Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Special Issue 7 (Supplement Issue 7), July 25, 2013

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0907s, doi prefix:10.7537

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

Prioritization of Suburban Road Safety Plans in Iran

 

Mohammad Reza Maleki Verki1, Ali Yadollahi2, Gholamreza Khorasani3, Ashkan Tatari4, Hossein Taherian5, Hassan Motamed1, Mohammadreza Khorasani6, Shokooh Fazelpour6 and Farzaneh Mirmohammadi6

 

1- Emergency Medicine Department, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

2- E-mail: Ali.yadollahi@gmail.com, 3- E-mail: Reza.khorasani@gmail.com, 4- E-mail: ashkantatari@gmail.com, 5- E-mail: sh.fazelpour@yahoo.com,

6- Emergency Medicine Department, Iran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Corresponding author: Dr Farzaneh Mirmohammadi (Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Email: farzanehmirmohammadi@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Due to the high number of accidents in Iran and investigation on rate and severity of accident in Iran some safety performance indicators were intended but to implement of these indicators and limited fund in Iran we need a prioritization of these indicators in Iran to manage the usage and implementation of them to prioritize the fund consumption, severity and number of accident reduction in same time. Thus this article presents the prioritization of suburban safety performance indicator with AHP method. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales.

[Dr Mohammad Reza Maleki Verki, Ali Yadollahi, Gholamreza Khorasani, Ashkan Tatari, Hossein Taherian, Dr Hassan Motamed, Mohammadreza Khorasani, Shokooh Fazelpour and Dr Farzaneh Mirmohammadi. Prioritization of Suburban Road Safety Plans in Iran. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):1-10]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.01

 

Keywords: decision making; road safety; priorities Analytic Hierarchy Process; Road traffic injuries (RTI); comparisons

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Investigation of Road Accidents and Casualties Factors with MCDM Methods in Iran

 

Farzaneh Mirmohammadi1, Gholamreza Khorasani2, Ashkan Tatari3, Ali Yadollahi4, Hossein Taherian5, Hassan Motamed6, Shokooh Fazelpour7, Mohammadreza Khorasani8, Mohammad Reza Maleki Verki6

 

1-Emergency Medicine Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

Email: 1. farzanehmirmohammadi@yahoo.com, 2- Reza.khorasani@gmail.com, 3-ashkantatari@gmail.com, 4-Ali.yadollahi@gmail.com, 5-hossein.taherian@yahoo.com

6- Emergency Medicine Department, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

 7-sh.fazelpour@yahoo.com, 8-reza.khorasani@yahoo.com

Corresponding author: Mohammad Reza Maleki Verki

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, Email: Drmalaki676@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In a sufficient transportation system, traffic safety is an important parameter and it is influenced by many factors. There are many policies in countries with different financial source and road infrastructure but in a country like Iran, until now safety performances are mainly concentrated on road engineering activities, without much attention for vehicle technology or driving behavior and precautionary planes. One important aspect of road safety engineering activities is road performance management in roads and accident management after events. Thus this paper presents the prioritization of some factors those can affect on reduction of accident issue aspect of rate and severity. To do this, the simple additive weighting has been adopted and a prioritization model is produced by the use of a "Multiple Criteria Decision Making" (MCDM) method. The procedure is illustrated on 15 different safety factors in Iran. In addition, the averaging concept will used to compare three MCDM methods (AHP, SAW and TOPSIS) to determine which method is appropriate method to use in this prioritization plan.

[Farzaneh Mirmohammadi, Gholamreza Khorasani, Ashkan Tatari, Ali Yadollahi, Hossein Taherian, Hassan Motamed, Shokooh Fazelpour, Mohammadreza Khorasani, Mohammad Reza Maleki Verki. Investigation of Road Accidents and Casualties Factors with MCDM Methods in Iran. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):11-20]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.02

 

Keywords: AHP, SAW, TOPSIS, MCDM, Road Safety Indicator, Prioritization Management.

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Influence of systemic steroid on resorption persistent Submacular fluid and visual outcome after successful Scleral Buckling for macular off retinal detachment

 

Ebadullah Heidari1, Ali Reza Javadzadeh2, Reza Mesbahi3*, Mohammad Reza Niyousha3

 

