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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 8, Cumulated No. 66, August 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0908

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 14, 2013. 

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

The efficacy of designed physical therapy program on frozen shoulder syndrome

 

Moussa A.Sharaf1, Emad T. Ahmed2, Amr A. Abdel-aziem3

 

Departments of : 1Physical Therapy for Neurology and Neurosurgery; 2Physical Therapy for Surgery and 3Physical Therapy for Biomechanics. College of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, KSA.

moussasharaf@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Frozen shoulder is one of the most causes of shoulder pain that results in pain and limitation of range of motion which causes a serious limitation in function which need early and progressive physical therapy intervention. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a designed physical therapy program on the treatment of frozen shoulder syndrome. One hundred patients who have frozen shoulder participated in this study. Their age ranged from 40–60. They were divided randomly into two equal groups; study group and control group. All patients were evaluated for intensity of pain, range of motion of shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction and shoulder external rotation and muscle testing for shoulder flexors, shoulder abductors and shoulder external rotators. The results of this study showed significant improvement in both groups in favour of study group. It can be concluded that, the combined effect of LASER, ultrasound, stretching and mobilization have more efficacy in the treatment of frozen shoulder.

 [Moussa A. Sharaf, Emad T. Ahmed, Amr A. Abdel-aziem. The efficacy of designed physical therapy program on frozen shoulder syndrome. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.01

 

Keywords: Frozen shoulder, Shoulder pain, Adhesive capsulitis, LASER.

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Relationship Between Self- Esteem and Psychotic Symptoms among Psychiatric Patients at Assiut University Hospital, Psychiatric Unite

 

 Nadia Ebraheem Sayied

 

Psychiatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

nadiaebraheem@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The study aimed to determine the relationship between degree of self esteem and psychotic symptoms among psychiatric patients and identify the relationship between self-esteem and patients diagnosis. Descriptive design was used in carrying out this study. Subjects and methods: The studied sample included 110 patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. Rosenberg self –esteem Scale (version 1-4) and Arabic version of Brief psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used as instruments for data collection in this study. Results: 55.5% of the participant's were males and 44.5% were females, High percentages of participants have diagnosed with schizophrenic disorder (48.2%), about 40% of the studied group has low self esteem. There were statistically significant difference between patient's gender and low self esteem, (P value = 0.03). Also there were highly statistically significant differences between marital status, medical diagnosis and low self-esteem of the studied group (P value = 0.001). Conclusion: There were statistically significant difference between marital status of the studied group and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Also there were no statistically differences between brief psychiatric rating scale and self esteem scale.

[Nadia Ebraheem Sayied. Relationship Between Self- Esteem and Psychotic Symptoms among Psychiatric Patients at Assiut University Hospital, Psychiatric Unite. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):7-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.02

 

Keywords: self esteem, Rosenberg self –esteem, Brief psychiatric Rating Scale.

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Protection of humans from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through the use of cotton clothes dyed with aqueous extracts of onion skin as the natural colorant

 

1Islam Hussein and 2Yousif Elhassaneen

 

1Department of Clothing and Textile and 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

Islamah@yahoo.com, Yousif12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Prolonged human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye and immune system and over the longer term exposure leads to premature skin aging, photodermatoses, actinic keratoses, cataracts and skin cancer. The present study was carried out to evaluate the UVR protection imparted by cotton fabric dyed with the aqueous extract of onion skin as the natural dyes. Onion skins (Allium cepa L.) dye was extracted, dried and analyzed for its coloring components using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major coloring components of the dye are including flavonols (86.86%), flavones (1.04%) and anthocyanidines (12.10%) which similar in part with the synthetic disperse dyes. Cotton fabric was dyed with the onion skin colorant and characterized with respect to fabric parameters including weight, thickness and thread count. Role of colorant concentration on the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was examined via color strength analysis. Spectral analysis of dyed cotton samples with onion skin colorant (OSC) has recorded the maximum absorption of at wavelengths of 200 nm (in the UVC region) and 330 nm (in the UVA region). OSC gives a yellow color which maximize in depth with the increasing of that dye concentration. UPF values for OSC applied at higher concentrations gave higher UPF values. Samples of dyed cotton fabrics with OSC were classified as having good to very good UV protection. When all dyed cotton fabrics were included in the statistical analysis, there was a positive significant (p< 0.05) relationship between UPF and K/S (R2= 0.913). In conclusion, data from the present study will be useful for dermatologists advising patients regarding the UV-protective properties of clothing made from natural fibers dyed with natural colorants.

[Islam Hussein and Yousif Elhassaneen: Protection of humans from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) through the use of cotton clothes dyed with aqueous extracts of onion skin as the natural colorant. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):16-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.03

 

Key words: Allium cepa, onion skin dye composition, UPF, Fabric characterization, color strength.

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Bond Strength of Different Denture Resins to Porcelain Teeth

 

Mohamed M. El-Sheikh1 and John M. Powers2

 

BDS, MS, PhD assistant professor. 1Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

 PhD Professor of 2Oral Biomaterials Houston Biomaterials Research Center, University of Texas-Houston Dental Branch, Houston, TX.

melsheikh@yahoo.com jpowers@mail.db.uth.tmc.edu

 

Abstract: Objective: This study evaluated the bond strength between porcelain denture teeth (Bioblend 43D) and four different polymerized denture resins (Lucitone 199, Palapress, Acron MC, Triad) with and without a bonding agent and after four surface treatment (polished, HF etched, sandblasted, air-abraded). Materials & Methods: Central incisor porcelain denture teeth were divided into 32 groups of 5 each. Tensile bond strength (MPa) was determined using a testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Mean and standard deviation (n=5) are listed. Results: All surface treatment increased bond strength compared to polished surface, and the highest bond strength was found with palapress resin with etched porcelain surface 8.1 MPa. Bonding agent improved the bond strength of all denture resins to porcelain teeth. Superior bonding was found with palapress and air-abraded porcelain 39 MPa. Conclusions: The polymerization methods affect bond strength porcelain teeth to denture base. Superior bonding was found with self polymerized (Palapress). Application of ceramic primer and bonding agent to porcelain teeth with and without surface treatment before backing will improve the bond strength of all denture resins to porcelain teeth.

