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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 3, Cumulated No. 61, March 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0903

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Development of Pavement Maintenance Management System For Airports in Egypt

 

Ahmed Mohamady; Mahmoud El Saied Solyman and Raafat M. A. Morsy

 

Construction Engineering and Utilities Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt

dr_a_mohamady@yahoo.com, elsaied2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this research is to assess the condition of general aviation airport pavements in Egypt then develop a systematic maintenance program at their disposal to help airport managers and maintenance personnel in identifying and properly treating the pavement distresses and deterioration. Also assessing the airport pavements will be the main basic for developing pavement maintenance management system for Airports in Egypt. Total runways across the country were surveyed. MicroPAVER (a PMS system developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) was selected as the platform for the PMS. An inventory database was developed for all runways in the network. Information about the construction and maintenance history was collected and entered into the MicroPAVER database. On-site surveys were conducted to assess pavement conditions in terms of the Pavement Condition Index (PCI). Based on the condition survey performed using the MicroPAVER methodology, it was found that approximately 58% of sections surveyed are in “good” to “satisfactory” condition. More importantly, almost 23% of the network can be rated as “good.” Also, it was found that 29% of the sections surveyed are in “fair” condition. Overall, the condition of the network can be rated as “satisfactory.” A condition curve was developed for each of the two different types of surfaces (Asphalt Concrete AC and Portland Cement Concrete PCC) then the pavement conditions of all branches were predicted. Comparison between two budget scenario reports was developed. The results analysis show that the runways of the general aviation airports eligible for Holding Company funding in Egypt could be brought to a “satisfactory” rating or above (i.e. average PCI ≥ 70) by spending approximately LE 30 million on average per year for the next five years. After that, the spending would decrease considerably and the average pavement condition could be kept above (70) by performing diligent and timely preventive maintenance.

[Ahmed Mohamady; Mahmoud El Saied Solyman and Raafat M. A. Morsy. Development of Pavement Maintenance Management System For Airports in Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.01

 

Keywords: PMS, PMMS, Airport pavement management system, Airport Pavement maintenance.

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Morphometric Study Of The Renal Arteries In Saudi Population From Aseer Region Using 3-D MDCT Angiography

 

Mohamed Atif A. Said Ahmed1 and Hamed A. Gobran2

Departments of Anatomy1 and Radiology2, College of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Mohamedatif2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The renal artery exhibits wide spectrum of origin variation. The renal artery anatomy plays a considerable role in selecting donors. 3-D angiotomography is the best modality for vascular anatomic evaluation. The aim of the present study was first, to provide morphometric data concerning the renal arteries in people of Aseer region, K.S.A. and second, to establish relationships between those arteries. Methods: Data from a retrospective review were performed using 3-D MDCT angiography of 100 consecutive Saudi patients fulfilled all research criteria and had a readable CTA were selected (54 males and 46 females) with mean age 54.7 ▒ 5.2 years. Results: The median level of the origin of right renal artery and left renal artery is at the level of the lower third of L1 and the disc between L1 and L2, respectively. The mean of the measured angle of the right renal and left renal arteries is 55║▒ 7║ and 85║ ▒8║, respectively. There was no difference between the diameters of the main renal arteries. The renal artery diameter had a direct correlation with the angle of origin. The renal artery diameter in kidneys with extra renal artery was significantly lower than those without an extra renal artery. Renal arteries associated with extra renal artery showed greater length. The length of the segment between celiac trunk and the renal arteries was significantly correlated with the length of the abdominal aorta. Conclusion: Understand the position, calibre and angle of the renal arteries, were advantageous to make use of selective arteriography, arterial embolism therapy and plan stent grafts. 

[Mohamed Atif A. Said Ahmed and Hamed A. Gobran. Morphometric Study Of The Renal Arteries In Saudi Population From Aseer Region Using 3-D Mdct Angiography. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):10 -15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.02

 

Keywords: Morphometric – Renal artery – CT Angiography – Saudi population.

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Predictive and prognostic value of RIFLE classification on ICU Patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy

 

Walid M Afifi, Haitham E Mohamed1, Mohamed Abdelzaher2

 

Internal Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Zagazig University Hospitals

1Anaesthesia & ICU department, Zagazig University Hospitals

2 Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University Hospitals

drwalidafifi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The optimal timing to start continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill ICU patients has not been accurately detected. The recently proposed risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria for diagnosis of AKI may provide a method for nephrologists to decide the “optimal timing” for starting dialysis. Objective: our study aimed: (1) to analyze the correlation between RIFLE stages at the start of CRRT and 90-day survival rate after CRRT start, (2) to further analyze the correlation of RIFLE stage with the malignant kidney outcome in the 90-day survivors, and (3) to determine the effect of the timing of CRRT on the 90-day survival and malignant kidney outcome in 90-day survivors. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on the data of 96 critically ill patients in ICU, CCU, and CICU with AKI, treated with CRRT during a 1-year period in MOH hospital, makkah, Saudi Arabia from November 2011 to November 2012. Information such as age, sex, RIFLE stage, sepsis, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and number of organ failures before CRRT, CRRT time, survival, and kidney outcome conditions at 90 days after CRRT start was collected. According to their baseline severity of AKI at the start of CRRT, the patients were assigned to three groups according to the increasing severity of RIFLE stages: RIFLE-R (risk of renal dysfunction, R), RIFLE-I (injury to the kidney, I) and RIFLE-F (failure of kidney function, F) using RIFLE criteria. The malignant kidney outcome was classified as RIFLE-L (loss of kidney function, L) or RIFLE-E (end-stage kidney disease, E) using RIFLE criteria. The correlation between RIFLE stage and 90-day survival rate was analyzed among these three RIFLE-categorized groups. Additionally, the association between RIFLE stage and the malignant kidney outcome (RIFLE-L+RIFLF-E) in the 90-day survivors was analyzed. Results: forty eight of the overall 96 patients survived to 90 days after the start of CRRT. There were 14, 20 and 62 patients in RIFLE-R, RIFLE-I and RIFLE-F groups respectively with corresponding 90-day survival rate of 78.5 % (11/14), 60 % (12/20) and 40.3 % (25/62) (P <0.01, compared among groups). The percentage of the malignant kidney outcome of 90-day survivors in the RIFLE-R, RIFLE-I, and RIFLE-F groups was 18.18 % (2/11), 25 % (3/12) and 56 % (14/25), respectively (P <0.01). After adjustment for other baseline risk factors, the relative risk (RR) for the 90-day mortality significantly increased with baseline RIFLE stage. Patients in RIFLE-F had a higher RR of 1.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.62) than patients in RIFLE-I (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.55–2.15) compared with patients in RIFLE-R (P for trend <0.01). Similarly, baseline RIFLE stage also significantly correlated with the odds ratio (OR) for the malignant kidney outcome in 90-day survivors (P <0.05). Ninety-day survivors in the RIFLE-F group had a borderline significantly highest OR of 6.88 (95% CI: 0.85–55.67). Conclusions: The RIFLE classification may be used to predict 90-day survival after starting CRRT and the malignant kidney outcome of 90-day survivors in the critically ill patients with AKI treated with CRRT. Early versus late initiation of dialysis prior to RIFLE-F stage may be the optimal timing.

[Walid M Afifi, Haitham E Mohamed, Mohamed Abdelzaher. Predictive and prognostic value of RIFLE classification on ICU Patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy. J Am Sci 2013;9(3): 16-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.03

 

Keywords: RIFLE stage; CRRT; acute kidney injury; prognosis.

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Combined Effect of Electromagnetic Field and Therapeutic Exercises on Muscle Mass in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

Mohamed A. Eid and Mostafa S. Ali

 

Department of physical therapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia. mohamed.eid27@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background/Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the combined effect of electromagnetic field and therapeutic exercises on lean muscle mass in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Methods: Thirty children with polyarticular JRA were included in this study. Fifteen children represent study group and treated with electromagnetic field and therapeutic exercises and fifteen children represent control group and treated with therapeutic exercises only. Lean muscle mass was determined before and after six months of treatment. Results: Pre-treatment results of both groups indicate that mean lean muscle mass was 23975.2▒ 8152.21 gm. (mean ▒ SD) in control group and 24016.26 ▒ 7864.39 gm.in study group. There was no significant difference between both groups which indicate they were homogenous (p = 0.98). But post-treatment results showed that mean lean muscle mass was 24143.26 ▒ 8416.94 gm. in control group while that of study group was 27488.8 ▒ 7543.39 gm. which was significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.26). Conclusion: We conclude that treatment with electromagnetic field together with therapeutic exercises are effective in increasing lean muscle mass in children with polyarticular JRA than therapeutic exercises alone.

[Mohamed A. Eid and Mostafa S. Ali Combined Effect of Electromagnetic Field and Therapeutic Exercises on Muscle Mass in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Am Sci 2013;9(3): 22-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.04

 

Keywords: Lean muscle mass, Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Electromagnetic field.

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Behavior of Chromate ions in CaO-Al2 (SO4)3 Suspensio

 

Khulood A.A. AbuAlola

 

Chemistry Department, Community College for Girls in Hyanakiyah, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, K.S.A. Tel: 096605309610; k_k_aboala@ymail.come-mail:

 

AbstractBehavior of the chromate ions and their removal efficiency in CaO + Al2(SO4) suspensions with molar ratio 4:1 was studied. The suspension prepared by agitating the reactants with a magnetic stirrer for constant time intervals at room temperature. Run products were collected by filtration, washing and air-dry and evaluated by XRD, SEM and DTA. According to XRD and SEM results the major product in this suspension was ettringite with minor amounts of gypsum and calcite. DTA results showed that, the presence of the chromate ions in the suspension retard the formation of the products and decrease the degree of their crystallinity. However there is a high removal of the chromate ions by the formed suspension products. This is related to the substitution of the chromate ions by sulfate ions in the ettingite crystals. [khulood A.A.Abualola, Behavior of Chromate ions in CaO-Al2 (SO4)3 Suspension, J Am Sci 2013;9(3):28-33] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.05

 

Key words: CaO-Al2(SO4)3 suspensions, Chromate ions, Removal.

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Body Mass Index (BMI) As a Prognostic Factor in Breast Cancer

 

Emad Sadaka and Samar Galal

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

emad_sadaka@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background/Aim: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death in females. So, there is a continuous need for the development and search for new prognostic factors which will aid in therapy. Studies in breast cancer have shown conflicting data about the prognostic significance of body size, ranging from no prognostic significance to adverse outcome. The aim of this work is to correlate obesity with clinic-pathologic findings and patient survival to assess its prognostic significance. Patient & Methods: From January 2002 through December 2007, a series of 243 patients with non-metastatic invasive breast carcinomas were eligible for this study. All female patients were analyzed for correlation of obesity with clinicopathologic findings and patient survival to assess its prognostic significance. Results: Older patients (>50 years) (p=0.001), post-menopausal (p<0.01) patients with higher T stage (p=0.01), higher nodal stage (p<0.01), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) (p=0.01) and higher tumor grade (p<0.01) were more likely to have significantly higher body mass index (BMI) of >30 kilograms/m2. There were no significant difference as regards the correlation between BMI and either hormonal status (p=0.192) or HER2 status (p=0.085).Univariate & multivariate analysis revealed that high BMI was significantly associated with a shortened DFS and OS. Conclusion: Body mass index appears to be potentially useful indicator of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients and it was found to be an independent prognostic factor, thus can be used to detect cases with aggressive biological behavior that can benefit from more aggressive therapy.

[Emad Sadaka and Samar Galal. Body Mass Index (BMI) As a Prognostic Factor in Breast Cancer. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):34-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.06

 

Key words: Obesity, Breast cancer, Clinicopathologic characters, Prognostic factors, Survival. Body mass index (BMI) as a prognostic factor in breast cancer

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A Comparison between Ohlson 95 Model and Discounted Cash Flow: Empirical Evidence from Iran

 

Zahra Poorzamani1 Mohammad Pouranfar2

 

1Department of Accounting, Central Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Student of Accounting, Department of Accounting, Central Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Email: zahrapoorzamani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study compares the discounted cash flow approach and ohlson 95 methods. In theory discounted cash flow and ohlson95 approaches are equal, hence this study detects whether it is possible to astute that one approach has a privilege to the other form. The two valuation models are analytically compared. This study presents that if users present uncomplicated hypotheses in their valuation, they present prejudices in their corporation value estimations. Finally, due to the fact that framework for predicting is usually on the basis of accrual accounting and also the budget control is most of the time on the basis of accounting numbers rather than cash flow numbers, it is probable that corporation value estimation on the basis of accrual accounting conceptions and financial statement analysis is more concisely than the later.

[Zahra Poorzamani Mohammad Pouranfar. A Comparison between Ohlson 95 Model and Discounted Cash Flow: Empirical Evidence from Iran. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):40-47]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.07

 

Key words: Ohlson95, Discounted cash flows, Discount rate, Book value.

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Histological and Histochemical Studies of the Efferent Ductules of Male One Humped Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)

 

Yahya Ahmed, Mohamed El-Sakhawy, Mamdouh El-Shammaa, Abdel-Aleem El-Sabaa, Shaymaa Hussein and Mohamed Alkafafy*, **

 

Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

* Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Minufiya University, Egypt.

** Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

profsakhawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 9 adult apparently healthy male camels were used to study the histology and histochemistry of the efferent ductules during the winter season (rutting season). The efferent ductules were considered as a part of the excurrent duct system of the testis. They were convolutions of tubules that connect the rete testis to the ductus epididymidis. The tunica albuginea covering the ascending first region of the epididymal head showed many valved veins. This first region contained the extratesticular part of the rete testis and convolutions of efferent ductules, while the second region revealed convolutions of efferent ductules as well as the tubules of the initial segment of the epididymal duct. The extratesticular rete testis was lined by cuboidal epithelium. There was abrupt change in the epithelium lining the rete testis and that of efferent ductules. The efferent ductules were lined by epithelial membrane of three types of cells; columnar (ciliated and non ciliated), basal and migrating cells. The epithelium of the initial part of efferent ductules was lined with numerous columnar non ciliated cells showing numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles and fine granules. They showed signs of apocrine secretion. Along the course of the efferent ductules the columnar ciliated cells increased towards the epididymal duct. Few tall and slender dark cells appeared in the epithelium near the junction with the epididymal duct. The efferent ductules of camel were surrounded by fine peritubular smooth muscle layers, which increased in frequency toward the epididymal duct. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme reactivity was observed throughout the subepithelial connective tissue and blood vessels. Strong granular activity of acid phosphatase enzyme was demonstrated in the whole epithelium.

[Yahya Ahmed, Mohamed El-Sakhawy, Mamdouh El-Shammaa, Abdel-Aleem El-Sabaa, Shaymaa Hussein and Mohamed Alkafafy. Histological and Histochemical Studies of the Efferent Ductules of Male One Humped Camel (Camelus Dromedarius). J Am Sci 2013;9(3):48-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.08

 

Key words: Camel, efferent ductules

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Oral and dermal exposure of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin mixture induced cytogenetic, histopathological damage and oxidative stress in rats

 

Mohamed A. Noaishi1, Amr A. Abd Allah. 1 and Mostafa M.M. Afify2

 

1 Mammalian Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt.

2Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Bani Sweif University, Egypt

Corresponding author: noaishi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Present study is aimed to estimate the risk and the hazard of oral and dermal exposures of chlorpyrifos and cypermithrin mixture which are commonly used in Egypt. And to evaluate which type of exposure is more toxic or dangerous than other. Subacute toxicity of repeated 28 days in male white rats was assessed. The study was included some toxicological parameters ranged from cytogenetic, histopathological and oxidative stress effect. Eighty Wistar strain rats (weighing 140-160g) were randomly divided into four main groups (a, b, c and d) which were further subdivided into subgroups. Each of group (a) and (b) consists of 5 subgroups and were used to determine the oral and dermal LD50. Each of group (c) and (d) consists of 3 subgroups and were used in oral and dermal treatments respectively. The first subgroups of (c) and (d) were kept as control. Rats of two subgroups (c) treated orally by gavage 1/20 and 1/30 of LD50. Rats of two subgroups (d) treated dermally by 1/30 and 1/50 of LD50. The results revealed that, the pesticides mixture induced neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, severe histological changes. Also resulted in lipid peroxidation, inhibition in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (Cat) and reduced the glutathione contents. In addition the results showed the dermal treatments were more toxic and hazard than oral treatments. So, these mixtures of pesticides when present together may induce bio-activation sites resulting in the increase of the observed toxicity of these pesticides mixture compared with the toxicity of the individual alone. Finally, the results strongly impose the need to more detailed testing of the toxicity of mixture exposure than to one individual.