1- Associate Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2- Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3- Resident Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

research_team_iran@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a sight-threatening disease which can lead to blindness if left untreated. Its prevalence rate is approximately one in ten thousand people per year. Scleral buckling surgery is an effective method in treatment of retinal detachment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of systemic corticosteroid on the incidence and duration of sub-macular fluid absorption and its relationship with visual outcomes after Scleral buckling for retinal rhegmatogenous and macular detachments. Methods and Materials: In a clinical trial in 2012 at the Department of Ocular Diseases, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, the effect of systemic corticosteroid on incidence and duration of sub-macular fluid absorption and its relationship with visual outcomes after Scleral buckling for retinal rhegmatogenous and macular detachments was evaluated. Results and Conclusions: 48 male and 24 female patients were studied in two groups of A (receiving systemic corticosteroid) and B (receiving placebo). The mean age of patients was 45.8014.09 years in corticosteroid group (Group A) and 45.6614.63 years in Placebo group (Group B). There was no significant difference between the patients of the two groups in terms of the mean IOP before surgery, one week and one month after surgery (p=0.967). There was no significant difference between the patients of the two groups in terms of their VA level before surgery (p=0.938), one week (p=0.165) and one month after surgery (p=0.264). In our study, one week after surgery, all patients had fluid; however, a month later, 21 cases (58%) in corticosteroid group and 16 cases (44%) in placebo group had sub-macular fluid; so, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.238). Presence of sub-macular fluid had no significant effect on the patients' post-surgical VA level in the two groups. The duration between detachment and the surgery in patients with sub-macular fluid in one month after surgery was longer than in those without fluid; however, this difference was not significant.

[Heidari E, Javadzadeh AR, Mesbahi R, Niyousha MR. Influence of systemic steroid on resorption persistent Submacular fluid and visual outcome after successful Scleral Buckling for macular off retinal detachment. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):21-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.03

 

Keywords: Rhegmatogenous Detachment; Scleral Buckling; Corticosteroid; Submacular Fluid

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Relationship between serums Osteoprotegrin / sRANKL ratio rand head trauma intensity

 

Ghaffar Shokohi1*, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo1, Arastoo Pezeshki1, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh1,Firooz Salehpoor1,Mohammad Asghari1, Iraj Lotfinia1, Aidin Kazempoor1, Farhad Mirzaei1, Sanaz Fekri2, Neda Sattar Nezhad1

 

1-Biotechnology research center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

2- Specialist of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Ghaffar Shokohi (shokohigh@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Introduction: The main lesions of trauma occurred secondary to injury. Immediately after trauma, a series of chemical and biochemical reactions started and the final products of this reaction had destructive effects in tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Osteoprotegrin / sRANKL in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study that performed in the Department of Neurosurgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences on patients with head trauma, and the Osteoprotegrin / sRANKL level evaluated with intensity of trauma in patients with brain injury. Results and conclusions: In this study, we studied 84 patients with head trauma and 40 patients without head trauma as in the control group. Mean age of patients in case group was 39.13 5.77 years and the mean age of patients in the control group was 38.15 5.77 years (P=0.377). Mean of RANKL levels in the case group 146.92 52.23 and mean RANKL levels in the control group was 98.63 29.85(P<0.001). Mean of Osteoprotegrin levels of case group was 199.81 63.96and in the control group was 152.46 41.80(P=0.001. Mean of RANKL and Osteoprotegrin levels were significantly higher in patients with head trauma. Mean of RANKL and Osteoprotegrin levels in patients with severe trauma was significantly higher than other traumatic patients. A significant positive linear correlation was found between levels of Osteoprotegrin and RANKL in the studied patient's. A significant indirect linear correlation was found between RANKL and Osteoprotegrin with GCS of patient's with brain injury.

[Shokohi GH, Ghorbanihaghjo A, Pezeshki A, Rashtchizadeh N, Salehpoor F, Asghari M, Lotfinia I, Kazempoor I, Mirzaei F, Fekri S, Sattar Nezhad N. Relationship between serums Osteoprotegrin / sRANKL ratio rand head trauma intensity. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):28-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.04

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The Study of Globalization Effects on Political Development of Turkey Republic

 

Mohammad Reza Rafiyi Dovlatabadi1- Asadollah Pazookian2

 

1 Department of Law and political Studies, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Law and political Studies, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The present study examines the impacts of globalization on political developments of Turkey. The literature on globalization suffers from the paucity of research in this critical issue. The main research question of the research is that what impacts have globalization brought about in political developments of Turkey. To answer this enquiry, this hypothesis is formulated; the globalization process has accelerated the political developments of Turkey. Therefore, in the first section of the study the theoretical framework will be elucidated to give a fuller view of globalization theories. In the second section touches upon the impacts of globalization on political developments of Turkey with regard to political system, ideology, constitutional law, Army, Judiciary, civil society, parties and other cohorts, religions, races, democracy and free election, independent media. Finally, the hypothesis will be tested and the results will be presented.