[Mohamed M. El-Sheikh and John M. Powers. Bond Strength of Different Denture Resins to Porcelain Teeth. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):25-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.04

 

Keywords: Acrylic resins, Porcelain denture teeth, Denture bases, Porcelain surface treatment.

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Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto calligonum comosum leaf powder (CCLP)

 

Ghadah Alsenani

 

Department of Chemistry, Science College, Princes Nora University, Riyadh, KSA

ghada-moh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The adsorption of Crystal Violet (CV) by Calligonum Comosum Leaf Powder (CCLP) was studied. Experiments were conducted using initial dye concentration, CCLP adsorbent dose, stirring speed, and temperature as variables. Equilibrium was attained in 4 h. The extent of dye uptake (mg/g) was found to increase with an increase in initial dye concentration. The %adsorption was found to decrease with an increase in the amount of adsorbent. The stirring speed had effect on the adsorption rate. The adsorption of CV on CCLP decreased as the solution temperature increased. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and a positive value of ∆H indicated the exothermic nature of adsorption. The applicability of the two isotherm models for the present data followed the order: Langmuir > Freundlich.

[Alsenani G. Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto calligonum comosum leaf powder (CCLP). J Am Sci 2013;9(8):30-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.05

 

Keywords: Adsorption, Crystal Violet, calligonum comosum leaf powder.

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Effect of Some Vegetable Seeds and Herbs on Hyperglycemic Rats

 

Fatma El-Zahraa Amin El-Sherif1 Mohamed Samir El-Dashlouty1 El-Sayed H. Bakr1 Nadia Saleh El-Amoudy2 Marwa Amer El – Sayed Ahmed1

 

1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Menoufya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt.

2 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, King Abd-El Aziz, University, Jeddah Saudi Arabia.

drfatmazhraa@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Bakground: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, associated with absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and / or insulin action. The symptoms of diabetes are polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, pruritus and unexpected weight loss. About 100 million people around the world have been diagnosed with diabetes by the year 2010, it is projected that soon 215 million people will have the disease. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the probable benefit of certain herbs (Cleome Sp. & Artimisia absinthium) and seeds (Allium sepa seeds & Portulaci oleracea seeds) to correct hyperglycemia in rats. Material and Methods: Fifty mature male albino rats (Sprague Dawley strain) weighting 133▒5g were obtained from Laboratory of Animal Colony, Helwan, Egypt. The animals were divided into 10 equal groups; one group was kept as a (C –ve) group, while the other 9 groups were injected via intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic rats were disparted into nine equal groups (n= 5 rats) using two doses (5 and 10 %) of wormwood, cleome, onion seeds and pusley seeds in diets. At the end of experimental period (28 days), blood samples were collected for serum separation to determine serum glucose, liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions (HDLc, LDLc and VLDLc) and kidney function indicators (creatinine, urea and uric acid). Results: Data showed that the all tested seeds showed a significant improvement in glucose, liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) total cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein fractions (HDLc, LDLc and VLDLc) and kidney function (creatinine, urea and uric acid) in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusion: According to these results, wormwood, cleome, onion seeds and pusley seeds could be used for treatment hyperglycemia.

[Fatma El-Zahraa Amin El-Sherif, Mohamed Samir El-Dashlout, El-Sayed H. Bakr, Nadia Saleh El-Amoudy, and Marwa Amer El – Sayed Ahmed. Effect of Some Vegetable Seeds and Herbs on Hyperglycemic Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):36-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.06

 

Key words: Hyperglycemia, wormwood, cleome, onion seeds and pusley seeds

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Enhancement the Awareness of Family Care givers Caring their Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder of the General Administration of Intellectual Education Centers in the city of Abha

 

Rania A. Zaki

 

Department of Psychiatric ⁄ Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, King Khalid University, Abha. Kingdom Saudi Arabia

d_rania1875@yahoo.com, rzaki@kku.edu.sa

 

Abstract: ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder that affects large number of children world-wide. It characterized by three main symptoms; inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Caring of children with ADHD can be challenging for the whole family, Parents may be hurt by their children's behavior as well as by the way other people respond to it. The purpose of this study was to enhance the awareness of parent caregivers about caring of their ADHD children's through the Implementation of the research Program, quasi-experimental design was selected for this study. Subjects were consists of (30) mothers caregivers of ADHD children's. The study was conducted in the General Administration of Intellectual Education Centers in the city of Abha. Data were collected by using two tools, the first was an interview questionnaire used to assess the family care givers Knowledge, attitude & practice toward their ADHD children behaviors in daily living activities, and the second was concerned with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders scale. The results denoted that there was highly statistical significant relation between pre and post program implementation regarding family caregivers positive attitude and practice. So the study recommended that further studies should be done on large group of family caregivers to improve the parenting skills in managing their ADHD children behaviors.

[Rania A. Zaki Enhancement the Awareness of Family Care givers Caring their Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder of the General Administration of Intellectual Education Centers in the city of Abha. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):46-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.07

 

Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders- Knowledge, attitude & practice of family caregiver.

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8

Validity of Viscosupplementation with Arthrocentesis in Management of Temporomandibular Joint Internal Derangement

 

Abdullah Atef Hammuda1, Mohamed Said Hamed2, Eman Abdelhaleim Elsharrawy3 and Mohammed Ahmed Elsholkamy2

 

1Oral surgeon, Ain Shams university hospitals

2Professor, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University

3Professor of General Anaesthesia, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University

Hammuda81@gmail.com, Dr.Abdullahatef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It is becoming evident that arthrocentesis with lavage of the joint space is effective treatment method for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the temporomandibular joint. The question is whether the results would be better if accessory intra-articular application high molecular weight material. The aim of the present study was to validate the efficacy of viscosupplementation with temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis by hyaluronic acid. Forty patients were included in this study. They were divided randomly in two groups: group A, consisted of twenty patients and prone to arthrocentesis. Group B consisted of twenty patients and prone to arthrocentesis followed by injection of Sodium Hyalurinate. Results: Patients were followed up for one year. On the long term follow up there was a significant reduction in pain with increase in the range of maximal mouth opening and improvement in joint noise in comparison with group A that subjected to arthrocentesis without any additional drugs. Conclusion: Arthrocentesis is an effective conservative procedure in treatment of temporomandibular joint internal derangement. Validity of viscosupplementation using sodium hyalurinate in improving physical functions of temporomandibular joint.

