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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 6, Cumulated No. 64, June 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0906

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Consideration of Job Stress Scopes in Occupying Nurses

 

Garshad Afsanehˡ, Hashemi Mitra ², Mirzaei SeyedHossein³

 

ˡM.Sc Nursing, Faculty member, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, North khorasan University of Medical science, Bojnord, Iran Email: garshadfafsaneh12@gmail.com

² Hashemi Mitra, M. Sc Statistical, North Khorasan University of Medical Science, Bojnord, Iran Email: Pajohe.hashemi@yahoo.com

³PhD student of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

 

Abstract: With regard to their occupational conditions, the nurses always exposed to the various stressor factors of their workplace. The research has been executed to determine the scopes of occupational stress in the occupying nurses in the hospitals of Medical Sciences of northern Khorasan. The study is a descriptive-survey. It was executed on 154 occupying nurses in the hospitals of Medical Sciences University of Northern Khorasan. The samples were selected by accidental sampling of cluster classification. Instruments for collecting data include questionnaire which contains the two parts of occupational-individual specification and occupation stress. The sampling was during one month and execution of the research was within six month. Analysis of data was in Spss 15 software, based on proportionality, through descriptive statistic analysis. The research showed that majority of individuals had experienced the least occupational stress in the scope of relation with workmates and the most one in the scope of salary, physical environment and occupational facilities. Among the individuals under study, 96 persons (62%) have experienced low stress, 45 persons (30%) average stress and 13 persons (8%) high stress. The research concluded that the managers and authorities of nurses should consider the condition and provide alternatives to reduce tensions in the nurses, increase quality of patients care and enhancing level of society health.

[Garshad Afsaneh, Hashemi Mitra, Mirzaei SeyedHossein. Consideration of Job Stress Scopes in Occupying Nurses. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.01

 

Keywords: occupational stress, occupying nurses, therapy and instruction centers.

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Ensuring Sustainable Development via Groundwater Management (Case Study: El Bahariya Oasis)

 

Mohamed Fahmy M. El Hossary

 

Associate Professor, Desert Research Department, Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center, Egypt. Melhossary62@Ymail.Com

 

Abstract: In this research, an attempt was made to develop and test water management scenarios in Bahariya Oasis which is one of the promising oases in the Western Desert. Groundwater potential, for future development, is assessed, based on available data and information. A simulation was made for the present trends in groundwater heads as the base for testing the impacts of future developments. The results indicated that even under the high water allocation per feddan, the expected drawdowns are still in the safe range. The results, also, outlined that the maximum expected drawdowns will range between 3 and 26 meters for the minimum water allocation after 25 years (i.e. which represents less than 10 % of the saturated thickness between 32 and 4 meters after 50 years). It was also clear that the additional expected cultivated area will be about 50 thousand feddans. It was further recommended to discuss the results with the local people and developers, to implement the proposed scenarios on a gradual basis with appropriate monitoring of impacts, to compare the results of monitoring with the obtained simulation results and to revise the scenarios based on the results.

[Mohamed Fahmy M. El Hossary. Ensuring Sustainable Development via Groundwater Management (Case Study: El Bahariya Oasis). J Am Sci 2013;9(6):6-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.02

 

Keywords: Bahariya Oasis, Groundwater Management, Sustainable Development, Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System.

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Safety of Prophylactic Intracameral Moxifloxacin during Phacoemulsification

 

Sherif A. K. Amer1, Mohamed Y. Sayed Saif1, Ahmed T. Sayed Saif2, Passant S. Saif3, Hesham Fathalla El Sheikh 4, Ahmed Moustafa Abdel Rahman 4

 

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Beni Sueif University, Egypt.

2 Department of Ophthalmology, Fayoum University, Egypt.

3 Department of Ophthalmology, Misr University for Science and technology, Egypt.

4. department of Ophthalmology Cairo University

ysaif@sayedsaif.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: To evaluate the safety of Intracameral moxifloxacin during standard coaxial phacoemulsification. Subjects and Methods: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Sixty patients with 60 eyes were divided into two Groups: Group, 1: Vigamox group (30 eyes), Group 2: Control group (30 eyes) Injection of 0.1cc Moxifloxacin using insulin 30G syringe in group 1were done at the end of Standard coaxial phacoemulsification with Foldable IOL. Results The mean age was 64.2 ± 7.8 years. The preoperative VA range from HM to 6/12 which changed postoperatively as mostly improved more than 6/18 with a total lines gained up to 12 lines. The intraoperative complications, were few in which 4 eyes showed posterior capsular dehiscence, 1 eye with Positive Vitreous Pressure (3.3%) & one case of Vitreous Prolapse (3.3%). Post-operative complications was corneal edema which was slightly more in vigamox group than that occurring in the control group, corneal edema occurred in 8 cases in the vigamox group and 6 cases in the control group, 5 cases suffered from Suture-Induced Astigmatism. Unfortunately there was one case suffered from endophthalmitis, one with Pupillary Block, one with Retained Lens Material, one case of media opacity, also one case with Shallow Anterior Chamber. The average endothelial cell density in the control group was 2366.75 and changed to 2083.75.While the average endothelial cell density in the vigamox group was 2533.21 then one month postoperatively changed to 2006.29 meaning that there was a decrease of 283 in the control group compared to the 526.93 decrease in the vigamox group. Conclusion: Intracameral 0.1 ml of 0.5% moxifloxacin (Vigamox, Alcon) was found to be safe for the visual rehabilitation and corneal endothelium,. Use of Intracameral moxifloxacin can be a beneficial adjunct to topical dosing for surgical prophylaxis.

[Sherif A. K. Amer, Mohamed Y. Sayed Saif, Ahmed T. Sayed Saif, Passant S. Saif, Hesham Fathalla El Sheikh, Ahmed Moustafa Abdel Rahman. Safety of Prophylactic Intracameral Moxifloxacin during Phacoemulsification. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):14-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.03

 

Key words: Intracameral Moxifloxacin, vigamox, endophthalmitis

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Early postmortem biochemical changes and renal immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-2 to differentiate between saltwater and freshwater drowning: An experimental study

 

Manal A. Abd-ElZaher1, Shereen A. Abd-ElAleem1, Ahlam M. Abdulla2, Ahmad M. Mahmoud2, Fadia A. Mossalem3, Nashwa Gamal4

 

Departments of 1Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology; 2Biochemistry, 3Community and 4Histology, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University

samad.ed@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background:-Examination of immersed bodies is one of the most important aspects in forensic practice. Further differentiation is also an indispensable aspect with respect to determination of freshwater drowning (FWD) or saltwater drowning (SWD). Objective:- The present study aimed to investigate the early postmortem cardiac and vitreous biochemical changes and the immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-2 to differentiate between salt and freshwater drowning. Methods:- The study was carried out on 30 adult male Balady rabbits weighted 1.5: 2kg. Rabbits were divided randomly into 3 groups, 10 per each group. Animals received intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital 50ug/gm. Group(I): served as control, rabbits were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, group (II): FWD model, rabbits administered distilled water (30ml/Kg) at a rate of 1ml/min., and finally group (III): SWD model, rabbits administered (3.5%) NaCl in distilled water (30 ml/Kg) and also in the same rate. Within postmortem interval less than one hour, samples were collected as cardiac blood from right and left ventricles separately, and also the vitreous humor from right and left eyes separately. Serum and fresh incubated vitreous samples were analyzed for levels of biomarkers {K, Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and vitreous urea nitrogen (VUN)}. Kidney specimens were carefully dissected and prepared for immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-2. Results:- The most efficient markers were the high left to right ratio of BUN for hemodilution in FWD model, and the highly elevated left-right ratio of Mg, K, NA, and Cl levels in SWD model. The mixed right and left cardiac serum showed a highly significant elevated K level in FWD, meanwhile in SWD, there was there was a highly significant elevated Na, Cl, and Mg levels with reduced BUN. Vitreous humor showed highly significant elevated Na, Cl, Ca, and Mg levels in SWD and a highly significant elevated K and VUN levels in FWD. Immunohistochemical studies revealed an enhanced expression of aquaporin-2 in the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principle cells in SWD group compared with FWD and control groups. Conclusions: The current study suggested the usefulness of both serum and vitreous humor biochemical markers, together with the renal aquaporin-2 expression to accurately differentiate FWD from SWD in the early postmortem period. Aim of the study:- This study aimed to explore the possible early biochemical and immunohistochemical markers to differentiate between freshwater and saltwater drowning.

[Manal A. Abd-ElZaher, Shereen A. Abd-ElAleem, Ahlam M. Abdulla, Ahmad M. Mahmoud, Fadia A. Mossalem, Nashwa Gamal. Early postmortem biochemical changes and renal immunohistochemical expression of aquaporin-2 to differentiate between saltwater and freshwater drowning: An experimental study. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):28-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.04

 

Keywords: Drowning, cardiac biomarkers, vitreous biomarkers, aquaporin-2.

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Losartan versus Endoscopic Variceal Ligation (EVL) In Primary Prophylaxis of Variceal Bleeding in Egyptian Cirrhotic Patients: prospective study

 

Mohamed S. Zakaria, Mohammad S. Abdelbary, Khaled S. Zakaria, Sherif H. Mahmoud Ahmad M. Khairy

 

Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Introduction: esophageal varices (OV) is one of the major complications of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients, bleeding form varices can be prevented using EVL, moreover blocking the activity of AT II (angiotensin II receptors) may have beneficial effects in lowering portal pressure. This study aimed at assessing Losartan versus EVBL in primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage. Patients & Methods: 40 cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices of grade III to IV were classified into two groups, group I n=20 received Losartan therapy while group II n=20 received EVBL sessions, then patients were followed up after therapy for three months. Results: signs of impending variceal rupture disappeared in both groups with improvement in the grade of varices to become grade I in 100% in group II but only 17.6% in group I, Congestive gastropathy and ascites grades were improved in group I but deteriorated in group II. Conclusion: Both Losartan & EVBL are effective prophylactic to variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients but Losartan was associated with much less complications.

[Mohamed S. Zakaria, Mohammad S. Abdelbary, Khaled S. Zakaria, Sherif H. Mahmoud Ahmad M. Khai. Losartan versus Endoscopic Variceal Ligation (EVL) In Primary Prophylaxis of Variceal Bleeding in Egyptian Cirrhotic Patients: prospective study. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):38-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.05

 

Keyword: Losartan, EVBL, congestive gastropathy, ascites, variceal hemorrhage.

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6

Applying Integrated Ground- And Surface- Water Management (Case Study: Nubaryia Basin, West Delta, Egypt)

 

El Arabi N. E. 1 and Morsy W.S. 2

 

1 Prof. Dr., Director of Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center, El- Kanater El- Khairya, Egypt.

2 Researcher, Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center, El-Kanater El-Khairiya Egypt.

Corresponding Author: Wedad_Morsy@yahoo.com Tel: 01226624326

 

Abstract: This research was initiated with the objective of evaluating the current water potential and predicting the future groundwater potential till 2020in order to solve the shortage of water problems, especially in the ends of the Nubaryia Canal and its branches. A numerical Groundwater flow model MODFLOW package was employed to study the aquifer system of the Nubaryia Basin after calibrating it against historical groundwater heads that were observed during the last 18 years. The study area was divided into seven sub surface areas (zones) with the help of geographic information system (GIS). Confident with the calibration process, the model was used to simulate three different development scenarios to determine the safe withdrawals locations and quantities. The results indicated that the region is promising in terms of the presence of groundwater and the sustainable recovery of groundwater levels throughout the prediction period. Accordingly, it was recommended to drill wells to solve the shortage of water in the study area.

 [El Arabi N. E. and Morsy W.S. Applying Integrated Ground- and Surface- Water Management (Case Study: Nubaryia Basin, West Delta, Egypt). J Am Sci 2013;9(6):43-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.06

 

Keywords: Integrated management, Mathematical model, Ground and surface water, Potential zones, Nubaryia basin.

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Investigation on the Association between conditional and unconditional Accounting conservatism and earning management

 

Mohammad Nesarvand 1, seyed ali vaez 2, Mohammad ramezan ahmadi3

 

1.Master of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Brunch-Islamic Azad University- khoramshahr -Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch -Shahid Chamran University. Ahvaz. Iran

3. Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch -Shahid Chamran University. Ahvaz. Iran

 

Abstract: The present study investigates the relationship between conditional and unconditional accounting conservatism and earning management in 279 companies listed in Tehran stock exchange for the period 1380 to 1388.it includes two hypotheses. In first hypotheses we examined the relationship between conditional conservatism and earnings management, and second hypotheses the relationship between unconditional conservatism and earnings management was investigated the first hypotheses statistical analysis was estimated using pooled (combined) data. Result of the models estimation with a fixed effects approach shows that the variable "earnings management" has a significant effect on the measure of conditional conservatism. This indicates that conditional conservatism and earnings management are significantly associated. To test the second hypotheses, it was estimated using pooled data. A result of the second hypotheses with a bound approach shows that there is a significant relationship between unconditional conservatism and earnings management. IN other words, we can say that companies providing conservative financial reporting may have more earnings management.

[Mohammad Nesarvand, seyed ali vaez, Mohammad ramezan ahmadi. Investigation on the Association between conditional and unconditional Accounting conservatism and earning management. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):54-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.07

 

Keywords: conditional conservatism, unconditional conservatism, earnings management, discretionary accruals, Non-discretionary accruals.

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Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver among Adults in Khartoum- Sudan: Epidemiological Survey

 

Bahaaedin A. Elkhader 1, Mustafa Z. Mahmoud 2, 3

 

1. Al-Ghad International Medical Sciences Colleges, Medical Imaging Technology Department, Abha- Saudi Arabia.

2. Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O. Box: 422, Al-Kharj- Saudi Arabia.

3. Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Medical Radiological Science, Basic Sciences Department, P. O. Box: 1908, Khartoum- Sudan.

abuhuthiefa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is diagnosed increasingly in adults, but the prevalence remains unknown. This study was designed with an aim to determine the prevalence of NAFLD in a population based sample in Khartoum- Sudan by an epidemiological survey. A prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out among 500 Sudanese adults (200; 40% males and 300; 60% females) aged 15 to 80 years, in between March 2011 to March 2013. Participants underwent physical examination, laboratory tests and ultrasonography examination of the liver. Diagnosis of NAFLD in this study was based on sonographic evidence of a NAFLD and testing negative for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) antibody. Of the 500 participants negative for HBsAg or anti-HCV antibody, the overall prevalence of NAFLD 15%, 4.4% in males and 6.6% in females. NAFLD prevalence differs by race and ethnicity; location in Sudan (Center: 36.36%; North: 7.27%; South: 21.82%; East: 16.36% and West: 18.18%). The most significant factors associated with the presence of NAFLD were weight category, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increase Non high density lipoprotein (Non-HDL) cholesterol level. Obesity is a major risk factor and is associated with high rates of NAFLD. It is recommended that ultrasonography of the liver to be included in the routine health examinations of obese adults. Clinicians must be aware of the limitations in the available methods to diagnose NAFLD.

[Elkhader BA, Mahmoud MZ. Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver among Adults in Khartoum- Sudan: Epidemiological Survey. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):62-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.08

 

Keywords: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT); high density lipoprotein (HDL); non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); ultrasound.

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Political Economy of Arab Revolutions: analysis and prospects for North-African Countries

 

Mohammad asadi, Seyed Javad Fozounkhah Some Sarani

 

Islamic Azad University of Chaloos-Iran

1( master of political science and Regional Studies of Islamic Azad University of Chaloos)

2(master of political science and Regional Studies of Islamic Azad University of Chaloos)

 

Abstract:Several similarities explain the spread of the Arab revolutionary process: the polarization of economies to limited sectors, a rentier-based management of resources, very low employment rates and extremely high rates of skilled migration. Finally, a similar external pact with the Western powers, and an inner pact between elites that have both imploded. This article suggests new directions for these economies that would combine regional integration and a catch-up strategy via service activities.

[Mohammad asadi, Seyed Javad Fozounkhah Some Sarani. Political Economy of Arab Revolutions: analysis and prospects for North-African Countries. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):67-75]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.09

 

Keywords: political economy, Middle East and North Africa, unemployment, tertiary education, internal and international pact.

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A System Dynamics Approach to Water Demand Management, Case Study of Tajan Basin

 

1 Younes Nazari, 2 Hamid Amadeh, 3Mahdi Goldani, 4Mehdi Zamanipor

 

1. M.S. Student of commerce Management, Allameh Tabatabae'i University

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Allameh Tabatabae'i University

3 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Economics, Allameh Tabatabae'i University

4 Ph.D. Student, Department of Industrial Engineering, Arizona University

 

Abstract: Recently Iranian government planned to eliminate subsidies in order to manage consumption and allocation of natural resources. Thus, a cashing subsidy payment system has been applied since end of 2010. In first stage, subsidy removal of different kinds of energy and resources like water were considered. Government's plan was to pay cash subsidies directly to consumers. In this paper, we focused on the consequences of removing water subsidy in Tajan basin, an area in the north of Iran. We modeled different ways of water supply and demand in Tajan basin by system dynamics approach. In fact, we tried to show the effects of subsidy removal policy in municipal demand of water in Tajan and examined two kinds of implementing this policy. In the first strategy, water price is increased smoothly over modeling horizon which is considered to be 24 months. While in the second one, price is increased suddenly in the first month, exactly similar to the way the government has done. We designed third strategy in which no subsidy elimination happens and prices increase according to inflation. A water surplus indicator was considered for comparing these strategies which was calculated by decreasing water supply from its demand. First strategy was shown to be best one.

[Younes Nazari, Hamid Amadeh, Mahdi Goldani, Mehdi Zamanipor. A System Dynamics Approach to Water Demand Management, Case Study of Tajan Basin. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):76-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.10

 

Keywords: System Dynamics, Water Resource, Demand Management.