[Mohammad Reza Rafiyi Dovlatabadi- Asadollah Pazookian. The Study of Globalization Effects on Political Development of Turkey Republic. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):33-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.05

 

Keywords: AKP Party, civil society, globalization, Kamalism, political developments of Turkey

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A Retrospective Study (2000-2005) of Poultry Diseases Diagnosed at Department of Avian diseases & Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute (VRI)-Khartoum, Sudan

 

Khalda,Abdelaziz Khalifa1, Egbal Sidahmed Abedlrahim1, Iman,Mohamed ELNasri1, Selma Osman Ahmed1, Abdelgadir Ballal1, Jeddha Ibrahim Elhaj1

 

Veterinary Research Institute, P. O. Box 8067, Khartoum, Sudan

igbalsss@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A Retrospective study of poultry diseases diagnosed at (VRI)-Khartoum, Sudan was carried out to establish the occurrence, distribution of diseases, species, ages involved & seasonality over the period 2000-2005. Chicken was the most species subjected to diseases (90.89%) among which Hisex and Bovan breeds were equally and mostly involved (485 breeds each). Birds at age of 2&4 months were the most susceptible (30.6% &16.8%) respectively. The years 2001 and 2005 recorded highest 356(24.9%) and lowest 153(10.7%) disease occurrences respectively with average 238 cases annually. A total of 1427 cases were recorded out of which 651(45.6%) were bacterial and mycoplasma diseases, 595 (41.7%) parasitic and 179 (12.5%) viral diseases. Of the bacterial diseases diagnosed, chronic respiratory disease was of the highest percentage (23.6%) followed by E.coli (23%), Staphylococcus (12.7%) and Klebsiella (10.2%). Whereas other diseases of low occurrence were Corynebacterium, streptococuss, aeromonas and spirochaetes. Parasitic diseases included Coccidiosis (55.3%), and tape worm infestation (42.4%). The most reported viral diseases were IBD (43.6%), ND (27.9%) and IB (20.7%). Fungal infections were rare. Nutritional deficiency was not reported. The summer represented the period of increased disease occurrence of 41.1% (587 cases) which on comparison to that of winter season 34.3% (489 cases) and autumn 24.6% (351 cases). Poor management, self medication practices by poultry farmers in conjunction with inappropriate vaccine handling and awareness on diagnostic laboratory services may be factors that increase poultry diseases problems in Sudan. [Khalda A Khaifa, Egbal S A/Rahim, Iman M ElNasri, Selma O A., Ballal A, Jeddha I E. A Retrospective Study (2000-2005) of Poultry Diseases Diagnosed at Department of Avian diseases & Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute (VRI)-Khartoum, Sudan. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):42-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.06

 

Key words: retrospective, study, poultry, diseases, Sudan

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Braf Mutation In Differentiated Thyroid Cancer And Thyroid Nodules 

 

Esmaeil Faraji1*, Amir Bahrami2, Morteza Jabbarpoor Bonyadi3, Morteza Gojazadeh4, Nikou Fotouhi5, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh6, Jaafar Shadi1, Omid Mashrabi7 

 

1- Fellow of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

2- Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

3- Associate Professor, Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

4- PhD Physiologist, statistician, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

5-M.Sc of Molecular genetic, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tabriz, Iran

6- Associate Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

7- Resident of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Esmaeil Faraji (smlfrj@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer of the endocrine system. It`s incidence increases with age. Genetic alterations such as BRAF mutations may play a role in thyroid cancer pathogenesis. These mutations occur almost always in papillary thyroid cancer and have been the focus of interest in recent years.Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 55 patients including 40 patients with benign thyroid nodule and 15 patients with malignant thyroid nodule were enrolled into two groups A and B respectively. Group A was assigned to clinical follow up and group B underwent total thyroidectomy. Both groups were tested for BRAF mutation. The data was compared. Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.15 (18-81) years. BRAF mutation was present in 4 (26.7%) of the group B pts and none of the group A which was statistically significant (p=0.004). There was an association between BRAF mutation and extra thyroidal extension and local aggressiveness of the tumor. No correlation was found between BRAF and age of the patients (r=0.16, p=0.22). NO association was found between BRAF and stage of the thyroid cancer (p=0.17). Conclusion: There is an association between BRAF mutation and papillary thyroid cancer and tumor local aggressiveness. However, at this time BRAF mutation is not a robust tool for the management of thyroid cancers and more studies are needed to establish its role as a diagnostic factor.

[Faraji E, Bahrami A, Jabbarpoor Bonyadi M, Gojazadeh M, Fotouhi N, Aliasgarzadeh A, Shadi J, Mashrabi O. Braf Mutation In Differentiated Thyroid Cancer And Thyroid Nodules. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):46-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.07

 

Keywords: Papillary thyroid Cancer, BRAF mutation, Thyroid nodule, Cancer

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Acute pain control by Pethidine versus intravenous acetaminophen in maxillofacial surgeries: a double blind randomized-controlled trial

 

Javad Yazdani1, Mohammad Ali Ghavimi2, Emran Hajmohammadi-Somarin3*, Sina Zarrintan4

 

1- Associate Professor, Department of Oral& Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2- Assistant Professor, Department of Oral& Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3- Resident, Department of Oral& Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