[Abdullah Hammuda, Mohamed Said Hamed, Eman Abdelhaleim Elsharrawy and Mohammed Ahmed Elsholkamy. Validity of Viscosupplementation with Arthrocentesis in Management Of Temporomandibular Joint Internal Derangement. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):54-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.08

 

Keywords: arthrocentesis, temporomandibular joint, viscosupplementation, hyaluronic acid

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Book Review: A Place to Belong; Community Order and Everyday Space in Calvert, Newfoundland

Gerald L. Pocius. Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press, 1991. ISBN 0-7735-0805-8

 

Wael W Al-Azhari

 

Department of Architecture, the University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

w.alazhari@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: The idea of belonging is important in order to understand how spaces are reformed through people's activities. For people, belonging tied to a series of spaces that make up the place, spaces that extend both throughout the community and back in time. Gerald L. Pocius, in his book, A Place to Belong tries to study the landscape and the community, and how human beings socially construct the spaces in which they live. He thus took a particular community in Newfoundland called Calvert.

[Al-Azhari, W. A Place to Belong: Community Order and Everyday Space in Calvert, Newfoundland. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):60-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.09

 

Keywords: Belonging; vernacular landscape; community; a place

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Production of New Appetizer and Tomato Ketchup Supplemented with Some Natural Plant Sources.

 

Ginat, El-sherif ; Elsayed M. El-Saeidy and Azza Abdel Hammed K

 

Food Technology Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

ginat.elsherif@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to supplemented some tomato products (Tomato Ketchup) with some natural plant sources (Red Roselle extract and Tamarind extract), also to produce new appetizers from this natural plant sources, besides, evaluating the palatability of those aforementioned supplemented and new appetizers products.

The obtained results revealed that total solids of tomato ketchup supplemented with Red Roselle extract and tamarind extract were higher (50.72% and 53.03%) than tomato ketchup while tamarind ketchup had the highest total solids (56.62%). Also Red Roselle ketchup and Tomato Ketchup supplemented with Red Roselle extract had high percentage of total color density than the others. The results showed that total phenols and total flavonoids were 931.25 and 302.3 mg/100g F.W. respectively for tamarind ketchup, meanwhile total phenols and total flavonoids ranged between 343.75 to 450 and 110 to 209mg/100g F.W. for the other treatments respectively. A total of seventy phenolic compounds and nine flavonoids compound were identified with a yield ranged from 10.77mg/100g to 128.57mg/100g and from 2.44 mg/100g to 98.35mg/100g respectively. Pyrogallol was the predominant free phenolic compound in tomato ketchup. Tomato ketchup supplemented with Red Roselle extract and Red Roselle ketchup accounting for 62.09% to 80.48% of the total phenolics present, while salicylic was the predominant free phenolic acid in Tomarind ketchup (66.59%), Hesperidin was the principal flavonoid in tomato ketchup, tomato ketchup supplemented with Red Roselle extract, Red Roselle ketchup and tamarind ketchup accounted for 59.90% to 86.94% of total adhering flavonoids. The sensory evaluation referred that there was significant differences between all treatments in color, taste, odor texture and overall acceptability.[Ginat, El-sherif ; Elsayed M. El-Saeidy and Azza Abdel Hammed K. Production of New Appetizer and Tomato Ketchup Supplemented with Some Natural Plant Sources. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):64 69]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.10

 

Keyword:- Appetizer- Tomato Ketchup- Red Roselle- Tamarind.

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Effect of Early Oral Hydration on Post Cesarean Outcomes

 

Sahar A.Al-Ghareeb1, Eman R Ahmad1*, Haifa A Turki2

 

1Faculty of Nursing, University Of Dammam, OBGYN Nursing Department, 2 Faculty of Medicine, University Of Dammam, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabian

emomedo2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The traditional approach where patients receive nothing orally till return of bowel function (passage of flatus or bowel motion), followed by slow advancement of feeds to a solid diet postoperatively is now challenged. Although somewhat controversial, there is increasing evidence demonstrating the safety of early oral hydration after uncomplicated cesarean section. This study aimed to identify the effect of early oral hydration on post-cesarean outcomes. Design: A randomized controlled trial design was used and conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University. Eastern Province-Saudi Arabian. Forty post-cesarean women under regional anesthesia were selected from the previously mentioned setting and divided equally and randomly into experimental and control groups according to random table number. The experimental group included 20 women who received oral hydration after 2 hours postoperatively (first drink) gradually and as tolerated and the control group included 20 women who received routine hospital oral hydration regimen postoperatively. One tool was used and entailed three parts. Part one (socio-demographic & obstetric data), part two (intra-operative data) and part three (GIT & other post cesarean outcomes). Results: Both groups were similar in respect to general characteristics & obstetrical data. Experimental group had significant earlier bowel sounds & bowel movement P= (0.001 & 0.003, respectively), earlier removal of Folly's catheter, ambulated with earlier median duration (12.5 & 25.6 hours and 15 & 28.5 hours, respectively) and significant shorter hospital stay with a median value of 3 days among the experimental group compared to 4 days among control group. Conclusion & Recommendation: Early oral hydration had benefits on return of bowel sound and motility, ambulation, breast feeding and resuming regular diet, decreasing duration of IV fluid administration and shortened hospital stay than the conventional IV regimen. So this study recommends early oral hydration for women who had uncomplicated cesarean section under regional anesthesia and recommends more researches to be done to assess patient's tolerability and satisfaction to early oral hydration.

[Sahar A.Al-Ghareeb, Eman R Ahmad, Haifa A Turki. Effect of Early Oral Hydration on Post Cesarean Outcomes. Am Sci 2013;9(8):70-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.11

 

Key Words: Early oral hydration, post Cesarean outcomes.

