Boussinesq equation which is a powerful method for solving the linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. For this purpose, the explicit series solution of the Boussinesq equation is obtained, then the convergence theorem is proved to illustrate the obtained series solution is convergent to the exact solution of the equation. Finally, the proposed method is examined to solve an example.

[Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi and Amir Fallahzadeh. Explicit series solution of Boussinesq equation by homotopy analysis method. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):448-452]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.69

 

Keywords: Homotopy analysis method (HAM), Boussinesq equation, Convergence, h-curve.

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Hydrogen Production via Chemical Looping Reforming Using Fe2O3 as Oxygen Carrier

 

 F. Mahmoodi 1, S.H. Najibi1, A.Shariati* 2

 

1..Department of Chemical Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran

2..Department of Chemical Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz 6198144471, Iran

Shariati@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The global warming effect is allegedly leading to frequent hurricanes, melting of ice on the North Pole endangering animal species, floods and droughts around the world. The increased global warming may be a consequence of the steadily increasing greenhouse gases emissions into the earth’s atmosphere due to human activities. CO2 is the most significant anthropogenic greenhouse gas and the manmade CO2 accumulates in the earth’s upper atmosphere and enhances the greenhouse effect. Most of the processes for hydrogen production involve CO2 emission. One of the options to overcome this effect is the development of processes with CO2 capture. Chemical looping reforming is such a process that can be used for hydrogen production with inherent CO2 capture. It involves the use of metal oxide as oxygen carrier, which transfers oxygen from steam to the fuel. In the present study, a water gas shift reaction (WGSR) using chemical looping technology was studied. Specifically, the (Fe2O3-CeO2) as oxygen carrier was prepared by co-precipitation of nitrate compounds of Fe and Ce. It was characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and (XRF), scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET and hydrogen programmed reduction (H2-TPR) techniques. The reactivity of oxygen carrier in a fixed bed reactor was examined under alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions within the temperature range of 600−900 °C using fuel (50% CO, 50% H2) and oxidizing gas (steam). The results showed that this oxygen carrier has suitable reactivity that can capture CO2 up to 80 molar percent in the product stream. It also led to a high conversion for oxidation and reduction phases when comparisons are made among 6 cycles. The cycle number had almost no effect on oxygen carrier reactivity after seven cycles.

[F. Mahmoodi, S.H. Najibi, A. Shariati. Hydrogen production via Chemical Looping Reforming using Fe2O3 as oxygen carrier. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):453-459]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.70

 

Keywords: Global warming; CO2 Capture; Chemical looping water gas shift; water splitting; Oxygen carrier; H2 generation.

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Optimal Learning: From teacher-centered to student-centered education

 

Mahboobe Kendi1, Mahsoomeh Alinezhad2

 

1 Faculty Member of Farhangian University, Nasibe Branch, Iran

2 Faculty Member of Farhangian University, Nasibe Branch, Iran

mahboobkandi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of education and training is man making. Part of learning has been deposited to school and university. Among them, school and university play the most significant role and at last, this significant responsibility is devoted to teachers and instructors. They have to train learners accurately and prepare them to play a role in society. The aim of this paper is to introduce one of the most recent learning views called constructivism. This is a learning approach emphasizing on learner’s activity to construct the knowledge and teacher has a guidance and facilitator role. Therefore, the most important kind of education based on construct-oriented theory is learning centered on learners. The author hopes this topic can help teachers to do their job in the best way.

[Mahboobe Kendi, Mahsoomeh Alinezhad. Optimal Learning: From teacher-centered to student-centered education. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):460-463]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.71

 

Key Words: Learning, Teacher-centered education, Student-centered education, Constructivism

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The Study of the Relationship between Achievement Motivation of Principals and Teachers and Organizational Effectiveness at High School Level in Aran and Bidgol City

 

Mohammad Reza Abdoli1, Farzaneh Sadat Hoseinian Heidari2

 

1Department of Management, Nataz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2Faculty Member of Farhangian University, Nasibe Branch

mohammadrezaabdoli12@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It is obvious that the concept of motivation for achievement as a significant concept has displayed positive influence in different levels and dimensions of organizational activities. One of research dimensions is organizational effectiveness. It is supposed that there is a relationship between the concept of effectiveness with organizational development and success in different fields, especially the goal attainment. Therefore, the present study represents the relationship between the achievement motivation of principals and teachers with the organizational effectiveness at high school level in Aran and Bidgol. The present research is field-survey study. The data analysis has been carried out by descriptive and inferential statistics with Mini TAB software. Regarding the achievement motivation of principals and teachers with the organizational effectiveness at high school, there is a relationship among male principals and there is no significant relationship in other cases. Meanwhile, comparing motivation for achievement with effectiveness, there is no meaningful relationship between motivation for achievement with the criteria for goal attainment except in male principals. There is also no significant relationship between motivation for achievement with school integration variable in all cases except in female principals. Finally, there is a significant relation between motivation for achievement and legitimacy and endurance at school among male principals and teachers in some cases.

[Mohammad Reza Abdoli, Farzaneh Sadat Hoseinian Heidari. The Study of the Relationship between Achievement Motivation of Principals and Teachers and Organizational Effectiveness at High School Level in Aran and Bidgol City. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):464-469]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.72

 

Key words: motivation, achievement motivation, effectiveness, organizational effectiveness, integrity, goal attainment, legitimacy

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Frequency, Temperature and Composition Dependence of Dielectric Properties of Nd3+ Substituted Cu-Zn Ferrites

 

Samy A. Rahman1, W.R. Agami 2 and M.M. Eltabey3,4

 

1Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3Basic Engineering Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

4Preparatory Year Deanship, Medical Physics Department, Faculty of medicine, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. mohamed.eltabey@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The frequency, temperature and composition dependence of ac resistivity rac, dielectric constant ε' and dielectric loss ε'' of Cu0.5Zn0.5NdxFe2-xO4 ferrites (where x= 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1) have been studied at low frequency range. For all samples, ρac, ε' and ε'' are found to decrease with increasing the frequency. The composition dependence of ρac, ε' and ε'' shows that, generally, ρac increases while both ε' and ε'' decrease with increasing x. The obtained results are satisfactorily explained using the non uniform model of Koops.

[Samy A. Rahman, W.R. Agami and M.M. Eltabey. Frequency, Temperature and Composition Dependence of Dielectric Properties of Nd3+ Substituted Cu-Zn Ferrite. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):470-474]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.73

 

Key words: ferrites, dielectric properties

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Interactive Web-Based VirtualElectricalLab

 

Adel S. Nada1, Fahad A. Alzahrani2 and Ossama B. Abouelatta3

 

1 Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt,

2Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Umm Al-Qura University, Mekkah, KSA,

3Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA
 On leave from Production Engineering and Mechanical Design Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt,
o_abouelatta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The use of World Web Wide for distance education has received increasing attention over the past decades. The real challenge of adapting this technology for engineering education and training is to facilitate the laboratory experiments via Internet. This paper introduces electrical engineering educators to the use and adoption of Java-applets in order to create online electrical engineering laboratory for students. These techniques have been used to successfully form a laboratory course which augments the more conventional lectures in concepts of electric circuits for engineers at Faculty of Engineering. The course objective is to provide a structured review of fundamentals of science and technology for the prospective students, wishing to study the Bachelor program in Electrical engineering. Improvements of the package will be undergoing to incorporate Web-based technologies (Internet home page, HTML, Java programming etc…). This Web-based education and training are intended to be evaluated via a class-tested within an undergraduate engineering course to report their experience with its use. The use of these labs should be self-explanatory and their reliable operation should have been thoroughly tested.