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Communities of practice for development in the Middle East and North Africa

 

Seyed Javad Fozounkhah Some Sarani Mohammad asadi

 

Author and master of political science and Regional Studies of Islamic Azad University of Chaloos

master of political science and Regional Studies of Islamic Azad University of Chaloos

Islamic Azad University of Chaloos-Iran

 

Abstract: Development-oriented communities of practice (CoPs) are relatively new to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. A number of international agencies have tried to promote the concept of CoPs as a means to enhance the cross-fertilization of experiences, and promote the exchange of development knowledge. However, most of this work has been focused on the internal business of these agencies. A joint World Bank Institute-UNDP project implemented in 2003-2004 sought to better understand the scope of CoP activities in the MENA region, the environment which shapes their operations, and their potential as development actors. To do this, they conducted a survey of all of the entities they could find which seemed to fit the definition of a CoP, while also providing seed money and technical assistance for the establishment of three pilot regional CoPs. The survey revealed a relatively barren landscape in which CoPs have scarcely begun to emerge in the region as a result of barriers such as access to the Internet, limited translation into Arabic, a hesitation to share substantive lessons via the Internet and a limited understanding of the CoP concept itself. Although provided with similar assistance and funds, the three CoPs had very difference experiences and provide important lessons to those working in the field. Different factors were found to affect the success of the CoPs. Ownership, capacity building, language, IT skills, focus, product, vision and leadership were all found to have profound influence on budding CoPs. Surprisingly, although funds are important, they are not a determining factor in the success or failure of a CoP. The project also found nascent interest in the ideas of knowledge management, but much awareness raising and promotion is still necessary.

[ Seyed Javad Fozounkhah Some Sarani Mohammad asadi. Communities of practice for development in the Middle East and North Africa. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):88-94]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.11

 

Keywords: CoP- UNDP- MENA- MDF- Drylands- Traboulsi

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The Impact of E-Promotion and Social Networking on E-Business: Case Study of Vectone.com

 

Syed Fida Hussain Shah 1, Tahira Nazir 2, Khalid Zaman 1

 

1. Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

2. PhD Scholar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.

khalidzaman@ciit.net.pk

 

Abstract: Vectone Mobile (Vectone.com) is a newly growing mobile operator in the telecommunications industry which provides communication services to a huge market of Europe and particularly the UK. It has targeted the customers from different ethnic backgrounds and is providing the lowest possible rates on all local, national and International Calls. Vectone Mobile has tremendously made its brand popular by strengthening its brand image in a very short period of 8 months through some strategic decisions taken by them. They have made partnership with T-Mobile (The world 7th largest mobile operator) in order to obtain the Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) Technology. This deal has added value to the services provided by Vectone.com. Vectone Mobile is offering very attractive Promotional Incentives to the consumers with improved services in comparison with its competitors Lebara and Lyca etc. These promotions are communicated through word of mouth (very effective because of its lowest rates and offers) besides information on the website. Other marketing communication channels and Online Social Networking tools have not been used, as it should be, in order to increase its market share. In the light of the literature review, critical analysis reflected that Branding, Promotion and Social Networking all are closely related to each other. For Example, Promotional Campaigns and Promotional activities are heavily dependent upon Social Networking and both of Promotion and Social Networking are the main pillars of Brand Building Process. This aspect is evaluated critically in order to find this correlation with respect to the website under consideration i.e. Vectone.com.

[Shah SFH, Nazir T, Zaman K. The Impact of E-Promotion and Social Networking on E-Business: Case Study of Vectone.com. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):95-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.12

 

Keywords: E-Promotion; E-Business; Vectone Mobile

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Altitudinal and rocky habitats of the flora eastern and western sides of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar in Libya

 

Abusaief, Huda. Mohamed Abd Al Razik.1 Dakhil, Ansaf. Husien2, and Al-Mogasby Abd Al Salam.3

 

1Agron. Fac. Agric., Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ. 2Bot. Fac. Sci. Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ. 3Herbarium Fac. Sci. Benghazi Univ. Bossef_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 at two different areas Al-Mansora and Jarjr-oma in Al Jabal Al Akhdar. The ecological surveys are necessary for an adequate characterization of a plant community and change in different along altitudinal gradient species in importance value, dominance and plant density. In Rocky habitat increased number of species to 175 species in Al-Mansora when altitude 309.4 m asl and 153 species in Jarjr oma when altitude 1 m asl. However, altitude in Rocky habitat of Al Mansora gave the highest number of species than that of Jarjr oma percent 7 % although of increase altitude. In Al Mansora habitat the importance value of the different association type 1 to 8, the values of species Thymus capitatus high in all characteristics, following Cistus parviflorus give highest presence during autumn season its species unpalatable. Vegetation dendrogram of stands based on Dominance of the species TWINSPAN classification four groups of Rocky habitat Al Mansora area, dominant by Cistus parviflorus, Rhamnus lycioides, Thymus capitatus and Sarcopoterium spinosum. In general, Rocky Coastal of Jarjr oma area gave highest the IV species Rhus tripartita, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Arisarum vulgare and Suaeda vera, wherever, dominance the indicator species Rhus tripartita, Sarcopoterium spinosum, Juncus acutus and Periploca angustifolia. The effect of difference seasons on plant density of Rocky Coastal were annuals species such as Mercurialis annua and Anagallis arvensis gave the highest plant density 1.2 plant per m2 in autumn its unpalatable species. However, species of Arisarum vulgare had the highest plant density than that of Mercurialis annua in winter. Palatable species such as Hordeum marinum and Frankenia hirsuta gave highest in spring, in summer season Sarcopoterium spinosum, Rhus tripartita and Juncus acutus had the highest plant density and its palatable species except Sarcopoterium spinosum. Al Mansora Rocky habitat was soil texture in community Thymus capitatus was silty lome while soil texture in community Sarcopoterium spinosum and Cistus parviflorus was silty clay, however, Rocky Coastal of Jarjr oma convergent community to clay perecentage of Suaeda vera and Sarcopoterium spinosum both 44%, while Rhus tripartita 42%, silty clay loam in Sarcopoterium spinosum. pH value a natural generally in all community. Electrical conductivity community Suaeda vera have highest mean value of 2.42 mmohs/cm.

[Abusaief, Huda. Mohamed Abd Al Razik, Dakhil, Ansaf. Husien and Al-Mogasby Abd Al Salam. Altitudinal and rocky habitats of the flora eastern and western sides of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar in Libya. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):101-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.13

 

Keyword: Altitudinal, Rocky habitat, Flora, Dominance, Density and Important value

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The Effect of Cross-Training on Some Physical and Physiological Variables and Improve The Level Of Performance In Modern Dance

 

Doaa Kamal Mohamed Tawfik

 

Dept. of Exercise, Gymnastic & Dance, Physical Education, Zagazig University, Egypt

dr.doaa_sma@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to design a cross-training program and see its impact on some physical and physiological variables (muscular strength - flexibility - muscular endurance - aerobic capacity anaerobic capacity) and improve the level of performance in modern dance. The researcher used the experimental method using pre and post measurement.Population of the study consisted of the fourth year students specialty motor expression aged (20-22 years old) for the academic year 2011/2012 at the faculty of physical education at the Zagazig University, sample of this study consisted of (20) student distributed on two equal groups one is experimental group which trained by using the cross training and the other is control which trained through the ordinary method. Data of the study was complied by using a physiological measurement (aerobic capacity - the ability anaerobic), physical measurements (muscle strength - flexibility - muscular endurance), Form for measure the level of performance in modern dance by jury. The results indicated that cross-training has a positive effect on some physical and physiological variables this was reflected at the level of performance in the modern dance. There are statistically significant in all the research variables. In favor of the post measurement of the experimental group compared to the control group post test which uses the traditional training method.

[Doaa Kamal Mohamed Tawfik. The Effect of Cross-Training on Some Physical and Physiological Variables and Improve The Level Of Performance In Modern Dance. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):128-132]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.14

 

Key words: Cross - training, aerobic capacity anaerobic capacity, modern dance

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Esteramide As an Enviromentally Friendly Synthetic Based Driling Fluids

 

Dardir M.M.* and Hafiz A.A

 

Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City 1727, Cairo Egypt.

monadardir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Novel oleate esters of lauricamide were prepared by the reaction of oleic acid and lauricamide (derived from the reaction of lauric acid and diethanol amine). The chemical structure for the new prepared lauricamide-mono and di-oleate esters were elucidated using elementary analysis, (FTIR), H1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra(CI/Ms) spectroscopic techniques. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and a lower toxicity (environmentally friendly) so they were evaluated as a synthetic –based mud (ester–based mud) for oil–well drilling fluids. The evaluation includes study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based–muds formulated with the new prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic–based mud.

[Dardir M.M. and Hafiz A.A. Esteramide As an Enviromentally Friendly Synthetic Based Driling Fluids. J Am Sci 2013; 9(6):133-142]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.15

 

Key words: - Drilling Fluids –Rheological Properties, Biodegradation.

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Nearby Segment Disease in the Lumber Spine

 

Hesham Hamed Refae

 

Orthopedics Surgery Department, South valley University hospital Qena, Egypt

hesham_refae@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Between January 2006 and December 2010, Nintey two patients with posterior lumbar fusion(PLF) had the potential for nearby segment (NSD) disease cephalic or caudal to the fusion segment. There is controversy regarding the subsequent degeneration of adjacent segments, and we are aware of no long-term studies that have analyzed both cephalic and caudal degeneration after (PLF). Patients and Methods: The mean age of the patients was 55 (45-65) years, 60 females and 32 males. The average duration of follow-up was 36 to 48 Months. A retrospective investigation was performed to determine the rates of degeneration and survival of the motion segments adjacent to the site of (PLF). Radiographs were analyzed with regard to arthritic degeneration at the adjacent levels both preoperatively and at the time of the last follow-up visit. Disc spaces were graded on a 4-point arthritic degeneration scale and assessed symptoms from the adjacent segment. Results:. 18 patients of 92 patients included in this study is found to have (NSD) at the cephalic adjacent segment after 3 to 4 years of the (PLF),10 of them met radiologic criteria for (NSD) which defined by; Development of spondylolisthesis >4 mm, Segmental ky­phosis >10°, Complete collapse of disc space, or more than 2 grades worsening of Weiner classification and the remeaning 8 patient had symptomatic (NSD) which defined as; symptomatic spinal steno­sis, Intractable back pain, or Subsequent sagittal or coronal imbalance, 2 of them had been treated only by decompression and the other 6 with decompression and extension of ( PLF) up to the affected segment Conclusion: Symptomatic degeneration at an adjacent segment with (PLF) was after about 36 to 48 months from time of operation, no correlation with the preoperative arthritic degeneration of the adjacent segment but patients whose facet joint at the adjacent segment had a more sagittal orientation had postoperative anterior listhesis, which caused symptomatic (NSD).

[Hesham Hamed Refae. Nearby Segment Disease in the Lumber Spine. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):143-148]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.16

 

Keyword: Adjacent segment disease, postreolateral interbody fusion, lumber spine.

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The Effect of Omega- 3 Fatty Acids on the Age Related Changes in Submandibular Salivary Glands of Albino Rats

 

Dalia EL-Baz and Zainab A. Salem*

 

*Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

dmaher2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The current study has been carried out to evaluate histologically, immunohistochemistry and statistically the effect of daily consumption of omega-3 on submandibular salivary gland of old aged rats. Material & methods: Eighteen male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into three groups (6 rats/each): Group I: 4-6 months rats weighing 170-200 gm, represented the adult rats. Group II: 12-15 months rats weighing 250-300 gm, represented the old rats. Group III: : 12-15 months rats weighing 250-300 gm, represented the old rats, and receiving omega-3 (60 mg/kg) once daily, for one month by intra- gastric intubation. All rats were sacrificed after 30 days. Soft tissue specimens were obtained from submandibular salivary gland at the floor of the mouth of the rats in all the studied groups. The sections were examined histologically with H&E, immunohistochemically using tumor necrosis factor alpha and the results were evaluated statistically. Results: Histopathological changes were observed in group II including; decrease in the overall size of the acini and granular convoluted tubules, an increase in the amount of fatty tissue, fibrous tissue and inflammatory infiltration. In group III, the acini and ducts appeared nearly normal and there was marked decrease in the inflammatory infiltration. Immunohistochemical examination revealed moderate expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha in group II, mild expression in group III and weak expression in group I. Conclusion: Omega-3 had significant effects in management of many age related changes of submandibular salivary gland.

[Dalia EL-Baz and Zainab A. Salem. The Effect of Omega- 3 Fatty Acids on the Age Related Changes in Submandibular Salivary Glands of Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):149-154]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.17

 

Key words: Omega-3, Aging, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Submandibular salivary gland.

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Determination of the New Oxazolidinone Antibiotic Linezolid in Presence of Both its Alkaline and Oxidative Degradation Products Using Validated Stability-Indicating Chromatographic Methods as Per ICH Guidlines

 

Mohammed M. Abd El-Kawy1, Osama I. Abd El-Sattar2, Maha A. Hegazy1 and Maya Sh. Eissa3

 

1Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2National Organization of Drug Control and Research, Giza, Egypt

3Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo, Egypt

maya-shaaban@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Two specific, sensitive and precise stability-indicating chromatographic methods have been developed, optimized and validated for Linezolid (LIN) determination in presence of its alkaline- (ALK) and oxidative- (OXD) degradation products. The first method was based on thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with densitometric determination of the separated bands at 254 nm. The separation was achieved using silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates and chloroform: ethanol (5:2, v/v) as a developing system. Good correlation was obtained between the integrated peak area ratios of the studied drug and its corresponding concentrations in the specified range. The second method was based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection, by which the proposed components were separated on a reversed phase C18 analytical column using isocratic elution system with ‘acetonitrile (ACN) : 0.15% triethylamine (TEA); pH=3.5’ (30 : 70, v/v). The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL.min-1 and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. Different parameters affecting the suggested methods were optimized for maximum separation of the cited components. System suitability parameters of the developed methods were also tested. The suggested methods were validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for determination of LIN in its commercial tablets. Both methods were also statistically compared to a reported HPLC method with no significant difference in performance.

 [Mohammed M. Abd El-Kawy, Osama I. Abd El-Sattar, Maha A. Hegazy and Maya Sh. Eissa. Determination of the New Oxazolidinone Antibiotic Linezolid in Presence of Both its Alkaline and Oxidative Degradation Products Using Validated Stability-Indicating Chromatographic Methods as Per ICH Guidelines. J Am Sci 2013; 9(6):155-165]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.18

 

Keywords: HPLC; TLC; Densitometry; Linezolid; Degradation products; Stability-Indicating Method; Chromatography.

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New trends in fixation of femur fracture in dogs.

 

Awad M.A, Ahmed I.H, Hassan M.M, Ibrahim, A.*, Henawy A.T** and Hashem M.A.

 

Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology; and *Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and **Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine. Suez Canal University.

dr_zaghlol68@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of iliac crest auto bone graft (ICBG), Hydroxyapatite (HA), and the both ICBG & HA together on the healing process of an experimentally induced femoral fractures in dogs fixed with Enders nail (EN). The present work conducted on twenty apparently healthy male dogs divided equally into four groups. Group I left as a control while, groups II& III were treated with ICBG and HA respectively and group IV, treated with ICBG with HA. Clinical, radiographical and histopathological examinations were made for assessment of the healing process. This study concluded that, ICBG with HA provides the most dense callus formation with smooth uniformed contour and the earliest fracture healing with normal attitude and gait rather than the other groups.

[Awad M.A, Ahmed I.H, Hassan M.M, Ibrahim, A., Henawy A.T and Hashem M.A. New trends in fixation of femur fracture in dogs. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):166-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.19

 

Key words: pressure ulcer, Braden scale, predictive validity, specificity, sensitivity.

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An Analysis of the Relationship between Education and Crime: A Case Study of Shiraz, Iran

 

Mohammad Hadi Sadeghi1 and Ahmadreza Rezaei2

 

1 Faculty of Law and Political Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 National University of Tajikistan, Tajikistan. Email: sci_2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Does education reduce crime rate? Simple statistics, coupled with the empirical evidence, suggests that criminals tend to be less educated than non criminals. This paper investigates the attitudes toward the relationship between education and crime in Shiraz, Iran. The findings show that improving education can yield significant benefits towards crime reduction. This survey was conducted in 2012 among 225 high school teachers. The survey consists of a face-to face interview. The findings suggest that substantial saving on the social cost of crime can be obtained by investing in education. We find that the probability of committing crimes decreases with the level of education. In conclude we demonstrate that education can reduce the crime rates in the society. It is expected that findings of this study could utilize by policymakers who evaluate the benefits and costs of policies that increase education towards crime reduction.

[Mohammad Hadi Sadeghi and Ahmadreza Rezaei. An Analysis of the relationship between Education and Crime: A Case Study of Shiraz, Iran, J Am Sci 2013; 9(6):174-177]. (ISSN: 1545‐1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.20

 

Keywords: Crime, attitude, education, human capital

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Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Foot Pressure Distribution in Congenital Clubfoot

 

Shamekh Mohamed El-Shamy1, Ehab Mohamed Abd El-Kafy2, Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim3

 

1, 2 Department of Physical Therapy for Disturbance of Growth and Development in Children and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

2, 3Associate professor, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Um Al Qura University, KSA.

3 Department of Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

Shamekhmohammed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Conservative treatment of clubfoot is well accepted and has been reported to result in better correction ranging from as low as 50 % to as high as 90%. This study was an attempt to evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on foot pressure distribution in congenital clubfoot. Methods: Thirty children with congenital clubfoot were participated in this study, their age ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 years matched with 20 healthy pediatric subjects. They were randomized divided into two equal groups; Study group received electrical stimulation for 12 weeks (frequency of 40 Hz, pulse width 330 ms and intensity was set where a visible movement of the foot was achieved and the sensation did not cause any distress to the infant), and control group didn’t receive any stimulation. Foot pressure distribution was measured using foot scan for all children pre and post treatment. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in maximum foot pressure between study and control group after electrical stimulation application (p< 0.001). By contrast maximum foot pressures were not completely recovered in the study group compared with their matched healthy controls after 12 weeks. Conclusion: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation may have the potential to maintain or improve evertor muscle activity and foot pressure distribution in children with clubfoot.