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The Role and Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation in Reducing Executive Function Deficits in OCD Patients

 

Maryam Bahrami Hidaji1, Hassan Ahadi2, Parviz Askari3, Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri4

 

1. Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran 2. Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran3. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran4. Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

bahrami-h3@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness and role of cognitive rehabilitation in reducing executive function deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The study is conducted as a quasi-experimental research. The research population consists of all male and female OCD patients who visited outpatient clinics in Tehran during 2011-2012. Volunteer sampling was used to initially determine 40 volunteer patients. In the next phase, 30 patients who were diagnosed with OCD, were chosen from the 40 volunteers; then, they were randomly appointed into one of the two groups of “control” or “experimental”. The subjects in the experimental group underwent 16 sessions of individual cognitive rehabilitation therapy. Before, during and after the therapy, both groups were assessed by a number of research tools including Stroop, Wisconsin and Wechsler backward digit span. The survey’s data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics (MANOVA and repeated measures tests). The results show that cognitive rehabilitation therapy significantly reduces executive function deficits. According to the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that cognitive rehabilitation therapy is effective in reducing the deficits of memory and cognitive and attention processing strategies.

[Bahrami M, Ahadi H, Askari P, Mazaheri MM. The Role and Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation in Reducing Executive Function Deficits in OCD Patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):79-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.12

 

 

Keywords: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Executive Functions; Cognitive Rehabilitation

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Energy-Efficiency of Smart Buildings with Flexible Exterior Fenestrations: A Study for Thermal Concerns

 

Farshad Kheiri

 

Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

far.kheiry@gmail.com

 

Abstract: As we now live in a world that ecological footprint has exceeded ecological the capacity of earth, the need for having sustainable plans for our developments seems life force. There are different data that reveal the pivotal role of buildings in having sustainable environment. One of the most imperative aspects of sustainable architecture is thermal comfort. This effects environmental features and is the cause of remarkable share of costs in all around the world. Passive solar energy is one of the most important energy sources that can be used as a renewable one. Adaptation of an object, like living creatures, is essential for surviving in equilibrium with the related context, either in long history or short individual living periods. Buildings are not exceptions. Planning to enhance buildings energy efficiency, we would consider them as flexible ones, especially when the milieu specification has radical changes. The aim of this research was to find a way for changeable use of passive solar energy in accordance with environmental changes. In this study it has been analyzed how motile exterior walls, as the most important part of an apartment that loses and gains thermal energy, would affect environment and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) costs. The case study is a 193 square meter flat of an apartment and the Colorado weather data is considered in this case. It has been resulted that the energy needed in flexible fašade with motile panels for changing the windows sizes is more than 10% lower than a typical static one.[Kheiri Farshad. Energy-Efficiency of Smart Buildings with Flexible Exterior Fenestrations: A Study for Thermal Concerns. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):86-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.13

 

Keywords: Energy efficiency; flexible window size; passive solar energy; sustainable architecture; thermal comfort

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Child Abuse in School Age at Assiut City: Correlates and Academic Achievement Consequences

 

Salwa A. Marzouk1, Eman S. Masoud2, Manal H. Abo Elmagd3 and Naglaa S. Abd elaty4

 

1 Pediatric Nursing, Assiut Faculty of Nursing 2 Pediatric, 3Psychiatric & mental health and 4Community health Nursing Faculty of Nursing El-Minia University.

Salwaali527@ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background In general, empirical studies indicate that various forms of child abuse negatively affect the victim's development physically, intellectually, and psychosocially. There is a considerable body of research that shows a strong relationship between exposure to abuse and poor academic performance. Objectives: this study aimed to assess exposure to abuse among primary school children in Assiut City and assess its effect on their academic achievement. Design: A descriptive cross sectional research design was used in this study. Subjects and Methods: The studied children were 1054 children from last two years of primary school at Assiut city, with age ranged from 10 to 14 years and both sex. Three tools were utilized to collect data. Tool (one) was self structured interview questionnaire included tow parts; the first part included personal data of child and the second part to assess social class by using Abd-El-Twab scale. Tool (two) Child abuse questionnaire it consists of 63 items. The third tool to assess level of academic achievement. Results: the present results revealed that the vast majority of studied children were identified as victims of emotional, followed by neglecting and physical abuse and also show significant correlation between all of them. It was found that higher percentage of children had failed score were abused compared to non abused children Conclusion: Abuse may negatively affect children scholastic performance. The study recommended that a compelling need for intervention to prevent further abuse and to assist the child victims with their learning difficulties.

[Salwa A. Marzouk, Eman S. Masoud, Manal H. Abo Elmagd and Naglaa S. Abd elaty. Child Abuse in School Age at Assiut City: Correlates and Academic Achievement Consequences. Am Sci 2013;9(8):93-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.14

 

Keywords: Child Abuse, School Age, Academic Achievement

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The Effectiveness of Using Glutine and Casine Free Meals Provided With Some Sources from Omega 3 and Magnesium in Decreasing the Symptoms of Autistic Children

 

Ghada Mosad El Seedy1, Romia Soliman El Daly1 and Eslam Abd el hafiz Emara2

 

1Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education in, Damietta University, Egypt

2Psychology Department, Faculty of Specific Education in, Damietta University, Egypt

eslam.mara@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aims to investigating the effectiveness of glutine and casine free meals provided with some sources from Omega3 and magnesium in improving autism symptoms. The study sample is chosen randomly from Rahma center in Damitta. Twenty-two autistic children aged between 3 to 10 years used in this study. The feeding program starts with 22 autistic children while the children who have completed the program were 10 autistic children. Meals are presented daily during 12 weeks. Glutine and casine free meals provided with some sources of Omega3 and Magnesium are made (Shrimp pizza, Pumpkin Cake, Stem bread and (falafel + fried potatoes + cucumber) Sandwich. Autistic children acceptance of these meals is measured through sensory evaluation questionnaire for mothers, as autistic children can't express their opinion. Chemical composition is made using food composition Table. Results of sensory evaluation done by mothers of autistic children meals shows the acceptance significance (p<0.05). Chemical composition shows high content of calcium, Vit.A and magnesium also it consist of omega3. The improvement of autism symptoms is measured through pre and post questionnaire of mothers and teachers. Mothers of autistic children aged between 19 and 23 years during baby birth, and educational level is low in the majority. The improvement is significant in verbal contact, hyperactivity, attention and self harm (p<0.001).The improvement significant of eye contact, sleep habit and food habit at p<0.05. Social contact in mothers' questionnaire is higher significant than teachers. To sum up, glutine and casine free meals provided with some sources from Omega3 and magnesium could be affective in decreasing symptoms of autistic children.