[Adel S. Nada, Fahad A. Alzahrani and Ossama B. Abouelatta. Interactive Web-Based Virtual Electrical Lab. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):475-484]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.74

 

Key words: Web-based education, Electrical engineering, Virtual laboratory, Software engineering, Java, HTML

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Smoking Among Male Students in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi University, Gharian - Libya

 

Hala H. Abou-Faddan and Sabra M. Ahmed

 

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Assiut University

 

Abstract: Tobacco is a serious threat to health and a proven killer and ranks second as a cause of death globally The worldwide mortality from tobacco related diseases reached up to 4 million per year in 1998 and is expected to become 10 million per year in 2030. This is more than the total deaths from tuberculosis, malaria, maternal and major childhood conditions combined. Methodology: A cross – sectional university – based study was carried out in AL-Jabal AL-Gharbi University- Gharian - Libya. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used. Results: This study included 304 students distributed nearly equally between faculties of Medicine, Art and Engineering in AL-Jabal AL-Gharbi university, Libya. The average age of students was 22.1 years. The prevalence of smoking among students was found to be 28.3%. Cigarette smoking constituted 80.2% and Shisha constituted 19.8%. Smoking among students was significantly related to higher age of students, higher family income and smoking among other family members of students. There was no significant difference between prevalence of smoking in different faculties of the university of AL-Jabal AL-Gharbi. The main motives for smoking were curiosity, peer pressure and smoking among other family members. Educational lessons about smoking hazards, prevention of smoking at public places and increasing taxes on cigarettes were suggested by students to prevent smoking.

[Hala H. Abou-Faddan and Sabra M. Ahmed. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Smoking Among Male Students in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi University,Gharian – Libya. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):485-491]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.75

 

Keyword: Smoking Among; Male Students; Al-Jabal; Al-Gharbi University; Gharian; Libya.

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A Fuzzy-LTV Model For Customer Segmentation: A Case Study In Hospital Industry

 

Arash khalili Nasr, Hojat Tayaran

 

Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

a_k_nasr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In order to get more on the market and sale’s situation of a product, classifying customers is a way that can lead you to take a good language for having a long lasting relationship with customers and overcoming on other competitors in the market. There are so many algorithms in business literature, for having a suitable classification. Meanwhile, among these algorithms, the way that specifies value to each customer has been more noticed that is called” Life time value” in business literature. But as you can see, this algorithm has so many implementation limitations. For instance, this algorithm classifies customers by the value they show, and not by the value they have. Also, by having a good classification that company may lose so many high valued customers. Additionally LTV algorithm needs lots of data to make suitable classification that might not be found wherever you want. In presented paper a new LTV model that we called it “Fuzzy life time value model” is proposed and successfully tested on two hospitals. So, they can put strategies for getting better market stocks in hospital industry.

[Nasr AK, Tayaran H. A Fuzzy-LTV Model For Customer Segmentation: A Case Study In Hospital Industry. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):492-500]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.76

 

Keywords: customer life time value, segmentation, fuzzy, hospital industry, fuzzy rule base

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Royal Jelly Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Tissue Injury in Submandibular Salivary Gland of Methotrexate Treated Rabbits: Immunohistochemical Study

 

1Elham Fathy Mahmoud, 2Mahmoud Fathy Mahmoud and 3&4Mohamed Abd Al Haleem

 

1 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine; Suez Canal University Egypt

2 Department of Biological And Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University Egypt.

3Department of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT), Faculty of medicine, Taibah University, KSA

4Department of, Otorhinolaryngology (ENT), El Sahel Teaching Hospital, Egypt

drelham_fathy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe tissue injury. Royal jelly has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-allergic, and antioxidant activities on various cell types. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of royal jelly on methotrexate induced cytotoxicity on rabbit submandibular salivary glands. Methods: Thirty male white New Zealand rabbits weighing between 1800 and 2200 g. were divided equally into three groups. Group I (control group) was intraperitoneally injected by 1ml/kg dose of sterile 0.9% saline for 2 weeks. Group II (Methotrexate group) received methotrexate injection. Group III (Methotrexate & Royal jelly group) was administrated royal jelly prior to methotrexate injection. Rabbits were sacrificed after 2 weeks of Methotrexate/ Royal jelly administration. The submandibular salivary glands were dissected out and prepared for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Results: Light microscopic examination of Methotrexate group revealed deformity of the secretory portions with numerous intracellular vacuoles. Secretory cells revealed deeply stained atrophied nuclei. The excretory ducts appeared dilated with degenerated epithelial lining. Widening of the connective tissue septa was also detected. Some secretory cells were completely degenerated leaving large vacuoles. There were numerous dilated blood vessels engorged with red blood cells. While Royal jelly treated group revealed well defined serous acini having distinct outline and lined by pyramidal cells with rounded basophilic nuclei. Well formed striated ducts were also detected. Immunohistochemical examination of Methotrexate treated group showed significant increase in Fas positive immunoreactivity indicating apoptotic changes. While Royal jelly treated group revealed expression of Fas immunoreactivity that statistically having no significant difference with the control group. Conclusion: Administration of Royal jelly produced a protective effect against cytotoxic and apoptotic changes induced by Methotrexate treatment in rabbit submandibular salivary glands.

[Elham Fathy Mahmoud, Mahmoud Fathy Mahmoud and Mohamed Abd Al Haleem. Royal Jelly Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Tissue Injury in Submandibular Salivary Gland of Methotrexate Treated Rabbits: Immunohistochemical Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):501-508]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.77

 

Keywords: Methotrexate; royal jelly; submandibular salivary glands; histological changes; apoptosis

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Perception of Students towards Distance Learning: A Case Study of Pakistan

 

Zainab Alam1, Aqil Waqar1, Khalid Zaman2, Beenish Shehzadi1, Yasir Mehmood1

 

1. MS Banking and Finance Students, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

khalidzaman@ciit.net.pk

 

Abstract: Background: Distance learning has come a long way and opened new vistas in the field of education. With DL opportunities growing at a high rate in many tertiary institutions, there is need to ensure that prompt feedback on assignments is integrated in the instructional design process of DL courses. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception held by individuals about distance learning offered by the two large universities of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa (KPK) province of Pakistan i.e., Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University. Setting: In order to achieve EFA (education for all-1990) goal 4, a survey population was identified as individuals of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa (KPK) who are/were the distance learners of Virtual University (VU) or Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). Materials: Data was collected from 104 respondents and using a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher. Results: The results of this study show that distance learning is most patronized by younger learners (<30 years) as there was 55% distance learner (DL) students who were below 30 years of age. Conclusion: The preference for distance learning by this category of students is largely because of the awareness and effectiveness of DL along with contributing factors of flexible of use of time, location and work commitment. Both singles and married almost equally prefer DL. Recommendation: The study suggests that majority of the students are satisfied with teaching and learning by distance. Suggestion is to use pre-stamped and addressed postcards, out-of-class phone conferences, and e-mail for feedback regarding assignment, course content, relevancy, pace, delivery problems, and instructional concerns for increasing students learning by distance.

[Zainab Alam; Aqil Waqar; Khalid Zaman; Beenish Shehzadi and Yasir Mehmood. Perception of Students towards Distance Learning: A Case Study of Pakistan. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):509-517]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.78

 

Keywords: distance learning, demographic factors, facilitation sessions, AIOU, Virtual University, Pakistan.