[El-Shamy SM, Abd El-Kafy EM, Ibrahim MM. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Foot Pressure Distribution in Congenital Clubfoot. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):178-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.21

 

Key Words: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Congenital Cubfoot, Foot Pressure Distribution.

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Moral Distress Related Factors Affecting Critical Care Nurses

 

Maysa Abdalla Hassan1, Hayam Ibrahim Asfour2 and Nagwa Ahmad Reda2

 

Nursing Supervisor, 1Desouque General Hospital, Kafr-Elsheikh, Egypt.

2Department of Critical Care and Emergency Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria. Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background: Moral distress has been identified as a major factor influencing the physical and emotional well being of the nurses. It is a serious problem among critical care nurses, it my make the nurses avoid the patient and do not act as an advocate. While its impact on the nurses themselves is burn-out, resignation from their position, or abandonment of nursing. The impact that moral distress has on the institution is high nurse turnover, low patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. The aim of this study was to identify the moral distress related factors affecting the critical care nurses. Method: the study was conducted in six intensive care units (ICUs) of kafr-Elsheikh hospitals. Subjects: All of the critical care nurses providing direct patient's care and working in the mentioned ICUs included in the study (70 nurses). Tool: Moral distress intensity scale was used for data collection, it was adopted from Corely. Results: The physician practice category is found to be the highest moral distress factor followed by the nursing practice category and then the institutional category. Conclusion: Moral distress including several factors is a critical problem that affects the critical care nurses and it needs more attention.

[Maysa Abdalla Hassan, Hayam Ibrahim Asfourand Nagwa Ahmad Reda. Moral Distress Related Factors Affecting Critical Care Nurses. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):184-196]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.22

 

Keywords: Moral Distress; Factors; Critical Care Nurses

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Effect of Clomiphene Citrate on the Fallopian Tube of Rats. Histological Considerations and Clinical Implications

 

Metwally Abd-El-Bary Mansoor

 

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University.

 

Abstract: Background: Fallopian tube is a dynamic, steroid responsive tissue that facilitates fertilization of the gamete and early embryo transport. Clomiphene citrate is considered the first line therapy for induction of ovulation in women with anovulatory infertility. There is marked increase in the rate of ectopic tubal pregnancy with clomiphene citrate therapy. Objective: To clarify the histological changes in the tubal mucosa that accompany clomiphene citrate therapy and may predispose to ectopic tubal pregnancy. Material and Methods: Twenty prepubertal female rats were used, they were divided into control group and another group treated with intraperitoneal injections of 10 mg/kg body weight/day of clomiphene citrate for 6 consecutive days. Results: Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the tubal epithelium with marked ciliogenesis. Marked disturbance of tubal mucosa with shedding of parts of tubal mucosa and mucosal folds into the lumen of the tube. Accumulation of structureless masses in the lumen of the tube. The changes were seen in the tubal ampulla as well as the isthmus. Conclusion: Mucosal disturbance and shedding, epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, luminal masses of shedded epithelium and structurless tissues and disturbance in the function of both epithelial and secretory cells. All the preceeding features may hinder the movement of fertilized ovum and consequently increase the chance for occurrence of ectopic tubal pregnancy.

[Metwally Abd-El-Bary Mansoor. Effect of Clomiphene Citrate on the Fallopian Tube of Rats. Histological Considerations and Clinical Implications. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):197-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.23

 

Key words: Fallopian tube, mucosa, epithelium, clomiphene citrate, histological considerations, rats.

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Bioconversion of Some Agricultural Wastes into Animal Feed by Trichoderma spp.

 

Osama, A. Seoudi, Khaled, M. Atalla and Abir, M. Helmy

 

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt.

oas00@fayoum.edu.eg

 

Abstract: To improve the protein content and nutritional value of some agricultural wastes; tomato leaves, sugar beet leaves, sugar beet pulp, rice straw and sugarcane bagasse, fungal strains Trichoderma viridi, T. harzianum and T. reesei were used. In this experiment, crude protein contents recorded 3.75, 5.62, 10.62, 14.31 and 15.12% of the raw cellulosic wastes sugarcane bagasse, rice straw, sugar beet pulp, tomato leaves and sugar beet leaves, respectively. Results showed that, pretreatment of wastes with acid (0.5 N H2SO4) and boiling for 60min. of tomato leaves increased crude protein content in fermented substrate using Trichoderma viridi, T. harzianum and T. reesei, 15.12 to 18.53, 18.52 and 18.25% after 5, 10 and 15 days, of fermentation time respectively. Where sugar beet leaves yielded the highest crude protein content (14.2%) after 5 days with T. reesei. Treated sugar beet pulp was the most efficient pretreatment for the production of maximum crude protein content (17.9%) with T. reesei after 5 days. Whereas, Rice straw supplemented with ammonium sulphate increased crude protein content to 7.92, 7.83 and 7.79% for T. reesei, T. viridi and T. harzianum, respectively after 10 days of fermentation period. From the biological assay in which albino mice were used, except for 40% which was not economically efficient, it is recommended to use diet supplemented with 10, 20% of fermented cellulosic wastes to improve the nutritive value of the studied cellulosic wastes as animal feed.

[Osama, A. Seoudi, Khaled, M. Atalla and Abir, M. Helmy. Bioconversion of Some Agricultural Wastes into Animal Feed by Trichoderma spp. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):203-212]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.24

 

Key words : agricultural wastes, lignocellulosic residues, pretreatment, single cell, protein, Trichoderma viridi, Trichoderma harzianum, T. reesei, animal feed.

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Classification of Copper Alloys Microstructure using Image Processingand Neural Network

 

Ossama B. Abouelatta

 

 Production Engineering and Mechanical Design Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt

abouelatta@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The most important aspect of any engineering material is its structure. The methods used to accurately determine the material microstructures is a very time-consuming process, causes operator fatigue, and it is prone to human errors and inconsistency. There are two computational approaches, a feature features and a neural network algorithm, are used separately for classifying and detection of surface textures in the field of remote sensing, science, medicine, journalism, advertising, design, education and entertainment. In this paper, a combination of the two approaches has been utilized to classify and to detect copper and copper alloys microstructure using image process, texture features and neural network. The overall average discrimination rate results from the combined approaches are about 97.6%. This paper offers a reliable basis for the classification and characterization of microscopic images by image processing and neural network.

[Ossama B. Abouelatta. Classification of Copper Alloys Microstructure using Image Processing and Neural Network. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):213-223]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.25

 

Key words: Classification, Copper alloys, Microstructure, Image processing, Texture feature, Neural network

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Nephrology Nurses’ Job Satisfaction and intention to stay in kidney Hemodialysis unit at prince Abdel

Rahman Al Sidiri hospital, Al Jouf.

 

Fatma Abdel moneim Al tawil

 

Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

Fatma_abdelmoneim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: While the nephrology nursing shortage persists despite the continued growth of the population of patients with stage 5 chronic kidney diseases, In kidney dialysis units, the nurses may be the most undervalued employees, although they are the ones who take care of patients and our loved ones in times of sickness. They are required to take up multiple responsibilities at their workplace. Nurses' job satisfaction, have great impact on the organizational success. Knowing parts of job dissatisfaction among nephrology nurses is important in forming strategies for retaining them in hemodialysis units. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the level of job satisfaction among nephrology nurses. A descriptive design was used. Convenient sample of all nephrology nurses (25 nurses) working in dialysis unit in Al- Sadiri hospital were interviewed using demographic data questionnaire and McCLOSKEY/MUELLER SATISFACTION SCALE. According to scores of satisfaction scale, the study results indicated that nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, the factors showing the higher satisfaction scores were salary, recognition of work from peers and amount of responsibility the scores with the least satisfaction were increased work load, child care facilities, opportunities for social contact and factors related to career advancement. 44 % of nurses considered work overload as the primary reason for leaving the position, 48 % of nurses described the overall quality of care as good and 40% of nurses as excellent care. Nephrology nurses indicated that quality patient care is a priority. The study recommendations are directed to improve nurses’ satisfaction and, thus, the quality of care provided in hemodialysis units. Nurses’ job satisfaction may be improved if these dissatisfaction factors to be considered, such as increased staffing, availability of child care facilities, increased opportunities for social contacts and encouragement of career advancement.

 [Fatma Abdel moneim Al tawil. Nephrology Nurses’ Job Satisfaction and intention to stay in kidney Hemodialysis unit at prince Abdel Rahman Al Sidiri hospital, Al Jouf. J Am Sci 2013; 9(6):224-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.26

 

.Key Words: Job satisfaction, Nephrology nurses, hemodialysis unit

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Experimental Comparative Study of the Possible Effect of Panax Ginseng and Fish Code Oil against Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity

 

Wesam A.ElslamA.Elwahab1, Heba Gamal Abd El-Aziz2 and Mona A.A. Arafa3

 

1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology - Faculty of Medicine -Al-Azhar University

2 Department of Biochemistry- Faculty of Pharmacy-Al-Azhar University

3 Department of Anatomy- Faculty of Medicine -Al-Azhar University

W_abdalwahab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatic damage due to drugs, xenobiotics and environmental pollutants has been a serious concern worldwide. Acetaminophen is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug, which can cause hepatic injury when given in high doses. Panax ginseng (Chinese medicinal herb) and Fish code oil with antioxidant properties would attenuate the intensity of the oxidative stress often involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases and have been studied in a variety of clinical conditions and found to protect against cellular damage. The objective of the present study was to study and compare the possible effect of ginseng and fish code oil against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity.Methods:36 rats were divided into six equal groups (n = 6): first group (healthy control), second group (positive control group), they were given a single oral dose of acetaminophen (500 mg/kg), the third and fourth groups were given Panax ginseng (300 mg/kg) and fish oil (4 ml/kg) as protection for 7 consecutive days prior to single oral dose of acetaminophen (500 mg/Kg), the fifth and sixth groups were first taken single oral dose of acetaminophen (500 mg/Kg) and after 3 days the animals were treated with ginseng and fish code oil for 7 days (300mg/Kg and 4 ml/Kg, respectively). Blood was taken from the orbital sinus of the rats for biochemical tests serum transaminases (ALT, AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein (T.P) and Albumin (Alb.) and at the same time liver was removed and kept in 10% formalin solution for histological analysis. All histological sections were subjected to morphometric study, pathological evaluation followed by statistical analysis.Results: The results showed that the acute elevation of serum ALT,AST, ALP and the acute reduction of T.P and Alb. due to acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity were significantly corrected in the groups receiving Panax ginseng and fish code oil. Necrosis of liver significantly decreased according to histopathologic observation, and that fish code oil was significantly more effective against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity when compared with ginseng.Conclusion: It is concluded that both Panax ginseng and fishcode oil have protective and treating effect on hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen and that fish code oil has better effect than Panax ginseng.

[Wesam A. Elslam A. Elwahab, Heba Gamal Abd El-Aziz and Mona A.A. Arafa. Experimental Comparative Study of the Possible Effect of Fish Code Oil and Panax Ginseng against Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):234-244]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.27

 

Key words: acetaminophen, ginseng, fish code oil, hepatotoxicity

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 Effect of Exogenous Estrogen during Pregnancy on the Development of the Testis of Rats. Histological Considerations and Clinical Implications

 

Metwally Abd-El-Bary Mnsoor

 

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

 

Abstract: Background: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. In recent years, evidences have accumulated that exposure to environmental components with estrogenic activity causes reproductive disorders in human population. Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the testicular hazards of the neonatal rats resulting from exposure of their pregnant mothers to estrogenic compounds. Subjects: Two primary groups, each consisted of 3 adult male and 12 adult female rats were used. After mating, two secondary groups, each consisted of 6 pregnant rats were divided into control group injected with saline and treated one, subcutaneously injected with oestradiol benzoate 100 mg/kg. body weight/day from the 13th day of pregnancy onwards. Results: There is marked decrease in seminiferous tubules of the testis. Some tubules are incompletely formed with blood cells in interstitial tissue of the testis. The nuclei of spermatogenic cells are markedly affected beginning from disturbance in their shapes and chromatin distribution, to pyknosis, to complete disappearance. Their cytoplasm was vacuolated. Sertoli cells showed vacuolation of their cytoplasm and the nuclei of Leydig cells are more heterochromatic. Conclusion: Estrogenic compounds administered to pregnant mothers produce marked histological hazards in the testes of their neonates and so, estrogenic compounds must be avoided as possible during pregnancy.

[Metwally Abd-El-Bary Mnsoor. Effect of Exogenous Estrogen during Pregnancy on the Development of the Testis of Rats. Histological Considerations and Clinical Implications. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):245-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.28

 

Key words: Oestradiol, Testis, Histological study, Albino rats.

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Value of Hs-CRP as a Predictor of Cardiac Electrical Instability in Diabetic Patients

 

Ahmed Abdel-Galeel MD1, Ahmed K Ibrahim MD2, Lobna Abdel-Wahid MD3, Hisham AK Othman MD4 and Manal Elsayed Ez Eldeen MD3

 

1 Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

2 Community Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

3 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

4 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Interplay of several concomitant factors in diabetic patients may facilitate the occurrence of arrhythmia. Inflammation has been shown to play a direct role in the initiation, maintenance and recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in all patients. However, few studies have evaluated the association between diabetes mellitus and cardiac rhythm disorders. We tried to detect the association between inflammation and cardiac electrical instability. Methods: Ninety diabetic patients with structurally normal hearts were enrolled in the study and followed up for one year. In every three-months visit, we assessed cardiac rhythm, P wave dispersion, hs-CRP level and random blood sugar.Results: One third of the original cohort succeeded to complete the follow up schedule. Arrhythmia developed at a time during the follow up period in about one third of patients. There was positive correlation between hs-CRP and P wave dispersion and rhythm disturbances (r 0.4-0.8 and p < 0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that diabetic patients are in high risk for cardiac arrhythmias. P wave dispersion and hs-CRP are interrelated and they proved to be strong predictors for cardiac electrical instability and hence arrhythmia production.

[Ahmed Abdel-Galeel, Ahmed K Ibrahim, Lobna Abdel-Wahid, Hisham AK Othman and Manal Elsayed Ez Eldeen. Value of Hs-CRP as a Predictor of Cardiac Electrical Instability in Diabetic Patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):251-256]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.29

 

Key word: Hs-CRP, P wave dispersion, Diabetes, Arrhythmia

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Radon and its Decay Products in the Main Campus of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, and its Radiation Hazards

 

A.El-Taher1, M. El-Hagary1, M. Emam-Ismail1, F. A. El-Saied2and Fadl A. Elgendy2

 

1Physics department, College of Science, Qassim University, P. O. 6644, 5145 Buraydah, KSA

2Chemistry department, College of Science, Qassim University, P. O. 6644, 5145 Buraydah, KSA

atef_eltaher@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Rn-222 is the most important source of natural radiation and is responsible for approximately half of the received dose from all sources. Most of this dose is from inhalation of the Rn-222 progeny, especially in closed atmospheres. Portable devices, Alpha Guard and RAD 7 were used for Rn-222 measurements inside the main campus of Qassim University at Saudi Arabia in order to estimate the effective dose to the occupants from 222Rn and its progeny. At the same time, meteorological variables, such as temperature and humidity were observed. The values of annual effective doses for radon inhalation by the inhabitants were found to vary in the range 0.2–0.6mSv/ y, with a mean of 0.38mSv /y1. These results are lower than the value 1 mSv/y recommended by ICRP, 1990. The variation of dose relationship from indoor radon in lung tissue are calculated and tabulated. The investigation shows that the levels of indoor radon are well within acceptable values in main campus of Qassim University at Saudi Arabia. The Quality level parameters of the water used in the campus are measured and compared with the recommended levels of World Health Organization, WHO. In addition to environmental value of the present survey, the results are considered to be essential in analyzing any data for future activities in this field.

[A.El-Taher, M. El-Hagary, M. Emam-Ismail, F. A. El-Saied and Fadl A. Elgendy. Radon and its Decay Products in the Main Campus of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, and its Radiation Hazards. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):257-266]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.30

 

Key words: Rn-222- Qassim university- workplaces monitoring- Annual effective dose

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Assessment of Natural radionuclides in Powdered milk Consumed in Saudi Arabia and Estimates of the Corresponding annual Effective Dose

 

Zain M. Alamoudi

 

Physics Department, Girls Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Zalamoudi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This paper presents the activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th radionuclides measured in 20 brands of powdered milk samples collected from local markets of Saudi Arabia.The main detected activity corresponding to40K with average activity of 74.51 BqKg-1, while the average activities of 226Ra,232Th were 9.64 Bqkg-1, and 6.77 Bqkg-1, respectively. The determination of the radiation dose due to the consumption of these brands of milk are the main objectives of this program. The total average effective dose due to annual intake of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from the ingestion of the powdered milk for children (age 2-7y,7-12y and 12-17y) were estimated to be 183.74 µSvy-1 198.34 µSvy-1 and 234.15 µSvy-1 and for adults (˃17Y) is 29.41 µSvy-1,which these values are lower than the ICRP recommended limit of 1.0 mSv y-1 for all ages. Results are compared with those of different countries worldwide. The resulting data may serve as base-line levels of activity concentration in powdered milk in the area of study.

[Zain M. Alamoudi. Assessment of natural radionuclides in Powdered milk Consumed in Saudi Arabia and Estimates of the Corresponding annual Effective Dose. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):267-273]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.31

 

Key word: Natural Radioactivity, Milk, Heavy Metals, Ingestion dose, Hazard quotient.