[Ghada Mosad El Seedy, Romia Soliman El Daly and Eslam Abd el hafiz Emara. The Effectiveness of Using Glutine and Casine Free Meals Provided With Some Sources from Omega 3 and Magnesium in Decreasing the Symptoms of Autistic Children. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):102-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.15

 

Key words: Autism; glutine–free; casine–free; child; omega-3; magnesium; Vit. A; Calcium

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Molecular Identification of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Evaluation of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Gene as a Sole Marker for CA-MRSA

 

1Sahar M Ali, 2Eman AM Bayoumi, 3Tarek A Alshazly

 

1Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menufiya University.

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams university

3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.

Saharmali20004@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: Background: Infections caused by MRSA represent a growing problem and a challenge for healthcare institutions. Aim of work: To compare the efficacy of phenotypic methods for identification of MRSA with genotypic method and to evaluate if PVL gene could be used as sole marker for CA-MRSA. Material and methods: 88 isolates of MRSA were included in this study. Phenotypic identification was done by Oxacillin DD, PBP2a latex agglutination and Cefoxitin DD. Molecular detection of mec-A gene & PVL gene was done by real time PCR. Results: The PVL gene was detected among 46.8% of CA-MRSA, while only in 12.2 % HA-MRSA. 88 mec-A positive isolates, were identified as MRSA by oxacillin DD, PBP2a latex agglutination and cefoxitin DD methods with sensitivity of 92%, 98.8% and 100% respectively. Patients with PVL postive CA- MRSA were significantly younger males mostly of skin and soft tissues origin (p = 0.002). It showed distinctive antibiogram profile being significantly more sensitive to Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Clindamycin (p<0.001) and Tetracycline (p <0.05). Conclusion: The best phenotypic method for detection of MRSA is the combination of the Cefoxitin DD and the latex agglutination test. The presence of PVL gene cannot be used as a sole marker for CA-MRSA. [Sahar M Ali, Eman AM Bayoumi, Tarek A Alshazly. Molecular Identification of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Evaluation of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Gene as a Sole Marker for CA-MRSA. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):108-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.16

 

Keywords: CA- MRSA, PVL, mec-A, Realtime PCR.

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Histological Study of Cerebellar Structural affection by Chronic Microwave Radiation Exposure: A Possible Role for Prophylactic Administration of Bacopa monniera

 

1Gamal Abdel Salam, 1Omar Abdul Aziz, 2Abd Elghany H. Abd Elghany, 3 Wajid Ali Chatha

 

1Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

2Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

3Anatomy Department, College of Medicine, Northern University, Arar, KSA

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of oral Bacopa monniera (BM) extract on cerebellar structural changes secondary to chronic microwave exposure. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 30 normal male albino rats equally divided into: Study group I exposed to microwave radiation for 30 minutes/day for 28 days, Study group II given standardized extract of BM in a dose of 40 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were exposed to microwave radiation for 30 minutes/day for 28 days and Control group without any exposure to radiation. Animals were exposed to power density of 170 mWatt/cm2 at a fixed day-hour exposure distance of 20▒5 cm. All animal were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and cerebellum was extracted, fixed and stained with hematoxilin-eosin (Hx&E) and silver for nerve fibers and cells. Results: The Hx & E section in Study group I showed marked areas of vacuolations with smaller, ill-defined orientation of stellate cells and basket cells in the molecular layer. The Purkinje cells are fewer, shrunken, degenerated with focal loss in some areas and replaced by vacuolations. Purkinje cells had dark pyknotic nuclei and surrounded by spaces with focal loss in some areas and vacuolation. The granular cells of the internal granular layer are widely separated, darkly stained, surrounded by astrocytic cells and contains vacuolation. The Golgi cells have pale nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. In BM-treated animals; Hx & E section showed that the molecular layer appeared reaching the pia mater and contains stellate and basket cells with minimal vacuolation. The Purkinje cells are absent in some areas, shrunken, vacuolated and degenerating with surrounding vacuolations. Purkinje cells have distorted nuclei, may be present in more than one row in some areas surrounded by spaces and vacuolation. The granular cells of the internal granular layer are dispersed, surrounded by astrocytic cells and contains vacuolation. Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of BM extract can ameliorate the cerebellar structural effect of equipments emitting microwaves especially mobile phones whose use became spreading and usually put in contact of the skull so exposing brain directly to its emitted microwaves.

[Gamal Abdel Salam, Omar Abdul Aziz; Abd Elghany H. Abd Elghany and Wajid Ali Chatha. Histological Study of Cerebellar Structural affection by Chronic Microwave Radiation Exposure: A Possible Role for Prophylactic Administration of Bacopa monniera. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):116-122]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.17

 

Keywords: Bacopa monniera, Cerebellum, Microwave radiation, Histological changes

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Analysis of Transient State Response on Doubly-Fed Induction Generator during Asymmetrical Short-circuit

 

Arash Abedi1, Mehrdad Ahmadi Kamarposhti2,*, Mousa Yousefzadeh3, Ayoob Asadi3

 

1Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

2Young Researchers and Elite Club, Jouybar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jouybar, Iran

3Department of Electrical Engineering, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

*Corresponding Author Email: m.ahmadi@jouybariau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Inductive machines are highly sensitive to asymmetrical performance due to local heating which may happen in stator and really affects on machine life time. In other hand, negative sequential current in machine creates some vibrations in electrical toque which raises phonic noise and also decreases gear box and other parts life time. Thus, in this paper, we study behavior of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) during asymmetrical short circuit in grid and simulate performance of protective systems for decreasing destructive effects of current overloading to protect rotor-side converter using MATLAB software. [Abedi A, Kamarposhti M A, Yousefzadeh M, Asadi A. Analysis of Transient State Response on Doubly-Fed Induction Generator during Asymmetrical Short-circuit. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):123-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.18

 

Keywords: Asymmetrical Short-circuit, Negative sequence current, DFIG, Protection system.