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The Effects of Steam Curing on Porosity of High Strength Concrete Containing Metakaolin

 

Ali Papzan 1, Taksiah.A.Majid 2

 

1 School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia

2 Associate Professor, Disaster Research Nexus, School of Civil Engineering, USM.

Ap11_civ050@student.usm.my; ALIPAPZAN@GMAIL.COM

 

Abstract: Steam curing is an important technique for obtaining high early strength in precast concrete production, hence, an experimental investigation was conducted to study the effects of steam curing on porosity of high strength concrete containing metakaolin. Porosity refers to the proportion of total volume of concrete occupied by pores, which usually expressed in percent. Porosity of concrete must be determined because it can negatively affect the durability of the concrete. Four concretes mixes with 0, 5, 10 and 15% metakaolin replacement levels by weight of cement were prepared and exposed to steam curing periods of 0, 4, 8 and 16 hours. Steam curing at 55°C was implemented 3 hours after casting to avoid microcracking and increased porosity due to difference in thermal expansion of the concrete ingredients. Then, the samples were stored in fog room before they were demoulded after 24 hours. Steam curing was found to deteriorate the properties of OPC concrete for all ages. On the other hand, it slightly enhances properties of metakaolin concrete at early age, but present no improvement at later age.

[Papzan A, Taksiah A, M. The Effects of Steam Curing on Porosity of High Strength Concrete Containing Metakaolin. J Am Sci 2012:8(11):518-522]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.79

 

Keywords: Steam curing; porosity; HSC; metakaolin

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Determining the Effects of Sources and Organizational Marketing Capabilities on Civil Projects Management Success

 

Olfat Ganji Bidmeshk 1, Mehdi Rahimi 2, Maziar Moshtaghi 3

 

1. Department of Business Administration, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

2. Department of Accounting and Management, Allameh Tabatabei University, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Najaf Abad University, Isfahan, Iran

m3hdrahimi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to propose a framework for determining organization marketing sources and capabilities that effect Construction Project Management success. This descriptive survey study includes 75 active Companies in construction field in the year 2011. Required data was gathered through standard questionnaires by using stratified random sampling. The organization marketing sources and capabilities are latent and independent variables measured through seven observed indicators. Civil Project Management success contain dependent and latent variable that were measured by nine observed indicators. Collected Data was analyzed by structural equation modeling using Amos Graphic software. The organization marketing sources and capabilities have positive and significant relation with Civil Project Management success by 0.94 path coefficients.

[Ganji B M, Rahimi M, Mirzaalian F. Determining the Effects of Sources and Organizational Marketing Capabilities on Civil Projects Management Success. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):523-529]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.80

 

Keywords: Organization Marketing Sources and Capabilities; Project Management Success; Civil Projects

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The Study of the Relationship between Achievement Motivation of Principals and Teachers and Organizational Effectiveness at High School Level in Aran and Bidgol City

 

Mohammad Reza Abdoli1, Farzaneh Sadat Hoseinian Heidari2

 

1Department of Management, Nataz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2Faculty Member of Farhangian University, Nasibe Branch

mohammadrezaabdoli12@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It is obvious that the concept of motivation for achievement as a significant concept has displayed positive influence in different levels and dimensions of organizational activities. One of research dimensions is organizational effectiveness. It is supposed that there is a relationship between the concept of effectiveness with organizational development and success in different fields, especially the goal attainment. Therefore, the present study represents the relationship between the achievement motivation of principals and teachers with the organizational effectiveness at high school level in Aran and Bidgol. The present research is field-survey study. The data analysis has been carried out by descriptive and inferential statistics with Mini TAB software. Regarding the achievement motivation of principals and teachers with the organizational effectiveness at high school, there is a relationship among male principals and there is no significant relationship in other cases. Meanwhile, comparing motivation for achievement with effectiveness, there is no meaningful relationship between motivation for achievement with the criteria for goal attainment except in male principals. There is also no significant relationship between motivation for achievement with school integration variable in all cases except in female principals. Finally, there is a significant relation between motivation for achievement and legitimacy and endurance at school among male principals and teachers in some cases.

[Mohammad Reza Abdoli, Farzaneh Sadat Hoseinian Heidari. The Study of the Relationship between Achievement Motivation of Principals and Teachers and Organizational Effectiveness at High School Level in Aran and Bidgol City. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):530-536]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.81

 

Key words: motivation, achievement motivation, effectiveness, organizational effectiveness, integrity, goal attainment, legitimacy

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Effect of human adrenomedullin and its binding protein on renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

 

Ahmed A. Abdalfattah Abeer A. Abo Zeid and Elsayed Emara

 

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

 pacemakerrr107@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background:Adrenomedullin (AM) a 52 amino acid ringed structure peptide was originally isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM is widely distributed in various tissues and acts as a local vasoactive peptide hormone in various conditions. Acute renal failure secondary to ischemia and reperfusion carries a high morbidity and mortality rate and no specific treatment currently available. Adrenomedullin binding protein-1 augments the activity of AM and together with AM may have a beneficial effect on renal I/R injury. Methods: Male albino rats were subjected to renal I/R injury followed by administration of AM /AMBP-1. Rats were allowed to recover for 24 hours and blood samples were collected for measurement of AM, AMBP-1, blood urea,serum creatinine,AST,ALT and TNF-α.Renal water content was measured also. Kidney samples were taken for histopathological examination or determination of levels of renal renal malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation; glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant; and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of tissue neutrophil infiltration. Results: AM was significantly increased while AMBP-1 was significantly decreased at 24 hrs post I/R injury. AST and ALT were significantly increased following renal I/R injury as well as blood urea, serum creatinine and TNF-α.Administration of AM /AMBP-1 reduces significantly the tissue injury parameters. Ischemia/reperfusion caused a significant decrease in tissue GSH level, which was accompanied by significant increases in MDA level and MPO activity. On the other hand, AM/AMBP-1 treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations that were induced by I/R. Conclusion: AM and AMBP-1 attenuate organ injury and inflammatory response so, they may be developed as a novel treatment for patients with acute renal I/R injury.

[Ahmed A. Abdalfattah and Abeer A.Abo Zeid and Elsayed Emara. Effect of human adrenomedullin and its binding protein on renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):537-545]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.82

 

Keywords: Ischemia and Reperfusion injury, Adrenomedullin (AM) and Adrenomedullin Binding Protein-1 (AMBP-1)

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Influence of Platform Switching Concept on Marginal Bone Alteration around Dental Implant

 

Mohammed Diaa Z. Ismaiel1, Amany A. Elhadry2

 

1Associate Professor of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Associate Professor of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Future University, Egypt

Corresponding author: diaa67@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of the type of abutment/implant connection on the marginal bone loss around dental implant. The present study was conducted on fourteen patients, eight males and 6 females with age range from 26 to 40 years. Thirty consecutive dental implants were inserted for implant – supported restoration in the posterior maxilla. The dental implants of all subjects were assigned to one of the 3 platform diameters which were 3.8 mm (control group), 4.5 mm (test group A) and 5.5 mm (test group B). At the time of prosthetic rehabilitation, 3.8 mm abutments were connected to the all inserted dental implants. Radiographic assessment of marginal bone was performed immediately at the time of abutment connection (baseline) and every six months for 24 months after final restoration. Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between the control group and both test groups as regard the total mean of marginal bone loss. In conclusion, platform-switching concept seems to have a role in minimizing the marginal bone loss around dental implant.