4- Resident, Department of General & Vascular Surgery, Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Emran Hajmohammadi-Somiran (emran.somiran@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: Background and aim: In a double-blind randomized-controlled trial we wanted to assess the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen in controlling early postoperative pain in maxillofacial inpatient operations compared to routinely administered opioids. Materials and methods: We studied 52 consecutive patients. All patients had an operation on their mandible. The patients were randomly divided into two groups by simple randomization. Postoperative pain was measured by visual analogue score (VAS) 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after the operation. The first group (26 patients) received postoperative Pethidine 1 mg per kg every 4 hours while the second group (26 patients) received postoperative acetaminophen 15 mg per kg every 6 hours. Results: There was not any significant difference between age and sex ratio in two study groups (p > 0.05). There was not any significant difference between pain scores of two groups at postoperative time intervals (p > 0.05). Repeated-measure ANOVA test revealed that the decline of pain was observed in both groups and the trend of decline had no significant difference between two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that intravenous acetaminophen is equal to routine opioid administration in controlling acute pain after maxillofacial surgeries.

[Yazdani J, Ghavimi MA, Hajmohammadi-Somarin M, Zarrintan S. Acute pain control by Pethidine versus intravenous acetaminophen in maxillofacial surgeries: a double blind randomized-controlled trial. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):51-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.08

 

Keywords: Maxillofacial Surgery, Pain, Pethidine

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Metabolism And Deficiency Of Retinol In Ruminant: A Review

 

1*Mostafa KamaliNasab, 2 S. Masoud Davoudi, 1Mahnaz Ahmadi Hamedani, 3Mehdi Eshagian, 1MahDi EdalatiNasab

 

  1. Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

  2. Department of Animal science, shahin Shahr Esfahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, shahin Shahr Esfahan, Iran.

  3. Department of Animal science, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar,Iran.

h.aminipor@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Vitamin A (Retinol) is a vitamin that is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of a specific metabolite, the light-absorbing molecule retinal, thus is necessary for both low-light and color vision. Vitamin A also functions in a very different role, as an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol known as retinoic acid, which is an important hormone-like growth factor for epithelial and other cells. All forms of vitamin A have a beta-ionone ring to which an isoprenoid chain is attached, called a retinyl group. Both structural features are essential for vitamin activity. The orange pigment of carrots beta-carotene – can be represented as two connected retinyl groups, which are used in the body to contribute to vitamin A levels. Alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene also have a single retinyl group, which give them some vitamin activity. None of the other carotenes have vitamin activity. The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin possesses an ionone group and has vitamin activity in humans. Although all vitamins are equally important in supporting animal Life, vitamin A may be considered most important vitamin from a practical standpoint. It is important as a dietary supplement for all animals, including ruminants. Deficiency occurs in endemic proportions in many developing countries and is considered to be the most common cause of blindness in youth children complete world.

[Mostafa KamaliNasab, S. Masoud Davoudi, Mahnaz Ahmadi Hamedani, Mehdi Eshagian, MahDi EdalatiNasab. Metabolism And Deficiency Of Retinol In Ruminant: A Review. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):57-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.09

 

Keywords: Metabolism; Deficiency; Retinol; Ruminant

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Outcome of nose deviation correction with spreader graft and L-strut graft

 

Samad Ghiasi1, Seyed Javad Toutonchi1, Parisa Moghadam1

 

1-Department of ENT, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran

*_Corresponding author: Parisa Moghadam (research_team_iran@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Introduction: A deviated nose is the one which its vertical axis is different from the vertical axis of the face. The correction of this deformity is challenging subject due to functional (airway obstruction) and cosmetic problems. There are some different techniques for correction of the deviation. Spreader grafts and L-Strut grafts are two most useful techniques. The aim of this study is to compare the correction of the septal deviation in two spreader and L-Strut grafts techniques. Methods: In a clinical trial in Tabriz Imam Reza hospital in years 2009 to 2011, 50 patients with nasal septum deviation candidate for rhinoplasty in two equal groups. The patients were enrolled into one of groups randomly after achieving the inclusion criteria and if the exclusion criteria did not meet them. The Spreader graft technique was used for one group and the L-Strut graft was used for other, the results of surgery was recorded before and 6 months after operation and was analyzed and compared in each group and between the two groups. Results: From patients, 33 (66%) were male and 17 (34%) were female. The minimum age of patients was 18 years and the maximum age was 30 years with a mean age to 23.502.77 years. The results of surgery in cases of severe and moderate nose deviation had significant difference between two group and the excellent and good results were more in the L-Strut group (P=0.01 and P=0.04 respectively). In the cases of mild septal deviation, difference between two surgical method was not statistically meaningful (P=0.15).Conclusion: Surgical correction of the deviated nose is one of the most difficult levels in rhinoplasty. Two most used techniques are spreader and L-strut grafts. Regarding to the findings of present study, L-strut grafts especially in cases of severe and moderate nose deviations has more desireable results comparing spreader grafts.