[Mohamed A. Noaishi, Amr A. Abd Allah and Mostafa M.M. Afify Oral and dermal exposure of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin mixture induced cytogenetic, histopathological damage and oxidative stress in rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):56-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.09

 

Key words: chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, mixture, Rats, chromosomal aberrations, Histopathology, oxidative stress.

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Online Shopping: Perceptions and Expectations of the Students at The University of Jordan

 

Osama Rababah

 

Department of Business Information Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

O.Rababah@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: Electronic marketing is a revolution in today’s business world. Most businesses have been forced to adapt to the rapid pace of technological change over the last decade. A new definition of consumer behavior has emerged in an age of digital economy. In a broad sense, electronic marketing is the use of computer technology, or electronic-based activities, to improve marketing performance. It enhances an online execution of delivering customer benefits and satisfaction, thus the convenience of online shopping. This paper seeks to discover the reason why more and more customers prefer to do shopping online rather than in the retail stores and what factors may influence the purchase decision-behavior of the e-shoppers. It is also addresses that one of the fundamental issues of marketing: how to attract and touch the customers' mind in the highly competitive Internet marketplace and analyzes the factors affecting the online consumer’s behavior. The scope of this paper is to examine the perception of the student’s adopters and non-adopters of online shopping at the University of Jordan in terms of demographic profile, expectation of online stores, and advantages and disadvantages of online shopping.

[Osama Rababah. Online Shopping: Perceptions and Expectations of the Students at The University of Jordan. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):66-71]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.10

 

Keywords: Online Shopping, e-Commerce, e-Marketing, Customer Attitude, B2C Business.

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Examining the Effects of Word of Mouth marketing on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of electrical appliance industry in Iran

 

Amir Hossein Zaafaranlou1, Soheil Sarmad Saeedi2, Mahmoud Zamani3

 1School of Management, U.A.E branch, Islamic Azad University, Dubai, U.A.E

2Department of Marketing, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3Department of Marketing, Institute of Management Studies, Tehran, Iran.

a.zaafaranlou@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate different aspects of marketing, word of mouth and its impact on consumer buying behavior. Research Applied practical purpose, the method of data collection, descriptive - survey and the primary means of Data were collected using a questionnaire which is designed based on the Likert scale is at 7 times. Number Sample with 200 people per brand (400 samples of each) which the students were randomly Simply choose. In order to test hypotheses of correlation and linear regression methods were used. All Been conducted. Calculations and statistical analysis software SPSS. Among the 5 assumptions of the study indicated that the relationship between size and improved model of buying behavior Sernovitz Customers about the brand in Iran Broadcasting assumptions about the relationship between activity participation, tools Marketing by mouth and spread issues and improve the consumer buying behavior and only confirmed the hypothesis about the relationship International track and improve consumer buying behavior was rejected. Even in other countries of similar studies have been carried out under the following aspects purchasing and its impact is investigated. Even the same models were used to investigate the importance of cooperative behavior and follow-up is less pointed. Perhaps this is because it is usually by word of mouth marketing activities prior to collection buy more attention, and even in many of the definitions of these activities is limited. In this study, the behavior of the purchase was also taken into consideration.

[Zaafaranlou A, Sarmad saeedi S, Zamani M. Examining The Effects of Word of Mouth marketing on Consumer Buying Behavior: A Case Study of electrical appliance industry in Iran. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):72-79]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.11

 

Keywords: brand, consumer behavior, marketing, word of mouth, Samsung, Iran.

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Application of Designed Orientation Program for Nurse Interns Based on Learning Needs Assessment

 

Heba K. Obied1, Fouada M.Shabaan1, Helmy H. Shalaby2 and Samar H. Gadiry1

 

1Nursing Administration Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University

2Plastic Surgery Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

dr_samar29@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Orientation programs based on LNA encourage nurse interns to feel safe and enable them to demonstrate competency in the basic clinical and management skills needed for providing high quality and safe patient care. Using LNA ensure NIs commitment to these program. This study aimed to design, implement, and evaluate an orientation program about clinical and management skills needed for nurse interns based on the findings of learning needs assessment tool. The study was conducted at Tanta University Faculty of Nursing and Tanta University Emergency and Main Hospitals ICUs and obstetric and dialysis departments. SUBJECTS: (384) nursing students passed the 4th academic year attended the orientation program. (198) spent their internship year at TUHs were included in the researcher’s observation 3 months post program. TOOLS: The data collection was achieved by using LNA scale, knowledge test, NIs’ orientation program and follow up observation sheet. RESULTS: Pre program around half (51%) of NIs assessed themselves as cannot carryout different clinical and management skills. Majority (87%) of NIs got low knowledge level for both skills. Post orientation program statistical significant improvement at (P≤0.05) was found in NIs’ knowledge and practical levels for both clinical and management skills. It is recommended to conduct orientation programs based on nurse interns’ LNA and knowledge test before starting internship year and at the beginning of each new rotation, provide nurse interns with pass booklet include standard procedures required to be carried out in each rotation, provide them also with designed evaluation manual based on the pass booklet and implementing nursing mentor-ship and preceptor-ship programs during internship year.

[Heba K. Obied, Fouada M.Shabaan, Helmy H. Shalaby, and Samar H. Gadiry. Application of Designed Orientation Program for Nurse Interns Based on Learning Needs Assessment. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):80-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.12

 

Key words: Orientation program, nurse interns, learning needs assessment.

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Histopathological Study of the Lymphoid Organs in Different Species of Egyptian Rats

 

Abdel-Hakim Saad, Rewaida A. Abdel-Gaber, and Hanaa M. Mahmoud

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

rewaida85@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The development of lymphoid organs depends on the correct expression of several molecules within a defined timeframe during ontogeny. Although this is an extremely complex process, with each secondary lymphoid tissue requiring subtly different signals, a common framework for lymphoid development is beginning to emerge. So, we selected three species of the most common Egyptian rats, Arvicanthis niloticus, Microtus agrestis and Acomys cahirinus to determine whether or not there are interspecific differences in their lymph nodes. The possibility of interspecific differences is important because the selected species represent three significantly different size categories (small, represented by M. agrestis, moderate represented by A. cahirinus, and large represented by A. niloticus) with presumably different diets and different physiologic strategies. Also, the random variations of the lymph node number within species of A. niloticus, M. agrestis and A. cahirinus were noted. These individual variations are remarkable in the posterior cervical, brachial, internal jugular and axillary lymph groups.

[Abdel-Hakim Saad, Rewaida A. Abdel-Gaber, and Hanaa M. Mahmoud. Histopathological Study of the Lymphoid Organs in Different Species of Egyptian Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):93-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.13

 

Keywords: Arvicanthis niloticus - Microtus agrestis - Acomys cahirinus - Lymphocyte.

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Leukocytospermia compared to those with spinal cord injuries and without spinal cord injuries

 

Kowsar Infertility Center (1377 and 1376)

 

Dr. Mohammad Taghi Palizgir, Dr.S.K Forotan, Dr. Ali Akbar Rezaei

Dr.palizgir@gmail.com

 

Abstract: According to data suggesting that in males with leukocytospermia, infertility is more prevalent, a study according to exiting data, extracted from registers of infertile patients referred to "Kowsar center for infertility" was done, for determining of leukocytospermia prevalence and comparing it in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and those without SCI. In 410 cases of infertile males, 171 and 239 sperm grams from patients with SCI and those without SCI were studied, respectively. Existence of SCI and number of WBC \ HPF in semen registered in a data chart. In patients with SCI is almost all of patients there was a higher number of WBC \ HPF than normal (> 0-1) - (eg. Leukocytospermia) 87.1% which the highest was> 50 WBC \ HPF (32.7%) and then 1 -5 WBC \ HPF (15.2%). In patients without SCI, 57.8% were in normal range of WBC in semen (0-1 WBC \ HPF) (eg no leukocytospermia) and 26.8% had 1-5 WBC \ HPF. There was a significant difference between prevalence of leukocytospermia in these two groups.

[Mohammad Taghi Palizgir, S.K Forotan, Ali Akbar Rezaei. Leukocytospermia compared to those with spinal cord injuries and without. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):106-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.14

 

Keywords: Leukocytospermia, prevalent, WBC \ HPF, determining, SCI.

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Study of the Relationship between the Cause of Renal Failure and Outcome in Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis

 

Gamal F. El Naggar, Khaled Zaghloul, Loai El Ahwal, and Mahmoud F. Selim

 

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

Gamalelnagar_77@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Renal failure is a challenging complication of cirrhosis and is one of the most important risk factors when liver transplantation is being considered. Patients with cirrhosis and renal failure are at high risk for death while awaiting transplantation and have an increased frequency of complications and reduced survival after transplantation, as compared with those without renal failure. Aims: To evaluate the causes of renal failure in patients with decompansated liver cirrhosis and its impact on prognosis. Patients & Methods: One hundred patients with decompansated liver cirrhosis associated with renal failure (serum creatinine equal to or more than 1.5 mg/dl) were included in our study; they were classified according to the cause of renal failure into 4 groups: hepatorenal syndrome, infection, hypovolemia and parenchymal kidney disease. All patients in the study were subjected to full history taking, complete clinical examination, pelviabdominal ultrasonography, chest X ray and laboratory investigations including blood urea, serum creatinine, urine analysis, ascitic fluid analysis, serum sodium, serum potassium, urinary sodium, and serum osmolarity. Results: 37 patients (37%) developed renal failure due to hepatorenal syndrome, 31 patients (31%) due to infection especially spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, 22 patients (22%) due to hypovolemia especially upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding and 10 patients (10%) due to parenchymal kidney disease. There was statistically non - significant increased incidence of diabetes melllitus among group II (infection group) as compared to other groups (p. value 0.054). Prognosis depends on the cause of renal failure as 16 patients of hepatorenal syndrome died within 2 weeks of admission, 5 patients died due to infection, 4 patients died due to hypovolemia and no patients died due to parenchymal kidney disease. There was statistically significant difference in outcome among studied groups (p. value 0.001). Conclusions: A simple classification of patients with decompansated liver cirrhosis according to cause of renal failure is useful in assessment of prognosis and may help in decision making in liver transplantation.

[Gamal F. El Naggar, Khaled Zaghloul, Loai El Ahwal, and Mahmoud F. Selim Study of the Relationship between the Cause of Renal Failure and Outcome in Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):112-118]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.15

 

Key words: renal failure, decompensated liver cirrhosis, and hepatorenal syndrome.

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Adjusting indigenous knowledge and new technologies in cotton cultivation in the city Garmsar

 

Elaheh Memarian1, Davoud Samari2

 

1, 2 Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran

elahehmemarian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study has been developed to adjust indigenous knowledge and new technologies in cotton cultivation in Garmsar. Adjustment is to adapt a person, object or society with an ultimate goal to be done in different economical, social and cultural dimensions. Unadjustment of both indigenous and new knowledge is one of the big problems causing no acceptance of proper technologies in indigenous societies as well as neglecting indigenous values in a scientific community. Qualitative and quantitative findings represent low adjustment in indigenous knowledge of cotton farmers which are the main holders of this knowledge with new technologies in cotton planting. Decision sharing, receiving benefits, and income level are all important in increasing the adjustment of indigenous knowledge and new technologies. This study indicates that political problems such as allocating the price, educational problems and lack of new technologies have been considered as serious barriers to the adjustment for thirty years. It also implies that the more interaction between experts and farmers, the higher score can be allocated to adjustment of indigenous knowledge and new technologies. This study is a survey that uses descriptive and inferential statistics to evaluate the variable relations and impacts. A validity assessed questionnaire has been used to gather data and SPSS win 18 has been used to analyze gathered data. The population included 92 people which were chosen randomly.

[Elaheh Memarian, Davoud Samari. Adjusting indigenous knowledge and new technologies in cotton cultivation in the city Garmsar. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):119-125]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.16

 

Key words: adjustment, adjusting, indigenous knowledge, new technologies, cotton.

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Investigating the Relation between Conservatism in Different Accounts (Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable) and Future Operating Cash flow: Evidence from Iran

 

Hassan Zohdi (Corresponding author) 1, Abdolghafour Mohammadzadeh 2, Mahdi Toujgi Zabol 3, Ahmad Taheri Nezhad 4, Alireza Dehvari 5

 

1. Internal Auditing Function,Tehran Cement Company

2. Faculty member of saravan Islamic Azad University

3. Department Of Accounting, Zabol Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zabol, Iran

4. Faculty member of Kashmar Islamic Azad University

5. Faculty member of S aravan Islamic Azad University

 

Abstract: Efforts have been made in this paper to investigate the relation between conservatism in different accounts and future operating cash flow. Also in this paper the companies listed on the stock exchange as well as sufficient number of samples during 2002 to 2011 were randomly selected. Auditing financial statements were used for this purpose. Considering the research results it can be relatively said that future cash flow may be anticipated better by using net profit. This is because accounting income is comprehensive and includes accrual items while net cash flow is only related to cash flow. The results of this research indicate a significant relation between the changes of some of the profit accrual items and next year operating cash flow.

[Hassan Zohdi, Abdolghafour Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi Toujgi Zabol, Ahmad Taheri Nezhad, Alireza Dehvari. Investigating the Relation between Conservatism in Different Accounts (Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable) and Future Operating Cash flow: Evidence from Iran. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):126-129]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.17

 

Keywords: Conservatism Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Accrual Items.

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Effect Of Vitamin D On Performance Of Ruminant Animal: A Review

 

Mehdi Eshaghian*1, Hamed AminiPour1, Mahnaz Ahmadi Hamedani1, Ali Akbar JannatAbadi1, Mehdi Ramshini1

 

Department of Veterinary, Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar, Sabzevar, Iran.

h.aminipor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Vitamin D is thought of as the “sunshine vitaminbecause it is synthesized by various materials when they are exposed to sufficient sunlight. The 2 major natural sources of vitamin D are cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol. In this chapter, the term vitamin D in the absence of a subscript will imply either vitamin D2 o vitamin D3. Under modern farming conditions, some animals, especially poultry are raised in total confinement with little or no exposure to natural sunlight. Even though with enough sunlight exposure, vitamin D is not needed in the diet, it still fits the definition of a vitamin in all respects for animals and humans that are confined indoors away from the sun. In recent years vitamin D receptors have been found in tissues not associated with the traditional role of calcium metabolism. The additional role of vitamin D awaits further elucidation.

[Mehdi Eshaghian, Hamed Amini Pour, Mahnaz Ahmadi Hamedani, Ali Akbar JannatAbadi, Mehdi Ramshin. Effect Of Vitamin D On Performance Of Ruminant Animal: A Review. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):130-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.18

 

Keyword: Vitamin D, Performance,Ruminant Animal.

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Positive Role of Counseling about Exclusive, Prolonged Breastfeeding to Delay Pregnancy

 

 1 Nadia H. Ahmed, 2Nadia A. Mohamed and Neama M. El-Magrabi3

 

1Obstetrics &Gynecological Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing,Assiut University

2Obstetrics &Gynecological Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University

3Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

drnadia37@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Increase in population awareness of exclusive and prolonged breast-feeding would be of considerable potential public health benefit in Egypt. Lactation amenorrhea method is a reliable form of contraception for up to six months following childbirth. Provided that the mother's periods have not returned and she is exclusively breast-feeding with sufficient feeds and no dummy or bottle use. The aims of this study was to assess knowledge of mothers' about exclusive and prolonged beast-feeding as a method of delaying pregnancy and, planning, implementing and evaluating a counseling intervention on promoting this method. A Quiz experimental design was used in carrying out this study using pre- posttest. The study was conducted at the Rural Health Unite and at El-Moteaa village which was randomly selected. The sample was 200 mothers attended the study setting for delivery. One hundred mothers were randomly assigned to intervention group and 100 for the control group. All mothers in the two groups reported intention to breast feed their babies. Intention to exclusively breast feeding was reported by 74% of the intervention group compared to 41 of the control group. Over all there was statistical significance improvement in mothers' knowledge at the post intervention regarding method of exclusive and prolonged breast feeding and its effect on delaying pregnancy. Also, pregnancy occurs in 9 women at the intervention group compared to 30 of the control group. The intervention was effective in correcting mothers' knowledge about exclusive and prolonged breast feeding and was significantly effective in delaying pregnancy among the intervention group. It was recommended that educational and counseling session about exclusive breast feeding should be provided by nurses about positive role in delaying pregnancy in the six months postpartum.

[Nadia H. Ahmed, Nadia A. Mohamed and Neama M. El-Magrabi Positive Role of Counseling about Exclusive, Prolonged Breastfeeding to Delay Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):139-147].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.19

 

Keywords: Lactation amenorrhea, Exclusive breastfeeding; delaying pregnancy, contraception.