[Mohammed Diaa Z. Ismaiel, Amany A. Elhadry. Influence of Platform Switching Concept on Marginal Bone Alteration around Dental Implant. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):546-552]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.83

 

Key words: dental implant, bone levels

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The Effect of Transplanted Bone Marrow Stem Cells on the Tongue of Irradiated Rats (Histological and Immunohistochemical study)

 

Aboushady, I.M.1; Mubarak, R.T. 1; El-mougy, S. A. F. 1; Rashed, L.A.2; El-desouky, A.A.3

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.

3Surgery, Anesthesia and X-Ray Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

eimoshady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy (RT) is still a major problem in cancer treatment. So, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of locally injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the normal rat's tongue. Materials & Methods: Ten rats were used for isolating BM-MSCs, ten rats served as control group (G1) and twenty rats received a single radiation dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region, then, they were equally divided into 2 experimental groups: Irradiated only group (G2) and Irradiated+MSCs group (G3). All animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks following irradiation. The tongue was examined histologically and immunohistochemically using anti-PCNA primary antibody. Results: Histological & immunohistochemical examination of the treated group (G3) revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue; compared to the irradiated group (G2); in addition to up regulated expression of PCNA, indicating improved cell proliferation rate. Conclusions: BM-MSCs have shown positive effect in protection against the side effects of radiotherapy on normal tissues, which was emphasized by their enhancing effect on the proliferative capacity of these tissues.

 [Aboushady, I.M.; Mubarak, R.T. El-mougy, S. A. F.; Rashed, L.A.; El-desouky, A.A. The Effect of Transplanted Bone Marrow Stem Cells on the Tongue of Irradiated Rats(Histological and Immunohistochemical study). J Am Sci 2012;8(11):553-561]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.84

 

Key Words:Tongue; ionizing radiation; BM-MSCs; PCNA.

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Densification, Mechanical and Bioactive Properties of Borosilicate Glass/Anatase Nano-Composites

 

A. A. El-Kheshen1, 2*, Rasha. Gh. Ahmed 1,3 and M. F. Zawrah4

 

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, KSA

2Glass Research Department, National Research Centre, Egypt

3Chemistry Department, Suez Canal University, Egypt

4 Ceramic Department, National Research Centre, Egypt

aelkheshen1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work included the preparation and in-vitro bioactivity studies of glass, rutile, anatase and composite samples with different compositions, using infrared reflection spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The formation of hydroxyl apatite (HAP) layer, which is the only indication of the bioactive properties, was detected on the surfaces of composite samples after their immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Characterization of the prepared bioactive composites through their mechanical properties was also studied. Infrared reflection spectra of bioactive glass surface before and after immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) confirmed its bioactivity. XRD showed that the prepared composite samples have biological behavior with different rates, i.e. the ability of samples to form HAP layer on their surfaces is higher in case of composites with high glass content. Photo-micrographs of samples surfaces confirmed the above results through the formation of granules HAP layer. Transmission electron microscope photos (TEM) indicated the nano-particles of prepared ceramics. Also, XRD patterns for ceramics after their immersion in SBF showed the bioactivity of anatase through the formation of HAP layer and the bio-inertness of rutile due to the disappearance of latter phase from the XRD pattern. Microhardness measurements showed that composite samples are qualified to be used as bone replacement for highly – load region in the body.

[A. A. El-Kheshen, Rasha. Gh. Ahmed and M. F. Zawrah. Densification, Mechanical and Bioactive Properties of Borosilicate Glass/Anatase Nano-Composites]. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):562-569]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.85

 

Key words: Bioactive glass, anatase, rutile, bioactive nano-comosites, SEM, XRD, biological and mechanical behaviors.

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(11):570-582]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.86

withdrawn

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Spermogram changes and pregnancy rate in Egyptian infertile males before and after varicocelectomy

 

Hamed A. AL-Badawy1; Doaa Abd El Maleek Hassan Pessar2, Abeer M. Kamel2, Hanan M.A.Darweesh2

 

1General Surgery, 2Dermatology and Venereology, Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University.. Hamad20097@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Varicoceles are abnormally dilated testicular veins in the scrotum, secondary to internal spermatic vein reflux. Varicocele is found in approximately 15% of the general population, 35% of men with primary infertility and in 75-81% of men with secondary infertility. Although there have been numerous theories regarding the pathophysiology of varicocele, some remains unknown about its role in management of male factor infertility. From clinical view, the main treatment options for infertile males with varicoceles have been varicocelectomy and assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Aim of the study: to assess the role of varicocelectomy in management of male infertility by observation of spermogram changes before and after varicocelectomy. Patients and methods: This study was carried out on 20 male patients attending General Surgery and Dermatology outpatient clinics at Al-Zahraa University Hospital with a history of primary and secondary infertility after taking informed consent. This study was conducted over a period of 2 years, from August 2010 to August 2012. All patients were subjected to complete history and thorough clinical examinations as well as laboratory investigations including complete blood count (CBC), hormonal profile and multiple semen analysis were done for all patients. Semen analysis for each patient was repeated after varicocelectomy for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Also, scrotal color Doppler ultrasound was done for all attendants for confirmation of the diagnosis. Results: Out of 20 patients with primary varicocele, 16 (86.6%) had corrected abnormal semen parameters and their wives get pregnant. 60% of those patients were complaining of primary infertility while the remaining (40%) patients were complaining of secondary infertility. Conclusion: varicocele repair for infertile men with clinically palpable varicocele and at least one or more abnormal semen parameters is recommended as easy and simple treatment of primary or secondary male infertility, and improving fertility rate.

 [Hamed A. AL-Badawy; Doaa Abd El Maleek Pessar, Abeer M. Kamel, Hanan M.A. Darweesh. Spermogram changes and pregnancy rate in Egyptian infertile males before and after varicocelectomy. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):583-586]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.87

 

Keywords: (ART): assisted reproductive techniques, (CBC): complete blood count, (ROS): reactive oxygen

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Effect of using Rotary Evaporator on Date Dibs Quality

 

Saad K. Al-Mutairi1 and Mohammed S. Al-Jasser2

 

1Municipality of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia & 2Department of Food and Nutrition Sciences, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. saad28@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Date Palm is one of the oldest and major fruit crop in Saudi Arabia Kingdom. There has been, however, a surplus of Saudi low quality dates are not benefited in the industry sector. Local date dibs is produced in some Saudi regions by traditional approach (boiling that results in dark color and high turbidity. This study was carried out to improve the quality of date dibs using a rotary evaporator device. Two local varieties of dates used in this study, namely Sufri (dark) and Silage, which have low quality and common in Saudi society. The date juice of these dates was extracted, clarified by active charcoal and then concentrated by rotary evaporator. The obtained results were compared with date juice concentrated by boiling method in water bath at 100°C (as a traditional method) and with commercial date dibs. Results showed that, there was no significant difference between darkness of Sufri and Silage dibs concentrated by rotary evaporator and boiling method. However, Silage dibs concentrated by a rotary evaporator has higher redness (a* = 1.33) and lower yellowness (1.83) compared to Sufri dibs. While, commercial dibs had the highest yellowness (b* = 2.45) and lowest redness (a* = 0.24). Active charcoal decreased the darkness of Sufri dibs concentrated by rotary evaporator (L* = 22.87), while Silage dibs and local dibs were increased (L* = 21.29 and L* = 21.38, respectively). A concentration of Dibs by rotary evaporator method was appropriate, because the dibs had attractive color; especially with using active charcoal to clarify date juice. In order to evaluate the effect of clarification and concentration between boiling method and rotary evaporator with commercial dibs, physico-chemical characteristics were determined in Sufri and Silage dibs. Results indicated that, commercial dibs had lower moisture content and higher reading in viscosity, TSS, TS, glucose, fructose, pectin and ash. At the same time, there were slight differences in physico-chemical characteristics of Sufri or Silage dibs concentrated by boiling method and rotary evaporator. The dibs of Sufri and Silage concentrated by rotary evaporator and stored at 5 and 25°C for 6 months period characterized by helpful sensory evaluation (color, taste, flavor and general acceptance), but it was affected during storing at 45°C.