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Determining Best Nursing Practice: Effectiveness of Three Groin Compression Methods Following Cardiac Catheterization

 

Hanan Mohammed, Hanan Said and Manal Salah

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University,

dr_hanan10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cardiac catheterization is an extremely valuable procedure in diagnosis and treatment. However, few changes have occurred in the techniques used for percutaneous arterial cannulation, and for attaining homeostasis after cardiac interventions. Risks associated with femoral sheath removal include inadequate hemostasis leads to vascular complications. This may be costly, increase hospital time, and increase patient discomfort. Moreover, the process of sheath removal and femoral artery compression can be distressful, and affect patient satisfaction. This study was aimed at comparing the effectiveness of three groin compression methods (manual, bandage, and compressor) on patient vascular complications including (hematoma, ecchymosis and oozing), pain, and patient satisfaction following cardiac catheterization. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in cardiac catheterization and coronary Care Unites at National Institute of Heart. It included a sample of 150 patients admitted for performing cardiac catheterization via femoral artery randomly assigned to 3 equal groups: manual compression, bandage, and compressor. The tools used for data collection included Demographic and Clinical Data Sheet, scales for Hematoma Formation, ecchymosis, oozing, pain intensity and patient satisfaction procedure scale. The study maneuvers were applied according to the group. Groin sites were inspected immediately, at 6 and 12 hours post hemostasis. At 6 hours post hemostasis (70.0%) of patients in the manual group hadn’t hematoma formation compared to bandage and compressor groups (36.0% and 58.0% respectively) with statistically significant differences between the three groups. A statistically significant difference was revealed among the three groups at 12 hours post hemostasis, (P=0.001). It is evident that less patients in the manual group (6.0%) had large ecchymosis at 12 hours post hemostasis, compared to the compressor (20.0%) and bandage (24.0%) groups. Also at the same time, noticed that no one of patients in the three groups had severe oozing with no one of patients in the manual group had moderate oozing compared to compressor and bandage groups (2.0% and 12.0% respectively), and the difference was statistically significant, (P= 0.07). The bandage group had longer time for hemostasis (23.5±8.3 minutes) with more time of compression (144.9± 50.5 minutes) compared to the two other groups. The manual group had the lowest duration of bed rest (4.8±1.3 hours), and hospital stay (13.4±9.0 hours), compared to the other two groups, and the differences were statistically significant, (p<0.001). Additionally, manual group had the lowest scores of pain at all three assessment times (5, 10 and 20 minutes), whereas those in the compressor group had the highest scores. Overall, (80.0%) of the patients in the manual group were satisfied, compared to only (38.0%) in the compressor group, and (28.0%) in the bandage group. It is concluded that manual compression method after sheath removal in cardiac catheterization patients is associated with lower times of hemostasis and compression. It also has lower incidence of hematoma, ecchymosis, oozing with less pain.This reduction in vascular complications will in turn decrease time of bed rest and duration of hospitalization resulting in higher levels of patient satisfaction, compared to bandage and compressor device. Therefore, it is recommended to use this method, which does not need any special equipment, and is comfortable to the patient with develop a tool for ongoing measurements of patient outcomes upon post-arterial sheath removal.

[Hanan Mohammed, Hanan Said and Manal Salah. Determining Best Nursing Practice: Effectiveness of Three Groin Compression Methods Following Cardiac Catheterization. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):274-285]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.32

 

Keywords: Cardiac catheterization, compressor, bandage, manual, hematoma, ecchymosis, oozing

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Dexamethasone in prevention of respiratory morbidity in elective caesarean section in term fetus. A randomized control trial

 

1Ahmed Rushdi Ammar,1Noha Hamed Rabei and 2Hamdi Ahmed Gad

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

2Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Suhag Hospital

noha.rabei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Babies born at term by elective caesarean section (CS) and before onset of labor are more likely to develop respiratory complications than babies born vaginally. In developing countries resources are scarce and it is difficult to provide expensive treatments as neonatal care. Aim of the Work: To assess the effect of prophylactic dexamethasone administration before elective cesarean section at term in reducing neonatal respiratory complications. Patients and methods: 600 women were included in the study and were planned to have elective caesarean section. 300 received dexamethasone 12 mg twice, 12 hours apart 48 hours before delivery. 300 patients were the control group. The outcomes were: incidence of admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), incidence of transient tachypnea of neoborn (TTN), the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and the need for mechanical ventilation. Results: There was a highly significant difference between cases and controls as regard TTN and admission to NICU. There was a decrease in the incidence of RDS and the need for mechanical ventilation but with no significant differences. Conclusion: Antenatal dexamethasone is effective in reducing neonatal respiratory morbidity and admission to NICU.

 [A.El-Taher, M. El-Hagary, M. Emam-Ismail, F. A. El-Saied and Fadl A. Elgendy. Dexamethasone in prevention of respiratory morbidity in elective caesarean section in term fetus. A randomized control trial. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):286-289]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.33

 

Key words: dexamethasone, elective cesarean section, respiratory morbidity

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Glorifications of Names and attributes of God in Persian Poems

 

Farhad Divsalar*1 & Monireh Seyeh Mazhari2

 

1. Department of Literature, Islamic Azad University, branch of Karaj, Karaj, Iran

2. Department of Theology, Islamic Azad University, branch of Karaj, Karaj, Iran

 

Abstract: Since belief in God was based on the fact that there was something in our nature and in the nature of the world which points to a transcendent Creator whom we should worship. Also, the various great Persian Poets applied the different names and attributes of God (in Arabic and Persian) in their poems. Then the aim of this article is to highlight various names and attributes of God mentioned in some of the Persian poems and elaborate on them for a better understanding toward knowing our Creator. It is tried to investigate the different applications of Persian poets regarding their usage and glorification of various names and attributes of God with different frequency in their verses at different periods.

[Farhad Divsalar & Monireh Seyeh Mazhari. Glorifications of Names and attributes of God in Persian Poems. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):290-294]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.34

 

Keywords: Persian poets, Names and attributes of God, Persian literature

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Impact of Counseling Intervention to Promote Adaptability and Self Efficacy among Stroke Patients and Their Family Caregivers during Rehabilitation Stage at Asser General Hospital

 

Nahla Ahmed Abd Elaziz1, Sahar Mahmoud Mahamed2, Hayate Abuo Elazayem Bayomi3

 

Departments of 1 Community Health 2, Psychiatric Mental Health 3 Medical Surgical Nursing College - King Khalid University- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

nahla_eassawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Present study aims to identify needs and pattern of physical and mental adaptation among stroke patient and their family care givers during rehabilitation stage at the neurological clinic. Hence, Implement counseling session for stroke patients and their family care givers (Provide instructional booklet) and evaluate the outcome of counseling session on patient and their family care givers. The study was conducted at the out-patient of the neurological clinic on Asser General Hospital at Abha city Saudi Arabia. A convenience sample of 50 post stroke patients and their families who are attended for follow up visit in the pre determined period a questionnaire sheet was used for data collection that was developed by researchers based on reviewing literature. Results: Findings indicated that a mean age of patients 53.02±12.77 and 80% of the patients were suffering from ischemic stroke. And 72% of the family caregivers were Resident with patient, the differences in total knowledge and practices of caregivers about stroke disease were highly statistically significant between pre, and post program. There were highly significant deference between pre and post program in relation to patient self efficacy, patient quality of life and care givers self Conclusion: The results revealed that the Counseling Intervention had an efficient impact on improving caregivers' knowledge about stroke disease and their practices about care of post-stroke disabled patients which led to an obvious improvement To Promote Adaptability and Self Efficacy among Stroke Patients and Their Family Caregivers. These were proved by the tests’ differences pre and, post the program implementation which showed highly statistically significant differences in all tested items. Recommendation: The results of this study projected the need for distribution, and use of this Counseling Intervention program by all stroke care units, and increase the public awareness about the risk factors of stroke.

[Nahla Ahmed Abd Elaziz,,Sahar Mahmoud Mahamed, Hayate Abuo Elazayem Bayomi. Impact of Counseling Intervention to Promote Adaptability and Self Efficacy among Stroke Patients and Their Family Caregivers during Rehabilitation Stage at Asser General Hospital. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):295-307]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.35

 

Keywords: Stroke, Rehabilitation, Caregivers, Self Efficacy.

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Distressing Factors Experienced by Jordanian Adolescents with Cancer: A Qualitative Study

 

Ghada Mohammad Abu Shosha

 

Department of Child Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zarqa University – Jordan

ghada_abushosha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in Jordan. The outset of the disease is a traumatic life event as cancer patients encounter many stressors resulting from cancer diagnosis, medical interventions, and treatment downside effects. Aim: This study aimed to explore distressing factors experienced by Jordanian adolescents with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy. Method: A qualitative exploratory design was used to gain an understanding about this phenomenon. Fifteen adolescents were recruited purposively from two major cancer treatment centers in Amman, the capital of Jordan. Data were gathered through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews allowing participants to speak freely about their own experiences. These interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated from Arabic into English. Dataset was analyzed using the inductive thematic analysis technique. Results: The study revealed many sources of distress that adolescents were engaged with. These sources were organized into three major themes: "Physical-related stressors", "Emotional-related stressors", and "Treatment-related stressors". However, participants demonstrated mastery to adapt with their stressors using some adaptation strategies which have formed the fourth theme "Enhancing normality". Conclusion: Cancer has a tremendous impact on adolescents' lives. Religion and social support were key factors that helped adolescents to continue living comfortably with their distressing situation. Nurses are encouraged to develop such social networks between patients and their healthy peers to enhance their sense of normality. In addition, nurses should appraise patients' specific problems, making purposeful plans, and initiating timely nursing intervention.

[Ghada Mohammad Abu Shosha. Distressing Factors Experienced by Jordanian Adolescents with Cancer: A Qualitative Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):308-316]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.36

 

Keywords: Cancer, Distress, Adolescents, Jordan, Nursing.

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Nutritional Assessment of Patients under Hemodialysis in King Faisal Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

 

Samaa S. El-Soadaa1, Amany M. Abdelhafez1&2 Seham E. Zahran1&3

 

1 Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Animal Health research Institute, Egypt. dr.samaaelsoadaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The most common problem in chronic renal failure patients is malnutrition which can be secondary to poor nutrients intake, increase losses or increase in protein catabolism. Objectives: to assess the nutritional status of a sample of hemodialysis patients (HDP) attending King Faisal Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted included 40 hemodialysis patients (24 females, 16 males), attending the hemodialysis center in King Faisal Hospital. A pretested interview questionnaire was used to collect demographic, medical, and dietary histories. Anthropometric indices were recorded for each patient. Serum phosphorus, calcium, total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, and creatinine were obtained from patients, files. Results: Among the studied patients 40% were males and 60% were females. Dietary assessment showed that, patient, daily intake of all macro and micronutrients (except vitamin A) was <90% of the average nutritional requirements. Regarding percentiles of anthropometric measurements as indicators of malnutrition ; 35%, 20%, 32.5%, 32.5% of the patients had a weight for age, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and mid-upper arm muscle area (MAMA) less than the 5th percentile respectively. Biochemical assessment among the studied patients shows that, all patients were anemic,22.5% of patients had serum phosphorus of >1.94 mmol/L, 20.0% had serum total protein <64 g/L, 75.0% with serum calcium of ≤ 2.37,100% with BUN >28.5 mmol/L, 72.5% with albumin <40 g/L, and 55.0% with serum creatinine of < 884 µmol/L. Conclusion: malnutrition is common in (HDP), rendering them at high risk of mortality and morbidity.Improvement of nutritional status of patients on maintenance hemodialysis is needed. Every patient needs an intensive nutritional counseling based on an individualized plan of care to maintain adequate nutrients intake.

[Samaa S. El-Soadaa, Amany M. Abdelhafez, Seham E. Zahran. Nutritional Assessment of Patients under Hemodialysis in King Faisal Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):317-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.37

 

Key words: Nutritional assessment- Hemodialysis- Nutrients intake – Malnutrition.

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A Comparison of Depressional Status and Associated Factors among Residents of Geriatric Homes and Elderly Attending Outpatient Clinics in Suburban Community

 

Samia Kattab Abd El-Rahman

 

 Geriatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Damanhour University

samia_khattab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Depression is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Depression as a medical illness, the person feels with sadness, discomfort and lack of self-confidence. It can also be a sign of medical problem. According to the census survey 2006 of elderly in Egypt, ageing 60 years and more, constitutes 6% of total population. The depression risk factors increase with ageing. Aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of depressional status among elderly living in geriatric homes and those attending the outpatient clinics to detect the underlying associated factors of depression. Methods and Subject: Descriptive a cross-sectional study to compare the depressional status and the associated factors among the elderly residents of in institution and the elderly patients attending the outpatient clinics at Damanhur National Medical Institute of El-Behaira Governorate, Egypt. It also looked into associated factors for elderly depression, using socio-demographic characteristics and associated medical questionnaires. The sample size was 100 elderly aged 60 years and above, half of the study sample participants were from geriatric homes and another half from outpatients attending the outpatient clinics. Results: The study postulates that depression is common in institutional settings. The age groups more than 65 years were 2.1 fold higher among institutionalized residents than non-institutionalized participants. Among the socio-demographic factors only having no children and monthly income showed significant differences between the groups of the two studied settings. The most common associated chronic diseases with depression, were diabetes alone, hypertension alone and both diabetes and hypertension combined, with a significance of (P = 0.04). Both suggested and indicated depression collectively, accounted 90% of the depressed participants of in institution versus 74% for those outpatient individuals. Conclusion: depression among elderly is one of the most public health problems. The depressive symptoms are high among Egyptian elderly population especially those over 65 years and with chronic diseases, and inadequacy of monthly income, as well as among those live alone or having no children. Evaluating sub threshold depressive symptoms as suggested depression among institutionalized residents will help in better treatment and adjusting better lifestyle for elderly at care homes.

[Samia Kattab Abd El-Rahman. A Comparison of Depressional Status and Associated Factors among Residents of Geriatric Homes and Elderly Attending Outpatient Clinics in Suburban Community. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):327-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.38

 

Keywords: Depressional status, associated factors, geriatric homes, suburban elderly

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Amendment of Saudi Arabia Public Works Contract from Fixed-Price to Price Adjustment Contract

 

Eissa Asiri 1, Ahmad Al-Dokhmasey2 and Moheeb El-Said3

 

1Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, Saudi Arabia

2Procurement Senior of Ezz Flat Steel Company, Egypt

3Structural Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Eng.eissa1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The price adjustment contract is engineering contract that includes articles allow the adjustment of the contract price (either by increasing or decreasing) according to the terms agreed between the contract’s parties. This contract type includes mathematical equation which called Contract Price Adjustment (CPA) that grants enough flexibility to adjust the contract’s price in order to eliminate the risk of price fluctuation of contract’s components. Federation International Des Ingeniers – Consells (FIDIC) presented a formula for price adjustment in which, both parties should agree on the variables of such formula and the limitations of applying it as well. In this paper, a questionnaire survey and several interviews with experts in the field of high way and road way construction projects are conducted in order to extract the data needed to formulate the price adjustment that could be applied in the contracts of such type of projects. The stated formula is presented in order to be utilized in amending the standard Saudi Arabia public works contract (which is considered as a fixed-price contract) to be more flexible in dealing with the variations in material prices faced by the contractors during the execution of the contract works.

[Eissa Asiri, Ahmad Al-Dokhmasey and Moheeb El-Said. Amendment of Saudi Arabia Public Works Contract from Fixed-Price to Price Adjustment Contract. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):338-346]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.39

 

Keywords: Public Works Contract, Price Adjustment Contract, Project items, The price adjustment formula.

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Prevalence of mechanical neck pain in Taif university female students: a survey study

 

Nevein M M Gharib and Nashwa S Hamid

 

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. neveinmohammed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and the associated risk factors of neck pain in female undergraduate students from Taif University in Saudi Arabia. Three hundred female volunteers’ students from Taif University were participated in this study. Their ages ranges from 18 to 27 years old with a mean age of 20.49 years (± 2.14) and a mean body mass index of 23.13 (± 3.32). Self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on the prevalence of neck pain and its associated risk factors. Additionally, all participants were assessed for neck disability (by using neck pain disability index questionnaire) and for cervical range of motion (by using CROM apparatus). The results showed that 54% of the participants reported experiencing neck pain. The prevalence of neck pain increased with higher level of study and it is commoner among clinical students. Postural bad habits and life style are the most common risk factors. It was concluded that Taif university female students had a high prevalence of mechanical neck pain. The future health of undergraduate students deserves consideration and they should be alerted to the likelihood of mechanical neck pain and its potential causes. However there is still uncertaininty about factors leading to neck pain and more research is needed on this topic.

[Nevein M M Gharib and Nashwa S Hamid. Prevalence of mechanical neck pain in Taif university female students: a survey study. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):347-354]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.40

 

Key words: Neck pain, Mechanical disorders, Prevalence, Taif University, Students, Survey study.

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Personality Traits versus Management Performance Case Study: Middle School Superintendents in

Kermanshah Province, Iran

 

Younes Nazari1, Mohammad Gholami Mehrabadi2, Mohammad Ali Sheikhi3, Mohammad Ghasem Mirzaie4

 

1M.S. Student of Commerce Management, Allameh Tabatabae University

2M.S. Student EMBA of Allameh Tabatabaei University

3M.S. Student of Commerce Management, Allameh Tabatabae University

4M.S.Marketing Tourism Management of Allameh Tabatabaei University

younesnazari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine personality traits versus management performance among middle school superintendents in Kermanshah school system. This study was a descriptive-correlation research. Statistical population included all middle school superintendents in Kermanshah school system during academic year 2011-2012. The study sample included 130 subjects (61 females and 69 males) selected randomly through stratified sampling. Data collection was performed by administrating two questionnaires, namely, Personality Trait Questionnaire (NEO-Five Factor Inventory with 60 items) and Management Performance Questionnaire (with 30 items). Cronbach alpha was used to evaluate consistency reliability of the questionnaires which were measured at 0.96 and 0.95, respectively. Data analysis was through descriptive statistics including frequency, mean, and standard deviation. Study variables were evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Study findings revealed significant positive correlation between personality traits and management performance in studied school superintendents. In ranking the predicting variables for management performance, openness to experiences ranked the highest with neuroticism ranked next in the predictive model.