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Attitudes of University Students towards Family Responsibility and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem

 

Wageda Mohamed Nasr Hamad

 

Faculty of Specific Education, Kafr EL-Shaikh University

dr.wagedahamad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study is aimed to identify the relationship between university students trends about family responsibility and self-esteem questionnaire and variety of the social and economic level of the family. The research sample was selected randomly from the provinces of Tanta and Kafr El-Sheikh from different social and economic levels. The research tools were applied to a sample of 200 university students. The research tools included, the data Form for the family, Questionnaire university students' attitudes towards family responsibility, and Measure of self-esteem. A questionnaire was applied to the university students' attitudes towards taking responsibility family axes and measure self-esteem and using correlation coefficient test and (t) test. The differences between average results of the study showed that: there is a correlation between attitudes of university students towards family responsibility and between some of the variables of the study of social and economic (educational level of the mother, family income, birth ranking). While, there were no statistically significant differences between the attitudes of university students towards family responsibility and self-esteem for the children of working and non-working mothers. In addition, there were significant level between university students attitude towards taking responsibility and self-esteem.

[Wagida Mohamed Nasr Hamad. Attitudes of University Students towards Family Responsibility and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):148-167] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.20

 

Keywords: Attitudes, University Students, family responsibility, self-esteem.

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Scalenotomy for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome

 

Mohamed Hasan, Mustafa Alwalily, Mostafa Elsayed, Mohamed Elgebale, Abdelbaset Saleh, Adel Ragab, Hamdy Behary, Bokhary Mahmoud, and Hatem Elkhouly

 

Neurosurgery. Faculty of Medicine, Al- Azhar University, Egypt.

neuro_m52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) must be strongly evaluated in every case of upper limb complain as TOS is often the underlying cause of refractory upper limb conditions facing neurosurgeon or orthopedic surgeon like frozen shoulder, cervical disc (as a double or a multiple crush syndromes) or carpal tunnel syndrome that frequently defy standard treatment protocols and surgeon must select the safest surgical approach for surgically indicated cases. The aim of this study is to evaluate supraclavicular scalenotomy for true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Patients and Methods: twenty patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome were operated on between 2008 and 2011. Mean age was 38.05▒8.85 years (range, 17 to 58 years); female/male ratio was 17/3. The most frequent symptom was paresthesia (75.0%). Seven patients (35%) had bilateral symptoms. All cases (20 cases) were true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (excluding disputed cases). Lower plexus (C8-T1/ulnar nerve) compression was present in 18 patients and upper plexus (C5-C7/median nerve) compression in 2 patients. Preoperative evaluation was done for all patients and includes plain radiography, nerve conduction velocity and MRI cervical, and MRI angiography for selected cases (not all). The indication for surgery was failure of conservative treatment for 6 months. The decision to operate was made if symptoms persisted after conservative therapy in a patient with true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Cervical rib cases, radiographic occurrence of cervical rib alone is not an indication for surgery unless associated with symptoms. Results: there were clinical and electrophysiologic improvement of the preoperative complaint in all cases (Mean ulnar nerve conduction velocity was 58.0▒6.07 m/s, range, 43 to 68 m/s) preoperatively and 66.55▒5.63 m/s (range, 47 to 70 m/s) postoperatively (p < 0.05) ) without any recorded complications nor recurrence during 1 year follow up period. Conclusion: Surgical decompression for thoracic outlet syndrome by only scalenotomy and release of associated bands(without interruption of osseous elements) is efficient and safe for true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.

 [Mohamed Hasan, Mustafa Alwalily, Mostafa Elsayed, Mohamed Elgebale, Abdelbaset Saleh, Adel Ragab, Hamdy Behary, Bokhary Mahmoud, and Hatem Elkhouly. Scalenotomy for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. J Am Sci 2013;9(3): 168-172] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.21

 

Keyword: thoracic outlet syndrome, anterior decompression,TOS diagnostic scale.

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Diallyl disulfide, from garlic oil, synthesizes human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) to TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through up-regulation of membrane FAS levels

 

Mohammed O. Altonsy1, Hala I Madkour2, Reda S Yousef 3 and Simon C. Andrews4

 

1Molecular Biology Lab., Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Egypt.

2Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

4The School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

halaibraheem2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Colon cancer cells resistance to apoptosis inducing factors, particularly those working through the extrinsic apoptotic rout, such as Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), may due to that these cells lack of the presence of FAS receptor on their membrane, to which TNF-α binds and causes the recruitment of caspase-8 and other caspases cascade required in apoptotic cell death. In addition to its reported impact as anti-tumour dietary elements, Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major organosulfur compound found in garlic oil, was examined in this research for its ability to induce membrane FAS expression in colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2), and thereby synthetizes such cells to TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis. Our results show that the administration of DADS to Caco-2 cell cultures significantly increased the number of dead cells, exhibited morphological changes characteristic to apoptosis and induced caspas-3 cleavage but not caspase-8. Western blot along with flow-cytometry data confirmed the induction of FAS expression, at the protein level, after DADS treatment, RT-PCR also confirmed FAS expression, at the transcriptional level. This resulted in restoring Caco-2 cells sensitivity to TNF-α and initiating the extrinsic pathway through FAS and caspase-8 cleavage. These results suggest that DADS induces apoptosis in colonic cancerous cells not only through the intrinsic pathways but also through enhancing the extrinsic pathway.

[Mohammed O. Altonsy, Hala I Madkour, Reda S Yousef and Simon C. Andrews. Diallyl disulfide, from garlic oil, synthesizes human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) to TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through up-regulation of membrane FAS levels. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):173-180] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.22

 

Key words: Diallyl disulfide, garlic oil, colonic adenocarcinoma, TNF-alpha, apoptosis and FAS.

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Management of Postpartum Interval of Nubian goats with PGF and GnRH

 

Adil Salim Elsheikh 1, 2, Nawal Nour Eldaim Omer1, Abdulrahman Mohamed Alqurashi 2

 

1 Department of Reproduction and Obstetrics Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Khartoum P.O Box 32.

2Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community College, Najran University, Saudi Arabia

adilelgarrai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:In this study two experiments were designed to examine the effects of prostaglandin (PGF) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the length of postpartum interval to first oestrous (PPI) and progesterone (P4) profile of postpartum (p.p.) Nubian goats. In experiment I the PPI and P4 profile of p.p. Nubian goats treated with PGF were compared with untreated control. Seventeen p.p. Nubian goats (2 to3 years old) were divided into 4 groups. Groups I (n = 4) was intramuscularly injected (i.m) with 125 Ág of PGF on day 7 p.p., group II (n = 4) was injected on day 15 p.p., group III (n = 4) was injected on day 21 p.p. and group IV (n = 5) was not injected and served as controls. Milk samples for P4 assay were collected after parturition every 3 days until P4 concentration in the milk of the goats leaped beyond 1.5 ng/ml. Injection of PGF on day 7 p.p. had no effect (p>0.05) on the PPI. However, PGF injections on day 15 and day 21 p.p. significantly (p<0.0I, P<0.00l) reduced the PPI by 18 and 30 days, respectively. The P4 level of goats treated with PGF on day 7, 15, and 21 p.p. remained below 0.04 ng/ml until days 51, 43, 30 p.p. respectively, then increased to a level ≥1.0 ng/ml. The P4 profile of the control goats remained below 0.04 ng/ml until day 61 p.p and started to increase to a level ≥1.0 ng/ml on day 67. Experiment II investigated the effects of GnRH injection during early p.p on the PPI and P4 profile of the Nubian goats. Twenty p.p Nubian goats were distributed to 4 groups. Group I (n = 5) was i.m injected with 100 Ág of GnRH on day 7 p.p, group II (n = 5) was injected on day 15 p.p and Group III (n = 5) was injected on day 21 p.p. Group IV (n = 5) was not injected and served as controls. GnRH injection on day 7, 15, and 21 p.p. significantly (p<0.05, p<0.0I, P<0.00I) reduced the PPI by 32.8, 40.8, 41.8 days, respectively. The P4 levels of goats treated with GnRH on day 7, 15, and 21 p.p remained below 0.04 ng/ml until days 36, 28, 27 p.p, respectively, and then it increased to levels ≥1.0 ng/ml. The P4 of the control group remained at a basal level of 0.04 ng/ml until day 68 p.p. and then increased to level ≥ 1.0 ng/ml. It is concluded that p.p Nubian goats treated with PGF or GnRH during early p.p resume ovarian activity earlier than non treated control. Thus their PPI was reduced.

[Adil Salim Elsheikh, Nawal Nour Eldaim Ome, Abdulrahman Mohamed Alqurashi. Management of Postpartum Interval of Nubian goats with PGF and GnRH. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):181-184] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.23

 

Key words: Postpartum interval, Nubian goats, PGF, GnRH.

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Effect of High Voltage Pulsed Galvanic Stimulation on Head Control in Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy

 

Abdel Aziz A. Sherief * and Somaia A. Hamed**

 

* Department of Physical Therapy for Growth and Development Disorder in Children and its Surgery,, Faculty of physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

**Department of physical Therapy Disease (Pediatric), Faculty of Physical Therapy, 6 October University, Egypt.

aabdelazez10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high voltage pulsed galvanic current in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy on head control. Thirty children participated in this study; they were assigned in two groups of equal number, group A&B. Their ages ranged from fourteen to eighteen months. Group A (10 males and 5 females) with mean age of 15.6+ 1.5 months, received only selected physical therapy program for sixty minutes. The program included neuro-developmental techniques, Rood approach, conductive education and sensory integrative therapy to establish head control, group B (11 males and 4 females) with mean age of 15.86+ 1.5 months. They received selected physical therapy program for thirty minutes as in control group combined with high voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation for 30 minutes for two months. Children were evaluated pre and post treatment for their head control. Results: revealed that there were statistically significant differences in group B regarding the improvement in head control as compared to group A. Conclusion: Adding high voltage pulsed galvanic to physical exercises significantly improved head control. The selected physical therapy program alone was not sufficient to improve head control.

[Abdel Aziz A. Sherief and Somaia A.Hamed. Effect of High Voltage Pulsed Galvanic Stimulation on Head Control in Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):185-188] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.24

 

Keywords: Cerebral palsy. Head control, High voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation.

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Morphometric Variations of the Suprascapular Notch as a Potential Cause of Neuropathy: Anatomical Study

 

Amal A. Mahdy* and Amal A. Shehab

 

Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Gharbia, Egypt. *mora2004@live.com

 

Abstract: Background: Suprascapular nerve entrapment has several causes particularly at the suprascapular notch. Anatomical variation of the notch is considered as one of the causes. Aim of the work: Study the variations of the suprascapular notch in Egyptian scapulae considering them as possible predisposing factor for suprascapular nerve entrapment. Material and Methods: One hundred and thirty two dried scapulae were examined and classified. Vertical (VD) and transverse (TD) diameters of the suprascapular notch as well as the distance (SGND) between its lower margin and the base of the spinoglenoid notch were measured. For all scapulae, maximal width (W), maximal length (L) and their index (W/L) were recorded. The previous measurements were statistically studied. Comparative analysis of the measured parameters was done and percentage of each type was calculated. Morphological variations of the suprascapular notches were studied. Results: Five types of suprascapular notches were recorded; type I having no notch (6.06 %). Type II notch was the most prevalent type (45.45%) with longer TD. Type III notch (43.93%) had longer VD or equal VD and TD. Type IV with suprascapular foramen was found in 3.03% while 1.5 % was of type V which had a foramen with a notch. Highly significant negative correlation was present between VD of the notch with SGND in types II and III scapular notches. However, there was highly significant and significant correlation between TD with SGND as well as with L and W/L index in type III. There were no other statistically significant correlations between measured parameters of the scapulae with the dimensions of suprascapular notches. Also, there was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters (SGND, W, L & W/L) in types I, II and III. Three morphological variations were detected in the scapulae having suprascapular notches (types II and III). They were U shape (76.27%), V shape (13.56%) and J shape (10.17%). Conclusion: This study classified the suprascapular notch into five types and three morphological variations which could be used in further investigations for management of suprascapular nerve entrapment.

[Amal A. Mahdy and Amal A. Shehab. Morphometric Variations of the Suprascapular Notch as a Potential Cause of Neuropathy: Anatomical Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):189-197] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.25

 

Keywords: Morphometric Variation; Suprascapular Notch; Neuropathy: Anatomical Study

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Role of Pregabaline in prevention of Oxaliplatine neuropathy.

 

Emad Sadaka1 and Alaa Maria2

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Gharbia, Egypt.

1emad_sadaka@hotmail.com 2alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Neuropathy occurs in most of patients receiving oxaliplatine. Many neuromedulatory drugs were tested in prevention and treatment of oxaliplatine induced neuropathy. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the role of pregabalin “PGB” (an antiepileptic drug approved as a treatment for neuropathy) in prevention of oxaliplatine induced acute neuropathy. Methods: Forty-seven patients with resected stage III and high risk stage II colon cancer were treated with FOLFOX4 protocol in 2 groups, the PGB group (23 patients) and the control group (24 patients) throughout the period From Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2011 at Clinical Oncology Department, Tanta University Hospital. Results: The PGB group showed lower incidence of all neurological grade of toxicity. After 2 cycle, Grade 1-2 toxicity presented in 21.7% and 45.8% for the PGB group and control group respectively (p=0.08). No patient showed grades 3-4 neurological toxicity in both groups. After 4 cycles, PGB group showed a significantly lower incidence of neurological toxicity, Grades 1-2 neurological toxicity presented in 34.8% vs. 62.5% for the control group and grade 3-4 in 4.3% vs. 16.7% respectively (p=0.02). After 6 cycles, PGB group maintained a significantly lower incidence of neurological toxicity (p=0.04). The need for oxaliplatine dose reduction was insignificantly lower in the PGB group 4.3% vs. 14.7% in the control group (p=0.2). Interference of daily activity was significantly lower in the PGB group than the control group (13% vs. 41.7% respectively; p=0.03). Patient in the PGB group showed a comparable DFS rate at 2 year with the control group (74.8% vs. 69.3% respectively, p=0.39). Conclusion: Pregabalin significantly reduced the oxaliplatine induced neuropathy without compromising survival.

[Emad Sadaka and Alaa Maria. Role of Pregabaline in prevention of Oxaliplatine neuropathy. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):198-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.26

 

Keywords: Oxaliplatine, Neuropathy, Pregabalin.

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Brucellosis in Iran: A Literature Review

 

Mehrdad Assadi1, Abolghasem Siyadatpanah2 *, Katayoun Bahman Soufiani3, Hayedeh Mobayyen4

Khosrow Sadighbayan5, Jafar Asadi6, Amir Emami Zeydi7, Behzad Javadian8

1- Ph.D Student of Medical Mycology, Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2- MSc in medical parasitology, Amol faculty of paramedical science, Mazandaran University of medical sciences, Sari, Iran, Email: asiyadatpanah@yahoo.com

3- MSc, Instructor in Immunology, Department of Immunology Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

4- Ph.D in Microbiology, Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

5- MSc in Microbiology, Department of microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

6- MSc in Nutrition Of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

7- PhD student in Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

8- MSc in microbiology, Amol faculty of paramedical science, Mazandaran University of medical sciences, Sari, Iran

 

Abstract: Brucellosis is one of most important pervasive diseases common between human and livestockand is yet considered important issue in many countries around the world. Although WHO achieved successful results to control and eradicate this infectious disease in some countries, this disease is yet accounted as an important infectious disease in some, especially developing, countries. Brucellosis causes to decrease efficiency, abortion, weakness and also results in economic losses in this part of the business. This disease is transmitted directly and indirectly from infected livestock to the human, its spectrum of clinical protests is different among patients, involves many organs and the need for long-term treatment is one of the other problems beside this zoonotic disease. Iran is among countries involved with endemic brucellosis and has yet been no longer successful to eradicate this infectious bacterial agent because of its variety of resources and reservoirs and is yet taken into consideration as one important infectious disease in health field and livestock industries.

[Mehrdad Assadi, Abolghasem Siyadatpanah, Katayoun Bahman Soufiani, Hayedeh Mobayyen, Khosrow Sadighbayan, Jafar Asadi, Amir Emami Zeydi, Behzad Javadian. Brucellosis in Iran: A Literature Review. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):203-208] (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.27

 

Keywords: Material Warehousing System, Optimize, Geographic Information, Genetic Algorithms.

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Corrosion Inhibition of Iron in Sulphuric Acid Solutions by Antibacterial Cephalosporin

 

M. Abdallah(1) A. S. Fouda (2), I. Zaafarany (1), A. Fawzy (1,3) and Y. Abdaalah (2)

 

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt

3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt.

metwally555@yahoo.com, ishaq@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The inhibitive effects of some antibacterial cephalosporin (cefotaxime, cefalexin, cefradine and cefazolin) on the corrosion of iron in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Results showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in concentration of inhibitor. Potentiodynamic studies proved that the inhibitors act as mixed type. The inhibitors are adsorbed on the iron surface according to Langmuir isotherm equation. All impedance spectra in EIS tests exhibit one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Inhibition efficiencies obtained from Tafel polarization, charge transfer resistance (Rct) is consistent.