 [Saad K. Al-Mutairi and Mohammed S. Al-Jasser. Effect of using Rotary Evaporator on Date Dibs Quality. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):587-594]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.88

 

Key words: Sufri date palm – Silage date palm – Dibs – Charcoal – Rotary evaporator. Physico-chemical properties.

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Management of overweight and obesity in Egyptian school children-An intervention study

 

Maysa A.Samy1, Sahar A Khairy2, Sahar A Ibrahim3, May K Matter4, and Hoda A.Hassan5

 

1Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine AL Azhar University; Egypt

2 Pediatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine AL Azhar University; Egypt

3 Pediatric Medicine,Cairo University; Egypt

4Childhood Health, Ain Shams University and 5Nutrition, Cairo University. Egypt

dr_ms_mrs@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Increasing rates of overweight and obesity in children & adolescents in Egypt signal a very alarming trend indicating an urgent need for development of strategies to address this new problem. Objective: To examine the individual and combined effects of dietary weight loss and exercise interventions on body mass index (BMI), various lab. parameters &dietary habits. Methods: This longitudinal intervention study was done in 30 randomly selected elementary & secondary schools of two governorates; Cairo & El Behaira. A total of 841 over weight & obese adolescent school children were randomly assigned to either diet modification or diet & exercise program. All Participants were subjected to baseline assessment (weight, height, waist circumference - hemoglobin concentration, fasting blood sugar & lipid profile - dietary intake including “Twenty four-hour recall“ method & food frequency questionnaire). The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy consumption, adopting healthy eating habits and increase physical activity. All baseline assessments were repeated at 6 and 12 months. Results: A total of 718 cases continued 12 months follow up with dropout rate of 14.6 %. The results indicated that 27.9% of our total participants lost 5% or more of their initial body weight after 12 months of follow-up especially among the group who followed diet & exercise regimen. All lab parameters improved significantly by the end of the study. The mean total daily caloric intake, mean total Fat energy ratio & Carbohydrates energy ratio have been significantly decreased by visit 12 especially among the group who followed diet & exercise regimen. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that diet alone can have a beneficial effect on reducing weight; however, a combination of weight loss and regular exercise may provide greater improvement in reducing weight, improving lipid profile & dietary intake on long scale programs.

[Maysa A.Samy, Sahar A Khairy, Sahar A Ibrahim, May K Matter, and Hoda A.Hassan. Management of overweight and obesity in Egyptian school children-An intervention study. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):595-603]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.89

 

Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, schoolchildren, diet intervention, exercise intervention, Egypt

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Formulating Human Resources Management Strategies With The Strategic Human Resources Management Approach And Using Swot (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats) Techniques And Analysis Network Process (ANP)

 

Ali atashi *1, Hossein kharabi2, Morteza Ashourzadeh2

 

1 Young researchers club, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

2. Msc in management,Astara Branch,Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

corresponding author:ali atashi

Email: ali_atashi_1316@yahoo.com. The research is financed by Young researchers club, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

 

Abstract: The very purpose of the Strategic Human Resources Management is creating a perspective by which many fundamental issues related to the employees will be defined. This project has been carried out in Iran Merinoos Company and at first, by using strategy formulation techniques, the most important and (internal and external) elements were identified. By using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Matrix, the basic organizational strategies were developed. The SWOT Matrix is one of the most important tools for strategy formulation. For analyzing the SWOT qualitatively, and to consider the possible ties between the elements, we used Analysis Network Process. The possible ties between the SWOT elements have an influence on strategic element weights, sub-elements weights and the priorities of alternative strategies. By incorporating the SWOT analysis and Analysis Network Process, the present study focused on formulating and identifying the organizational priorities of human resources strategies. By using these techniques, we can formulate some efficient strategies and perform them on the human resources section of the organization. Finally, we will focus on the conclusion and suggestions.

[Ali atashi, Hossein kharabi, Morteza Ashourzadeh. Formulating Human Resources Management Strategies With The Strategic Human Resources Management Approach And Using Swot (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats) Techniques And Analysis Network Process (ANP). J Am Sci 2012;8(11):604-614]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.90

 

Keywords: Strategic Planning, SWOT analysis, Analysis Network Process, Strategic Human Resources Management

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Suggesting a Methodology of Project Management by Effective Human Resource Management Approach Complied by PMBOK

 

Ali atashi *1, Hossein kharabi 2

 

1- Young researchers club, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

2- Msc in management, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

corresponding author:ali atashi. Email: ali_atashi_1316@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Projects follow given objectives in a specific framework. Managing them should be different from the organization's management according to their circumstances. In every project, human resources are regarded as an inseparable part of project resources. In some kinds of projects, which are considered in the article, volume and performance of human resources constitute a considerable part of the project. Therefore, paying attention to appropriate management of these resources will have considerable impact on the progress trend of the project. This kind of projects needs a different management. Considering the existing experiences, here we study and design an appropriate algorithm in this respect.

[Ali atashi, Hossein kharabi. Suggesting a Methodology of Project Management by Effective Human Resource Management Approach Complied by PMBOK J Am Sci 2012;8(11):615-619]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.91

 

Keywords: Project Management,t Human t PMBOK b

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Stochastic Capacitated P-hub Location Problem: A Case Study of Iran

 

Mohammad Rostami 1, E.M. Farahani 1, Dariush Moradinezhad 2

 

1. Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Western Michigan University, Michigan, USA. m.rostami.iust@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Robust optimization (RO) can be applied to location problems under uncertainty. In this paper, we present a robust optimization model for stochastic multi-objective operation of capacitated P-hub location problems (MCpHLP-s). Most existing approaches to p-hub location problems are restricted to deterministic environments. However, the volume of demand in networks and the amount of time required to process commodities in a hub are always different over the variety of conditions. We consider both through different scenarios. After the model presented, the goal programming approach is used to solve the problem for a particular case study.

[Rostami M, Farahani E.M, Moradinezhad D. A Stochastic Capacitated P-hub Location Problem: A Case Study of Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):620-628]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.92

 

Keywords: Robust Optimization; Hub Location; Uncertainty; Goal Programming; Multi-objective Problem

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 Production Optimization Using an Experimental Design and Genetic Algorithm

 

Arash Yazdanpanah, Abdolnabi Hashemi

 

Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran. arash1986.put@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the context of oil production optimization, finding the well parameters that maximize an objective function such as recovery factor or cumulative oil production is an important issue. Reservoir simulation which is coupled with automated optimization algorithms are often employed for this work. However, determining the optimal well design is a complex and challenging problem due to the reservoir heterogeneity, economic criteria and technical uncertainty. Therefore, it is necessary for the development of a powerful and trusted optimization algorithm that can detect best production variables with a minimum required number of simulation runs. This study presents a hybrid approach that employs experimental design and genetic algorithm to determine the optimum well parameters in different models. In this approach, experimental design is used to establish the initial population of solution vectors. The performance of hybrid method has been compared with a standalone genetic algorithm. Results show that the proposed method is a quick and precise approach for the optimization problems compared to the standalone genetic algorithm.