[Ghiasi S, Toutonchi SJ, Moghadam P. Outcome of nose deviation correction with spreader graft and L-strut graft. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):66-69]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.10

 

Keywords: Nasal Deviation; Spreader Graft; L-Strut Graft

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Evaluating Aaker’s Brand Equity Scale In Iran’s Market place

 

1Hossein Vazifehdoust,2Banafshe Golpour

 

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In Current survey Aaker’s Brand Equity model is evaluated in Iran’s market environment. Tehran as capital of Iran has chosen as target of cluster sampling. Collected data analyzed with Exploratory Factor Analysis by means of Spss 19 and and confirmatory factor analysis via Lisrel. Aaker’s scale has 5 factors and 31 items by default, after data processing, extracted factors has ended to same 5 factors and but 17 items. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In introduction, a brief review of Brand Equity. Materials and Methods is describes, Aaker’s point of view and scale, the methodology of this research and presents the proposed approach besides, the data/population for validating the model is discussed there, and next approach is validated and implemented using real market data. Significant findings are indicated in results and in discussion the results of current survey is compared with two most important similar studies (Aaker’s and Keller et al studies). Conclusion summarizes the paper and talks about and future works. Eventually, in appendix the related Table is added.

[Hossein Vazifehdoust, Banafshe Golpour. Evaluating Aaker’s Brand Equity Scale In Iran’s Market place. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):70-75]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.11

 

Keywords: Brand equity, iran’s market place, Aaker’s brand equity model

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Evaluation the Impact of Different Facets of Brand on Brand Performance and International Marketing

 

Mohammad Ali Abdolvand 1, Banafshe Golpour 2

 

1. Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch 44860966, Iran

2. Department of Business Management, Science and Research Branch 44860966, Iran

b.golpour@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research paper aims to evaluate the correlation of different facets of brand such, brand architecture (two extremes of brand spectrum: branded house and house of brands), brand re-positioning, brand equity, brand orientation and also international commitment on brand performance and the effect of brand performance on international marketing performance. Hypothesized model tested with a linear equation system through SEM with Lisrel. The results confirm significant correlation between branded house brand orientation and brand repositioning as strategy on brand performance, and impacts of brand performance on international marketing performance.

[Mohammad Ali Abdolvand, Banafshe Golpour. Evaluation the Impact of Different Facets of Brand on Brand Performance and International Marketing. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):76-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.12

 

Keywords: brand architecture, brand re-positioning, brand equity, brand orientation, international commitment, brand performance, international marketing performance.

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The study of effective factors on the development of tourism industry of Ardabil Province

 

Akbar Ghasemi Yalguoz Aghaj1, Salim Panahi Shurbolagh2

 

1. MA in Tourism Economy. yalgouz@acecr.ac.ir

2. MA in Business Administration, Field Marketing. salim_panahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: An economy based on tourism industry can keep and preserve its own potential situation in local communities when the dwellers tend to establish themselves in the related process. The attitudes of people and their perceptions and understandings should be frequently assessed in terms of the impacts of the tourism industry on their life. Any communities have its own complexities considered as the most essential resources for the process of tourism. According to the new attitudes and orientations about this case, the participation of the local communities is the most crucial coordination in tourism plans and programs. These communities do not get affected only by tourism industry but also they react to the related process making their own profits from the same opportunities as well. Due to the importance role of a society in planning and obtaining the tourism development, the conscious of local and native people from the results and consequences of the tourist participation into their life can make a necessary viewpoint in this regard. Finally, the patterns of developing local areas should have supplementary optimization interacting together reflecting and providing their own requirements in this regard. Hence, if we want to discuss in a statement, it can be stated that the mega-management of Ardabil Province Experts are able to talk about this case as well but in terms of executive affairs and investment fields, they can be considered as only legislative, supervisor and supporter of the private section giving the service affairs to the same private section in this case. So, we will observe the high quality and dynamic tourism industry along with high income benefits in this regard.

[Akbar Ghasemi Yalguoz Aghaj, Salim Panahi Shurbolagh. The study of effective factors on the development of tourism industry of Ardabil Province. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):82-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.13

 

Key words: tourism industry, local communities, host communities, comprehensive attitude

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Evaluation of the result of diagnostic of Spiral computed tomography comparing with Cone Beam computed tomography in diagnostic of foreign body in the orbit

 

Reza Javadrashid1, Farzaneh Kaviany2, Zahra Shahmorady3, Mahdi Niknamy2, Masoud Golamian4, Shohreh Sadrarhami4, Mohammad Taghi Niknejad4

 

1- Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2-Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3-Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4- Postgraduate Student, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Zahra Shahmorady (m.gh6160@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Foreign bodies are common findings in the orbit, most commonly the result of accidents. Knowing the potential damage to the eye and its associated imagery are required for a quick and accurate radiological diagnosis. Materials and method: The most common foreign bodies found in six different materials were chosen, including metal, glass, plastic, stone, wood and graphite. Each material was were prepared in 4 sizes and scanned with a Somatom Spiral CT and Newtom VG Cone Beam CT. Result: Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) are not suitable for low density foreign bodies. Conclusion: CBCT devices with lower radiation doses and lower costs can be used for detecting the orbit foreign bodies and localizing its position in cases of limited access to CT scan. CT scan

[Javadrashid R, Kaviany F, Shahmorady Z, Niknamy M, Golamian M, Sadrarhami SH, Niknejad MT. Evaluation of the result of diagnostic of Spiral computed tomography comparing with Cone Beam computed tomography in diagnostic of foreign body in the orbit. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):94-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.14

 

Key words: Foreign Bodies, Orbit, Cone-beam Computerized Tomography, Spiral CT.