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Chemical Analysis and Nutritional Assessment of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) Defatted Seeds used as Additive in Feed for Clarias gariepinus post juveniles

 

1 Flora Eyibio Olaifa, 2Ibironke Adetolu Ajayi and 2Idris Olawale Raji

 

1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

frajayi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A 49-day feeding trial was carried out with feeds supplemented with microgram quantities of the defatted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus in the diets of Clarias gariepinus at the post juveinile stage. Five diets at 40% crude protein were formulated containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60x106 Ág DAH seed as additive. Each dietary treatment was replicated three times with 10 fish per replicate. Proximate composition of the defatted seed showed that it was rich in protein, carbohydrate and minerals. Fish on DAH–supplementd diets had better survival rates than the control. Haematology, plasma biochemistry and gross tissue examination were also carried out. No significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between the fish on DAH-containing treatments and the control. There might be need to further process and test defatted A. heterophyllus seeds as either probiotic or prebiotic on young fish for longer periods in order to take advantage of its rich supply of nutrients.

[Olaifa, F.E. Ajayi, I.A, Raji, I.O. Chemical Analysis and Nutritional Assessment of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) Defatted Seeds used as Additive in Feed for Clarias gariepinus post juveniles. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):128-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.19

 

Keywords: Artocarpus heterophyllus, defatted seeds Clarias gariepinus, haematology, histology

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Measuring Rural women Empowerment through Participation in Women Self Help Groups in Nigeria – An empirical analysis.

 

Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Hanina Halimatusaadiah Hamsan and Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji

 

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

  1. asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my (Corresponding Author)

  2. hanina3282@gmail.com

  3. ndasmn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In recent year, women’s empowerment through participation is said to be at the center stage in global development. The paper seeks to examine the benefits of participation in Self Help Group’s (SHG) activities among rural women in Nigeria. Women empowerment through participation in SHG which is the focus of this paper is a process in which women are able to organize themselves to increase self-reliance and to assert their independent right to make choices in order to effectively promote their well being. The extent to which rural women are empowered through participating in SHG is the essence of the paper. A sample of 282 SHG members were selected through simple random (lottery method) out of 30 SHGs identified in agricultural activities from the three senatorial districts of Niger State and a schedule was designed and administered among the respondents. The study revealed that even though women approach is newly introduced in the study area (Niger State), the majority of women who constituted as respondents of this study have benefited considerably as most of them have been earning certain income thereby supplementing their family income. The study also proved that a large number of respondents have emphasized positive changes in their well being. The paper concludes that SHG approach is an instrument for rural women empowerment and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Nigerian rural women need to extend their participation in group’s approach as the strategy has become a valuable way for women sustainable development.

[Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Hanina Halimatusaadiah Hamsan and Muhammad Ndas Ndaeji. Measuring Rural women Empowerment through Participation in Women Self Help Groups in Nigeria – An empirical analysis. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):136-141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.20

 

Key words: Women Empowerment, participation, Self Help Groups

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Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy And Its Adverse Outcomes

 

Amal Ahmed Mohamed(1&2); Afaf Mohamed Fahmy (2&3); Howaida Amin Hassan Fahmy El-Sabaa (4&5); Nadia Abd-Allah Oweedah(6).

 

1Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Taibah University, -Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

2Department of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

3Department Nursing, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Taibah University, -Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

4Department of Maternity and Childhood Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt

6Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine. Taibah University, -Madinah Al-Menawarh, KSA

 

Abstract: Violence against women by their intimate partners (IPV) during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We assess the impact of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its adverse outcomes. The Design: Retrospective study implemented in 14 primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Madinah Al-Menawarh city, KSA for 4 months. Methods: A total number of four hundred and four pregnant women between the age of 15 and 35 years old were included in this study. A pre-constructed interviewing questionnaire and Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) were used for the purpose of data collection. Result: The findings revealed that there was a highly statistically significant association between exposure to IPV and adverse outcomes. Conclusion: IPV should be recognized as a potential cause of abortion, preterm birth and bleeding. Counseling of women experiencing abuse should be provided.

[Amal Ahmed Mohamed; Afaf Mohamed Fahmy ; Howaida Amin Hassan Fahmy El-Sabaa and Nadia Abd-Allah Oweedah. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy And Its Adverse Outcomes. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):142-150]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.21

 

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Sexual/Physical/Emotional Abuse, Pregnancy Outcome, Pregnant Women.

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Role of Oxidative Stress in Psoriasis: An Evaluation Study

 

Mahmoud Yousry Abdel-Mawla1, Eman Nofal1, Najlaa Khalifa2, Rowida Abdel-Shakoor1 and Mohamad Nasr1

 

1Dermatology and 2.Clinical Pathology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

mahmoudyousry53@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis has not been elucidated. Oxidative stress resulting from oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may play a role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The effect of antioxidant therapy was also studied in some psoriatic patients. Methods: Thirty four patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 30 age and sex matched control subjects were recruited for this study. Severity of psoriasis was determined by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score. Levels of plasma malondialhyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in patients and controls. Seven patients were given antioxidant therapy for 4 weeks. Results: Statistically significant higher levels of plasma MDA and CAT were detected in patients when compared with control subjects. No significant correlations with severity of psoriasis were found. Levels of MDA were positively correlated with levels of CAT in psoriatic patients. Erythrocyte SOD levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls and negatively correlated with severity of the disease but insignificantly correlated with levels of MDA in psoriatic patients. We observed no changes in PASI score, levels of MDA, CAT and SOD before and after antioxidant therapy. Conclusion: It is questionable whether the observed abnormalities are responsible for the onset of psoriasis, or resultant from ongoing pathologic process. Therefore, the hypothesis of an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in psoriasis and its role in the pathogenesis of the disease should be further investigated.

[Mahmoud Yousry Abdel-Mawla, Eman Nofal, Najlaa Khalifa, Rowida Abdel-Shakoor and Mohamad Nasr. Role of Oxidative Stress in Psoriasis: An Evaluation Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):151-155]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.22

 

Keywords: oxidative stress, psoriasis, MDA, CAT, SOD, antioxidants.

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Effectiveness education of Social Stories on increase eye contact in autistic children

 

Maryam Ramshini1 (Corresponding author), Janet Hashemi Azar2 (PhD)

 

1. MA in Psychology and Education of mental retardation children

2. Assistant professor of General Psychology, faculty member of Allameh Tabatabaei University

 

Abstract: To evaluate the effectiveness of social stories to increase eye contact training on autistic children, two autistic sons - 6.8 years and 7.10 years - were selected by sampling. These kids using social stories that include 4 photo cards with content of making eye contact were evaluated. Data collection and analysis by using graph method showed that social stories would help to increase the number and duration of eye contact. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the teaching of social stories as a program-wide meeting would be used as a treat method.