[Yazdanpanah A, Hashemi A. Production Optimization Using an Experimental Design and Genetic Algorithm. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):629-634]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.93

 

Keywords: Production optimization; genetic algorithm; experimental design; hybrid methodology.

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Relationship between Serum Levels of Resistin and Leptin and severity of childhood Asthma

 

Abdel hakeem Abdel mohsen1 and Emad Allam2

 

Departments of Pediatrics1 and Clinical Pathology2, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background; Resistin and Leptin are protein mediators secreted by adipose tissue involved in the regulation of inflammation and allergic responses and suggested to affect the risk of asthma, this study aimed to investigate the role of these adipokines in bronchial asthma and correlate their levels with the severity of asthma. Methods;Sixty child with mild and moderate asthma and another 20 healthy control were included in the study and subjected to; full clinical examination, Anthropometric measurements, Pulmonary function test CBC and assay of serum level of Leptin and Resistin using ELISA. Results; the study showed a highly significant increase in serum level of resistin and leptin in all asthmatic children compared with the level in the control group (p<0.000). Also there were significant higher levels in mild and moderate persistent asthma compared with control group (p <0.001) while insignificant higher level in mild intermittent asthma compared with control (p >0.05). There were significant differences among level of serum resistin and leptin among asthmatic groups with higher level in the more severe groups (p <00.1). In all asthmatic children, there was significant positive correlation between serum level of resistin and leptin and PBE count (r=0.83) while significant negative correlation with FEV1 and PEF (r=-0.89 and 0.88 respectively), but there was insignificant positive correlation between serum level resistin and the serum level of IgE in all asthmatic children (p <0.1). Conclusions; High resistin and leptin levels suggesting that these adipokines may be a marker in asthma and associated with poor lung functions suggesting that the link between adipokines and severity of asthma. Further studies are needed to understand the role of resistin and leptin in the pathogenesis of, and more importantly, in predicting treatment responses in asthma.

[Abdel hakeem Abdel mohsen and Emad Allam. Relationship between Serum Levels of Resistin and Leptin and severity of childhood Asthma. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):635-641]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.94

 

Keywords; bronchial asthma, adipokines, resistin, leptin

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Effect of Combination of L-Arginine and N-Acetylcysteine in Rat Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

 

Abeer A.Abo Zeid1, Mervat H. El Saka1, and Noha M Shafik2

 

Physiology Department1, Biochemistry Department 2Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University - Egypt

 

Abstract:. Background: Ischemia, followed by reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of acute renal failure (ARF). The pathogenesis of I/R is multifactorial. Nitric Oxide(NO) proved to be closely related to the pathogenesis of I/R-induced ARF. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the role of NO-dependent mechanisms in the renal response to I/R by providing a source of (NO) precursor (L-Arginine) in the presence or absence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC)which protect NO from interacting with oxygen free radicals that may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury. Materials and Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to right nepherectomy and divided into four groups: control, renal I/R, renal I/R withL-Arginine, renal I/R withL-Arginine and NAC, I/R injury was induced by 45 min of left renal artery ischemia followed by60 min of reperfusion. After reperfusion, 24 hours urine was collected to measure creatinine and para amino hippuric (PAH) clearance and urinary nitrites. Blood samples were collected to measure blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. All animals are scarified, the left kidney are removed to measure protein content, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and glutathione in the renal tissue, histopathological examination for the left kidneys were performed. Results: Renal I/R resulted in significant elevation in blood urea, serum creatinine and renal tissue malondialdehyde and significant lowering in superoxide dismutase, kidney glutathione, PAH clearance, creatinine clearance and urinary nitrites secretion. L-Arginine alone result in significant improvement in renal function parameters when compared to I/R group but this improvement is still insignificant when compared to control group also parameters of oxidative stress and urinary nitrites secretion does not significantly affected., but in the renal I/R+ L-Arginine and NAC, all biochemical results and histopathological parameters were significantly improved as compared to control group. Conclusions: Combined treatment with antioxidant (NAC) and nitric oxide precursors (L-Arginine)attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, by direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus protecting NO from reaction with it.

[Abeer A.Abo Zeid, Mervat H. El Saka, and Noha M Shafik. Effect of Combination of L-Arginine and N-Acetylcysteine in Rat Model of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):642-649]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.95

 

Key words: Ischemia reperfusion (I/R), L-Arginine, Nitric Oxide (NO), N-acetylcysteine and experimental rats 

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Supplemental Effects of Shochu Distillery By-product on Performance of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, with Low Fishmeal Diet

 

Mosa Sanzida Sultana1, Shunsuke Koshio2*, Manabu Ishikawa2, Saichiro Yokoyama2, Ikemura Tomoyuki3

 

1Fisheries Science on Resources and Environments, The united Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima, 890-0065, Japan

2Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Shimoarata 4-50-20, Kagoshima, 890-0056, Japan

3Graduate school of Fisheries Science, Kagoshima University, Shimoarata 4-50-20, Kagoshima, 890-0056, Japan

*Corresponding Author E-mail: koshio@fish.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

 

Abstract: Since the development of functional aquafeeds is one of the priority areas for sustaining aquaculture, the study was conducted to determine the efficacy of shochu distillery by-product (SDBP) when dietary fishmeal was lowered. This study targeted Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, as an experimental model fish by using four different dietary levels of SDBP such as 0, 4, 8, and 14%, respectively. Twelve fish (initial mean weight=0.5g) were placed in 100L polycarbonate circular tank with four replicates (total 48 fish per treatment). The test diets were hand-delivered twice a day up to satiation level, and fish were cultured under the flow-through system for 56 days. The average water temperature during the whole period of the feeding trial ranged from 11 to 15°C. The results showed that body weight gain (%) and specific growth rates (% day-1) increased with increased level of dietary SDBP although statistical significance was not detected. Significantly improvement of feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found in higher level of SDBP supplemented groups than control and lower supplemented ones. Survival rates were not significantly affected by supplementation of SDBP. In determining the oxidative condition of the fish the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured, showing that muscle TBARS of fish showed the decreasing tendency with increased dietary SDBP levels. Furthermore, it was found that linoleic acids of neutral lipid fraction in fish liver significantly increased with increased dietary SDBP supplementation. This study demonstrated that dietary SDBP supplementation would be effective for the performances and quality of Japanese flounders.

[Mosa Sanzida Sultana, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Saichiro Yokoyama, Ikemura Tomoyuki. Supplemental effects of shochu distillery by-product on performance of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, with low fishmeal diet. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):650-656]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.96

 

Keywords: shochu distillery by-product; dietary supplement; growth; Paralichthys olivaceus.

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The Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Strategies on Achievement Goals and Academic Performance

Metacognitive Strategies Achievement Goals

 

Mohammad Kazem Fakhri1, Alireza heydari2, Farah Naderi1, Ramazan Hassanzadeh4, Gholam Reza Pasha2

1. Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran.

2. Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran

4. Department of Psychology, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

fakhri@iausari.ac.ir

 

Abstract:The aim of this study was studying the effect of teaching metacognitive strategies on achievement goals and academic performances. The participants were all sophomore students of Psychology in Islamic Azad University, sari branch (N= 118). The sample group consists of 90 freshmen students (21 males and 69 females) who had been randomly chosen from 5 volunteer classes. (Two classes were in the experimental participants and two were controls). The experimental group passed the metacognitive course in combination with the routine syllables and the control Group received just had the routine one. The measurements for student's achievement goals was done according to Achievement Goal Questioner (AGQ), for specific academic performance we used the scores of general psychology course and finally, the average scores of current and previous semesters was used to measure the total academic performance. The participants filled in AGQ questionnaires three times: at the beginning, end of the semester and follow up in a 5 month later. The test for academic performance is also done twice: at the beginning and at the end of semester. The pervious and current semester average score is also considered as a total performance of students. The results showed that teaching metacognitive strategies have a positive effect on achievement in mastery-performance, performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals whereas they affect performance-avoidance goals in a negative way. The findings also indicated that teaching metacognitive strategies only significantly affect the specific academic performance of student and has nothing to do with their total academic performance.

[fakhri MK, heydari A, Naderi F, Hassanzadeh R, Pasha GR. The Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Strategies on Achievement Goals and Academic Performance. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):657-663]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.97

 

Key Words: Metacognitive strategies; Achievement goals; Specific academic performance; Total academic performance.

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Nutrient Potential of Lumbricus Terristries (Earthworm) as Food for the Polyculture Heteroclarias and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

 

Egbunu. E. I. and Solomon. R. J

 

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiyt of Abuja, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: An eight weeks experiment was conducted in the botanical garden of the Department of Biological Science, University of Abuja to asses nutrient potential of Lumbriscus terrestrial for Heteroclarias and Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) at different stocking ratio of 8 Heteroclarias and 8 Orechromis Niloticus (A), 8 Heteroclarias and16 Orechromis Niloticus (B) and 8 Heteroclarias and 24 Orechromis Niloticus (C), were fed formulated diet of earth worm of 12% crude proteins, 60 crude moisture and 10 ash. The result of the present studies showed, that there was no significant different among the fishes (P>5%) ONE WAY ANOVA for Heteroclarias, and Tilapia. The study proved that fingerlings of Heteroclarias and Orechromis Niloticus should be stocked at ratio of 1: 1, Heteroclarias to Oreochromis Niloticus.

[Mosa Sanzida Sultana, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Saichiro Yokoyama, Ikemura Tomoyuki. Supplemental effects of shochu distillery by-product on performance of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, with low fishmeal diet. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):664-673]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.98

 

Keyword: Nutrient,Potential, Lumbricus, Terristries, Earthworm.

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99

Seroprevelence of Hepatitis E virus in human and animals in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

 

Abyelyazeed A. Elsheikh1 and Abdulrahamn M. Alqurashi2

 

1Department of Applied Medical Science, Community College, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia

eaa000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Najran, a rural community's province in the southwestern of Saudi Arabia was investigated. Blood samples from 1080 person (360 hepatic patients and 720 apparently healthy volunteers) were collected from October 2011 to March 2012. Serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and anti-HEV IgM antibodies by rapid diagnostic strips. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in a total of 88 cases out of 360 hepatic samples with percent of 25% while anti-HEV IgM antibodies were detected in 9 cases with percent of 2.5 %. None of the apparently healthy volunteers were positive for HEV. To identify the possible source of infection, 630 and 540 blood samples from sheep and chicken were tested for presence of IgG antibodies against HEV. All sheep and chicken samples were negative for HEV.

[Abyelyazeed A. Elsheikh and Abdulrahamn M. Alqurashi. Seroprevelence of Hepatitis E virus in human and animals in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):674-677]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.99

 

Key words: HEV, blood samples, Najran, ELISA

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100

Social Responsibility in Environmental Marketing Planning of Petro Chemical Companies

 

Hashem Nikoumaram1, Hossein Vazifedoust2, Banafshe Golpour3

 

1Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch,

2Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch,

3Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch,

B.Golpour@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Petroleum industry performs a significant role in forming the economic, political, and social well-being of the nations. The petroleum industry is a high capital (asset) intensive industry. Considering the fact that petroleum and petrochemical products are inherently environmental pollutants; in current study petrochemical companies are evaluated to examine social responsibility in values, and environmental emphasis in their marketing planning. Iranian petrochemical companies were studied as an example of oil and petroleum producer and exporter. The survey question is: Is there a meaningful relationship between strategic marketing planning’s approach and marketing performance? And research purpose is: determining the effective factors on social responsibilities in environmental marketing planning of petrochemical companies. Using Iisrel 8.7 validity and reliability of the structured questioner examined. Collected data from 59 Iranian petrochemical companies, factor analyzed by means of Spss 19. Results revealed in petrochemical companies there is no meaningful relationship between strategic marketing planning’s approach and marketing performance, and the results also confirmed these factors as effective ones: organizational philosophy and values, social responsibility base strategies, planes and tools, customer guiding to sustainable development.

[Hashem Nikoumaram, Hossein Vazifedoust, Banafshe Golpour. Social Responsibility in Environmental Marketing Planning of Petro Chemical Companies. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):713-719]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.100

 

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Marketing Planning, Petroleum Companies

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101

Antimicrobial Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacilli Causing Infections in Intensive Care Units in Makkah Hospitals- Saudi Arabia

 

Atif H. Asghar

 

Department of Environmental and Health Research, The Custodian of The Two Holy Mosques Institute of Hajj and Umrah Research, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. P.O. Box: 6287, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. asghar1000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the most common gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing infections in the intensive care units (ICUs) of Makkah hospitals. In addition to evaluate the production of extended spectrum-β­-lactamases (ESBL) in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli as well as metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 509 gram-negative pathogens were isolated from clinical specimens of patients admitted ICUs of Makkah hospitals between September 2009 and March 2010. The specimens were microbiologically investigated by the routine methods, and antibiotic susceptibility was performed by using automated instruments. ESBLs and MBLs were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The types of ESBLs and MBLs were detected by polymerase chain reaction. A. baumannii was the common bacteria (37%) isolated from ICUs, followed by P. aeruginosa (29.1%), K. pneumonia (22.8%) and E. coli (10.6%). P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates were highly resistant towards the most antibiotic agents. ESBLs production was identified in 37.1% and 31.5% of K. pneumonia and E. coli isolates, respectively, and MBLs in 20.9% of P. aeruginosa and 68.6% of A. baumannii isolates. In conclusion, GNB cause several nosocomial infections in ICUs patients of Makkah hospitals with high resistant rate to antimicrobial agents.

[Atif H. Asghar. Antimicrobial Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacilli Causing Infections in Intensive Care Units in Makkah Hospitals- Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):720-725]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.101

 

Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, nosocomial infection

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102

Seismic Behavior Aspects of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Structures

 

Mohamed Husain and Hamdy Shihab El-Din

 

Department of Structure Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt

mo_husain2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The application of fibers to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete continues to gain recognition among researchers and structural engineers. Significant research work has been carried out to study the application of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) to reinforced concrete structural members. The main objective of this study is to investigate the suitability of reinforced concrete structures made of FRC in high and moderate seismicity areas. This is done through the study the effects of both fiber volume fraction (Vf) and the ratio of internal steel reinforcement on Secant stiffness, ductility and over-strength, as well as its ability to absorb (dissipate) energy of steel-reinforced FRC beams. Results of existing experimental investigations on flexural UHPFRC and HSFRC reported in literature are used. Design values for the tensile reinforcement ratio, volumetric fiber content that favorably affect the seismic resistance and seismic forces induced from earthquakes are reached.

[Mohamed Husain and Hamdy Shihab El-Din. Seismic Behavior Aspects of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Structures]Journal of American Science 2012;8(11):726-733].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.102

 

Keywords: Fiber content, FRC, HSFRC, UHPFRC, reinforcement ratio, ductility ratio, over-strength factor.