[Younes Nazari, Mohammad Gholami Mehrabadi, Mohammad Ali Sheikhi, Mohammad Ghasem Mirtzaie. Personality Traits versus Management Performance Case Study: Middle School Superintendents in Kermanshah Province, Iran. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):355-360]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.41

 

Keywords: Personality Traits, Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Management Performance.

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Aggregate Blending Model for Hot Mix Asphalt Using Linear Optimization

 

Khaled A. Kandil and Al-Sayed A. Al-Sobky

 

Public Works Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

k_kandil@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of the aggregate-blending process is to combine different aggregate sizes to produce a final blend (called job mix) that can meet the predefined specification limits for each sieve. Traditionally, this step is carried out by trial-and-error or by using graphical methods. These methods are time consuming and depend on the experience of the engineer. With the rapid advancement of computer technology, several models were developed to get the optimum aggregate blend utilizing other techniques such as genetic algorithms, linear programming, and multi-objectives linear programming. This study explores the use of the fuzzy triangular membership function to develop a linear programming model that can be used to determine the optimum aggregate blend taking into consideration the specification design range, tolerances of job mix formula, and variability associated with the percent passing each sieve. The developed model was validated through a numerical example. It was concluded that the proposed approach would be used effectively as an intelligent tool to determine the optimum aggregate blending for hot-mix asphalt.

[Khaled A. Kandil and Al-Sayed A. Al-Sobky. Aggregate Blending Model for Hot-Mix Asphalt Using Linear Optimization. J Am Sci2013;9(6):361-365]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.42

 

Keywords: Aggregate Blending, Hot-Mix Asphalt, Linear programming, Fuzzy logic, Membership functions, Variability.

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The application of word «Tree» in Molana's poems

 

Mehri Jamali Motlagh

 

Department of Literature, Sabzevar Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran.

mjamalimotlagh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this survey we want to search of the application of word Tree in molana's poems and show a part of it. First we investigate the mentioned word and explain its applications. Diversity in tree is very much in Iran and other nations. In this time we try to explain some of them. We look to all kinds of tree in different cultures of nations. In continue we will show the application of tree in Molana's poems. The meaning of tree is one of the fundamentals in Persian literature and Molavi also apply it like other poets in all parts of his poems with this difference that because of Molana's difference it is applied differently in all parts of his poems which it can have different applications in different parts.

[Jamali Motlagh M. The application of word «Tree» in Molana's poems. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):366-370]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.43

 

Keywords: Tree; Molana; Fable; Life; Knowledge

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A Process Model for New Product Development: A Multiple Case Study of Iranian Food Industry Companies

 

Reza Vaezi1 and Esmaeil Hasanpour Gharoughchi2

 

1 Assistant Professor of Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University (AUT), Tehran, Iran.

2 (Corresponding Author), Ph.D Student of Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University (AUT), Tehran, Iran. E-mail: esmaeil.hasanpoor@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Regarding the high importance of NPD in companies’ success and worrying rate of failure of product development projects in world and Iran, and this research aims to introduce a model for effective product development process in Iranian food processing companies. In this research, by using multiple case study method and pluralistic approach, three food-processing companies in Iran have been chosen and studied. In each company, by using different methods like semi-structured interviews, recommendatory NPD process model have been defined. Then, emerged recommendatory models of all three companies have been intra-case analyzed and at last compared with existing models of literature. The result of this research is a 12-step model, which some steps (e.g. organizing NPD team, taking legal permissions of new product, distribution channel training, and participative goal setting with distribution channel agents) are unique in comparison with existing models of literature. This is resulted because of the varied conditions of the studied companies. Therefore, recommendatory model of this research is an appropriate guideline for execution of NPD process and helps Iranian organizations to solve one of their important problems.

[Vaezi, R., Hasanpour, E. A Process Model for New Product Development: A Multiple Case Study of Iranian Food Industry Companies. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):371-378]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.44

 

Keywords: New Product Development, Kadbanoo Co., Ramak Co., Ramak Bita Co., Iran

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Histopathological effects of experimental phenylketonuria on 15 days albino rat placenta

Hala. M. Ebaid

 
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

halaebaid35@yahoo.com

Abstract: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disorder that is characterized by an inability of the body to utilize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. The disease results from a deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Although this inborn error of metabolism was among the first in humans to be understood biochemically and genetically, little is known of the mechanisms involved in the pathology of PKU during neonatal development. Hyperphenylalaninaemia (Elevated concentrations of plasma phenylalanine) were induced in pregnant rats by oral administration of 30 mg. DL–α-methylphenylalanine/100 g (to inhibit maternal liver phenylalanine hydroxylase) plus phenylalanine supplementation at a dosage of 60 mg/100 g body weight two times daily (to increase maternal and fetal plasma phenylalanine) after 6th day of onset of gestation till 15 days of gestation. Treatment with alpha-methylphenylalanine/phenylalanine affect placentation through reduction in placental weight and histopathologically, through increase in apoptotic cells in the labyrinth zone and basal zone, and hypoplasia of the labyrinth zone and basal zone, dilatation of the blood vessels and inducing haemorrhagic and degenerative changes in the layers of placenta. Conclusions: PKU affects placentation that may be reflected on the growth and development of fetuses.

[Hala, M. Ebaid. Histopathological effects of experimental phenylketonuria on 15 days albino rat placenta. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):379-386]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.45

 

Keywords: PKU, Hyperphenylalaninaemia, rat placentation.

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Role of Tamsulosin Oral Control Absorption System and Alfuazocin in Shock wave Lithotripsy for Renal and Upper Ureteric Calculi

 

Yasser A. Badran, Tamer A. Ali, Mohamed A. Abd Elaal, Mahmud Ali, Adil Jamal and Ahmed Farouk Abdulall

 

Departments of Urology, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt and Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, KSA

 

Abstract: Objectives: - To evaluate the effect of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system 0.4 mg and alfuzosin 10 mg on clearance of stone fragments after ESWL in renal and upper ureteric calculi. Patients and Methods: - A total of 200 patients with single pelvic renal or upper ureteric calculi 20 mm or less were enrolled in this study, underwent ESWL, those patient were divided into 3 groups, group (A) formed of 65 patients received non steroidal anti inflammatory in the form of diclofinac Na 50 mg three times /day on demand with tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system 0.4 mg once daily. Group (B) formed of 66 patients receiving diclofinac Na 50 mg three times /daily on demand with alfuzosin 10 mg at night on bed time. Group (C) formed of 69 patients received diclofinac Na 50 mg three times /daily on demand as controlled group. All groups received 75 mg of diclofinac Na ampule intramuscular on demand. All patients were followed by KUB 2 weeks after each session of ESWL for clearance of stone fragments; all groups are comparable as regard of age, sex mean stone size and stone location. Results: - In our study the success rate after the end of study for stone size 10 mm or less was 28/28 patients 100% in group (A), 31/31 patients 100% in group (B) and 28/30 patients 93.3% in group (C). For stone size more than 10 mm, the success rate after 1st session of ESWL was higher in group (A) 26/37 patients 70.27% tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system and group (B) 25/35 patients 71.4% extended release alfuzosin10 mg than group (C) 17/39 patients 35.89% controlled group. The overall success rate at end of study was higher in group (A) 36/37 patients 97.29% and group (B) 33/35 patients 94.28% than group (C) 31/39 patients 79.48%. No sever complication was observed in three groups A,B and C, retrograde ejaculation was 7.69% (5 patients) in group A, orthostatic hypotension did not require suspension of the therapy was 3% (2 patients) in group A and 6% (4 patients) in group B. Conclusion: - Medical expulsive therapy (tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system 0.4 mg) and alfuzosin 10 mg after ESWL for renal and ureteral calculi >10 mm increase stone expulsion rate, decrease the time for stone expulsion, amount of analgesia and number of colics episodes,in contrast,alpha blocker failed to demonstrate a significant treatment effect after ESWL for stone less than 10 mm.

[Yasser A. Badran, Tamer A. Ali, Mohamed A. Abd Elaal, Mahmud ali, Adil Jamal and Ahmed Farouk Abdulall. Role of Tamsulosin Oral Control Absorption System and Alfuazocin in Shock wave Lithotripsy for Renal and Upper Ureteric Calculi. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):387-393]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.46

 

Keywords: Tamsulosin. ESWL, Stones

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Learning Organization as a Model for Organizational Development Applied Study on The Banking Sector In Jordan

 

Hussien Al-Tarawneh, Moayyad Al-Fawaeer and Ayyuob alswalha

 

Business Faculty, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University, Jordan.

 dr.moayyad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates one of the most recent management concepts in the field of organization development, i.e. the Learning Organization (LO). The study aims to assess the potentials related to this concept in the Core Business of the Banking Sector in Jordan. The sample of this study comprises 321 employee and senior manager in the HR headquarters in three Jordanian Banks, using a comprehensive coverage method; LSD Test & ANOVA were used to analyze the results of the questionnaire. The results of the study show that the weakness of the seven dimensions of the Learning Organization are empowering individuals towards a collective vision and creating systems to capture and share learning. On the other hand, the most obvious strength was the promotion of inquiry and dialogue. The averages of the seven dimensions ranged between (3.44) and (3.94) out of (6). The study endeavored to present some recommendations for the development of each of the seven dimensions of the Learning Organization and strengthen their weaknesses such as establishing awareness for the concept of learning organization among workers in the banks through the establishment of specialized courses and workshops, and encouraging presidents to involve employees in the information on global trends and trends in the organization, through regular meetings.

[Hussien Al-Tarawneh, Moayyad Al-Fawaeer and Ayyuob alswalha. Learning Organization as a Model for Organizational Development Applied Study on The Banking Sector In Jordan. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):394- 399]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.47

 

Keywords: learning organization- organizational development- Bank sector

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A study of Natural Radioactivity in the Welding Workshops Waste

 

Zain M. Alamoudi

 

Physics Department, Girls Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Zalamoudi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In this study, the natural radio activities of 40K, 226Ra,and 232Th and the man- made of 137Cs in samples of solid wastes of (TIG) welding process, collected from the welding workshops in different locations of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Asfan and Tabuk). The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector. The results show that the average concentrations were 44.8,50.23,431.82 and 1.5 Bq /Kg, respectively. Rradium equivalent activities of the samples under consideration were calculated with an average value of 127 Bq/Kg. The total absorbed dose in the study samples ranged between the lower value (0.027) mGy/h (sample No.4) to the higher value (0.628) mGy/h (sample No.5), with an average value of (0.19) mGy/h which is lower than the limits as recommended by (UNSCEAR 2000). Also, heavy metals analyses were done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration’s average values of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Bi, Pb and Th elements in the samples of Welding Workshops Waste were 1.02%, 63.18%, 0.25%, 0.25%, 76.99 ppm, 62.87 ppm and 17.63 ppm, respectively. The data were discussed and compared with limits given by United Nations Scientific Committee for the effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR).

[Zain M. Alamoudi. A study of Natural Radioactivity in the Welding Workshops Waste. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):400-405]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.48

 

Key words: Welding workshops waste, Natural radioactivity, gamma spectrometry.

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Epidemiology and clinical outcome of ICU-acquired Stress hyperglycemia in Critically ill Medical patients (Single center study)

 

Osama A. Khalil, Monkez M. Yuossef, Magda M. Sherif, Alsayed Alnahall and Ghonium M.E.

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

magyakm2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Stress hyperglycemia is common in critically ill patients, even without a history of diabetes. It has been recently recognized to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Therefore this study was designed to assess the prevalence of stress hyperglycemia in Medical Intensive Care Subunits of Zagazig University Hospitals and to study why some individuals develop stress hyperglycemia and others will not in similar clinical and metabolic circumstances by estimation of relative risk of some risk factors (age, BMI, SBP, +ve family history of DM and APACHE II score of severity), and lastly to predict the clinical outcome of stress hyperglycaemic patients in medical ICU. Patients and methods This cross sectional observational prospective study included747 subjects admitted in medical ICU Subunits in period of six months, 224 of these patients were admitted to cardio-pulmonary subunit, 137 patients were admitted to stroke subunit, 258 patients were admitted to general subunit, and 128 patients were admitted to hepato gastroenterology subunit. the included subjects were subdivided to three groups according to FBG, RBG, and HbA1c, as follow: Group I (Normoglycemic group included 408 patients,Group II( Non diabetic stress hyperglycaemic group included 136 patients with no history of diabetes on admission. Group III (Diabetic group included 203 patients. All subjects of this study were subjected to full history, through physical examination and Routine investigations which include(Complete blood picture, Liver and Kidney function tests, Arterial blood gases,RBG. FBG, HbA1c and ICU severity was assessed by APACHE II score. Results We found that the patients with stress hyperglycemia were (18.21%) and the diabetic patients were (54.61%) while the normglycemic patients were (27.17%). And the highest frequency of patients developed stress hyperglycemia was observed in cardio-pulmonary subunit (25%), followed by stroke subunit (21.8%), and the lowest frequency was in both general and gastroenterology and hepatology subunits (13.5%, 11.71% respectively.) and the presence of +ve family history of diabetes, age > 50 years, BMI > 25kg /m2,SBP >130mmHg, and APACHE II score > 16 increase the relative risk of occurrence of stress hyperglycemia by 3.37, 2.05, 2.42, 3.43, 2.5 fold respectively. The results revealed that the mean duration of ICU stay for patients with stress hyperglycemia was significantly increased (6.64 ± 4.80 days) compared to diabetics (6.34±6.34days) and normoglycemic patients (5.01±3.09days) and the patients with stress hyperglycemia had lower improvement rates at the time of discharge (49.26%) compared to diabetics (65.02%), and normglycemic patients(67.15%) and patients with stress hyperglycemia were more complicated at the time of discharge (11.76%) than diabetics (6.40%) and normoglycemic(5.88%). In addition, the mean mortality rate for the patients with stress hyperglycemia was (38.97%) compared to diabetics (28.57%) and normoglycemic (26.56%) subjects. Conclusion We can conclude that the stress hyperglycemia is significantly prevalent in medical ICU of Zagazig University Hospitals with highest figures among patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergencies. Also there are many risk factors that may increasing the risk of occurrence of stress hyperglycemia in stressful conditions more than others the most risky one was positive family history followed by increased systolic blood pressure,BMI,then age and finally stress hyperglycemia in ICU worsen the APACHEII score and increase the mortality and duration of hospital stay. Therefore strict control of stress hyperglycemia is recommended to decrease mortality and hospital stay in ICU.

[Osama A. Khalil, Monkez M. Yuossef, Magda M. Sherif, Alsayed Alnahall and Ghonium M.E. Epidemiology and clinical outcome of ICU-acquired Stress hyperglycemia in Critically ill Medical patients (Single center study. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):406-413]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.49

 

Key words: American Diabetic Association (ADA), Random blood glucose (RBG), Fasting blood glucose(FBG), APACHE II score: Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, Intensive care unit(ICU), Free fatty acids(FFAs).

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Comparison and Optimization of Graphical Methods of Moldboard Plough Bottom Design Using Computational Simulation

 

Hamed Shahmirzae Jeshvaghani 1, 2, Salman Khaksar Haghani Dehkordi 2, Mahmood Farouzandeh Samani 3, Hamidreza Rafeie Dehkordi 4

 

1. Young Researchers Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, P.O. Box 115.

3. Department of Applied Science Electronics, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

4. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeini Shahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Esfahan, Iran.

hamed.sfme83@gmail.com


Abstract: The objective of this study was to computational analysis and comparison of a new graphical method of moldboard plough bottom design with previous graphical methods. Results show that the new method made the design and manufacturing process of plough bottom simpler. Also, this method decreased the weight of the bottom up to 7.3% due to the reduction of the overdesigned surface of it up to 273.5 cm2. Therefore, based on this developed method, the price and magnitude of energy consumption of the moldboard plough decreases due to reduce of the weight of bottom and its friction with soil. Also, a three dimensional model of the new designed bottom was designed using CATIA V5R16. Then, computational simulation of the bottom was carried out by ABAQUS V6.9 utilizing the finite element method. Interactions between the bottom and the test soil (sandy loam) were applied to the simulation using a distributed load applied to the surface of moldboard and share. This distributed load was obtained from interpolation among 14 point forces measured from field tests using piezo-resistive transducers located on the working surface of the bottom. The load distribution was then derived by using spatial interpolation. Results show that this new designed bottom can easily withstand the applied stresses and displacements during plowing process. Results obtained from this study are suitable for the manufacturers of moldboard plough specially those who wish to use the finite element method to improve their products.

[Hamed Shahmirzae Jeshvaghani, Salman Khaksar Haghani Dehkordi, Mahmood Farouzandeh Samani, Hamidreza Rafeie Dehkordi. Comparison and Optimization of Graphical Methods of Moldboard Plough Bottom Design Using Computational Simulation. J Am Sci 2013;9(6): 414-420]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.50

 

Keywords: Moldboard plough bottom design; graphical method; CATIA V5-R16; computational simulation; ABAQUS V6.9

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Child alimony in the jurisprudence and Islamic republic of Iran laws

 

Amir Ahmadi (M.A)1, Saber Afrasyabi (M.A) 2

 

1. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com

 2. Department of law, Islam Abad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, Islam Abad Gharb, Iran

 

Abstract: In Islamic society, a special place is the family the law needs to get of all those families a special formulation of ingredients is not perfect, of course article 1168 of the civil code, the parent is responsible for child support that has been discussed among it is also mentioned in Shiite jurisprudence. The definition of alimony can be said that the things they need to survive, such as food, clothing, housing, food and home furnishings, and all that a person needs to live traditionally. The implications of alimony and maintenance equipment used in the Shiite jurisprudence have and the amount of support that parents should have to pay the note. We also found support in the Shiite jurisprudence and legislation of the various conditions alimony or child headed fiscal measures devised in any case, may be provided to the child.