[M. Abdallah, A. S. Fouda, I. Zaafarany, A. Fawzy and Y. Abdaalah. Corrosion Inhibition of Iron in Sulphuric Acid Solutions by Antibacterial Cephalosporin. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):209-215](ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.28

 

Keywords: Iron, antibacterial cephalosporin, corrosion inhibitors.

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Effective stress intensity factor of rock-like brittle materials subjected to different mode of mixity

 

Mohammed-Noor N. H. AL-Maghrabi1 and Amr A. Abd-Elhady2

 

1Mining Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering,King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: almagrabii@yahoo.com

2 Mechanical Engineering Dept., Jazan Univ., Jazan 706, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; on sabbatical leave from Mechanical Design Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

Aaa_elhady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During comminution, fracture initially occurs because particles contain preexisting cracks (flaws), which propagate in response to tensile stresses generated during compressive loading. At the tip of all cracks within a loaded material, the stress is concentrated because the load cannot be uniformly distributed across the full area. In the present paper, the effects of crack inclination angle and crack length on the through-thickness mode I (KI), mode II (KII), and effective () stress intensity factors (SIFs) have been analyzed by using three dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA). Edge crack in semi circular bend specimen (SCB) was utilized in this investigation. The mode of mixity (Me) values are equal to 1 (pure mode I), 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, and 0 (pure mode II). The crack length ratio, crack length/specimen radius (a/R), ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 by step equal 0.1 has been studied. In SCB specimen, the mode I geometry correction factor (YI) decreased by increasing the crack length for all values of mode of mixity, while, in the case of Me = 1 & 0.75 YI reached its minimum value at a/R ≈ 0.3 then YI increased by increasing the crack length. For all values of Me, Keff increased with increasing the crack length. However, the increment of increasing in Keff for a/R ≤ 0.3 is lower than that for a/R > 0.3.

[Mohammed-Noor N. H. AL-Maghrabi and Amr A. Abd-Elhady. Effective stress intensity factor of rock-like brittle materials subjected to different mode of mixity. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):216-220]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.29

 

Keywords: Stress intensity factor; Mixed mode I/II; SCB specimen; three dimension finite element.

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Formal Analysis and verification of Arrival Procedure for an Aircraft using Petri nets

 

Ayesha Sadiq1, 2, Farooq Ahmad1, Tabbasum Naz2, Humera Faisal2

1Faculty of Information Technology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

Email: ayeshasadiq@ciitlahore.edu.pk; dr.farooq@ucp.edu.pk; tabbasum.naz@ciitlahore.edu.pk; humerafaisal@ciitlahore.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Air Traffic Control (ATC) is safety critical real times service in Air Traffic Management (ATM) where system correctness is a major concern, and which requires high degree of confidence and targets zero failure rates to avoid loss of human lives and other disastrous (unfavorable) conditions. The ever increasing volume of air traffic may cause unwanted delays in the flight during the arrival procedure of the aircrafts. Hence, there is an absolute need to formally model and verify the arrival procedure of the aircrafts to avoid delays and to assure the controlled coordination between aircraft and air traffic controllers which are involved in this process. In this paper, we have modeled the arrival procedure of the aircraft using Petri nets which have been used traditionally as a rationale for formal specification and verification for such a safety critical systems. The proposed model assures how the behavior of acting objects affects the overall procedure of arrival management. Moreover, we have verified the proposed model using coverability tree as an analysis method that ensures the deadlock-freeness and reliability of the mechanism involved between the aircraft and the air traffic controllers (ramp controllers and ground controllers) for the arrival of the aircraft.

[Ayesha Sadiq, Farooq Ahmad, Tabbasum Naz, Humera Faisal. Formal Analysis and verification of Arrival Procedure of an Aircraft using Petri nets. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):221-228]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.30

 

Keywords: Petri net analysis and verification; ATC; aircraft arrival; formal modeling.

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Training Program to Improve Knowledge and Performance for Nurses Working with Psychiatric Patients

 

Rehab Fathy Abdel Hady Ghaith(1); Sorayia Ramadan Abd El-Fattah (2) Youser Mohammed Elmasri (3) Manal Mohamed El-Kayal (4)

 

(1) Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University.

(2) Department of Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Ain Shams University.

(3) Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University.

(4 Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University.

manalelk2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Schizophrenia is the most common of the severe mental illnesses. Working with chronic and severely mentally ill people is challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of training program on knowledge and performance of nurses working with psychiatric patients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted at Benha Governmental Hospital for Mental Health on a sample of 60 nurses working with schizophrenic patients. Data were collected using a knowledge questionnaire and a performance checklist before and after implementation of a training program. The results revealed that psychiatric nurses' knowledge about schizophrenia is deficient, while they have better knowledge of their role with psychiatric patients. Also, their performance seems to be more authoritative rather than considering patients' views. The implementation of the training program is effective in improving their knowledge and their performance, which showed general decreases in the scores of communicating own perception and increases in the scores of changing patient view. The changes in nurses' post-program knowledge and performance scores are influenced by some of their personal characteristics as age, gender, qualification, experience years, previous work in psychiatric hospital, and feeling satisfied with work in psychiatric nursing. Hence, the program achieved its goal of improving nurses' knowledge and performance. The study recommends adoption of the developed program and further research to assess the effectiveness of combined nursing and patients family interventions in the management of psychiatric patients.

[Rehab Fathy Abdel Hady Ghaith; Sorayia Ramadan Abd El-Fattah; Youser Mohammed Elmasri and Manal Mohamed El-KayaL. Training Program to Improve Knowledge and Performance for Nurses Working with Psychiatric Patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):229-236]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.31

 

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Nursing, Knowledge, Performance.

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Design, Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Ketoprfen Gel

 

Ahmed M. Samy1, Mamdouh M. Ghorab2, Shadeed G. Shadeed 2 and Eman A. Mazyed3

 

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Industries, Sinai University, El-Arish, North Sinai, Egypt

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop Ketoprofen (KPF) gel for tansdermal delivery that could enhance dissolution and permeability of KPF. KPF gels were prepared using Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and methyl cellulose (MC) with and without permeation enhancers (Tween 80 and Oleic acid). The effect of the employed gel bases and permeation enhancers on the in vitro release, permeation and viscosity of gel formulae was tested. The results showed that both polymers and permeation enhancers affect release, permeation and rheological properties of KPF gel. Formula containing 5% MC and 5 % Tween80 showed the best in-vitro release (98.22% ▒1.18), the best permeation through rat skin (96.39% ▒3.23) and the lowest viscosity.

[Ahmed M. Samy, Mamdouh M. Ghorab, Shadeed G. Shadeed and Eman A. Mazyed. Design, Formulation and Evaluation of Transdermal Ketoprfen Gel. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):237-242]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.32

 

Keywords: Ketoprofen, transdermal, permeation, methyl cellulose, Tween80

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Work-Related Violence among Female Employees in a University Hospital in Alexandria: An Epidemiologic Study

 

Mona Shawki Moustafa1, and Gihan Ismail Gewaifel2

 

1 Industrial Medicine and Occupational Health, Department of Community Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

2 Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

email: mona.moustafa@alexmed.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Violence is one of the most prevailing and dangerous occupational hazards facing health care workers (HCWs) notably female HCWs. Recently, violence became a major concern in different Egyptian hospitals notably after the 25th of January revolution and bursting increase demand on hospitals. Objectives: to determine prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months prior to the survey and its risk factors among female employees at the Main University Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. Subjects and methods: A cross sectional interviewing survey was conducted in The Main University Hospital in Alexandria from 1st of August 2011 till 1st April 2012 targeting 540 female HCWs. Results: Prevalence of violence incidents was (72.6%) among female HCWs. Verbal violence (70.7%) was the most common form encountered among female HCWs followed by physical (17.4%) and sexual violence (2.2%). Female HCWs exposed to violence were significantly younger than those who did not experience violence (P=0.048). Being single constituted risk for violence (OR=4.18, CI: 2.23-7.94) so as the positive history of exposure to violence at home (OR=2.6, CI: 1.7-4.1), engaging in rotating shifts (OR=2.2 CI: 1.5-3.4). Long-term impact of exposure to violence was in the form of arguments with colleagues (97.4%), dissatisfaction with current job (73.5%), depression (38.8%), and negative effects on social life (28.5%) and on job performance (19.4%). Conclusion: Violence is prevalent among female HCWs in Main University Hospital, Alexandria. Special attention should be directed to control violence against young single nurses in rotating shifts specially who had history of exposure to violence.

[Mona Shawki Moustafa and Gihan Gowaifel. Work-Related Violence among Female Employees in a University Hospital in Alexandria: An Epidemiologic Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):243-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.33

 

Keywords: violence, female, health care workers, hospital, occupational health.

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New boron complex based on 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole Chelates of bis(4-tert-butylphenyl): Synthesis and X-ray Crystal Structure

 

Adel M. Najar1 and Mike D. Ward2

 

1. Faculty of Education, Chemistry Department, Univeristy of Benghazi, Elmarj, Libya.

2. Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK S3 7HF, UK

noon1161970@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The synthesis and crystal structure of (Bt-BuPh2(3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazolate)) complex is described. The structure of the complex was determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallized in symmetry cell setting orthorhombic of P212121 with a = 11.067(2) ┼, b = 11.202(2) ┼, c = 20.542(4) ┼ and Z = 4. The structure of complex reveals that the boron centre is four coordinated. The formed compound, emitting materials which could be of interest for practical applications.

 [Adel M. Najar, Mike D. Ward. New boron complex based on 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole Chelates of bis(4-tert-butylphenyl): Synthesis and X-ray Crystal Structure J Am Sci 2013;9(3):251-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.34

 

Keywords: 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole; boron complex; crystal structure.

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Barrett’s Esophagus: Prevalence and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosectomy

 

Emad F. Hamed1, Waseem M. Seleem1, Ehab F. Mostafa1, Noha E. Shaheen2 and Rafaat A. Hegazy3

 

1Internal medicine, 2Tropical medicine and 3Pathology Departments, Zagazig University, Egypt

hobanoh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition in which the normal squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced by intestinal metaplasia of variable degrees. It represents the most serious consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), as it may progress to adenocarcinoma. Aim of the Work: The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of BE as well as the variable degrees of metaplasia in patients with GERD and to study the efficacy of endoscopic mucosectomy in treatment of BE with high grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal cancer (IMC). Patients and Methods: We studied 1268 patients presented to the outpatient clinic and endoscopy unit in Zagazig University hospital complaining of symptoms suggestive of GERD. They were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations including complete blood count, liver and renal function tests, random blood glucose, coagulation profile in addition to abdominal ultrasonography, electrocardiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for diagnosis of GERD and grading of its severity with biopsy taking and histopathological examination for patients who had BE. All patients with BE had a CT scan of their chest and abdomen. Patients who had BE with HGD or IMC were subjected to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). All patients with BE were followed for a median of 20 months with repeated upper endoscopy. Results: Out of 1268 patients presented to the outpatient clinic complaining of symptoms suggestive of GERD, 874 had endoscopic finding of various grades of reflux esophagitis and 52 patients had BE. Histopathological examination revealed that 35 patients had HGD, 12 patients had low grade dysplasia (LGD) and 5 patients had IMC. BE was more prevalent among the elderly males, obese patients and smokers. Those with HGD or carcinoma in situ (40 patients) were subjected to EMR and we found that EMR altered the histological grading of BE in 25 % of patients while 12.5 % were downgraded to LGD. EMR was associated with few complications the most significant of which was bleeding (10% of patients). One patient (2.5%) developed esophageal stenosis which was successfully managed by a single bougienage dilatation. Patients with LGD (12 patients) in addition to the 40 patients who had EMR were subjected to follow-up for a median of 20 months. One patient (2.5%) had a metachronous lesion detected after 25 months that was successfully treated with another EMR and histologically was still HGD. LGD patients had no change in grading during the follow up period.Conclusions: BE is a substantial medical problem in patients with GERD. EMR is a feasible, effective and low risk procedure that can be used to treat HGD and IMC which may complicate BE. Patients should be evaluated carefully prior to EMR and those with superficial lesions are the ideal candidates for EMR. However, it is strongly recommended to follow those patients by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at regular intervals to rule out any recurrence.

[Emad F. Hamed, Waseem M. Seleem, Ehab F. Mostafa, Noha E. Shaheen, and Rafaat A. Hegazy. Barrett’s Esophagus: Prevalence and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosectomy. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):253-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.35

 

Key words: GERD, Barrett’s esophagus, Endoscopic mucosectomy.

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The analyze of systemic approach in case of personality traits which are effective

on students entrepreneurship

 

Navid Reza Boroomand Alipoor 1, Hamid Erfanian Khanzadeh2, Prof. Dr. Norihan Abu Hassan 3, D.r. Akbarian Mohd. Mahdzir4

 

1.PhD candidate, University Technologi Malaysia (UTM)

2.Department of Public Administration University of Azad Islamic Mashhad (IRAN)

3.Assistant professor in Perdana School of science, Technology and innovation policy University Teknologi Malaysian(UTM)

4. Senior Lecturer in Perdana School of science, Technology and innovation policy University Teknologi Malaysian(UTM)

E-Mail: Boromand3565@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Undoubtedly, investigation of each phenomenon and social behavior in a systematic approach reflects its scientific nature. In the process of rapid change that has taken place on the context of the knowledge-based economy, due to nature of the systematic approach, creativity and entrepreneurship have been founded as two really valuable powers. The Iranian government has designed programs, in order to increase the level of student’s entrepreneurship ability; unfortunately the programs were not successful due to lack of consideration about the Iran’s cultural environment and obviously because of the absence of systematic approach. Entrepreneurship culture can be investigated in both the personality and social environment. This articles aim is to examine the influence of personality traits on entrepreneurship level of the society. The current research has been performed based on 4 major hypothesizes “correlation between personal compatibility circumstances and success, systemic approach, the control locus and risk taking ability”. The research method is descriptive and in order to examine the researches hypothesis, 477 of self-employed students from 3 university units, have been selected according to the stratified random sampling method, to fill up the questioners. The questioners (comprising 5 questioners) were analyzed by variance analyze test. The results just reject the impact of personal compatibility circumstances on success but the rest of hypothesize (3) are approved. By Examining the Iranian people’s beliefs and characteristics, an interesting result found. The finding shows majority of Iranian people have an external control locus and conservative. Perhaps the main reason for low rate of entrepreneurship among the Iranian students is the lack of systemic approach. So a sort of suggestions has been posed in order to solve the entrepreneurships problem among the Iranian students.

[Navid Reza Boroomand Alipoor, Hamid Erfanian Khanzadeh, Norihan Abu Hassan, Akbarian Mohd. Mahdzir. The analyze of systemic approach in case of personality traits which are effective on students entrepreneurship. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):261-268]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.36

 

Keywords: Systemic approach, creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, personality.

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Serum Leptin / Adiponectin Ratio: A Possible Marker of Endometrial Pathologies in patients with Postmenopausal Bleeding

 

1Mohamed Abdel Razik, 1Seham El Berry; 2Osama El Shaer; 2Khaled Salama; 3Ahmed Ezz Al Arab.

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mit Ghamer General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Egypt

Prof. mohamadabdelrazik@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum leptin / adiponectin ratio as a marker for endometrial pathologies in patients with postmenopausal bleeding. Study design: Cross section controlled study. Patients and Methods: The study included three groups 15 patients each with postmenopausal bleeding diagnosed by endometrial biopsy as: atrophic endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Fasting serum leptin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Outcome measure: Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in the three studied groups and the value of leptin / adiponectin ratio were investigated as a marker for endometrial pathologies. Results: Serum leptin level was significantly higher and serum adiponectin was significantly lower in patients with endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma compared to patients with atrophic endometrium (P<0.00). Leptin / adiponectin ratio of >1.1 was a good test that indicated endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma with an accuracy of 83.3% and 90% respectively. Conclusions: Serum leptin/adiponectin ratio may help in differentiation between atrophic and other endometrial pathologies in cases of inconclusive endometrial thickness and when general anesthesia is risky especially in obese, hypertensive patients. However, endometrial biopsy still remains the gold standard diagnosis for endometrial carcinoma.

[Mohamed Abdel Razik, Seham El Berry; Osama El Shaer, Khaled Salama and Ahmed Ezz Al Arab. Serum Leptin / Adiponectin Ratio: A Possible Marker of Endometrial Pathologies in patients with Postmenopausal Bleeding. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):269-273]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.37

 

Kew words: Serum leptin / adiponectin ratio, postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial pathologies.