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103

Predicting axial pile load capacity

 

A. M. Elgamal; A. E. El Nimr; A. A. Dif and A. K. Gabr

 

Geotechnical and Foundation Eng., Mansoura Faculty of Engineering, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The latest strides in the domain of construction have led to major changes in the nature of the methods and material used in construction. This is especially noticeable in urbanized area in which the price of land is a governing factor. Therefore, shallow foundations are often found to be incapable of supporting the heavy structural loads and the use of deep foundations becomes essential. In this research work, centrifuge modeling is used to simulate piles embedded in difficult soils. The study treats combinations of soil strata that are known to be having a complex and probably hardly known behavior under different loading conditions. The widely used theoretical models such as Mohr-Coulomb, Tresca, Von Mises, Drucker-Prager, etc. can’t give an accurate representation of peat for example. In this study, actual soil materials are used. Their physical and mechanical properties are pre-determined before testing. Soil-pile interaction is studied especially with regards to the phenomenon of negative skin friction. Finally, the physical model results were calibrated with the behavior of 1 g model in an area having a lethological section analogous to one of the centrifuge tests.

[A. M. Elgamal; A. E. El Nimr; A. A. Dif and A. K. Gabr. Predicting axial pile load capacity. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):734-738]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.103

 

Keywords: domain; construction; urbanized area; lethological section

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104

The Power of Sustainability in Old Architecture of West South Saudi Arabia & Yemen

 

Nothiela Abd el Samie El hamoly1 and Sayed Abd Elkhaliq Elsayed2

 

1Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University

2Department of Architecture And Building Technology, Modern Academy For Engineering & Technology

sabohemah@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Spirit of place is the power that is manifested in sacred space. People who enter the space, and are aware of the spirit, experience it in various ways: often as healing, meaning, transformation, strength, or connectedness with nature; though sometimes as threat, risk, or ordeal. That some places are different from others in very special respects was evident to our earliest human ancestors; indeed many of our non-human evolutionary progenitors; sensed it, too. To understand how early humans responded to place, one can remember the deep caver chambers of Altamira and Lascaux, where Cro-Magnon hunters let the shapes of the walls suggest the sacred animal forms they painted there, or the earlier cave of basua where Neanderthals found a zoomorphic stalagmite that became the body of a bear in their shamanic ceremonies, a cave has numinosity; it resembles the womb of Mother Earth, and the space inside is sacred. Symbolically, what is placed as a seed within, whether it is an enactment of hunting, a call for healing, the transformative ritual of initiation, or the burial of a dead relative in the fetal position, will come to birth or rebirth in the outer world. A cave is a place of power a place of spirit. Environmental issues are finally at the forefront, guiding our lives and choices in new and sustainable directions. Fighting the urge to consume without thought of the consequences is a struggle, but one that increasing numbers of people are finding is necessary. Changing to green makes sense from both economic and personal points of view. Perhaps you’re inspired by champions who give voice to the issues, like celebrities and activists, or real people making changes in their communities, you can take their stories and begin to make them your own. Nowadays the world become aware and more environmentally savvy and demand ecological choices, a new generation of architects and builders is emerging, intent on creating warm and inviting homes that cause only a fraction of the environmental impact of conventional building methods. The New Ecological Home provides an overview of green building techniques, materials, products and technologies that are either currently available or promise to be in the near future. There are too many research works around the world on green building materials, earth-sheltered architecture, passive solar heating and cooling, sustainable approaches to water and waste, energy efficiency, and environmental landscaping. The result sets the record straight on the vast potential for passive heating and cooling and provides a resource guide, recommendations, and a green-building checklist. And provide a wealth of up-to-date, practical information for homebuyers, owner-builders, and anyone interested in building for a sustainable future. As one of those architects interested in designing building for a sustainable future, I found here in West south Saudi Arabia & Yemen an open museum for huge numbers of buildings in very vast residential areas, this absolutely groundbreaking example doesn't just talk about eco-friendly building techniques, but actually shows every step! More than thousands close-up photographs, along with in-depth descriptions, follow the real construction of an alternative house from site selection to the addition of final-touch interior details. These research papers provide thorough discussions of the fundamental concepts of construction, substitutes for conventional approaches, and planning a home that's not only comfortable and beautiful, but environmentally responsible. And finally answering the question are those building realize the sustainability of architecture? Before the world crises of energy, pollution, weather changes, modern researches by hundreds of years.

[Nothiela Abd el Samie El hamoly and Sayed Abd Elkhaliq Elsayed. The Power of Sustainability in Old Architecture of West South Saudi Arabia & Yemen. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):739-748]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.104

 

Keywords: sustainability – eco-friendly building - green architecture - Ecological Home - environmentally responsive – environmental landscaping.

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105

Sexual Behavior among Applied Medical Students In Taif, KSA.

 

Ali H.S. Al-Zahrani

 

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Applied Sciences, Taif University, Taif, KSA

 

Abstract: Objective: The current study was conducted to explore the sexual behaviour of Applied Medical students in Taif KSA. Material and Methods: An instrument labeled “Sexual Behaviour Inventory” was used to elicit information from the subjects of this study. Results: Data were analyzed using percentages. The results of the data analysis indicated that 20 % of the students had steady girl friends, 20 % of them had had sexual intercourse 90 % had sexual intercourse with their lovers while 10 % had sexual intercourse with «just somebody». Thirty per cent often engaged in hand holding, 51 % in kissing, 10 % in hugging, 8 % in caressing and 3 % in fundling. Conclusion: The sexual behaviour of Saudi Arabia student is quite different from other countries and this might be due to religion.

[Ali H.S.El-Zahrani. Sexual Behavior among Applied Medical Students In Taif, KSA. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):749-751]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.105

 

Keywords: Sexual Behavior – Taif - Students

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106

Quality of Life of Older Adults with Mobility Impairment

 

Omaima Mohamed Esmat and Hala M. M. Hussein

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

mhdnawar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mobility impairment is a potential or actual limitation of independent physical movement within the environment. The aim of this study to assess the quality of life of older adult with mobility impairment. Design this study was descriptive research design. Setting it was conducted at clinics and homes of older adults who are attending the outpatient clinics in Ain Shames Center for geriatric medicine. Sample the study involved all mobility impairment of older adults / (n=199). Tools Three tools were used for data collection, First tool, an interviewing questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristic and three aspects of quality of life. Second tool, an observation check list to assess home environment. Third tool, collected data from medical record about client's history. Results the most important findings was the mean age of elderly was 71.3±9.1, 29.2% of older adults with mobility impairment had arthralgia, 66.8%of them had continuous pain, 58.2% of older adults with mobility impairment having houses with poor kitchens and toilets in safety measures, 80.9% of older adults with mobility impairment were unable to prepare their food, 54.3% of them had feeling of hopelessness and 61.8%of study sample cannot able to participate in social activities. Conclusion based on results of the current study, showed that mobility impairment of elderly were greatly affected by joints diseases rather than muscles and other disorders and more than three quarters of them were unable to perform physical activities of daily living as food preparation, while in psycho-social status more than half had feeling of hopelessness and suffered financial burden. Recommendations suggested that health education program about prevention of joint and muscles diseases, coping with physical daily living activities and socio- psychological needs.

 [Omaima Mohamed Esmat and Hala M. M. Hussein. Quality of Life of Older Adults with Mobility Impairment. J Am Sci 2012;8(11):752-759]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas081112.106

 

Key words: Quality of life, Mobility impairment, Activities of daily living

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 17, 2012.

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