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Designing training models for lumbar puncture and spinal anesthesia for the first time in Iran and using them in numerous training workshops

 

Mohammad Reza Afhami

 

Medical Education Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Afhamy_Dr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Simulation has been used as an educational method since 1900 in order to teach and assess some practical syllabi. As medical science advances, it becomes more evidently necessary to stop using old educational methods. Students of various medical courses are now enjoying a range of facilities such as computer programs and other educational accessories and training aids. In fact, the age of conducting practical work directly on the patient by students is over. The present study aimed to assess the extent of elevating lumbar puncture and spinal anesthesia training by designing training models at the lowest possible cost and easy maintenance, and guaranteeing training with acceptable standards. Materials and methods: This part covers the details of how training models were designed. The study was conducted through holding numerous training workshops for 100 medical students. The target students were responsible for holding the workshops according to their job description. The workshops were assessed through a questionnaire with pre-test, post-test, and the instructor's observation. The questionnaire used the 6-point Likert style with 10 skill indices. The findings were analyzed using the dependent t test and P_Value <0.05 considered significant. Results: The results of the training workshops showed that the mean practical scores of students on the technique without using a model using 6-point Likert scale was 43.3612.85, and increased to 85.1210.12 after training (p=0.00). The satisfaction of the trainees was 82.65%. Conclusion: As the results show, the study provided the trainees with access to safe, stress-free learning. Monotony and loquacity was minimized in training sessions, which enhanced the motor skills and psychological energy of the students. It should be noted that the model has been introduced to clinical skill centers at Iranian universities and some of them have purchased the model and are using it.

[Afhami MR. Designing training models for lumbar puncture and spinal anesthesia for the first time in Iran and using them in numerous training workshops. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):99-103]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.15

 

Key words: Training Model, Lumbar Puncture, Training Method

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Estimation of the Potential Inflationary Impact of Energy Carriers Subsidy Removal on Different Economic Sectors (Case Study: Kurdistan Province)

 

Mohammad Ali Moradi1, Abedin.Ghasemi2

 

1.Faculty Member,Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran. ir125@yahoo.com

2.Lecturer, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

 

Abstract: This paper is an applied research in terms of objective and a library research on the basis of processing statistical data and theories in terms of type. So the analysis is undertaken based on books, papers, statistics, and reports published in this regard, through using global information network (internet), etc., and national input- output table and statistics related to Kurdistan regional accounts (published by planning deputy of the governor general for different years). The statistical universe is comprised of statistics and information related to all different economic activities and sectors of Kurdistan Province in 2008 classified based on "international standard industrial classification of all economic activates" (ISIC). So this paper has used the last version published as ISIC Rev. 3 in 1993 which is also applied by Central Bank and Statistical Center of Iran. The main goal of this paper is to present inflationary impact of increase in the price of energy carriers on export sector, private consumption, capital formation, and government consumption in Kurdistan Province and industries dependent upon these energy carriers as well.

[Mohammad Ali Moradi, Abedin.Ghasemi. Estimation of the Potential Inflationary Impact of Energy Carriers Subsidy Removal on Different Economic Sectors (Case Study: Kurdistan Province). J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):104-116]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.16

 

Keywords: subsidy, inflationary impacts, energy carriers

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The comparation of the results of GA to combinational GA in the optimization problems
 

Banafsheh Norouzi

 

The Instructor of Gorgani lamei private high training institution

 

Abstract: The application of coded design variables instead of real variables is the combination possibility with other optimization methods, the plurality of the number of evaluations, the independency of this method from the problem design space and using some searching points at the same time are the unique characteristics of this method. One of the limitations of this method is exact identification of the optimized point in answer space. In this paper, to increase the ability of genetic algorithm method, Hook-Jeeves method as one of the direct searching methods of Hillclimber is used. To combine with genetics algorithm and the results of this combination regarding the optimization of operation of an assumed water distribution system, it was compared with pure genetic algorithm and the accuracy of the answers was evaluated. In all the cases, combinational genetics presented acceptable results and the results of pure genetics algorithm were improved to more than 2.8%.