[Amir Ahmadi (M.A), Saber Afrasyabi (M.A). Child alimony in the jurisprudence and Islamic republic of Iran laws. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):421-423]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.51

 

Key words: Alimony; child; Shiite; Islamic law; jurisprudence

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Comparison of Critical Thinking, Achievement Motivation, and First Child Creativity with One child

 Atefeh Kamaee1*, Parviz Askare1, Alireza haidary1

1.Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

E-Mail: sadatizadeh@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aim of this study was to Comparison of critical thinking, achievement motivation and Creativity between first child and one child in the Girls High School. The study had a sample size of 300(150 First Child and 150 One child) they were selected by a multistage cluster random way. To collect the information they have used California Critical thinking skills questionnaire (form B), Hrmans Achievement Motivation questionnaire, and Abedi Creativity questionnaire. The research was a comparative study. For Statistical analysis of data, multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova) was use. Data analysis showed significant difference in critical thinking and Creativity at (p <0.001) between first Child and One child female students
[Atefeh Kamaee, Parviz Askare, Alireza haidary. Comparison of Critical Thinking, Achievement Motivation, and First Child Creativity with One child.
J Am Sci 2013;9(6): 424-430]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http: //www. jofamericanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.52

 

Keyword: critical thinking, achievement motivation, Creativity, First Child, One child.

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An Injection Locked Ring VCO with Enhanced Phase Noise for 2.4GHz Band ZigBee Applications

 

Fatemeh Talebi 1, Hassan Ghafoorifard 1, Samad Sheikhaei 2, Elias Soleiman 2

 

1. Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

f.talebi@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: A low power low phase noise ring voltage controlled oscillator (ring VCO) with subharmonic injection locking is proposed for low power applications in 2.4GHz ISM band, such as ZigBee systems. The injection signal to this VCO comes from a PLL, in which, a replica ring VCO is used. The PLL operates at 1/4th of target frequency and through locking to an available exact reference frequency, provides the control voltage for the second ring VCO. Due to operating at lower frequencies, PLL produces less phase noise, and through injection locking, reduces the phase noise of the second ring VCO that operates at 4× frequency. The target application in this paper, is 2.4GHz band ZigBee, however, it can be used in other applications with similar specifications. The circuit is designed in TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The phase noise at 3.5 and 10 MHz offsets is -117 and -119 dBc/Hz, respectively, and total circuit consumes 6.1 mW from a 1.8 V supply.

[Fatemeh Talebi, Hassan Ghafoorifard, Samad Sheikhaei, Elias Soleiman. An Injection Locked Ring VCO with Enhanced Phase Noise for 2.4GHz Band ZigBee Applications. J Am Sci 2013;9(6): 431-437]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http: //www. jofamericanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.53

 

Keywords: ZigBee; Frequency Synthesizer; Voltage Controlled Oscillator; Injection Locking.

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A survey of attachment styles and the social acceptance

 Ali Siah Mansouri

Azad University of Khorramabad, Branch Khorramabad, Khorramabad, Iran

Abstract: In the present study, the relation between attachment styles and the social acceptance was investigated in a sample of students. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles and the social acceptance level in high school students in boarding schools. A total of 329 students (male and female) from boarding high school in the province of lorestan participated in the study. They filled out adult attachment inventory (AAI) and social acceptance scale (SAS). Findings showed that there is a negative meaningful association between secure and anxious attachment styles and the social acceptance. And avoidant attachment style is not meaningfully associated with the social acceptance. In this regard, secure and anxious styles could account for changes related to the social acceptance. And according to these findings, one can observe the correlation between attachment styles and the social acceptance.

[Ali Siah Mansouri. A survey of attachment styles and the social acceptance J Am Sci 2013;9(6):438-443]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.54

 

Keywords: attachment styles (secure, avoidant, anxious), social acceptance

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Impact of Nano-Particles on Static Performance of Surfactant Foams

 

Ali Heydarian 1, Riyaz Kharrat 1, Shahnaz Heydarian 2, Abdolnabi Hashemi 1

 

1. Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran

2. Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran

heydarian.put@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays stable foams frequently used in earth sciences and mainly in hydrology and petroleum engineering. Surfactant foam injection is a sophisticated way of enhanced oil recovery through wettability, viscosity and miscibility modification of reservoir rock and fluids. Foam modification and best foam selection based on static screening criteria of foam features; foamability (FA) and foam stability (FS) is of vital importance in foam injection design. Nano-particles (here alcohol-based nano-silica (NS) and water-based nano-zinc oxide (N-ZnO)) can improve surfactant foam features and it is necessary to investigate their effects on anionic, cationic and nonionic surfactant foams; here SDS, CTAB and LAE-7 respectively. Some contradictions between FA and FS results make it important to define a new definition considering FA and FS simultaneously here called static foam performance (SFP). Additionally, a correlation has been developed for checking of previous works results based on SFP concept. Results show that anionic surfactant; SDS foam has minimum FA, FS and SFP among all tested surfactants in presence of nano-particles and it is not a satisfying choice for foam processes. Addition of N-ZnO almost always increases the FA of surfactants. NS has negative effects on CTAB and SDS FAs for all concentrations, but intermediate concentrations of NS clearly show positive impact on nonionic surfactant; LAE-7.

[Heydarian A, Kharrat R, Heydarian S, Hashemi A. Impact of Nano-Particles on Static Performance of Surfactant Foams. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):444-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.55

 

Keywords: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), Foamability (FA), Foam Stability (FS), Static Foam Performance (SFP), Nano-Silica (NS), Nano-Zinc Oxide (N-ZnO)

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The effect of foam roller exercise and Nanoparticle in speeding of healing of sport injuries

 

Amany Waheed Ebrahim and Abeer Waheed Abd Elghany

 

Department of Rhythmic Exercise and Artistic Gymnastic Training, Faculty of Physical Education, Helwan University, Egypt. Bebo.wahied@hotmail.com

Abstract: Strenuous physical exercise commonly results in muscle injury, especially when that exercise is intense, prolonged. Most common sports injuries are long muscle groups laceration such as hamstrings muscle. The aim of this study is to reveal the role of foam roller exercise program and drug Omega 3, 6, 9, vitaminE on Growth Hormone, stem cells CD34+% and speed of healing for fourth year in physical education with hamstrings muscle injury. 14 students (3 experimental groups) with injury were recruited for this study and 3 healthy students (control group) aged (20-22 yrs). Exercise program for 3 weeks (4 days / week) were used foam roller exercise, (Omega 3-6-9 vitamin E) 2 capsules in a day per 3 weeks. They were estimated using Immunophenotyping stem cells CD34+%, Growth Hormone and flexibility tests. Results: revealed a significant increases of GH and flexibility tests, a significant decreases of CD34+ % in (Second and Third) experimental groups. It is concluded that foam roller exercise and use of nanoparticle (Omega 3, 6, 9, vitamin E) affect all parameters positively.

[Amany Waheed Ebrahim and Abeer Waheed Abd Elghany. The effect of Foam roller exercise and Nano particle in speeding of healing of sport injuries. J Am Sci 2013; 9(6): 450-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.56

 

Key words: Foam roller exercise, Growth Hormone, stem cells CD34+%, Flexibility tests, Nanoparticle, healing of sport injury.

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Antioxidant activity of celery in vitro and vivo

 

Amnah, M. A. Alsuhaibani

 

Nutrition and Food Sciences Dept, Home Economic Collage, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman -University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. amalsuhaibani@pnu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The objective of this work was to investigate the main antioxidant components of celery and study the antioxidant effect of celery extract in vitro and in vivo in rats. Oxidative stability of celery extract was determined by estimation of peroxide value. Celery extract and BHT at level 400 ppm effectively inhibited the increase in peroxide value especially for a period of 32 hrs of heating. Forty Sprague Dawley adult male rats classified into control (-ve) and four groups which received 200 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate in drinking water for 30 days to induce renal injury and reclassified into positive control (untreated) and treated rat groups that were celery powder, 2.5celery extract and 5 celery extract groups. Results clearly revealed that 2.5 celery extract and 5 celery extract groups showed normal body weight gain, food intake, protein intake and protein efficiency ratio but showed lower food efficiency ratio compared to control (-ve) rat group. Celery powder rat group showed highly significant increase in serum creatinine, urea, ALT and nitric oxide (NO) but showed significant lower in serum antioxidant enzymes and also kidney superoxide dismutase (SOD), compared to control (-ve) rat group. 2.5celery extract group showed significant lower in SOD and GPX while 2.5 celery extract and 5 celery extract groups showed normal in renal function0 parameters and the values of kidney antioxidant enzymes compared to control (-ve) rat group.

[Amnah, M. A. Alsuhaibani. Antioxidant activity of celery in vitro and vivo. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):459-465]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.57

 

Keywords: Celery - BHT- potassium bromate - rats.

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The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Students in Virtual Courses in Iran

 

Dr. Negin Barat Dastjerdi

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

dastjerdey@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of study was relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of students in virtual courses in Iran. The research method was descriptive and correlation. The study sample was 300 of students that study in virtual university during the academic year of 2010-2011 in of Iran through random sampling method selected. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. The result showed there was significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Result indicated three sub component of emotional intelligence such as optimism and positive attitude, understand own emotions and others and Controlling feelings and emotions were highly correlate with academic achievement but social skills component was not correlate with academic achievement of students. Also there is significance correlation between sex and study of fields and emotional intelligence and no significance correlation between age and emotional intelligence.

[Negin Barat Dastjerdi. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Students in Virtual Courses in Iran. J Am Sci 2013; 9(6): 466-470]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.58

 

Key words: emotional intelligence; academic achievement; virtual courses; students.

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Variable Selection Using Principal Component Analysis for Retail Shopping Experience in Saudi Arabia

 

Mohammad Imdadul Haque1, Sajid Ali2, Siraj Ahmad3

 

1Head, Dept. of Management, College of Business Administration, SAU, Saudi Arabia

2College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

3College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

m.haque@sau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Many a formats of retail are now available leading to an increasing competition amongst stores to attract shoppers. In this respect, an understanding of the shopper’s perception towards shopping assumes huge importance. Though worldwide there have been many a studies to study shoppers’ perception but none of them are on the population of Saudi Arabia. A Principal Component Analysis of the respondents in the city of Al Kharj identifies four broad factors namely service quality, ease of shopping, convenience factor and lastly product variety and quality.

[Haque MI, Ali S, Ahmad S. Variable Selection Using Principal Component Analysis for Retail Shopping Experience in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):471-479]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.59

 

Keywords: Saudi Arabia; retail sector; shopper’s perception; principal component analysis

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Prediction of immediate settlement of shallow foundation over granular soils using small-strain stiffness

 

1Abdolhosain Hadad, 2Reza Amini Ahidashti

 

1Assistance Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran,

ahadad@semnan.ac.ir, tel: +98-231-3354121.

2Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran,

Rezaamini2424@gmail.com, tel: +98-9113549345.

 

Abstract: In this paper, we investigated how to utilize the small-strain stiffness in order to estimate the settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils. For this purpose, a power law equation between normalized shear modulus and shear strain was presented. Based on theory of elasticity and proposed equation, a new method in term of small-strain stiffness was suggested to estimate the immediate settlement. In order to evaluate the proposed method, a series of case history included plate and footing loading tests and seismic geophysical tests was studied. These field measurements are compared to the predicted values. The result indicated that the proposed method in this study can be effectively used to predict the settlement of footing on granular soils and that were more accurate than the SPT or CPT based predictions.

[Abdolhosain Hadad, Reza Amini Ahidashti. Prediction of immediate settlement of shallow foundation over granular soils using small-strain stiffness. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):480-489]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.60

 

Keyword: Immediate settlement, shallow foundation, granular soils, shear wave velocity, small strain stiffness

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Personality Factors (Five-Factor Model, FFM) in Persian Male & Female Students: The Role of Brain Asymmetries

 

Amir Mohammad Shahsavarani[1], Hassan Ashayeri[2], Yalda Ghafourian Sharif[3], Morvarid Lotfian[4], Kolsoum Sattari[5], Mostafa Mohammadi[6], Iman Hosseini [7]

 

1.PhD, Neuropsychologist and Neurosociologist. Institute of PsychoBioSocioEconomic Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia.

2. MD, Neuropsychologist and Neuropsychiatrist, Iran medical sciences University. Tehran, Iran.

3. Master's of Clinical Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology,Roudehen Islamic Azad University, oudehen,

4. MS, Psychologist, Institute of PsychoBioSocioEconomic Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5. MA, Curriculum Design, Institute of PsychoBioSocioEconomic Sciences Tehran, Iran.

6. PhD, Psychologist, Department of Social Psychology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

7. BS, Clinical Psychology. Institute of PsychoBioSocioEconomic Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

amirmohammadshi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the personality differences between male and female students according to brain asymmetries. 762 Subjects were chosen by random multi-session sampling method Tehran Universities. Subjects administered the NEO-PI-R all in one session. As the sample distribution was not normal, the results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U. The results showed that male students had higher scores than female students only in neuroticism (p < 0.05). Female students had higher scores in extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness (p < 0.05). Some parts of the results are not consistent with the literature on Five-Factor Model of Personality. The differences in results are probably because of consideration of a wide range of neuropsychological control variables.

[Amir Mohammad Shahsavarani, Hassan Ashayeri, Yalda Ghafourian Sharif, Morvarid Lotfian, Kolsoum Sattari, Mostafa Mohammadi, Iman Hosseini. Personality Factors (Five-Factor Model, FFM) in Persian Male & Female Students: The Role of Brain Asymmetries. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):490-498]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.61

 

Key Words: Five-factor model of personality (FFM), Gender, Asymmetry, Handedness, Eye Dominance.

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Perception of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Hand Hygiene among Nurses in the EmergencyDepartment at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al Mukaramah

 

Prof. Youssreya Ibrahim*, Dr. Hanan Said Ali**, and Dr. EsraaEsamEldin Mohamed**

 

 *, **Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukaramah, KSA.

* Faculty of Nursing, Al Masoura University, ** Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

 

Abstract: Background: Hand washing is the single most important preventive measure for reducing nosocomial infections, however, nurses frequently do not wash their hands in emergency departments. Aim: This study was carried out to assess nurses’ knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding hand washing between patient contact in the emergency department of the above hospital. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted including a convenience sample of 60 staff nurses in the emergency department at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al-Mukaramah. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire to assess nurses’ knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding hand washing. Results: The results of the present study revealed that more than half of the subjects have a satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards hand hygiene. There is a statistically significant relationship between the nurses’ gender and their knowledge, and there is also a statistically significant relationship between the nurses’ formal training in hand hygiene in the last three years and their knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Conclusion and recommendations: The nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior towards hand hygiene in the emergency department (ED) need to be improved by the educational and program approach. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommend providing written guidelines about hand hygiene for all healthcare providers and introducing and demonstrating hand hygiene protocols to all caregivers.

[Youssreya Ibrahim, Hanan Said Ali, andEsraaEsamEldin Mohamed. Perception of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Hand Hygiene among Nurses in the EmergencyDepartment at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al Mukaramah. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):499-508]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.62

 

Keywords: Nursing, Hand hygiene, knowledge, Behavior, Attitudes, Emergency Department.

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Impact of Order Batching on Compound Bullwhip Effect

 

Mina H. Mikhail ­1, Mohamed F. Abdin 2 and Mohamed A. Awad 3

 

1 Industrial Automation Department, German University in Cairo (GUC), Egypt

2, 3 Design and Production Engineering department, Ain Shams University, Egypt

eng_mina85@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Order batching in supply chains provides economic benefit in aggregating demand to save in production and transportation costs. However, rounding of orders to achieve a batch size is recognized as a source of the bullwhip effect problem within supply chains. Conditions are established under which two or more causes may attenuate or dampen the net BWE. The proposed supply chain consists of a supplier feeding two retailers with stochastic demand, described by a first order autoregressive AR(1) time series process. Supplier feeds retailers in batches for a number of future time units based on the MMSE demand forecasting method. Two BWE measures are studied, one for each demand stream individually and one for the aggregated demand. These two measures are related to demand parameters of the retailers and the number of forecasting time units. Supplier should select the optimum batch size based on demand forecasting, such that the aggregate BWE of the two retailers is less than the sum of the separate BWE.

[Mina H. Mikhail, Mohamed F. Abdin and Mohamed A. Awad. Impact of Order Batching on Compound Bullwhip Effect. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):509-514]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.63

 

Keywords: Bullwhip Effect BWE, Order batching, compound BWE, separate BWE.

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Predicting pressure ulcer risk: a study of the predictive validity of the Braden scale at different health care settings

 

Samah Saad Salem Mohamed

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Nursing Dept., Alfarabi Colleges, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Samahss75@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Pressure ulcers are serious problems that occur frequently in acute and long term facilities. Once they occur, pressure ulcers may lead to sepsis and death. A key to prevention is early detection of at-risk patients with a valid and reliable pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument. The Braden scale is one of the most intensively used tools designed to facilitate that assessment. The Braden scale consists of six subscales that evaluate a patient's sensory perception, activity level, mobility, and nutrition status and the skin's exposure to moisture, friction and shear forces. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify the predictive validity of the Braden scale at different health care settings. A total of 100 male and female patients, older than 19 years, from a variety of health care settings orthopedic, neurologic-emergency, and intensive care units, who don't have pressure ulcers, admitted within the previous 72 hours, have anticipated hospital stay period at least 1 week were assessed. A descriptive correlational research design was utilized. Questionnaires filled by the researcher were: Socio-demographical and biomedical data sheet and Braden scale for predicting pressure ulcer risk. Observations were made every 48 to 72 hours for a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 4 weeks. The outcome (presence/absence and stage of pressure ulcer) was documented at each assessment. 29% of subjects developed pressure ulcers. The incidence was 15% for stage I, and 14% for stage II, the Braden scale showed a 66.7% sensitivity,100% specificity, 66.7% predictive value of positive test and predictive value of negative test was 96.3%, and the cut- off point for classifying the pressure ulcer risk was 18, with overall accuracy 92.5%. The study recommended using the Braden scale but, for generalization, we need to test the tool's specificity and sensitivity at multi-center and for at least 1000 patients from different population to test the predictive validity of the Braden scale.