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Ameliorative Effects of Selenium and Vitamins C and E on Chronic Fluoride Pancreatic Toxicity: Structural and Ultrastructural Changes in Albino Rats

 

Gamal Abdel Salam1, Esam M. Mehlab1, Mohamed Al-Shishtawy2 and Ibrahim Al-Zahrani3

 

Departments of Anatomy1and Forensic & Applied Toxicology2, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, KSA3

 

Abstract: Objectives: Histological evaluation of toxic effects of chronic exposure to sodium fluoride (NaF) on pancreas of albino rats and the impact of synchronous administration of selenium and vitamins C and E. Materials & Methods: The study comprised 60 normal healthy growing adult male albino rats, weighing 200-250 gm. The animals were divided into three equal groups: Control group received no medications, NaF group received NaF solution in a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) once daily for 35 days. Prophylaxis group received one daily dose of NaF solution in addition to selenium and vitamins C and E. All medications were administered orally using syringe connected to a 8F pediatric feeding tube. Studied animals were weighed daily for adjustment of the doses of used medications. After 35 days from the beginning of experiment all animals were sacrificed and pancreas was extracted for light microscopic (LM) examination of specimens stained with hematoxilin-eosin (Hx & E) and Masson's trichrome stain and for electron microscopic examination. Results: The percentage of BW gain was significantly higher in control group compared to other groups with significantly higher percentage of BW gain in prophylaxis group compared to NaF group. LM examination of NaF group specimen showed loss of normal architecture of pancreatic acini with the appearance of many cytoplasmic vacuoles. There is congestion of blood vessels (BV) with occasional extravasations between acinar cells. Focal condensation of CT around the congested BV and in between acini. In prophylaxis group, architecture of pancreatic acini was preserved with basal nuclei and apical zymogen granules. Dark and light cells of islets of Langerhans appeared normal with minimal congestion of BV. Masson's Trichrome stained sections showed condensation of connective tissue around BV with less CT in between acini. EM examination of NaF group specimen showed pyramidal acinar cells containing rounded basal heterochromatic nuclei and well defined rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some mitochondria are intact, while others are vacuolated with small number of zymogen granules. There were multiple vesicles of variable sizes with large vesicles having membranous structures and amorphous materials. Nuclei of B-cell of islet of Langerhans were heterochromatic and its characteristic granules are normal with central dense core separated from their limiting membrane by clear space, while other granules are vacuolated. In prophylaxis group, specimens showed that some pyramidal acinar cell had double nuclei and its cytoplasm contains rER, many zymogen granules and some vesicles. B-cell had heterochromatic nucleus and its characteristic granules had a dense core. A-cell had oval nucleus with moderate amount of electron dense granules. Conclusion: Chronic fluoride exposure had deleterious effect on pancreatic structure and ultrastructure with manifested failure to thrive. Such effects could be attributed to redox state disturbances and could be ameliorated with the use of selenium and vitamins C and E.

[Gamal Abdel Salam, Esam M. Mehlab, Mohamed Al-Shishtawy and Ibrahim Al-Zahrani. Ameliorative Effects of Selenium and Vitamins C and E on Chronic Fluoride Pancreatic Toxicity: Structural and Ultrastructural Changes in Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):274-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.38

 

Kew words: Fluoride, Pancreas, Structural changes, Ultrastructure changes, Selenium, Vitamins.

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Effect of Prolongation of Combined Treatment in HCV-4 Infection

 

Yehia El Shazly1, Salwa El Hadad2, Wafaa Kamal1, Mohamed Abdel Moghny1, Reham Al Swaff1 and Mohamed Hassan Fouad1

 

Internal medicine1 and pathology 2 Departments, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

moh.mazen2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and aim: The recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4 is pegylated interferon plus ribavirin 1000 or 1200 mg/day for 48 weeks [1]. Efforts to optimize and improve therapeutic outcomes are ongoing. Rapid virologic response (RVR) after 4 weeks of treatment and early virologic response (EVR) after 12 weeks of treatment play an important role in customization of therapy. In RVR patients who received 24 weeks of combined treatment but did not achieve SVR, the effect of prolongation of combined treatment on sustained virological response rate was not evaluated.The current study was to determine the effect of prolongation of combined treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin to 48 weeks on increasing sustained virological response rate in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (genotype 4) who achieve rapid virological response. Study design and methods This study was conducted on 300 patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infections who received combined treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. All patients were treatment na´ve and older than 18 years with mean age of 42.15▒9.5.Those patients who achieved RVR were randomly selected for 24 or 48 weeks of therapy. All patients received a combination of pegylated interferon α 2a 180ucg SC injection weekly plus ribavirin 800 – 1200 mg/day (dose adjusted according to body weight). All patients were adherent to treatment (all were compliant and did not develop any adverse effect that mandates either stoppage of treatment or reduction of the dose of either or both drugs),adherence to Treatment is defined as taking 80 % of each drug for at least 80 % of the duration of therapy [6]. All patients were subjected to History taking, thorough clinical examination including funds examination, laboratory investigations including: fasting and post prandial blood glucose level, liver function tests, Alpha fetoprotein, prothrombin time and INR, renal function tests, complete blood count, free T3, free T4, TSH, ANA, HIV and hepatitis C virus antibody using ELISA technique, HBsAg, HBs Ab, HBc Ab, HBeAg and HBe Ab. HCV RNA (PCR) in serum, both quantitative and qualitative and also HCV genotyping using INNO-LIPA HCVII test, Qualitative HCV RNA PCR was done for all patients at week 4 of combined treatment to assess RVR.For those who achieved RVR, Qualitative HCV RNA PCR was done at week 24 for group A patients’ and week 48 for group B patients’ to assess end of treatment response (ETR). For those who achieved ETR, Qualitative HCV RNA PCR was done 24 weeks after stoppage of treatment to assess SVR, Abdominal ultrasonography, Liver biopsy was done for 17 patients only (as the rest of the participants denied such an invasive procedure).The biopsy specimen was fixed in 10% formalin then transferred to the pathology department. METAVIR scoring system was used to assess the histological lesions, Fibroscan was done for the rest of the patients. The operator who performed the liver stiffness measurement was unaware of neither the clinical nor the laboratory data of the patients. Results were expressed in kilopascals (kPa). The values used to correlate elastometry with METAVIR scoring system were as follows: 0-2.9 kPa for F0, 3-5.9 for F1, 6-8.9 for F2, 9-16.9 for F3 and 17-75 for F4[8]. This study was approved by the local ethical committee of Ain Shams University Hospitals and a written consent was obtained from each individual before participation in the study. Results: 57 patients who achieved RVR (19%) (Out of 300 patients who received treatment for chronic hepatitis C genotype 4) were included. All patients were treatment na´ve and older than 18 years with mean age of 42.15▒9.5. They were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A: 29 patients (22 males and 7 females) received combined treatment for 24 weeks with mean age 42.2.▒9.2. Group B: 28 patients (24 males and 4 females) received combined treatment for 48 weeks with mean age 42.1.▒9.8.The differences between the two studied groups as regards the demographic data were insignificant; also there were insignificant differences between the two studied groups as regards pretreatment level of HCV viraemia, stages of fibrosis. The current study revealed an insignificant difference between the two studied groups as regards SVR and also statistically insignificant differences in SVR rates between rapid responders with different levels of viraemia whether treated for 24 or 48 weeks. There was a statistically insignificant difference in SVR rate between patients with F1 or F2 stages of fibrosis whether treated for 24 or 48 weeks, the same finding was observed among patients with F3 - F4 stages of fibrosis, however, the correlation between fibrosis stage and SVR was significant in both studied groups. Conclusion; Prolongation of standard combined treatment to 48 weeks does not influence SVR in HCV genotype 4 patients who achieve RVR while shortening of standard combined treatment to 24 weeks seems to be possible to all rapid responders without compromising their chance for achieving SVR.

[Yehia El Shazly, Salwa El Hadad, Wafaa Kamal, Mohamed Abdel Moghny, Reham Al Swaff, and Mohamed Hassan Fouad. Effect of Prolongation of Combined Treatment in HCV-4 Infection. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):284-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.39

 

Keywords: prolonged combined treatment, HCV-4 infection.

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Surgical versus conservative treatment of intra-articular glenoid fractures

 

Hesham Hamed Refae

 

Department of Orthopedics, South Valley University Hospital Qena, Egypt

Corresponding Author: Hesham Hamed Refae, MD Ass. Professor of Orthopedics Surgery.

Address: Aswan 84111 P.O. 33, Egypt. Or Department of Orthopedics, South Valley University Hospital Qena, Egypt

Fax: 002 0965345727- Mob: 00201001200154; Email: hesham_refa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Between 1994 and 2006, twenty two patients with intra-articular glenoid fractures were treated (17 surgically and 5 conservative) and prospectively followed for a minimum of 2 years. Patients and Methods: The mean age of patients was 30.4 years and clinical results were evaluated using the Denis scale in 20 available (2 patients from operative group lost their follow-up) patients after a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Results: According to Denis scale of pain and work status, 14 patients (93.3%) of the surgical group reported no or minimal pain, while 1 (6.7%) has moderate pain with occasional medication. In the conservative group, only 1 patient (20%) had no pain, 1 patient (20%) had moderate pain, and 3 (60%)reported severe pain with frequent medication. Normal range of motion was regained in all surgically treated patients within 3 months postoperatively and within 6 months in 2 (40%) out of the conservative group, while limitation of movement was observed in 3 (60%) of the conservative group. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of displaced intraarticular glenoid fractures usually results in far much better clinical and radiological outcome than conservative management.

[Hesham Hamed Refae. Surgical versus conservative treatment of intra-articular glenoid fractures. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):293-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.40

 

Keyword: Glenoid fractures, Scapular Fractures, Shoulder.

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Reinforced Epoxy Composites Chracteristics

 

Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi1, Fahd A. Al-Zahrani2, Hala M. Abo-Dief3 and Ashraf T. Mohd.4

 

 1Electrical Engineering Department, Al-Baha University, KSA

2UMM AL-QURA University, KSA.

3Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt. Currently with Al-Taif University, KSA.

 4Mechanical Engineering Department, Al-Baha University, KSA.

 Email: Sasg2000@gmail.com & fahad.alzahrani@gmail.com

& Mohamed.hala91@yahoo.com & Profasht@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An epoxy resin EP with backbone structure was obtained by curing o-cresol novolac epoxy resin with phenol novolac resin. The reinforced epoxy test specimens were prepared in the form of 45 Î 35 mm▓, 10.0 mm thickness and adding four meshes of aluminium wires of 40 Î 30 mm▓ with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wires of 0.2 mm to 1.0 mm diameters at 10mm from surface. The effect of the test temperature on the mechanical properties of the reinforced epoxy is carried out and investigated. The electrostatic charge is measured at a static loads ranging from 50 to 200 N at dry condition at various test parameters. A corrosion test is carried out and investigated on the produced reinforced epoxy composites using NaCl with concentration ranging from 0.01M to 1.0M at an immersion time of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 hrs at room temperature. Water sorption method is carried out to investigate the effect of the previous parameters on the reinforced epoxy composite properties.

[Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi, Fahd A. Al-Zahrani, Hala M. Abo-Dief, Ashraf T. Mohd. Reinforced Epoxy Composites Chracteristics. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):297-303]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.41

 

Keywords: EP epoxy resin, aluminium wires, corrosion, static electricity, water sorption, NaCl corrosion medium and composites.

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The Relationship between Religiousness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among the Teachers of Abeyek City (IRAN)

 

Mohmmad Hossein Khani1, Mohammad Yekke Fallah2, Hasan Ghasemi3

 

1 PHD student of Science Academy of Tajikistan

2 Master of General Psychology Assistant professors Faculty of psychology Islamic Azad University of Karaj (Iran)

3 Bachelor of Clinical Psychology

 

Abstract: Religion is a concept interwoven in human society and is present is most aspects of life. The purpose here is to examine this issue of whether religious teachings can potentially explain numerous organizational behavior outcome factors or not. Disregarding obligations set in job description, a pious individual considers philanthropy, helping people, and fulfilling the affairs of clients as his/her religious and humanitarian responsibilities. Organizational citizenship behavior is a set of voluntary and spontaneous behaviors not included in one’s job description, yet they are undertaken by the individual and improve work procedures and organizational roles. In this paper, after collecting the data from the samples under study, research’s findings were analyzed based on various descriptive and inferential statistical methods in the form of analytical tables and using SPSS software. Finally, considering the results from statistical tests, the content is summarized and conclusions are made.

 [Mohmmad Hossein Khani, Mohammad Yekke Fallah, Hasan Ghasemi. The Relationship between Religiousness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among the Teachers of Abeyek City (IRAN). J Am Sci 2013;9(3):304-310]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.42

 

Keywords: religiousness-organizational citizenship behavior-spirituality-Islamic work ethics.

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Removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solutions onto date palm leaf without the sharp spines: Adsorption and kinetic studies

 

Rasmiah Almufarij

 

Princess Nora Bint Abdurrahman University, Science College, Chemistry Department

Email: dr.rasmia@yahoo.com

Abstract: The adsorption of crystal violet (CV) onto date palm leaf without the sharp spines (DPL) was examined in aqueous solution by considering the influence of pH on dye removal. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Elovich models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms.. The kinetic data were fitted to a pseudo-second-order model.

[Almufarij R. Removal of Crystal Violet dye from aqueous solutions onto date palm leaf without the sharp spines: Adsorption and kinetic studies. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):311-315(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.43

 

Keywords: Adsorption, Crystal Violet, Date Palm Leaf, Kinetic studies.

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Effect of different bleaching protocols on surface roughness of human dental enamel and nanofilled resin composite

 

Ola. M. Sakr

 

Departments of Operative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Qassim University (Saudi Arabia) and Misr University for Science and Technology (Egypt). olasakr2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bleaching considered a conservative techniques for treatment of discolored human teeth. Although bleaching is safe to soft tissues from a procedural standpoint, but it may not be safe for dental tissues and materials. The effects of such oxidizing agents on enamel and esthetic restorative material surface roughness, however not been widely studied. Surface roughness of enamel and restorations is one clinical important physical property that warrants investigation. The Aim of the study is to evaluate of the effect different bleaching agents on surface topography of Enamel surface and nanofilled resin composite. Objectives: In this study 30 % carbamide peroxide, 40% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents were performed on 40 extracted teeth and 40 disc of nanofilled resin composite to evaluate their effects on surfaces roughness of enamel and nanofilled resin composites. Method: The buccal surfaces of forty extracted anterior teeth were flattened as parallel as possible without exposing dentin. Forty Disc shape nanofilled resin composite samples were prepared. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups: Group A teeth and composite discs were bleached with CP at 30% of 1 application for 30 minutes /application; Group B teeth and composite discs were bleached with HP at 40% for 20 minutes /application and Group C teeth and composite discs were bleached with CP at 10% for 8 hours. Group D: The control group, samples were kept in artificial saliva. Statistical analysis of Data were presented as mean and standard deviation (SD) values. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in testing significance for the effect of bleaching, substrate and their interactions on mean Ra. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between mean Ra of the 30% Carbamide peroxide, 40% Hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching techniques; all showed the statistically significantly highest mean Ra values. Control group showed the statistically significantly lowest mean Ra value. Conclusion: According to the results of this study various bleaching agents promote superficial changes in enamel structure surface and affect topography of nanofilled resin composite.

[Ola. M. Sakr. Effect of different bleaching protocols on surface roughness of human dental enamel and nanofilled resin composite. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):316-321]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.44

 

Key words: Vital bleaching, carbamide peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, surface roughness, enamel and nanofilled composite.

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Characterization and Mechanical Properties Study of Intercalated Talc/Polypropylene Nanocomposites

 

Mashael Alshabanat

 

Princess Nora Bint Abdurrahman University, Science College – Chemistry Department

ma.naif@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Talc/polypropylene nanocomposite with talc contents of 10% has been prepared using an injection-molding machine. FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis have been used to characterize the structure. The results of these analyses showed the intercalation of PP in the interlamellar spaces of the talc. Polypropylene with talc contents of 10, 20, 30, and 40% have been prepared to study the mechanical properties. Tensile strength and impact properties have been studied as a function of talc content. The results suggested that there is an optimum talc content for enhancement of the tensile strength of the composites. With a further increase in talc content, a decrease in tensile strength was observed. The best mechanical properties in this work were obtained at a talc content of 10%.

[Mashael Alshabanat. Characterization and Mechanical Properties Study of Intercalated Talc/Polypropylene Nanocomposites J Am Sci 2013;9(3):322-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.45

 

Keywords: Polypropylene, Talc, Intercalated nanocomposites, Mechanical properties.