[Banafsheh Norouzi. The comparation of the results of GA to combinational GA in the optimization problems. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):117-122]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.17

 

Keywords: genetics algorithm; combinational methods

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Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on "Le-Conte" pear trees under calcareous soil conditions

 

Samia A. Asad1; Nagwa A. Abd El-Megeed.2 and Eman S. Atalla.1

 

1Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

2Nubaria Hort. Res. Station, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

Corresponding author: samiaayoub2013@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 seasons on "Le-Conte" pear trees. The trees were 7 years old, budded on Pyrus communis rootstock and grown on calcareous soil and under flood irrigation system in a private orchard located at Borg El-Arab region, Alexandria Governorate. Thirty trees as uniform a possible were selected for this study. The trees were at 5 x 5 m. apart. The experiment involved the following ten treatments: Control, 0.50 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom, 0.75 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom, 1.00 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom, 0.50 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at fruit set, 0.75 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at fruit set, 1.00 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at fruit set, 0.50 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom + fruit set, 0.75 g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom + fruit set and 1.00g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom + fruit set. The results revealed that spray with 1.00g Micronutrients + 0.3 ml P/L at full bloom + fruit set gave the best results in comparison with control. This treatment gave the highest values of leaf and fruit mineral content, improved all vegetative growth parameters and chlorophyll content of leaves, in addition to ensured the best yield, improved the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits.

[Samia A. Asad; Nagwa A. Abd El-Megeed and Eman S. Atalla. Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on "Le-Conte" pear trees under calcareous soil conditions. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):123-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.18

 

Key words: pear trees, calcareous soil, micronutrients

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A comparison of effects of Atorvastatin and OCP on biochemical profile of PCOS patients

 

Majid Mobasseri1, Jafar Shadi1, Amir Bahrami1, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh1, Esmaeil Faraji1, Morteza Gojazadeh2

 

1- Department of Endocrinology, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

2- Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Jafar Shadi (Jafar_shadi30@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Introduction: Poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders which affect approximately 5 to 10 percent of women in reproductive age. Beside all common treatments, statins have recently been discussed in the treatment of PCOS. It is shown that statins can improve the biochemical profile and hemostatic status leading in improvement of prognosis of patients. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, we studied 40 patients with poly cystic ovary syndrome after achieving inclusion criteria in the form of two groups (intervention and control groups respectively Atorvastatin and OCP, 20 patients in each groups). Parameters regarding to the biochemical and hemostatic status of patients was compared before and after a 3 months treatment period. Results: The mean age of patients was 24.16.1 years (minimum 14 years, maximum 37 years of old). Within the biochemical parameters the changes in FBS, total cholesterol, LDL, DHEA-S was significant in Atorvastatin group (P<0.001), while the changes was significant in OCP group just in FBS (P<0.001), TG (P<0.001), LH (P=0.002) and Insulin (P=0.01). The mean fibrinogen levels in Atorvastatin groups decreased from 319.447.4 before treatment to 293.843 after the treatment that had a significant difference (P=0.01). Fibrinogen had decreased from 327.438.2 to 310.550.1 in control group which this decrease was not statistically significant (P=0.19). The changes in other hemostatic parameters were not significant in both groups. Conclusion: With regard to the findings of present study and decrease in some parameters of biochemical profile in both groups and with considering to the decrease in DHEA-S and fibrinogen levels in patients under treatment of Atorvastatin. We cannot certainly prefer these drugs to each other. Other studies with more cases seems to be necessary for prove or rejection of the subject.

[Mobasseri M, Shadi J, Bahrami A, Aliasgarzadeh A, Faraji E, Gojazadeh M. A comparison of effects of Atorvastatin and OCP on biochemical profile of PCOS patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):129-133]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.19

 

Keywords: Biochemical profile, Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome, Homeostatic Status

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20

Cost Overruns in Public Construction Projects: The Case of Jordan

 

Ghaleb J. Sweis 1, Rateb Sweis 2, Malek Abu Rumman3, Ruba Abu Hussein4, Samer E. Dahiyat5

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942, gsweis@ju.edu.jo

2. Department of Business Administration, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942, r.sweis@ju.edu.jo

3. Sustainable Development Advisor at Shell International Exploration and Production, Amman, Jordan

4. School of Business, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, Ruba.abuhussein@hotmail.com

5. Department of Business Administration, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942

 

Abstract: Cost is the essential part for any construction project. It is observed that cost overrun is one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and it is more severe in developing countries. Like many other developing countries, construction industry in Jordan is also affected by the cost overrun. To reduce construction cost overrun, the first step is to identify and analyze the root causes and factors responsible for this issue. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the factors that have major roles in affecting the projects’ cost so these factors can be alleviated in the future. Factors affecting cost overruns were identified from literature and ranked according to their priorities. This study involves a questionnaire survey of 30 engineers working in Jordanian construction projects and secondary data from the Ministry of Housing and Public Works relating to 57 major public construction projects. Results of the questionnaire survey showed that the design changes, lack of experience of project type and location were the main variables affecting cost overrun. While based on the secondary data the major factors that cause cost overruns were governmental delay, severe weather conditions and design changes.