[Samah Saad Salem Mohamed. Predicting pressure ulcer risk: a study of the predictive validity of the Braden scale at different health care settings. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):515-523]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.64

 

Key words: pressure ulcer, Braden scale, predictive validity, specificity, sensitivity.

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To Study the Implications of the Evaporation Duct for Ground Waves Path in Pakistan Coastal Water through Statistical Assessment

 

M. Waheed-uz-Zaman, Mustafa Jan

 

1. Bahria University Karachi Campus, Pakistan

2. National University Science & Technology, Pakistan

mwaheed_06@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this communication we have studied the environmental changes in the Pakistan coastal water. Evaporation Duct is the continuous phenomena and occurs due to climatic changes in the region. It is generally observed that atmospheric occurrences have great impact on radio waves communication over the sea and especially in coastal waters. These climatic variations are also the main reason for the formation of evaporation duct in Pakistan Coastal water. The height of the duct varied according to the weather phenomenon. In this study we selected four different positions to take the observations in the formation evaporation duct and propagation of radio wave through these ducts. The data are collected from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) and plotted as the time series profiles of potential temperature, pressure and humidity cause the refractive index of the air in this region. They are of particular importance at the extreme limits of propagation and allow the radio waves to propagate beyond the horizon. It is important to claim that this research work can be profitable for the better and affective utilization of ground waves communication path in Pakistan coastal water.

 [M.Waheed-uz-Zaman, Mustafa Jan, To Study the Implications of the Evaporation Duct for Ground Waves Path in Pakistan Coastal Water through Statistical Assessment. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):524-527]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.65

 

Keywords: evaporation duct, radio wave communication, coastal water

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Turbo Expander Driven Induction Generator Power Quality Improvement Using Fuzzy-PI Controlled STATCOM

 

Mehdi Taleshian Jelodar, *Hasan Rastegar, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh

 

Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

* rastegar@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Turbo-expanders are very useful equipment for energy recovery in gas pressure reduction stations. Using these equipment for generating electrical energy has gained more attention recently. On the other hand, turbo expander driven generators affect the electrical networks considerably as a new type of distribution power generation. To investigate the effects, first the turbo-expander is analyzed in conjunction with the electrical networks and then some power quality problems are studied in this paper. To overcome the observed problems the FACTS devices are advised. Because of the system nonlinearity, a nonlinear fuzzy –PI controller is used for the STATCOM control system. Finally behavior of the system is compared in the cases with conventional and fuzzy PI controllers.

[Jelodar MT, Rastegar H, Abyaneh HA. Turbo Expander Driven Induction Generator Power Quality Improvement Using Fuzzy-PI Controlled STATCOM. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):528-536]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.66

 

Keywords: Turbo-expander; distributed power generation; flexible AC transmission systems; fuzzy control

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Effect of Seaweed Extract on Fruiting of Hindy Bisinnara Mango Trees

 

Ahmed Y. Mohamed 1 and Osama A. M. El- Sehrawy2

 

1 Tropical Dept. Hort. Res. Instit. ARC, Giza, Egypt.

2Environmental Studies & Res. Instit. Sadat City- Six Zone, P.O.32897, University of Sadat City (USC), Egypt.

oaelsehrawy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Yield quantitatively and qualitatively of "Hindy Bisinnara" mango trees in response to foliar application of seaweed extract (SWE) twice, thrice or four times at 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 % were investigated during 2010 and 2011 seasons.Results showed that using seaweed extract(SWE) spraying at 0.1 to 0.4 % twice, thrice or four times was essential in enhancing growth, different nutrients, yield as well as some physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits rather than non-application. The promotion was associated with increasing concentrations and frequencies. No major differences were observed among the higher two concentrations and frequencies.The best results with regard to yield and quality of "Hindy Bisinnara" mango trees were obtained with spraying seaweed extract (SWE) three times (growth start, just after fruit setting and 21 days later) at 0.2 %.

[Ahmed Y. Mohamed and Osama A. M. El- Sehrawy. Effect of Seaweed Extract on Fruiting of Hindy Bisinnara Mango Trees. J Am Sci2013;9(6):537-544]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.67

 

Key Words: Seaweed extract (SWE), Ascophyllum nodosum extract, Cytokinins, Hindy Bisinnara Mango, challenges to food production, economical point, environmentally benign, organic farm input, mechanism(s) of actions, sustainable methods, safe for the health of animals and humans.

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Needle free versus needle insulin injection on pain sensation among type 1 diabetic children in Saudi Arabia

 

Tahani Mohammed Al-Shammari1, Magda Aly Hassan Essawy1 and Mohammed Hussein AL-Qahtani2

 

1Pediatric Nursing department, Nursing College, University of Dammam

2Pediatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Dammam.

ma_essawy21@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The needle free insulin injection is recently used to administer insulin injections to patient suffering from diabetes. Insulin administered by needle free jet injectors is dispensed over a larger subcutaneous area than insulin injected with a syringe, which may facilitate a more rapid absorption. The aim of the study is to investigate the needle free versus needle insulin injection on pain sensation among type 1 diabetic children. Randomized control clinical trial design was used in this study. This study was conducted in the Pediatric Diabetes Clinic at King Fahad Hospital of University, University of Dammam in Al Khobar city. Systematic random sampling of 30 children who have type 1 DM and their mothers were selected from the previous mentioned setting. Subjects were divided into two homogenous groups, 15 children for each group, control and study groups. Control group received the hospital routine of insulin therapy (needle insulin injection), while study group received needle free insulin injection. Two tools were used in this study to assess the studied children’s pain intensity, faces pain scale ( for children aged 3 to 7 years) and numerical rating scale ((for children aged 7 years and above). One session of interview for every child and his mother in study group was carried out by the researcher to train them about the needle free insulin injection. The session was done immediately before the use of needle free insulin injection, and its time ranged from 45-60 minutes. In follow up [after 3months of using needle free insulin injection], the researcher assessed the children's pain intensity before and during the insulin administration therapy by using the study tools. The results of present study revealed a significant difference for children in study and control groups according to their pain sensation after the implementation of the training session [Z=5*, P<0.001]. Where, all children in study group (100%) experienced no pain during their needle free insulin injection compared to those children in control group who were experiencing pain with needle injection either moderate (46.7%) or severe (53.3%). The same results were found between children in study and control group regarding to their pain sensation for insulin injection in follow up [Z=5.002*, P<0.001]. It was concluded from the present study that the needle free insulin injection (INJEXTM Germany) promotes no pain sensation for type 1 diabetic children. Finally, it is recommended that, encouraging the nurses to attend continuous workshop about needle free insulin injection for diabetic children. Providing enough needle free insulin injection devices (INJEXTM Germany) in pediatric hospitals.

[Tahani Mohammed Al-Shammari, Magda Aly Hassan Essawy and Mohammed Hussein AL-Qahtani. Needle free versus needle insulin injection on pain sensation among type 1 diabetic children in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):545-553]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.68

 

Keywords: free needle insulin injection (INJEXTMGermany), diabetic children, pain sensation, needle insulin injection

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Evaluation of Natural Products for Maintaining Gingival Condition and Preventing Caries during Orthodontic Treatment: Part II: Raisins

 

AL-Dany A.A.1, Hussein N Al-Khalipha1 Ramadan Y Abu Shahba1 and Marwa Mostafa 2

 

1Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 The regional Center for Myology and Biotechnology, Culture and Sensitivity Unit, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) the effect of chewing raisins on the plaque pH in orthodontic patients. (2) The effect of chewing raisins on the bacterial count in dental plaque. (3) The in vitro effect of raisins on growth of plaque bacteria. Twenty 12- to 18-year-olds, orthodontic patients participated in this randomized controlled study. Raisins were tested against sucrose and sorbitol as positive and negative controls. The pH of saliva was measured with digital pH meter prior to (baseline) and 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after chewing raisins or rinsing with a control solution. Plaque samples were obtained from five sites using a sterile periodontal probe. S. mutans, lactobacilli and P. gingivalis were isolated and counted. The bacteria were incubated in nutrient media at 37oC for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of raisins was tested against commonly used antibiotics using the sensitivity test by disc diffusion method. The results showed significant differences in the minimum pH in raisins and sucrose groups when compared to sorbitol (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01 respectively). Raisins showed less pH drop than sucrose (P≤0.05). The pH in raisins group showed rapid recovery and did not reach the critical value for decalcification (5.5). Bacterial counting showed significant reduction in the number of studied microorganisms after chewing raisins. Raisins showed significant growth inhibition of all studied strains which was comparable or even more than antibiotics tested. The results of the present study support the beneficial oral effects of raisins, but would recommend further clinical researches before the use of raisins as an alternative to the traditional remedies for prevention of dental caries and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment.

[AL-Dany A.A., Hussein N Al-Khalipha, Ramadan Y Abu Shahba and Marwa Mostafa. Evaluation of Natural Products for Maintaining Gingival Condition and Preventing Caries during Orthodontic Treatment: Part II: Raisins. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):554-560]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.69

 

Keywords: Evaluation; Natural Product; Caries; Orthodontic Treatment; Raisins

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Changes in the Pharyngeal Airway Spaces and Hyoid Bone Position Associated with Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion

 

Raafat El Ghetany1 Hussein Al-Khaliph1 and Atef Hasanine 2

 

1Orthodontics Department, Faculty of Faculty of Dental MedicineAl-Azhar University Cairo, (boys) Egypt

2 Oral and maxillofacial surgery Department, Faculty of Faculty of Dental Medicine, Al-Azhar University Cairo,(boys) Egypt

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess changes in pharyngeal airway, hyoid bone position in patients who had surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in cases of skeletal maxillary constriction. Fifteen patients with skeletal maxillary constriction with age ranged from 20 to 22.4 years. All patients had presurgical orthodontic treatment for six months. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and after surgery. Parameters indicating the upper and lower pharyngeal airway and the hyoid bone were evaluated. The results of the present study showed that; significant increased of the SPAS (superioposterior airway) by 5mm and significant increase of the vertical airway length (VAL) by 3.8 mm. The hyoid bone position was changed as indicated by significant increased of (H-C3) and (H- VRP) distances by 2.8mm and 4.5mm respectively, and significant decreased of (H-RGn) distance by 1.3 mm. While the movement of the hyoid bone in superior position indicated by significant decreased of (MPH) and (H-C3Me). Conclusion: From the results of the present study the following could be concluded; 1) the surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion RME significantly improve the upper pharyngeal airway. 2) No significant changes were observed in the lower pharyngeal airway spaces. 3) The hyoid bone moved anteriorly and superiorly after treatment. 4) Surgically assisted RME treatment tends to normalize hyoid bone position.

[Raafat El Ghetany, Hussein Al-Khaliph and Atef Hasanine. Changes in the Pharyngeal Airway Spaces and Hyoid Bone Position Associated with Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):561-565]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.70

 

Keywords: Pharyngeal Airway Spaces; Hyoid Bone; Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion

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Synthesis of Some Medicinal and Biological Active (2E)-2-(5-Substituted 2-thienylmethylene)-4-oxo-4-arylbutanamides and (2E,3Z)-4-hydroxy-4-aryl-2-(5-substituted thien-2-ylmethylene)but-3-enohydrazides

 

Boshra M. Awad,* Hanaa A. Saad, Ekhlass M. Nassar, and Eman M. Azmy

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt

boshra_awad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Solvent-free microwave irradiation of (3E)-5-phenyl-3-(2-thienylmethylene)furan-2(3H)-one 1, (3E)-5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(2-thienylmethylene)furan-2(3H)-one 2, and (3E)-3-[(5-methyl-2-thienyl)methylene]-5-phenylfuran-2(3H)-one 3 with aromatic and aliphatic amines (a-g and i) gave the corresponding (2E)-2-(5-substituted 2-thienylmethylene)-4-oxo-4-arylbutanamides 4-10, 12, 13-19, 21, 22-28, and 30. However, reaction of furanones 1-3 with hydrazine hydrate (h) gave (2E,3Z)-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2-(thien-2-ylmethylene)but-3-enohydrazide 11, (2E,3Z)-4-hydroxy-4-(4-methylphenyl)-2-(thien-2-ylmethylene)but-3-enohydrazide 20, and (2E,3Z)-4-hydroxy-2-[(5-methylthien-2-yl)methylene]-4-phenylbut-3-enohydrazide 29, respectively. Comparison between microwave-assisted and thermal heating synthesis of compounds 4-30 showed that microwave irradiation significantly reduces the reaction time with the enhancement of yields and purity. Structural formulas of synthesized compounds were assigned by their spectral data. Mechanisms of reactions are proposed. Some synthesized products showed antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

[Boshra M. Awad, Hanaa A. Saad, Ekhlass M. Nassar and Eman M. Azmy. Synthesis of Some Medicinal and Biological Active (2E)-2-(5-Substituted 2-thienylmethylene)-4-oxo-4-arylbutanamides and (2E,3Z)-4-hydroxy-4-aryl-2-(5-substituted thien-2-ylmethylene)but-3-enohydrazides. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):566-577]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.71

 

Keywords: Microwave, furanones, butanamides, hydrazides, green chemistry, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity

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Spiritual Intelligence in Prisoners and Non-Prisoners of Mazandaran Province

 

Ali Razipour Jouybari 1, Masoumeh Nozari 2, Azam Nozari 3

 

1 MA of Law, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Iran

2 MA of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Sari Branch, Iran

3 Ms of statistical

nozari.masoume@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Spiritual intelligence makes people gain an insight when facing life events and incidents. It also makes them not to be scared of life difficulties. The study aims to compare spiritual intelligence in prisoners and non- prisoners. In a cross-sectional design study, 678 individuals were selected by cluster sampling method. Data were collected through questionnaire including Spiritual intelligence Inventory. Analysis of the data involved T test. The results indicate difference in spiritual intelligence at Prisoners and Non-Prisoners. The results showed spiritual intelligence mean is greater in the group of prisoners. According to these findings, people turn to God and spirituality in difficult situations in order to get rid of problems. Given that spirituality could have a positive effect on cognitive and behavioral performance, spiritual educations in society could prevent the occurrence of crimes in difficult situations.

[Razipour Jouybari A, Nozari M, Nozari A. Spiritual Intelligence in Prisoners and Non-Prisoners of Mazandaran Province. J Am Sci 2013; 9(6):578-580]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.72

 

Keywords: Spiritual intelligence; Prisoners; Crime

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Manual vacuum aspiration: a safe and cost-effective substitute for dilatation and curettage on the surgical management of First-Trimester Abortion

 

Mohamed Abd Elzaher1 and Mohamed Bedew2

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt),

2 Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Salman Bin Abdulaziz University Al-Kharj-KSA)

mohmedgana23@yahoo.com, mohamedbedewi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) with dilatation and curettage in the management of first trimester abortion. Study Design: A prospective randomized study was conducted between January 2010 to December 2012, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology department, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital. Four hundred women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage with gestational age <12 weeks were included in the study, these patients underwent either MVA group (n=200) or D&C group (n=200). Primary outcome measures were efficacy and secondary outcome measures were duration of hospital stay, operating time and cost. Results: Overall, (MVA) was 97 % effective in terminating pregnancy through 12 weeks of gestation. The mean duration of procedure was significantly higher (p<0.001) in D&C (14.3±3.8 minutes) as compared to (6.3±1.6 minutes) in MVA. The duration of hospital stay was significantly lower (p<0.001) in MVA group (3.5±0.9 hours) as compared to (19.2±3.1 hours) in D&C group. Similarly the cost of procedure was also significantly lower (p<0.001) in MVA group ($48.8±6.5) compared to ($ 146.1±13.7) in D&C group. Conclusion: MVA is as effective as conventional dilatation and curettage for treatment of early pregnancy failure while it causes less time consuming, requires a shorter hospital stay and thus costs less. It does not require general anesthesia and complication rate is less than dilatation and curettage.

[Mohamed Abd Elzaher and Mohamed Bedew. Manual vacuum aspiration: a safe and cost-effective substitute for dilatation and curettage on the surgical management of First-Trimester Abortion. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):581-585]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.73

 

Keywords: Manual vacuum aspiration First-Trimester Abortion

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Oxygen saturation level in children with adenotonsillectomy as a predictive factor for safe hospital discharge

 

Yasser Haroon1 and Yehia Hamed2

 

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology1 & Pediatrics2, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: The present study was designed to verify constitutional and preoperative lowest oxygen saturation (O2Sa) as predictors for the possibility of postoperative (PO) low O2Sa that necessitates interference and to identify patients to be managed on out-patient or in-patient basis. Patients & Methods: The study included 512 children; 340 (66.4%) were habitual snorers and 172 (33.6%) were non-snorers. All patients underwent determination of demographic data including age, sex, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The night prior to surgery, pulse oximetry was performed for estimation of O2Sa and was scored according to Levy scoring system. Adenotonsillectomy was conducted under general inhalational anesthesia. All patients were managed postoperatively at the in-patients ward for occurrence of surgery-related immediate PO complications. PO O2Sa was re-evaluated and patients had O2Sa <90% were identified. The need for the insertion of oro-pharyngeal airway, continuous positive airway pressure or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation was noted. Patients passed their night free with O2Sa >95% on room air were discharged on the next morning, while those had O2Sa<95% continued follow-up till adjustment of their O2Sa. Results: Mean preoperative lowest O2Sa was significantly lower in snorers compared to non-snorers and patients' distribution among higher scoring grades showed significant difference in favor of non-snorers. Mean PO lowest O2Sa in snorers group was significantly higher compared to preoperative saturation. Twenty- six patients of snorers (7.6%) developed deterioration of their nocturnal O2Sa and had significantly lower mean PO lowest O2Sa compared to their preoperative O2Sa. Three patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation; 6 patients required insertion of oro-pharyngeal airway with nostril tube oxygenation at pediatric ward for 1-hr and 19 patients were kept under observation with continuous O2Sa monitoring. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis defined the low preoperative lowest O2Sa and high BMI as specific predictors, while young age as sensitive predictor for PO- O2 desaturation. Conclusion: The presence of high BMI of young snorer children assigned for adenotonsillectomy necessitate preoperative pulse oximetry estimation of O2Sa and patients had O2Sa <90% must be kept under observation on the 1st PO night for fear of development of PO- O2 desaturation that showed a frequency of 7.6% in snorers.