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Effects of Nigella sativa Oil and Thymoquinone on Renal Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Rate in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

 

Dalia A. Hafez

 

Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Design and Home Economics, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt

daliaij_2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) and thymoquinone (TQ) on diabetes, renal oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis rate were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Forty five Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into 5 groups (n=9): healthy control; diabetic control; diabetic given NSO (1ml/kg); diabetic given TQ (3 mg/kg) and diabetic co-administered with NSO and TQ, orally for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by a dose of STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) in fasted rats. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Kidneys were removed for determination of tissue antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis rate. The results showed that oral co-administration of NSO and TQ significantly increased serum insulin and decreased serum levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), urea, creatinine and alkaline phosphatase in diabetic treated rats. Treatment with NSO and TQ significantly increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT), increased serum level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreased lipid peroxidation and apoptosis index. In conclusion, NSO and TQ exhibit good antidiabetic and antioxidant effects; improve renal function and reduce both malondialdehyde (MDA) and apoptosis rate in diabetic rats. Therefore, NSO and TQ may be beneficial for diabetes mellitus associated with nephropathy due to oxidative stress.

[Dalia A. Hafez. Effects of Nigella sativa Oil and Thymoquinone on Renal Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Rate in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):327-333]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.46

 

Keywords: Nigella sativa oil; Thymoquinone, Apoptosis; Kidney function; Lipid; peroxidation; Antioxidant

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Diagnostic yield of at admission estimation of serum IL-6 and high-sensitivity CRP for Early-onset Neonatal Sepsis

 

1Hesham A. El-Ghaiaty, 2Ahmed F. El-Hassanin, 3Said M. Morsy, 4Lobna A. Mobasher

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

3Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

4Department of Clinical Pathology, Aladan Hospital, Kuwait

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the ability of at admission estimation of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 for discrimination between neonates had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and those free of infection and to act as early predictor for result of blood culture (BC). Patients & Methods: The study included 87 neonates admitted to neonatal ICU (NICU) underwent evaluation using the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension II (SNAPPE II) with higher scores indicated more severe infection. Neonates were categorized into: Infected neonates had clinical manifestations of sepsis and positive BC, Clinically infected neonates had clinical manifestations of sepsis and negative BC and EOS-free neonates had negative BC and no clinical manifestations. Two venous blood samples were obtained: The first at time of NICU admission for ELISA estimation of hsCRP and IL-6 serum levels and the second sample was obtained either at time of development of clinical signs of sepsis or at of 72 hours in non-infected groups was used for BC and for complete blood count. Results: Blood culture was positive in 43 neonates (Infected), 19 neonates were clinically infected and 25 neonates were EOS-free. Mean SNAPPE II score and serum hs-CRP levels were significantly lower in EOS-free neonates compared to infected neonates with non-significant difference between clinically infected neonates. Mean total WBC count and serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower in EOS-free compared to infected and in clinically infected compared to infected neonates. Regression analysis for studied parameters as predictors for sure neonatal EOS confirmed by positive BC defined high total WBC count and high serum IL-6 as the most significant predictors and as predictors for EOS among those had negative BC defined high total WBC count, high serum IL-6, elevated serum hsCRP and birth weight in decreasing order of significance. Conclusion: Combined at admission estimation of serum hsCRP and IL-6 levels in conjunction with at 72-hr WBC count could differentiate between infected and non-infected neonates and provide early prediction for positive BC so allowing early initiation of therapy for infected neonates.

[Hesham A. El-Ghaiaty, Ahmed F. El-Hassanin, Said M. Morsy, Lobna M. Mobasher. Diagnostic yield of at admission estimation of serum IL-6 and high-sensitivity CRP for Early-onset Neonatal SepsisJ Am Sci 2013;9(3):334-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.47

 

Kew words: Early-onset neonatal infection, interleukin-6, high-sensitivity CRP, Total leucocytic count.

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Effect of Er:YAG Laser on Microtensile Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Recent Bleached Human Teeth

 

Ola. M. Sakr

 

Departments of Operative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Qassim University (Saudi Arabia) and Misr University for Science and Technology (Egypt)

olasakr2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of dentin surface ablation with low energy density Er:YAG laser on bond strength of resin composite to recently bleached enamel. In this study, 40 human anterior teeth, the enamel surface bleached using 30% carbamide peroxide. Samples were abraded with 300 to 600-grit abrasive papers to obtain flat dentin surfaces. The bleached samples were divided into two groups: group A: no Er:YAG laser ablation before resin composite application; group B:dentin surface ablated with 50 mJ of Er:YAG laser before resin composite application. The adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2) was applied and composite tubes were constructed with Filtek Z350 composite. The teeth were sliced to 1 mm width, along the adhesive interface, thin slices of dentin-resin and submitted to microtensile bond testing. Scanning electron microscope examination and analysis of the samples. The data were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA. The mean and standard deviation values of microtensile bond strength were 31.7 ▒ 4 MPa and 24.6 ▒ 3.8 MPa for lased bleached and non lased bleached dentin, respectively. it was concluded that Er:YAG laser irradiation prior to adhesive procedure of bleached teeth promoted a dentin surface with no smear layer and opened dentin tubules observed under SEM. Conclusions: Within the limit of this in vitro study Er:YAG dentin irradiation after recent bleaching procedures promote bond strength of dentin to tested adhesive system.

[Ola. M. Sakr. Effect of Er:YAG Laser on Microtensile Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Recent Bleached Human Teeth. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):342-246]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.48

 

Keywords: bleaching, Er:YAG laser, Microtensile bond strength and Scanning electron microscope.

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Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff Bases with Different Benzaldehyde Derivatives

 

Nadia A. Mohamed*1, Magdy W. Sabaa1, Ahmed HH. El-Ghandour2, Marwa M. Abel-Aziz3, Omayma F. Abdel-Gawad2

 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

3The regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology (antimicrobial activity unit) Azhar UniversityCairo, Egypt.

omayma2013@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Eighteen carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) Schiff bases and their reduced derivatives have been synthesized. They were characterized by spectral analyses (FT-IR and H1-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy observation. Their antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae (RCMB 010010), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB 010067), as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli (RCMB 010052) as Gram negative bacteria and the antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 02568), Geotricum candidum (RCMB 05097), and Candida albicans (RCMB 05031) were examined using agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate how the antibacterial and the antifungal activity are clearly affected by both the nature and position of the substituent groups in the aryl ring of the prepared derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base and its reduced form show higher antimicrobial activity comparing with other para substituted derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base: 18.3, 17, and 15.6 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 16.2, 17.3, and 16.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. CMCh-4-nitroBenz reduced form: 19.5, 18.7, and 16.2 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 17.5, 19.5, and 17.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. Also CMCh-3-bromoBenz show good results; CMCh-3-bromoBenz schiff base: 19.2, 16.9, and 14.6 mm Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 18.4, 17.6, and 15.9 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively.

 [Nadia A. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Ahmed HH. El-Ghandour, Marwa M. Abel-Aziz, Omayma F. Abdel-Gawad. Preparation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff Bases with Different Benzaldehyde Derivatives. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):247-264]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.49

 

Keywords: Carboxymethyl chitosan. Schiff bases. antibacterial activity. antifungal activity. minimum inhibitory concentration..

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Apri As A Predictor For Sustained Virological Response In Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Genotype 4

 

Mohammad Yousri1, Medhat Assem1, Ahmed Helaly2, Gaser El Azab1 Wael Safwat3 Amgad Anas3 and Manal Zahran4

 

1 Department of hepatology, National Liver Institute, Menofyia University, Sheben Al koom, Egypt.

2 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. 3Department of Hepato-Gastroenterolgy, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza Egypt.

 4Department of Hematology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza Egypt

waelsafwat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background &Aim: To evaluate the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) as a predictive factor of sustained viral response in chronic hepatitis C naive patients with genotype 4. Patients & Methods: We conduct this prospective study on chronic hepatitis C na´ve patients who were evaluated to start therapy with peg interferon a-2a (180 μg per week) and ribavirin (> 75 kg: 1200 mg and < 75 kg: 1000 mg) for 48 weeks and responders were followed for 24 weeks after end of treatment. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the relationship between each risk factor and the sustained virological response (SVR). Results: One hundred and twenty patients were followed prospectively. The mean ▒ SD of age in our subjects was 35.8 ▒ 12.5 years; weight 76 ▒ 12.7 kg, AST 63.8▒44.7 IU/mL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 74.5▒ 60 IU/mL, creatinine; 0.96▒0.26 mg/dl and platelets 202612▒88343/mm3. The mean hepatitis C virus RNA viral load was 31436836643988 IU/mL. APRI showed a significant positive correlation with increasing fibrosis stage (r= 0.41, P < 0.05). By both univariate and multivariate analysis; initial viral load >600,000 iu/ml and advanced hepatic fibrosis were negative predictors for SVR. Conclusion: APRI is a good estimator of hepatic fibrosis. It could be used to decrease the number of liver biopsies; however it is not useful to predict SVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.

[Mohammad Yousri, Medhat Assem, Ahmed Helaly and Gaser El Azab Wael Safwat Amgad Anas Manal Zahran. Apri As A Predictor For Sustained Virological Response In Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Genotype 4. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):265-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.50

 

Key words: APRI – HCV – Sustained virological response.

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A Study of the Status and relationships between Secure-Base Leadership, Leadership Effectiveness and Job Satisfaction

 

Gholamreza Shams Mourkani1, Sadaf Khalijian2

 

1Faculty Member, Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Velenjak, Tehran, Iran

2Research Scholar in Educational Administration, Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Velenjak, Tehran, Iran

gh_shams@sbu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The present study aimed at investigating the status and relationships between secure-base leadership, leadership effectiveness and employees’ job satisfaction at Shahid Beheshti University. The study is a descriptive-correlation one. The research population was all staff at Shahid Beheshti University during the academic year of 2011-2012 (N=928), among which 272 people were selected through stratified random sampling. Three questionnaires including "secure-base leadership" (Coombe, 2011), "leadership effectiveness" and "job satisfaction" (researcher-made) were employed to collect the data. Validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by university professors and their reliabilities calculated by the use of Cronbach's Alpha which were 0.91, 0.93, and 0.83, respectively. To analyze the data, one-sample t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, stepwise multiple regression and structural equation modeling through SPSS and LISREL software, were employed. Results showed that secure-base leadership and leadership effectiveness scores were higher than average and the job satisfaction scores were average. Correlation coefficients showed that secure-base leadership had a significant and positive relationship with leadership effectiveness (r=0.84) and job satisfaction (r=0.83). On the other hand, results showed that secure-base leadership directly and through leadership effectiveness had a major impact on job satisfaction (β=0.89). Moreover, leadership effectiveness had an impact on job satisfaction (β=0.54). In general, the conceptual framework of the research was examined on the basis of the causal relations among variables and confirmed by structural equation modeling.

[Shams Mourkani, G.R., Khalijian, S. A Study of the Status and relationships between Secure-Base Leadership, Leadership Effectiveness and Job Satisfaction. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):270-280]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.51

 

Keywords: Secure-base leadership, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction.

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E-learning in the Jordanian Higher Education System: Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats

 

Tamara Almarabeh1, Hiba Mohammad2

 

1Computer Information Department, The University Of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, t.almaraabeh@ju.edu.jo

2Computer Information Department, The University Of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, h.khadrawi@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: E-learning concepts have become the main concern for many countries. Jordan is one of those countries which have adopted the E-learning projects and the Jordanian universities have started to implement E-learning projects aiming to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the educational process for both teachers and students. The purpose of this paper is to describe and review in a constructive way the current status of E-learning in Jordan higher education, and shed light on the strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats of implementing the Jordanian higher educational system.

[Almarabeh T, Mohammad H. E-learning in the Jordanian Higher Education System: Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):281-287]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.52

 

Keywords: Jordan, readiness, ICT, MOICT, SWOT

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Retrofitting buildings with earthquake and crisis management

 

Ebrahim Farzaneh

 

PhD student in earthquake, Tajikistan Academy of Sciences

 

Abstract: In order to improve the seismic behavior of buildings against earthquake loads, seismic capacity of existing buildings and required seismic demand including maximum acceleration of earthquakee, response spectra, and seismic design, which may be needed during the lifespan of a building considering its importance and services after the earthquake, are necessary to be estimated and calculated. The main question in retrofitting a building is that which building with which situation should be boosted against which force and for which function. So, retrofitting can be defined as modifying the vulnerable part or replacing a new part in the existing building in order to increase the structural capacity or a series of operations which improves stiffness and strength of a building compared with its original status.

[Ebrahim Farzaneh. Retrofitting buildings with earthquake and crisis management. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):288-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.53

 

Keywords: Retrofitting; Building; Earthquake; Crisis management.

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Attitudes of University Students towards Family Responsibility and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem

 

Wageda Mohamed Nasr Hamad

 

Faculty of Specific Education, Kafr EL-Shaikh University

dr.wagedahamad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study is aimed to identify the relationship between university students trends about family responsibility and self-esteem questionnaire and variety of the social and economic level of the family. The research sample was selected randomly from the provinces of Tanta and Kafr El-Sheikh from different social and economic levels. The research tools were applied to a sample of 200 university students. The research tools included, the data Form for the family, Questionnaire university students' attitudes towards family responsibility, and Measure of self-esteem. A questionnaire was applied to the university students' attitudes towards taking responsibility family axes and measure self-esteem and using correlation coefficient test and (t) test. The differences between average results of the study showed that: there is a correlation between attitudes of university students towards family responsibility and between some of the variables of the study of social and economic (educational level of the mother, family income, birth ranking). While, there were no statistically significant differences between the attitudes of university students towards family responsibility and self-esteem for the children of working and non-working mothers. In addition, there were significant level between university students attitude towards taking responsibility and self-esteem.

[Wagida Mohamed Nasr Hamad. Attitudes of University Students towards Family Responsibility and Its Relationship to Self-Esteem. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):292-311]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.54

 

Keywords: Attitudes, University Students, family responsibility, self-esteem

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Augmenting Anticancer Potential of Exotoxin A By Mutating Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

 

Yehia A. O. Ellazeik╣, Samah S. Abdelgawad▓, Essam MA Elsawy▓, Ahmed M. El-Wassef3.

 

╣Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University.

▓Microbiology lab, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University.

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University.

yaolazeik@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Cancer is a group of more than 100 different and distinctive types of diseases. It is an abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled manner forming masses and in some cases dislodge and spread all over the body. Luckily, a number of bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa produce some virulence factors that help in combating cancer such as exotoxin A (ETA). This toxin arrests protein synthesis and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. During this study 68 Pseudomonades were isolated from urine samples collected from patients with urinary tract infection during the period Sept. 2009- Feb. 2010. Classical bacteriological, molecular and automated methods were used to identify all them. Based on the protein banding patterns, the 68 isolates were re-grouped to 30according to the results of Sodium dedocylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), from these 30 isolates only three gave the typical PCR product for Exo A gene using its specific primers. ETA production and toxicity were enhanced by mutating the three wild-type isolates. The crude and partially purified ETA from the selected three wild-type isolates of Pseudomonas aeroginosa (1, 8, 15) and two UV mutants (3-1 and 16-15) showed a promising inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line of breast carcinoma. The IC50 (inhibition concentration) of the five organisms were 14.1, 35.6, 36.8, 5.3, 3.4Ág, respectively. The mutation increased the anticancer activity of ETA 2-fold for one mutant and 10-fold to the second mutant. No change in the molecular weight of the mutated protein was found and the exact nature of its anticancer activity is under further investigation.

[Yehia A. Ellazeik, Samah S. Abdelgawad,Essam MA Elsawy and Ahmed M. El-Wassef. Augmenting Anticancer Potential of Exotoxin A By Mutating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):312-321]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.55

 

Key Words: Pseudomonas aeruginosa;virulence factors;cancer;Exotoxin A(ETA);PCR.

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Alfa-Fetoprotein L3 Subfraction and Osteopontin: Novel Markers for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Sawsan Said Hafez1, Aziza Ahmed El Sebai1, Manal Mohamed Abd AL Aziz1 Manal Abdel Baky Mahmoud1, Mohamed Omar El Maraghy1, Mohamed Omar Khalifa 2 and Nevine Ibrahim Musa3

 

 Departments of Clinical Pathology1, Tropical Medicine2 and Internal Medicine3, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University. dmohammedomar76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the role of serum alpha-fetoprotein-L3 subfraction (AFP-L3) and osteopontin (OPN) in the diagnosis of hepatocellular (HCC) and to consider their potential role as a novel prognostic marker. Patients and Methods: 120 patients with different stages of HCC were included in addition to 140 subjects with chronic liver diseases and 140 healthy control. Following clinical and radiological investigations, serum assay of AFP, AFP-L3 and OPN were performed.Results: AFP, AFP-L3 and OPN were significantly higher in HCC patients compared to chronic liver disease patients and normal control. A significant correlation was found between AFP and AFP-L3/AFP ratio among HCC patients. OPN varied significantly among different HCC stages. The best cutoff points revealed 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity for AFP-L3 and 100% for both sensitivity and specificity of OPN. Conclusion: Higher levels of AFP-L3 and OPN in HCC patients than controls propose them as potential markers for diagnosis of this disease. OPN has additional prognostic value through its significant difference among different HCC grades.