[Maryam Ramshini, Janet Hashemi Azar. Effectiveness education of Social Stories on increase eye contact in autistic children. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):156-160]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.23

 

Keywords: Autistic, eye contact, social stories

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Risk Analysis of International Petroleum Contracts

 

Khadijeh Jamalinia

 

PhD Student of Private Law, College of Law and Political Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University (ATU), Tehran, Iran. lhm.jam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Risk management is an important point of projects and contracts. But it is obviously to effectively manage risk a contract and project must be analyze to be known risk related type and nature of contract. There are many papers in context of risk in petroleum contracts that have specifically examined the risk of petroleum contracts. Some discussed environmental risks. They predict types of environmental hazards due to the characteristics of the oil contracts to lessen the risks. Some paper investigates the effect of nationalization of resource on the value of petroleum reserves and developing a framework for treating resource nationalism as political risk. They also discussed about the political risks and risk factors Such as changes in domestic laws, nationalization consideration Concession contracts in the Middle East. One of the risk factors that are considered by researchers is force majeure on oil contracts. Many of the contractual terms on the one hand and special features of contracts on the other hand are cause of circumstances beyond the control of the parties. Some researchers discuss in this context as future risks. The author considers different contingencies that may arise depending on the countries involved during the development of international oil contracts. It also analyses the implications of the inclusion of a detailed list of events within the force majeure clause versus a general clause. Some researchers have studied the risk in a particular area for example explaining the existing risks and costs in oil and gas contracts in Colombia. This paper attempts to identify risks in petroleum contracts through Identifying the elements and characteristics of these contracts considering contractual and non-contractual risks. Contractual risks are linked with contract clauses as applied to the contracts. Non-contractual risks are circumstances that were not foreseen in the contract.

[Khadijeh Jamalinia. Risk Analysis of International Petroleum Contracts. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):161-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.24

 

Keywords: International commercial contracts, petroleum contracts, contract management, risk management

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Reproductive Efficiency of Damascus Goats in Salt-Affected Lands in South Sinai, Egypt

 

Abdalla1, E. B; Gawish2, H. A.; El-Sherbiny1, A. M.; Ibrahim2, N. H. and El-Hawy2, A.S.

 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University; 2Animal and Poultry Division, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo, Egypt

nagy_drc7777@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of salinity in feed and drinking water on the reproductive and productive efficiency of Damascus goats under saline conditions of South Sinai, Egypt. Forty eight adult female Damascus goats were assigned randomly into equal four groups. The first group (G1) fed berseem (Trifoliumalexandrnum) hay (BH) and drank fresh water (247 ppm), the second group (G2) fed BH hay and drank saline water (6000 ppm), the third group (G3) fed salt-tolerant alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and drank fresh water (247 ppm) and the fourth group (G4) fed alfalfa and drank saline water (6000 ppm). Body weight changes, reproductive and productive traits and hormonal profile (estradiol-17β and progesterone) were measured. Chemical composition of the experimental roughages showed that alfalfa contained higher percentage of Na, K, Ca and P compared to BH. The results indicated that goats fed alfalfa had higher conception rate (85%) and twining rate (1.65 %) compared with goats fed BH (80%) and (1.45), respectively. Type of roughages feeding (hay and/or alfalfa) had non-significant effect on birth weight, while weaning weight significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in BH groups. Milk yield negatively impacted (P ≤ 0.05) by saline water with about 36% lower than fresh water, while type of roughages had no effect on milk production. Although plasma E2 levels were insignificantly affected by type of roughages, it was higher during pregnancy in alfalfa groups (G3 & G4) than BH groups (G1 & G2). Moreover, serum P4 concentration didn’t affected by type of roughages. Our results indicated that utilization of salt-tolerant alfalfa as animal feeds in salt affected lands could be an appropriate option for alleviating the desertification problems. In addition, they provide alternative good feed resources particularly in summer and autumn seasons when the other conventional forage resources are shortage.

[Abdalla, E. B; Gawish, H. A.; El-Sherbiny, A. M.; Ibrahim, N. H. and El-Hawy, A.S. Reproductive Efficiency of Damascus Goats in Salt-Affected Lands in South Sinai, Egypt. Am Sci 2013;9(8):170-177]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.25

 

Keywords: Salt-Tolerant alfalfa, Saline water, Productive and Reproductive traits, Damascus goats.

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Quadratic Assignment Problem

 

Hossein Shahbazi, Ali Eghbali Ghahyazi, Farhad Zeinali

 

Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch

shahbazi.hossein1368@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the well-known combinatorial optimization problems is the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). There are three directions of research in the QAP: proposing linearization method for the QAP formulation, developing heuristics/meta-heuristics to find near optimal solution and finding tight lower bound for optimal solution of the QAP. In this paper, we review these directions and next propose three algorithms to find near optimal solutions. The efficiency of our best proposed algorithm is tested in 59 instances of QAPLIB and our numerical results confirmed that our algorithm performs better than four algorithms existed in the literature of the QAP. [Hossein Shahbazi, Ali Eghbal Ghahyazi, Farhad Zeinali. Quadratic Assignment Problem. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):178-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.26

 

Keywords: Quadratic assignment problem; meta-heuristics; Single-period facility layout problem; Mixed integer programming

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[J Am Sci 2013;9(8):185-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.27

Withdrawn

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Adverse pregnancy outcome in Saudi women diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism during pregnancy, with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies.