[Ghaleb J. Sweis, Rateb Sweis, Malek Abu Rumman, Ruba Abu Hussein, Samer E. Dahiyat. Cost Overruns in Public Construction Projects: The Case of Jordan. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):134-141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.20

 

Keywords: Cost Overrun, Public Construction Sector, Jordan

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Visual outcome following mega dose corticosteroid therapy in indirect traumatic optic neuropathy

 

Dima Andalib1, Mohammad Reza Niyousha2, Reza Heidari2, Reza Mesbahi2

 

1- Fellowship in Oculoplasty and strabismus, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2- Resident of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Dima Andalib (dima1366@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcome following mega dose corticosteroid therapy in indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON). Methods: In the retrospective study, the medical records of 18 patients who were treated with intravenous mega dose Methylprednisolon due to ITON were evaluated. Mega dose Methylprednisolon was administered to all patients during the first 3 days after trauma. The main outcome measures were visual acuity at 3 months after treatment (final visual outcome). Results: Visual acuity at presentation for 18 patients ranged from no light perception to 1.85 log mar .The mean age of patients was 28.277.73 years old. No visual improvement was noted in patients with initial visual acuity of no light perception or light perception. There was no statistically significant difference between the initial and final visual outcome (P =0.08) in patients with initial visual acuity of 2.3 log mar or better. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the mega dose corticosteroid therapy has no significant effect on visual outcome of ITON.

[Andalib D, Niyousha MR, Heidari R, Mesbahi R. Visual outcome following mega dose corticosteroid therapy in indirect traumatic optic neuropathy. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):142-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.21

 

Keywords: Traumatic optic neuropathy

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Evaluation of Kermanshah health-treatment centers using data envelopment analysis (DEA)

 

* Shima Moradi, ** Farhad Vafai, *** Omid Ardalan

 

* School of Business, Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, Iran, shimamoradi80@yahoo.com

** Assistant Professor at Kurdistan University, vafa408@yahoo.com

*** School of Business, Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran, ardalan62omid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aim to investigate the efficiency of Kermanshah health-treatment centers in 2010 through data collection forms in order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses.In order to evaluate and ranking the centers,data and outcomes as criteria for measuring the efficiency and non-efficiency using data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used and DEA SOLVER software.By solving the different models of relative and full efficiency, the centerswere ranked and by using Spearman’srank correlation coefficient it was shown that to what extent these models are similar.results indicate that health-treatment centers in order to be efficient should increase the customers’ satisfaction through providing service, information and education.

[Shima Moradi, Farhad Vafai, Omid Ardalan. Evaluation of Kermanshah health-treatment centers using data envelopment analysis (DEA). J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):145-154]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.22

 

Keywords: Efficiency, the Evaluation of the Performance, Health-Treatment Centers, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

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The Role of IT in Achieving Organization Strategic Goals

 

* Omid Ardalan, ** Farhad Vafai

 

* School of Business, Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran, M.A in Executive Management, ardalan62omid@yahoo.com

** Assistant Professor at Kurdistan University, Tel. 09188394685, vafa408@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper explains the experiences of Petro Iran Development Company. At first it was tried to prepare a flexible program and an accurate scheduling. Top management support for transmitting to a new system was vital form beginning. Although there was no prepared and tested solution to meet the needs of organization, the ability to recognize the related soft ware’s and make them integrated was accessible by means of developing and improving company Intranet and internal data base. Scheduling projects is more accurate, therefore the management is able to determine the long-term strategy. These improvements and developments have increased the competitive capability of the company.

[Omid Ardalan, Farhad Vafai. The Role of IT in Achieving Organization Strategic Goals. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):155-160]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.23

 

Keywords: Information technology (IT) , business systems, organization Operation improvement.

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The Role of Stakeholder Management and Its Effect on shareholder value and social issue

 

* Omid Ardalan, ** Farhad Vafai

 

* School of Business, Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran, M.A in Executive Management, ardalan62omid@yahoo.com

** Assistant Professor at Kurdistan University, vafa408@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We test the relationship between shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issue participation. Building better relations with primary stakeholders like employees, customers, suppliers, and communities could lead to increased shareholder wealth by helping firms develop intangible, valuable assets which can be sources of competitive advantage. On the other hand, using corporate resources for social issues not related to primary stakeholders may not create value for shareholders. We test these propositions with data from S&P 500 firms and find evidence that stakeholder management leads to improved shareholder value, while social issue participation is negatively associated with shareholder value.

[Omid Ardalan, Farhad Vafai. The Role of Stakeholder Management and Its Effect on shareholder value and social issue. J Am Sci 2013;9(7s):161-171]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas0907s13.24

 

Keywords: shareholder value, stakeholder management, social issues, market value added.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 25, 2013.

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