[Sawsan Said Hafez, Aziza Ahmed El Sebai, Manal Mohamed Abd AL Aziz, Manal Abdel Baky Mahmoud, Mohamed Omar El Maraghy, Mohamed Omar Khalifa and Nevine Ibrahim Musa. Alfa-Fetoprotein L3 Subfraction and Osteopontin: Novel Markers for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):322-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.56

 

Keywords: Alpha-fetoprotein-L3, osteopontin, hepatocellular carcinoma, BCLC.

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“Partial-Coupled Mode-Space” A new Approach for Efficient Simulation of Ballistic Quantum Transport in Multi-gate Devices

 

Mohammed M. El-Banna, Yasser M. Sabry, W. Fikry, O. A. Omar

 

Dept. of Eng. Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

mm.elbanna@eng.asu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: A novel approach is proposed, termed Partial-Coupled Mode Space (PCMS), for simulation of quantum transport in nanoscale devices. The PCMS integrates advantage of Coupled Mode Space (CMS) in accuracy and Uncoupled Mode Space (UMS) in reduction of computational burden. Partial coupling between the modes of the nanoscale device is achieved by coupling the odd-modes and even-modes separately. N-type FinFETs were simulated by the proposed approach and compared with the fully CMS accuracy and simulation time. The simulation was carried out on set of devices that satisfy the requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The simulations show that our PCMS saves more than 65 % of the computational time with error less than 0.1 % and 0.01 % in the device charge and terminal current respectively compared to the CMS.

[Mohammed M. El-Banna, Yasser M. Sabry, W. Fikry, O. A. Omar. “Partial-Coupled Mode-Space” A new Approach for Efficient Simulation of Ballistic Quantum Transport in Multi-gate Devices J Am Sci 2013;9(3):329-338]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.57

 

Keywords: FinFETs, Partial-Coupled Mode Space, Multi-gate, quantum transport, NEGF.

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The Effect of Self-Estem Images on the Well-Being of the Elderly People in Geriatric Homes and a Community Living Elderly

 

Samia Kattab Abd El-Rahman1 and Nagia Ibrahim Hassan2

 

1Geriatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

2psychiatric &Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

samia_khattab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Although living long has been a dream of mankind, people are worried about ageing, as individuals and society, because old age is historically associated with being sick, dependent and face many psychological concerns due to the emotional responses that follow the normal ageing process. As well as, changes in their socio-demographic status, social relationships and the burden of the associated chronic diseases, they experienced. Only few studies have explored the psychological implications of living geriatric homes and psychological distress that most frequently experienced by them, with health perception, life-satisfaction and self-esteem that are correlated with abandoned self-care behaviours and dealt with negative aspects of the late life. The poor self-images of the self-esteem symptoms of excessive self-consciousness, social phobia, nervosa and depression among elderly population enforce the study of these issues, when studying any elderly concerns. This study aimed to assess and compare self-esteem images and associated socio-demographic factors, social effective relationships and the comorbidity status among geriatric home residents and non-institutionalized elderly people.Methods & Subject: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study the self-esteem status among a sample of 100 elderly people aged 65 years and more, fifty of them were geriatric home residents and the other half from outpatient clinics attenders. All participants accepted to participate and were cognitively alert. They were selected randomly from non-governmental care homes and outpatients clinics in National Medical Institute of Damanhour at El-Behaira Governorate. Tools: specially designed interview questionnaires were developed and used to collect data for socio-demographic and medical data. Self-esteem scale, according to the Arabic version was utilized to measure individual self-esteem variables. Data were collected in period of a month. The results of the study presented that the mean ▒ SD age of the studied subjects was 70.0▒7.1. More than half (59%) of the respondents were males and nearly half (46%) were widowed. Illiterate and only read & write subjects accounted 64% and those with monetary inadequacy contributed 60% having less than 600 Egyptian pounds monthly. The self-esteem scores of the studied subjects by their socio-demographic factors did not detect any significant difference between socio-demographic studied factors except income source (P=0.03). No significant differences between self-esteem scores and socio-demographic factors among geriatric home residents. For the non-institutionalized participants, both age group and educational level showed significant differences, (P= 0.022 and P= 0.040, respectively). The mean ▒ SD and median of the self-esteem scores according to pattern of social visits for geriatric home residents were higher for daughters' visits, (20.0▒3.2 and median 20.5), while no coming visits were reported. No significant difference for outpatient respondents for self-esteem scores and different patterns of effective social relationships, (P=0.449). There was no significant difference between institutionalized and non-institutionalized studied subject according to the level of self-esteem mean ▒ SD scores, (P=0.315). The effective support relationships of the geriatric home residents, were from some family members and some non-family members. No one was socially supporting the outpatient clinics participants. Brothers & sisters, children and some neighbours were the stressors, (62%, 40% and 40%, respectively) for the geriatric residents. The dominant associated chronic diseases among the two studied groups were common, namely diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, hepatic diseases and diabetes & hypertension. No significant differences were detected among the two studied groups or even within each group, between self-esteem score and the associated chronic diseases.The findings of this study will be useful for planning interventions to improve self-esteem and life-satisfaction among the elderly population in Egypt. As further studies about self-esteem on a larger number of elderly from different geographical areas are recommended.

[Samia Kattab Abd El-Rahman and Nagia Ibrahim Hassan. The Effect of Self-Estem Images on the Well-Being of the Elderly People in Geriatric Homes and a Community Living Elderly. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):339-354]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.58

 

Keywords: self-esteem images, elderly people, geriatric homes, community elderly.

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Study the Relationship between Competition Load and Some Thyroid, Adrenal, and Pituitary Glands’hormones Concentration in Blood Plasma for Track Racers

 

1Youssef Dahab Aly; Mohamed Masoud Ibrahim Sharaf1 and Saad Ali Salem Al Taeeb2

 

1Sport Biological and Health Sciences Department, Faculty of Physical Education for Men, Alexandria University

2Biological Sciences and Motor Rehabilitation, Faculty of Sport and Physical Sciences, Zawia University

msh292005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Studying relationship between the impact of competition load in the work of endocrine glands is to somewhat new recent and largely correlated with major developments in sport biology and physiology science. It is well known that physical effort affects activity of many glands and hormone production rates like thyroid gland which secretes thyroxine hormone (T4) and thyronine (T3), which rotate in free form (FREE (F)) or united in blood. It is known that it affects the overall organization of metabolism, growth and tissue contrast as well as gene expression. Thyroid hormone increases metabolic actions in almost each tissue; it also increases the size and number of mitochondria in cells and its effectiveness, this in turn increase speed of triphosphate adenosine (ATP) formation to feed cellular energy with fuel needed for effort to be done for individual, especially athlete who needs great energy in depending on each requirements according to regulations in force. Although thyroid hormone is vital to many physiological system; but biological effects of short-term changes in thyroid hormone levels resulting from physical effort not fully explained yet. From what mentioned above the great importance of these hormones is clear, where correlation between competition load and these hormones not precisely specified, especially these hormones play great role in the metabolism which prompted researchers to conduct such a study and its importance to find the relationship between concentration level of thyroid hormones: associated and free T3 & T4 and adrenal cortisol hormone CO and pituitary hormone: thyrotropin TSH in blood plasma according to competition load within track racers (100m, 400m, 1500m, 5000m) hoping to present results probably will contribute to shed light in this field. Researchers used experimental approach with pre and post measurement for its relevance to research nature. Research sample included 24 male runners, their age between 20 to 29 years old were selected from first-class runners in Western Region represented for short-distance distance runners (100, 400 m), average-distance runners (1500 m), long-distance runners (5000 m). Statistical work done using SPSS program and includes (Mean-Standard deviation-Skewness–Kurtosis-Simple correlation). Most important results were that there were statistically significant correlation between competition load and changes in associated and free thyroid hormones (T3 & T4), Cortisol, thyrotropin TSH in blood plasma in (100 m, 400 m, 1500m 5000 m) in pre and most measurements, there were statistically significant correlation between competition load and changes in associated and free thyroid hormones (T3 & T4), Cortisol, thyrotropin TSH in blood plasma in (100 m, 400 m, 1500 m 5000 m) between pres and post-measurements (immediately after competition), most important recommendation were necessity to give concern to nature of relations between activity of associated and free thyroid hormones T3, and T4 and cortisol CO and hormone thyrotropin TSH accordance to competition load, necessity to focus on training methods according to energy production, which in turn improves thyroid, and adrenal hormones (energy hormones) and pituitary gland hormone.

[Youssef Dahab Aly; Mohamed Masoud Ibrahim Sharaf and Saad Ali Salem Al Taeeb. Study the Relationship between Competition Load and Some Thyroid, Adrenal, and Pituitary Glands’hormones Concentration in Blood Plasma for Track Racers. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):355-370]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.59

 

Keywords: Relationship; Competition; Load; Thyroid; Adrenal; Pituitary; Gland; hormone; Blood; Plasma

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The impact of stress on job satisfaction for nurses in King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam-KSA

 

Ahmad M. Saleh1, Mohammad M. Saleh3 and Mohannad E. Abu Ruz2.

 

 1Nursing Dep. Al Ghad International Medical Science Colleges. Dammam, Saudi Arabia

2Nursing Education. King Fahad Specialist hospital. Dammam, Saudi Arabia

3Computer Dep. Al-Quds College. Amman, Jordan

al_raminy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Stressors affecting job satisfaction are becoming an increasingly significant phenomenon. Stress has a cost for individuals in terms of health, wellbeing, job dissatisfaction, rate of absenteeism and turnover which will in turn affect the quality of patient care. This study aimed to determine the main stressors affecting nurses and its relationship with job satisfaction in King Fahad Specialist hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A descriptive correlational cross sectional design was used on a convenience sample of 213 nurses using expanded nursing stress and job satisfaction scales. The results have shown that most stressful subscale for nurses was death and dying of patients as “Extremely Stressful” and the least stressful subscale was inadequate preparation to help with the emotional needs of patients and their families as “Occasionally Stressful”. There was a negative significant relationship between the impact of stress and job satisfaction among staff nurses in King Fahad Specialist hospital as indicated by (Pearson correlation = -.437, P < 0.05). In conclusion, King Fahad Specialist hospital staff nurses were exposed to many kinds of stressors which affected their level of job satisfaction. This emphasizes the need for adopting strategies to reduce stress, increase job satisfaction and finally improving patient quality of care.

[Saleh A, Saleh M, Abu Ruz M. The impact of stress on job satisfaction for nurses in King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam. J Am Sci 2013;(3):371-377]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.60

 

Keywords: Key word: Stress, Job satisfaction, quality of care, Dammam, King Fahad Specialist, and KSA.

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Impact of health intervention program regarding breast self examination among

 Port Said female university students

 

Mona Abd Elsabour1, Sherene Ahmed Qalawa2, Magda Aly Mohamed1, Omaima Mohamed Elalem1

 

1Family and Community Health Nursing Deoartment. 2Medical and Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of a health intervention program about breast self examination on knowledge and practices of female university students. Subject and Methods: The quasi experimental research was conducted on convenience sample of 50 students at the university hostel for females in Port Said governorate, an educational health program about early detection of breast cancer and breast self examination was developed by researchers, the selected sample is tested before and after giving the health program using a self administered questionnaire and observational checklist. Results: The findings revealed that most of the studied sample had poor knowledge (94%) and practices (86%) regarding early detection of breast cancer and breast self examination in pre program, A statistically significant improvement was detected in the knowledge and practices post program (P <0.001*). Conclusion: The study concluded to the fact that the studied females students' knowledge and practices regarding early detection of breast cancer and breast self examination are deficient, health educational programs can improve their knowledge and practices, so the researchers recommend that great efforts should be done to increase the young females' awareness of prevention and early detection of breast cancer, this can be effectively done through continues health educational programs.

[Mona Abd Elsabour, Sherene Ahmed Qalawa, Magda Aly Mohamed, Omaima Mohamed Elalem. Impact of health educational intervention regarding breast self examination among Port Said female university students. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):378-384]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.61

 

Key words: Breast self examination, Health interventio program, Female University students.

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On the diophantine equation ax2+b=cyn

 

Fadwa S. Abu Muriefah and Amal AL-Rashed

 

Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University

fsabumuriefah@pnu.edu.sa, Amal_dfr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we study the diophantine equation ax2+b=cyn where a, b, c, n, x, y are positive integers and we prove some results concerning this equation when b = 7, 11. In Theorem 3, we are able to correct the result of Demirpolat and Cenberci appeared in [9].

[Fadwa S. Abu Muriefah and Amal AL-Rashed. On the diophantine equation ax2+b=cyn. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):385-388]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.62

 

Key words: Diophantine equation; integer; prime

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Patient-Care Practices Associated with Increased Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Hemodialysis patients

 

Om-Mohamed A. Abed Elsatar and Khadega Ahmed Elhefnawy

 

Adult Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Aim of the study: this study was carried out to identify patient-care practices related to increased transmission of hepatitis c virus infection among hemodialysis patients. Setting: This study was conducted at hemodialysis unit in menofia university hospital and shebien el koom teaching hospital. Sample: The subjects of this study consisted of 177 renal failure patients. Tools: two tools were utilized for data collection. I. Patient’s medical history: structure interview schedule: II: patient care practices observational sheet. The results revealed that patient-care practices associated with transmission of hepatitis C virus infection included fistula clamp, stethoscope reused for multiple patients without cleaning and disinfecting, unused syringe and alcohol swab at dialysis station not discarded between patients, dialysis machine monitor not decontaminated between patients and handling blood specimens in the same area or adjacent to medications and clean supplies. Conclusion: current study concluded that patient-care practices associated with transmission of hepatitis C virus infection included items reused for multiple patients without cleaning and disinfecting, unused clean supplies at dialysis station not discarded between patients, dialysis machine monitor not decontaminated between patients and handling blood specimens in the same area or adjacent to medications and clean supplies. Recommendation: Staff should ensure that hemodialysis-specific infection control practices are being implemented. Also hemodialysis-specific infection control practices should included in continuing education of all staff members.

[Om-Mohamed A. Abed Elsatar and Khadega Ahmed Elhefnawy. Patient-Care Practices Associated with Increased Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Hemodialysis patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):389-396]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.63

 

Key words: Patient-Care Practices, Hepatitis C Virus, and Hemodialysis.

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Protective Activity of Curcumin against Obesity Associated Cardiovascular Disease via Alleviating Leptin and Insulin Resistance

 

Azza M. El-Wakf*1; El-Sayed M. El-Habibi1 and Abdullah Mogalli2

 

Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt1

Faculty of Education, Adan University, Adan, Yemen 2

*dr_azzaelwakf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obesity is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to evaluate the protective activity of curcumin against incidence of this disease in male rats with diet-induced obesity. For this purpose, male albino rats (175 ▒ 5g) were fed normal diet or high fat diet (HFD) with or without curcumin (20 mg/kg b.wt.) for duration of 3 months. Feeding rats on HFD caused elevation of the body weight gain and weights of aorta and heart tissue. Meanwhile, HFD-fed rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia, with raised lipid profile as reflected by significant elevation of serum, aorta and heart total lipids (TLs), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TGs),accompanied by increased serum values of LDL-C, vLDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), with decreased HDL-C level. An increased serum level of leptin and insulin were also observed. The study also showed marked reduction in the antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), concomitant with elevation in the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both heart and aorta of HFD-fed rats. Further changes, including elevation of serum aminotranseferases (AST and ALT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine kinase (CK), with a reduction in their activities in heart and aorta were demonstrated. Also, a reduction in the level of nitric oxide (NO) in the same organs were recorded which together with the above mentioned alterations may indicate developing of cardiovascular disease in association with obesity. On the contrary, administration of curcumin to HFD-fed rats tended to prevent hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and other changes relevant to cardiovascular disease mainly through alleviating leptin and insulin resistance. Thus, curcumin can be prescribed as a natural dietary product for reducing risk of CVD in the obese subjects.

[Azza M. El-Wakf; El-Sayed M. El-Habibi and Abdullah Mogalli. Protective Activity of Curcumin against Obesity Associated Cardiovascular Disease via Alleviating. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):397-405]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.64

 

Key words: Obesity, Curcumin, Leptin, Insulin, Nitric oxide

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Evaluating of the Effectiveness of Training Employees of the Oil and Gas Company of Gachsaran, 1391.