[Yasser Haroon and Yehia Hamed. Oxygen saturation level in children with adenotonsillectomy as a predictive factor for safe hospital discharge. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):586-592]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.74

 

Key words: Oxygen saturation, Snorer, Hospital discharge.

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Uterine bacterial infection during postpartum delays the recrudescence of the reproductive traits in dairy cows

 

Faisal Omer Ahmed1, Adil Salim Elsheikh1, 2

 

1Department of Reproduction and obstetrics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Sudan

2Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community college, Najran University, Saudi Arabia

Email: adilelgarrai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was designed to determine the intensity of bacterial load in the uteri of postpartum (PP) dairy cows and the effects of this uterine bacterial infection on some of their reproductive traits. Six reproductive traits were evaluated. These traits were uterine involution (UI), appearance of the first dominant follicle (DF), recrudescence of the first oestrus (FO), length of the days open (DO), calving interval (CI) and the rate of service per conception (RS). Uterine endometrial swabs were collected on day 5 PP from 130 dairy cows and were cultured within 2 hours of collection onto blood agar and MacConkey agar media. The uteri of 120 cows (93%) were found infected. From the total infected cows 40 cows were used to evaluate the effect of bacterial uterine infection on their reproductive performance. Twenty cows were severely infected and the remaining cows (20 cows) were mildly infected. The result of this experiment showed that dairy cows that suffered severe uterine bacterial infection had a significantly (P<0.001) extended uterine involution period, long time for the appearance of the first DF and the FO, the length of DO and CI compared to the dairy cows that suffered mild uterine bacterial infection. Moreover, the dairy cows which suffered severe uterine bacterial infection had a significantly (P<0.001) increased rate of service per conception compared to the cows with mild uterine bacterial infection. It is concluded that, the reduced reproductive efficiency of cross-bred dairy cows in the Sudan is likely to be due to early PP uterine bacterial infection.

[Faisal Omer Ahmed, Adil Salim Elsheikh. Uterine bacterial infection during postpartum delays the recrudescence of the reproductive traits in dairy cows. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):593-598]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.75

 

Keywords: Uterine infection, postpartum, reproductive performance, cow

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Evaluation of the Protection conferred by heterologous attenuated live infectious bronchitis viruses againest an Egyptian variant IBV [EG/1212B]

 

Ali Zanaty1; Abdel-satarArafa1*.Abdallah Selim1.Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1.Magdi Fathey El-Kady2*

 

1Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, P.O.

Box 264-Dokki, Giza-12618, Egypt.

2Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

zanatyali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Molecular analysis of recent field infectious bronchitis viruses (IBV) isolates in Egypt during last two years has revealed that the most frequent isolates were related to variants IBV represented in this study by EG/1212B which placed in the same group with Israeli virus IS/885/00-like strains. The present study investigated the protection provided by four vaccination regimes using commercial live vaccines against challenge with EG/1212B virus in SPF chickens. Protection efficacy was evaluated by mortalities, clinical signs, ciliostasis test, rRT-PCR and ELISA. None of the tested vaccination regimes was able to confer significant protection against challenge with EG/1212B. The highest protection rate was afforded by using [H120 -D274] at 1 day old and 4/91 at 14 day old that provided only 42.5% cilia protection after challenge with EG/1212B virus. It is recommended to monitor evolving IBV strains and to prepare an autogenous vaccine from this variant to help in controlling the disease in Egypt.

[Zanaty A, Arafa A, Selim A, Hassan MK, El-Kady MF. Evaluation of the Protection conferred by heterologous attenuated live infectious bronchitis viruses againest an Egyptian variant IBV [EG/1212B]. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):599-606] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.76

 

Keywords: Ciliostasis; cross-protection; heterologous; infection bronchitis virus; protectotypes; variant strain.

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Matching a Wind Turbine with a Self-Excited Induction Generator

 

Adel S. Nada and Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi

 

Electric Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, KSA

adel.saad1@hotmail.com, sasg2000@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates an analytical approach for matching the characteristics of a fixed pitch angle wind turbine with that of a self-excited induction generator (SEIG). The generator feeds its stator electrical output power into an infinite bus-bar via a static power conditioner. The power conditioner used here consists of a diode bridge rectifier and an inverter bridge thyristor tied together through a d.c. link reactor of high inductance in the stator circuit. The analysis is carried out by representing the steady state performance of the self-excited induction generator mathematical model. The wind turbine’s performance curve, power coefficient versus tip speed ratio, Cp(l), is represented by a polynomial function of both the generator speed and the wind speed. At any given generator speed the wind turbine output mechanical power is equated to the SEIG input mechanical power. From this mechanical power balance a non-linear equation for the wind speed is resulted. This equation is solved numerically using Newton-Raphson method. Knowing the wind speed the corresponding other performance characteristics can easily be obtained.

[Adel S. Nada and Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi. Matching a Wind Turbine with a Self-Excited Induction Generator. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):607-614]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.77

 

Key Words: Wind turbine, Induction generator, Static power conditioner, Infinite bus-bar.

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The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE): A Qualitative Study exploring Physical Therapy Student’s Experience

 

Amer Al Saif 1 and Samira Alsenany2

 

1Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

2Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Faculty of Nursing, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Salsenany@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This study explored the student’s experience of an OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Exam) at King Abdulaziz University (Physical Therapy Department) with standardized patients (senior physical therapists). In Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) the students practise the clinical skill in a safe area, such as with standardized patients (SP): simulated, artificial models or manikins are utilized with an examiner present. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with thirty Physical Therapy students (PTSs). Miles and Hubermann’s (1994) approach was used to facilitate the analysis. This approach involves summarizing and classifying data using a thematic framework. Analysis revealed three main themes: (1) Positive and enriching experiences about the OSCE, (2) preparation for the OSCE exams (3) Feedback. Interestingly, the data reveal that OSCE mode is very useful to monitor the abilities students at college of Applied Medical Sciences (Physical Therapy Department), and stations can be designed to address different skills and knowledge. The greatest advantage of using OSCE is that it can be set up to integrate theory and practice in forms of small scenarios, simulations, case studies, standardized patient (SP) and the students can improve their own learning and reflection in a safe environment. In conclusion the OSCE evaluation of clinical skills is essential feedback and it plays an important motivating role between students and teachers to ensure the quality and appropriateness of a learning process. Furthermore, this study reported that clinical evaluation processes are more than one aspect of clinical learning and he suggested that curricula judging of a student’s clinical practice as a teaching-learning strategy must be based on the concepts of meaning-making, reflection and teacher-student feedback, providing a basis for evaluation approaches. OSCEs are adaptable across professions, clinical skills and academic levels to promote development of functioning knowledge with potential for self, peer and academic feedback. Although there are a few drawbacks in using OSCE, such as time, cost, number of clinical instructors requested with a high number of students, it should not be neglected. However, OSCE can allow us to demonstrate knowledge, skills and attitude related to particular clinical skill in a safe environment.

[Amer Al Saif and Samira Alsenany. The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE): A Qualitative Study exploring Physical Therapy Student’s Experience. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):615-621]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.78

 

 Keywords: OSCE; Evaluations, Feedback, Standardized patient.

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Study of the Efficacy of Combined RadioFrequency Ablation and Percutaneous Acetic Acid Injection in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Ahmed Abdelalim1, Mohamed Salah Ali2 and Aid Elgammal3

 

1Tropical Medicine, 2Internal Medicine and 3Oncosurgury Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University.

 

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly occurring solid tumors globally and is the most frequent cause of cancer death in some parts of the world such as China and sub-Saharan Africa and the prognosis without treatment is poor. There is an apparent increase in the number of HCC patients in Egypt. It has been reported that in a period of 33 months, out of 11492 patients attending with abdominal complaint in Tropical Medicine Research Institute 1352(11.76%) were found to have HCC. Hepatitis C is a major health problem in Egypt leading to progression from chronic active hepatitis to cirrhosis to HCC. 321/6850 cases who attended an outpatient liver center in Cairo had HCC. The male to female ratio in these studies was 4:1 to 5: 1 and the mean age was 50-60 years old. Among the various local percutaneous ablative therapies, radio-frequency ablation (RFA) has attracted the greatest interest because of its effectiveness and safety in the treatment of small HCCs, with a 3-years survival rate of 62% – 68%, a treatment-associated morbidity rate of 0%–12%, and a treatment-related mortality rate of 0%–1%. However, complete tumor necrosis rate with RFA for tumors larger than 5 cm is less favorable, and local recurrence rate can be as high as 20%, even for HCCs smaller than 3.5 cm. Percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) has been used as a potential alternative to PEI for therapy of small (less than 3 cm) HCC. It is reported that it has a strong cytotoxic effect than ethanol. It causes tissue necrosis by the same mechanisms of dehydration and protein denaturation. Its low pH induces swelling of the fibers and promotes dissociation of intermolecular collagen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of combined RFA and PAI compared to PAI alone the management of HCC of relatively large size 5-8 cm in diameter. 30 patients with single lesions of HCC measuring 5-8 cm in diameter were divided into 2 groups, each composed of 15 patients. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the size, group 1a =7 patients (5-6.5 cm in diameter) & group 1b =8 patients (6.6-8 cm) while group 2a=8 patients (5-5.6 cm) & group 2b=7 patients (6.6-8 cm). Group1 was treated by 2-3 sessions of intralesional injection of 6 ml of 50% acetic acid using 21 gauge spinal needle, 1 week apart. Group2 was treated by one setting of RFA using RF needle with that expand on deployment up to 5 cm in diameter plus 2-3 sessions PAI as in group1. Complete ablation was achieved in 46.6% of group 2 treated by combination of RFA and 2-3 sessions of PAI, compared to 20% of group1 treated by 2-3 sessions of PAI with highly significant difference. Dividing the groups into 2 subgroups according to HCC diameter, subgroup a of 5-6.5 cm and subgroup b of 6.6-8 cm in diameter, complete ablation was achieved in 62.5% of subgroup 2a compared to 28.5% of subgroup 1a In conclusion combination therapy of PAI plus RFA is needed if better ablation is seeked.

[Ahmed Abdelalim, Mohamed Salah Ali and Aid Elgammal. Study of the Efficacy of Combined RadioFrequency Ablation and Percutaneous Acetic Acid Injection in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):622-631]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.79

 

Key words: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Hepatitis C; Alpha fetoprotein.

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Evaluation of fibrin glue in inguinal hernioplasty

 

Mohamed S. Teama.

 

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

drsobhym@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Chronic pain is considered the most serious complication of inguinal hernioplasty after surgical site infection. One of the proposed solutions to this problem is to use tissue adhesive for mesh fixation, which prevents nerve and tissue damage. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative pain, complications, and hernial recurrence after polypropylene mesh inguinal hernioplasty using fibrin sealant versus sutures for fixation. Method: This study was carried out on 60 male patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia between September 2011 and June 2012. Patients were assigned randomly to either a mesh fixed with suture group A (n = 30) or a mesh fixed with fibrin sealant group B (n = 30). Postoperative pain was evaluated. Complications and hernia recurrence were recorded. Results: The two groups were equivalent for inclusion, exclusion criteria and preoperative data. The complication rate was high in suture group. The operative time was shorter in the fibrin sealant group by 8 min. (p = 0.001). There was no hernia recurrence in the fibrin sealant or suture group after follow-up for 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the effectiveness and advantages of fibrin glue over sutures in reducing post operative and chronic inguinal pain, numbness, discomfort with few complications. It should be considered as a first-line option for mesh fixation in hernioplasty in the future as there are promising and encouraging initial results.

 [Mohamed S. Teama. Evaluation of fibrin glue in inguinal hernioplasty. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):632-638]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.80

 

Keywords: Hernia repair, mesh fixation, chronic inguinal pain, fibrin glue.

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81

Enhance the infectivity of Entomopathogenic nematode for the desiccation by novel methods.

 

Saheir F. El-Lakwah

 

Department of Pest Physiology, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

sosoellakwah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: New progenies of the three entomopathogenic nematodes species (Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema rarum, Heterorhabditidsindica) and the isolate Heterorhabditids sp. (Hp2) obtained from the continuous culturing of nematode density inside the host (full grown larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella). The newprogenies have the ability to penetrate and caused high mortality to the host more than the original species and its efficacy were not affected by the desiccation. The 4, 5, 6th progenies of the four tested species recorded penetration rate range (78.33-96.33%) and 100% mortality to Galleria mellonella in the soil moisture 10, 5, 3%. That mean these new juveniles are an excellent biocontrol agent.

[Saheir F. El-Lakwah. Enhance the infectivity of Entomopathogenic nematode for the desiccation by novel methods. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):639-645]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.81

 

Keywords: Entomopathogenic Nematode, efficacy, mortality, penetration rate, desiccation, Galleria mellonella.

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Evaluation of zinc in blood of cows suffering from inflammation of udder (mastitis)

 

1Amjad T. Shaktur1 Ali M. Abohlfaia and 1,2Abdelrahman K. Najjar

 

1-Department of Intensive Care and Anesthesia, Faculty of Medical Technology, Tripoli University

2- Abosalem trauma Hospital, Tripoli-Libya

Libyanvetinpoland@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The aim of the research was to evaluate serum zinc concentration in the experimental animals with clinical inflammation of mammary gland. Forty-four cows were divided into four groups: A, B, and C with clinical form of mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli, respectively, and healthy control group D. Zinc concentration was determined by the atomic absorption specrtrophotometry method. The level of zinc marked low in the blood indices tested was observed in all cows with clinical mastitis. Zinc concentrations were: 108.00, 63.86, and 46,80 μg/dl in groups A, B, and C, respectively, while in the group D, the values was: 116.73 μg/dl for Zn concentration.

[Amjad T. Shaktur Ali M. Abohlfaia and Abdelrahman K. Najjar. Evaluation of zinc in blood of cow suffering from inflammation of udder. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):646-648]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.82

 

Key words: cows, mastitis, zinc, inflammation.

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 J Am Sci 2013;9(6):649-655]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.83                          Withdraw

 

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Carcass Characteristics of Barki Lambs Slaughtered at Different Live Weights

 

M. F. Shehata

 

Division of Animal and Poultry Production, Desert Research Center, 1Matahaf El Mataria St., P.O. Box 11753, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt. faragdrc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station, Desert Research Center, Egypt. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of slaughter weight on carcass characteristics of Barki lambs. Lambs were slaughtered at three different final live body weights nearly 30, 40 and 50 kg. One hundred and seventy-three Barki lambs were used to obtain data for this study. Increasing average slaughter weight from 30 to either 40 or 50 kg resulted in significant increases in empty body weight, carcass weight and non-carcass components. Dressing percentage was of the highest percentage in 40-kg group (57.19%), while decreased significantly (P<0.01) in both 30-kg (55.69%) and 50-kg (56.09%) groups. As well, absolute weights of wholesale cuts increased significantly with increasing slaughter weight. For cuts percentages, shoulder and leg decreased, while the neck, loin and fat tail increased. The rack% did not change. The bone% in the 9-10-11 rib cut decreased significantly with increasing slaughter weight. On the contrary, fat% increased significantly as slaughter weight increased. However, the percentage of lean meat showed increasing trend from 30-kg to either 40- or 50-kg groups (49.61, 54.69 and 52.44 %, respectively), with highest value for the medium slaughter weight group. As slaughter weight increased, the lean meat to fat ratio decreased (P<0.01), while the lean meat to bone ratio increased (P<0.01). The moisture content of eye muscle meat decreased (P< 0.01) while the intramuscular fat content increased by increasing slaughter weight. On the other hand, the differences in protein and ash % of meat among slaughter weight groups were not significant. In conclusion, the reasonable carcass yield and the relatively better quality of the medium-weighted group make that the average of 40 kg slaughter weight a preferable for Barki lambs.

[M. F. Shehata. Carcass Characteristics of Barki Lambs Slaughtered at Different Live Weights. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):656-664]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.84

 

Keywords: Barki lambs, slaughter weight, carcass characteristics

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Direct instantaneous power control of doubly-fed induction generator with constant switching frequency for wind energy conversion systems

 

Mohammad Pichan 1, Hasan Rastegar 1, Seyed Mojtaba Tabatabaei 2, Mohammad Monfared3

 

1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir university of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad university of Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran

3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

m_pichan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper proposes a new method for direct power control (DPC) of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion systems. In this method, the hysteresis comparator and the switching look-up table of conventional DPC are replaced by a PWM modulator. The rotor control voltages are calculated in any sampling period directly using the measured stator voltage, references and measured active and reactive powers, rotor position and some machine parameters. The proposed method does not require any rotor current decoupling or PI controller. The converter switching frequency is constant which simplifies the design of a converters and a harmonics filter. Simulation results of a 2 MW DFIG system confirm the superior performance of the proposed control strategy.

[Pichan M, Rastegar H, Tabatabaee S.M, Monfared M. Direct instantaneous power control of doubly-fed induction generator with constant switching frequency for wind energy conversion systems. J Am Sci 2013;9(6):665-673]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas090613.85

 

Keywords: Doubly-fed induction generator, direct power control, wind energy conversion systems

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 29, 2013. 
 
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