 

Yaghoob Kiany1, Mohammadnoor Rahmani2, Hossein Zeinali Pour3, Davod Kiany4

 

1-Master degree. Department of Educational Sciences & Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hormozgan, Iran

2- PH.d, Supervisor, Department of Educational Sciences & Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hormozgan, Iran

3- PH.d. First advisor, Department of Educational Sciences & Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hormozgan, Iran

4- PH.D. Second advisor, Institute for International Energy Studies (IIES), Ministry of Petroleum, Republic Islamic of Iran

Corresponding Author: Yaghoob Kiany, Email: yaghobkiany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Institutional training and education programs have a major role in training and equipping practical knowledge of personnel and increasing productivity and creativity and achieving national production. This study aims to explain the effectiveness of education on employees of the Company's oil and gas operations conducted in Gachsaran. This study is descriptive. Our statistical society is 270 employees of Gachsaran oil and gas companies operating in 1391 who attended in 15 training courses. Sampling, simple random sampling and sample size of 150 was calculated based on the Cochran formula. The questionnaire was used to collect data. For data analysis in level of descriptive statistics, the mean and standard deviation of the statistical methods were used and statistical methods of inferential in statistics test t Correlations. The findings show that training can improve employee effectiveness as well as the increase of knowledge and skills, improve the quality of services, improving human relationships, career and the speed of innovation and increasing staff creativity.So administrators and officials are advised to look more seriously into the corporate training as an empowering force for employees. [Evaluating of the Effectiveness of Training Employees of the Oil and Gas Company of Gachsaran, 1391].

[Yaghoob Kiany, Mohammadnoor Rahmani, Hossein Zeinali Pour, Davod Kiany. Evaluating of the Effectiveness of Training Employees of the Oil and Gas Company of Gachsaran, 1391. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):406-411]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.65

 

Key words: education, effectiveness, employees of exploit company of oil and gas.

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Effect of Educational Program Regarding Therapeutic Exercises on Women's Pain, Fatigue and Shoulder Function Undergoing Mastectomy

 

Nadia Mohamed Taha1; Magda Abdel Azeaz2; Abdel Rahman Hassan3 and Amal Eid Shaban4

 

1Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, 2Ain Shams University,

 4Mansoura University and 3Surgery Department Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

Dr_nadya_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in females worldwide and the most prevalent cancer among Egyptian women. Breast cancer and its treatment result in physical and psychological problems; pain, fatigue and dysfunction. It is the responsibility of the nurse to identify the breast cancer patient's needs, make appropriate nursing diagnosis and initiate plans for care. Aim of the study: to assess the impact of an educational program regarding therapeutic exercises for women’s pain, fatigue and shoulder function that are undergoing mastectomy. This study was hypothesized that there would be an improvement of patients’ information, pain, fatigue and shoulder function by using the therapeutic exercises. Quasi experimental design was utilized in this study. It was conducted at Oncology Center Mansoura University. Purposive sample included (80) patients with preliminary diagnosis of breast cancer, were admitted to female surgical units, scheduled for Modified radical mastectomy and were divided random equally into study and control groups; (40) patients in each group. Tools: used for data collection included an interviewing questionnaire sheet, Numerical Rating scale, Fatigue Severity scale and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, performance observational checklists, and follow up sheet. Results: The mean age of the studied women 45.25 and 46.06. The majority of the women in both groups were married; housewives and 45% were illiterate. There was a highly significant difference in patients' level of information, pain intensity, fatigue severity, and shoulder dysfunction of the study group as compared to the control group. This means that the educational program had positive effect in reducing patients' pain, fatigue and shoulder dysfunction, post program and after one month of implementation of the educational program. Conclusion: There were a statistical significance difference between the two groups in relation to information, fatigue severity, pain intensity, shoulder pain and disability, and performance post program and follow-up after one month. Deep breathing and Progressive muscle relaxation techniques, arm and shoulder exercises, and patient's education are useful adjuvant techniques to complement medical treatment. Recommendations: Continuous educational health programs are recommended. So incorporation of such interventions in the care plan can enhance the care for surgical breast cancer patients and greatly improve their quality of life.

[Magda Abdel Azeaz; Nadia Mohamed Taha, Abd Elrahman Hassan and Amal Eid Shaban. Effect of Educational Program Regarding Therapeutic Exercises on Women's Pain, Fatigue and Shoulder Function Undergoing Mastectomy. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):412-425]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.66

 

Key words: therapeutic exercises, pain, fatigue, arm and shoulder exercises, mastectomy, and progressive muscle relaxation technique.

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Immediately Placed Implants in Periodontally Compromised Patients: A Prospective Clinical Study

 

Rehab Elsharkawy1 and Hala El-Menoufy2

 

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department. Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine. Cairo University

2 Oral Medicine, Oral Diagnosis and Periodontolgy Department. Faculty of Oral and Dental surgery. Misr University for Science and Technology

dr.relsharkawy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: This study was done to compare the outcome of implants placed immediately in partially edentulous periodontally compromised to periodontally healthy patients clinically and radiographically. Material and methods: Twenty immediately placed implants were followed up one year after loading clinically and radiographically. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 10 implants in group H (healthy, n=9) and 10 implants in group PD (moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, n=7). Clinical (modified bleeding index mBI, modified plaque index mPI, probing pocket depth PPD and degree of mobility using Periotest device) and radiographic parameters (Bone implant contact ratio BICR and vertical bone resorption) were assessed. Results: There were no significant differences in implant success rate between the 2 groups. Since the time of loading till the end of follow up period all implants were immobile, there was no pain or suppuration around the implants and there were no evidence of peri-implant radiolucency in the x-rays. Through all periods; there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the mPI or PPD, at any time point. At loading and 3 months post-loading; PD group showed statistically significantly higher mean mBI than healthy group. PD group showed statistically significantly lower mean PTVs (more stability) at time of loading (-1▒2.1) and at 3 months PL (-1 ▒1.8) than the H group at loading (0.5▒0.7) and 3 ms PL (0.6▒2) where P was 0.022 and 0.031for L and 3 ms PL respectively. Regarding the radiographic measures, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the BICR and the VBL at any time point, through all the follow up periods P value ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Immediate implants may be successful treatment modality in partially edentulous patients suffering from moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, provided that carful debridement of the extraction sockets is done and a good maintenance protocol is followed.

[Rehab Elsharkawy and Hala El-Menoufy. Immediately Placed Implants in Periodontally Compromised Patients: A Prospective Clinical Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):426-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.67

 

Key words: Immediate Dental Implants, Chronic periodontitis, periodontally compromised, Periotest.

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Role of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement MRI and Cystourethroscopy in the Diagnosis and Local Staging of Urinary Bladder Cancer with Pathologic Correlation

 

Mohammed M. S. Mostafa1 and Alsayed S. Abdel-Azez 2

 

Radiodiagnosis1 and Urology 2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Al-Azhar, Egypt

dr_mohamed_mos@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of the dynamic contrast enhancement MRI and cystourethroscopy in the diagnosis and local staging of urinary bladder cancer with histopathological correlation. Materials and methods: Dynamic contrast enhancement MRI and cystourethroscopy were done in this prospective study for 50 patients on the bases of suspected UB cancer after pelvic US and laboratory investigations. The definitive diagnosis was provided by histopathological examination of the resected tissue by cystourethroscopic biopsy or radical cystectomy. MRI results were compared with cystourethroscopic examination and histopathological results; the latter was regarded as the standard reference. Results: Dynamic contrast enhanced T1WIs has revealed 29 patients with organ confined and 21 patients with non organ confined tumors. The histopathological results had revealed 31 patients with organ confined and 19 patients with non organ confined tumors. In addition dynamic contrast enhanced T1WIs has revealed 21 patients with stage T1, 8 patients with stage T2, 11 patients with stage T3, and 10 patients with stage T4. The histopathological results had revealed 21 patients with stage T1, 9 patients with stage T2, 11 patients with stage T3, and 9 patients with stage T4. Moreover, dynamic contrast enhanced T1WIs, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 74.83%, 93.1%, 77.51%, 91.91% and 89% respectively. Regarding the superficial ( ≤ T1) and invasive tumors ( ≥ T2) dynamic contrast enhanced T1WIs, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 85.71%, 89.66%, 85.71%, 89.66% and 88% respectively. Conclusion: Dynamic Gadolinium enhanced MRI was considered the most accurate radiological modality in the diagnosis and local staging of urinary bladder cancer especially in invasive tumors but cystourethroscopy was considered the standard in the diagnosis of non invasive tumors. The histopathological results were regarded as the golden standard reference.

[Mohammed M. S. Mostafa and Alsayed S. Abdel-Azez. Role of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement MRI and Cystourethroscopy in the Diagnosis and Local Staging of Urinary Bladder Cancer with Pathologic Correlation. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):435-445]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.68

 

Key Words: MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging); dynamic contrast; cystourethroscopy

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Structure of the photon Is duality solved? [A Review Article].

 

Sayed S.E.H. Saif*; Mohamed Yasser Sayed Saif**; Ahmed Tamer S. Saif*** and Passant Sayed Saif***

 

* National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Egypt.

**Beni Sueif University, ***Fayoum University,****Misr Univresity For Science and Technology

y01006699288@gmail.com, ysaif@sayedsaif.com

 

Abstract: Bueche and Jerde 2001 came to the conclusion that till the moment there are Great Controversies. The Bueche text of physics contains three essays entitled Great Controversies in Physics. These are historical vignettes that demonstrate that our present understanding of physics is based on struggles between competing ideas and experimental observations, often over long spans of time. The topics covered are the controversies about falling objects, the nature of heat, and the nature of light. The role of critical questions in deciding the outcome of these controversies, asked in the form of definitive experiments, is emphasized (Bueche textbook of physics). The answer to our original question on the nature of light has a more complicated answer (and to many, a more disturbing one) than anyone expected.

[Sayed S.E.H. Saif; Mohamed Yasser Sayed Saif; Ahmed Tamer S. Saif and Passant Sayed Saif. Structure of the photon Is duality solved?. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):446-454]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.69

 

Key words: Great Controversies, duality of light, shape of the photon, Saif Number

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The Impact of Artistic Visions of Japanese Prints on European Artists Preface

 

Yasser mounir gaber

 

Graphic Design Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, AL-Emam University, AL-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

yasser-mon@hotmail.com, monyasser@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Japanese print art is one of the most important foundations that establishes the rules of graphic arts in the world, it is that used in the graphic science to date, which provided the most important insights and techniques in art. After the flourishing of Ukiyo-e printing school at the mid of the seventeenth century to the end of the nineteenth century and its excellent role in enriching technical state of the Japanese publications, artists had design publications which affected with a tremendous impact on the Western art in the second half of the nineteenth century. In this century foreigners flow to Japan and purchased many famous publications of Japanese artists and they respect the charm and sweetness of these publications. Japanese publications are characterized by their local and national nature and also different from those of European at that time and the uniqueness of their subjects with internal and philosophical to great extent along with focusing on the details of their daily lives. European artists have influenced with this technical outlook and new themes and tried to imitate it to a great extent and it is clear in many artists’ works like Gauguin and Van Gogh and others. But this effect has not been implemented to the spiritual and philosophical pillars similar Japanese, but only in themes without looking deeply to these printing arts.

[Yasser mounir gaber. The Impact of Artistic Visions of Japanese Prints on European Artists Preface. J Am Sci 2013: 9(3):455-475]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.70

 

Keywords: Japanese Prints, Graphic arts, European Artists.

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Change in the great saphenous vein diameter in response to contrast baths and exercise: a randomized clinical trial.

 

Omar Farouk Helal1, Mohamed Salah-Eldin Alayat 2, Ashraf Abdelaal Mohamed Abdelaal3

 

1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, KSA.

2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Egypt.

3Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/ Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

drashraf_pt79@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of contrast baths on varicose vein and to compare its effect with that of calf muscle exercises on the improvement of varicose vein. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 70 patients with varicose vein of the lower limb. Their age was (40-50) years. Patients were randomly divided into three groups; Group (1) (30 patients) used a contrast bath and compression stocking. Group (2) (30 patients) performed pedal ergometer exercise and the compression stocking. Group (3) (10 patients) used compression stocking. Venous Duplex ultrasound scanning was conducted for evaluating the cross-section of great saphenous vein (CsGSV) at the knee and ankle levels. There was significant reduction in the mean value of CsGSV at the ankle and knee levels in group one and two with non-significant difference in group three. The result revealed a non-significant difference between contrast baths and pedal ergometer exercise groups. Both contrast baths and strengthening exercise to calf muscle are effective methods in the treatment of varicose veins.

[Helal OF, Alayat MS, Abdelaal AA. Change in the great saphenous vein diameter in response to contrast baths and exercise: a randomized clinical trial. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):476-483]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.71

 

Key Words: Varicose vein, contrast baths, strengthening exercise, calf muscle, great saphenous vein.

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Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rates of in Vitro Fertilization

 

*Hala Abd El-Fttah Ali, *Ola Mohamed Ebraheem, **Sahar Nagueb Mohamed

 

* Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University, Egypt.

** Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assuit University, Egypt.

dr.halafttah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Infertility affects approximately 13-15% of reproductive-aged couples. It is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of properly timed, unprotected intercourse. This definition is based on the cumulative probability of pregnancy. While in vitro fertilization IVF is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the body: IVF is a major treatment in infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. Today, IVF is practically a household word. Several factors can affect pregnancy rate of IVF such as age, body mass index and quantity of eggs. Nurses can play important role in success of IVF procedures in the form of counseling to women before and after procedures of IVF. Aim of study: To determine factors affecting pregnancy rates of vitro fertilization including nursing role and evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcomes. Design: A prospective study. Setting: The subjects were treated for infertility by service of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) which operating with the same staff and procedures at El Ahram Fertility Center for infertility treatment at El Mansoura City. Sample: 120 simple random study sample studying women undergoing IVF cycle. Tools: Interviewing sheet used for data collection which included, socio demographic data, investigations for couple infertility, causes of couple infertility, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Also body mass index and level of satisfaction were used as a tools. Results: The pregnancy rate was 48 )40(%.While the live birth rate was 39 (81.3%).On the other hand there was significant differences between most factors which affect the success rate between pregnant and non pregnant groups such as age, obesity, some of female hormones and semen analysis parameters, some causes of infertility and nursing role. Methods: This study included (120) women undergoing IVF cycle which start from the second day of menstrual cycle. Starting study from first of October / 2009 to first of January/2011. Ovarian reserve screening tests are done by fertility specialists. Conclusion and recommendations: Of all factors evaluated in IVF process, age of patients, BMI, female hormones, number of fertilized oocytes and number of embryos transferred and nursing role have an effect on the cycle outcome. Length of time embryos are outside a controlled environment is an area that is largely unknown. Further evaluations with a larger number of cases may show a time, if exceeded, that reduces pregnancy outcome, and nursing role during IVF is an area that is largely important.

[Hala Abd El-Fttah Ali, Ola Mohamed Ebraheem, Sahar Nagueb Mohamed. Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rates of in Vitro Fertilization. J Am Sci 2013;9(3):484-495]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.72

 

Keywords: Factors affecting, success rates, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, nursing role and in Vitro fertilization.

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Students' opinions about Nursing Education and its Relation to Their Academic Motivation

 

Sahar M. El-Khedr1&3 and, Youssryea M. Ibrahim2&3

 

1Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt.

2Department of Critical Care, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Umm Al-Qura University, Egypt

Sahar.khedr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Motivation refers to reasons that underlie behavior that is characterized by willingness and volition. Intrinsic motivation is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure, whereas extrinsic motivation is governed by reinforcement contingencies. Motivation can be defined in a number of ways. Generally, it is defined as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. In other words, motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. Academic motivation refers to internal processes that stimulate and sustain activities aimed at achieving specific academic goals. Motivation plays a crucial role in the performance of students. Self-determination theorists posit that academic motivation is multidimensional in nature, and is comprised of three global types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and A motivation. The aim of this study is to determine Students' opinions about Nursing Education and its Relation to Their Academic Motivation. This study has a descriptive correlational design. One hundred fifty students were involved in this study. A questionnaire sheet was used for data collection. It consisted of two parts. The first part of the questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data. The second part was the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). The results of this study revealed that there were statistical significant correlations between desire for nursing education and total academic motivation of intern, fourth, and second year students. Significant correlation was also found between family encouragement, family opposition and total academic motivation. Statistically significant correlations were evident between total intrinsic motivation, total extrinsic motivation, total academic motivation and total training for all nursing students. It is recommended to study the effect of academic motivation on academic achievement of nursing students.

[Sahar M. El-Khedr and, Youssryea M. Ibrahim. Students' opinions about Nursing Education and its Relation to Their Academic Motivation. J Am Sci 2013; 9(3): 496-503]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas090313.73

 

Key words: Academic motivation, Students’ opinions, Nursing education.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from February 11, 2013. 
 
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