 

Inass Taha

 

Department of Medicine, Medical Collage, Taibah University, Madina, Saudi Arabia

inasstaha@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: there has been increased evidence of unfavorable pregnancy outcome in hypothyroid women especially in those with thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Objective: To detect the pregnancy outcome of overt hypothyroid patients with and without anti-TPO. Methods: This cohort study was conducted on 125 pregnant Saudi women recently diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism selected from antenatal care at Madina Maternity and Children hospital and Ohud hospital between July 2009 and June 2012. TPO antibodies were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay in all patients. Patients received treatment and were followed up till delivery. All maternal complications, perinatal and neonatal outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: overt hypothyroidism women with anti-TPO (31.2%) were older (34.5▒7.73 vs. 29▒6.55 years, p=0.005), had more disturbed thyroid function (higher TSH (44.2 ▒10.0 VS. 29.5▒6.47, p=0.001), lower FT4 (8.0▒1.13 vs. 9.1 ▒ 1.09, p=0.001) and FT3 (3.0▒ 0.73 vs. 3.4▒0.71, p=0.021). They had more complications with pregnancy (OR 4.4, 95 % CI 1.96-9.8, p=0.001) including GDM (p=0.001) and IUFD (p=0.002). Also they had more loss of their pregnancies (OR3, 95 % CI 1.09-7.99), lower gestational age at delivery (35.2▒5.33 vs. 37.7▒1.19, p=0.001) and more CS (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.03-5.46, p=0.09). Newborn babies of seropositive patients had significantly lower Apgar score (7.5▒2.13 vs. 8.5▒0.93, p=0.001). And birth weight (2.6▒0.45 vs. 2.7▒0.45, p=0.048) than sero-negative women. Significant correlation with anti-TPO was detected with age, thyroid function and most pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: TPO sero-positivity greatly increases the pregnancy risk associated with overt hypothyroidism among Saudis and hence those patients should be screened early in pregnancy and monitored aggressively.

[Inass Taha. Adverse pregnancy outcome in Saudi women diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism during pregnancy, with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):191-196]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.28

 

Key words: Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPO), Thyroid, Pregnancy

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Impact of creative problem solving training on writing skills of students with learning disabilities

 

Nasim Fadaei nezhad1 (Corresponding author), Salar Faramarzi2, Hassan Karamalian3

 

1. MSc student of Educational Sciences, Curriculum Planning Field of interest, Payam-e-Noor University, Isfahan, Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Educational Sciences, psychology and education of especial children, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3. Assistant Professor of Educational Sciences, Curriculum Planning Field of interest, Payam-e-Noor University, Isfahan, Iran

nasim_fadaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research was carried out to investigate the impact of creative problem-solving training on written skill of male students in fifth grade that have learning disabilities. Methods of test and pre-test - post-test control group were used. Therefore, using a multistage sampling procedure and the criteria for entry into the study through fifth grade students with learning disabilities, speech writing, Isfahan, randomly selected 30 individuals participated in the study. For data collection, informal tests confirmed the reliability and validity were used. Covariance analysis of survey data using statistical methods and analyzed using software SPSS18 is done. Findings from this study showed that between the control and experimental groups of five sub-skills test and written expression (descriptions, Memoir, shorthand, writing fiction, writing), there is a significant difference (P<0.05). Thus it can be concluded that the teaching of creative problem solving skills, written expression has an effect on students' performance and can improve the education of students with learning disability in written expression written expression can be used.

 [Nasim Fadaei nezhad, Salar Faramarzi, Hassan Karamalian. Impact of creative problem solving training on writing skills of students with learning disabilities. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):197-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.29

 

Keywords: creative problem solving, written expression skills, learning disorder, disorder of written expression, elementary school students

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Poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan/clay nanocomposite films: Preparation, properties and anti-bacterial activities

 

Hamid Mahdavi*1, Hamid Mirzadeh2, Mohammad Jalal Zohuriaan-Mehr3, Fateme Talebnezhad4

 

Novel Drug Delivery Systems Department, Polymer Science Faculty, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965-115, Tehran, Iran.

Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box: 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran.

h.mahdavi@ippi.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The present attempt is intended to prepare nanocomposites of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended chitosan and nanoclay montmorillonite (MMT) particles. PVA/chitosan films containing nanoclays particles were prepared by coating method and their physical and mechanical properties were studied by tensile tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and FTIR results confirmed that the property improvements were related to the MMT exfoliation and good interaction between PVA/chitosan blend and MMT. Mechanical and anti-bacterial properties of the films were influenced significantly by the nanoclay particles.

[Hamid Mahdavi, Hamid Mirzadeh, Mohammad Jalal Zohuriaan-Mehr, Fateme Talebnezhad. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan/clay nanocomposite films: Preparation, properties and anti-bacterial activities. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):203-214]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.30

 

Key words: polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan, nanocomposite, anti-bacterial properties, montmorillonite

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A Consideration of Relationship between Self-esteem and Teacher’s Job Satisfaction

 

Mirzaei SeyedHossein╣, Bakhshipour Abolfazl▓, Garshad Afsaneh│, Hashemi Mitra4

 

PhD student of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

Teacher in Azad University of Bojnourd, Iran and PhD student of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Yerevan State University, Yerevan,Armenia, Email: ab8boj@gamil.com

│M.Sc Nursing, Faculty member, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, North khorasan University of Medical science, Bojnord, Iran, Email: garshadfafsaneh12@gmail.com

4M.Sc Statistical, North Khorasan University of Medical Science, Bojnord, Iran Email: Pajohe.hashemi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: With regard to the effect of insights and personality traits in the organic behavior, the research considers relation between job satisfaction and self-esteem which has an important role in job behavior and mental health of individuals. Research is a descriptive and correlative study in which the samples have been classified in a cluster form and selected accidentally. The research sample included 230 teachers from elementary, guidance and high school levels. Data was collected by Demographic questionnaire, self-esteem and job satisfaction tests. They were analyzed by spss, descriptive tests, T test, Regression and K2 correlation. The research came to the conclusion that by construction and reinforcement of organic self-esteem and job satisfaction, we can persuade Education employees to struggle and more qualified alternatives.

[Mirzaei S, Bakhshipour A, Garshad A, Hashemi M. A Consideration of Relationship between Self-esteem and Teacher’s Job Satisfaction. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):215-218]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.31

 

Key words: self-esteem, job satisfaction, teachers

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Power Electronics For Very High Power Applications

 

Mohsen Abedian zadeh

 

Master of Azas University of Scientific and Research of Iran

mohsenabedinian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: As we prepare to enter the 21st Century we stand on the threshold of a Power Electronics Revolution. The last 50 years have seen the growth of power conversion to the point at which today about 15% of the electric power produced undergoes some form of electronic conversion. However, most of this occurs at the “consumer end” of the supply chain from battery chargers to locomotives. Although HVDC transmission has exploited line-commutated power electronics for the past three decades, it is the 1990s which have witnessed the commissioning of self-commutated power electronics at the transmission level. Developments in semiconductors and their packaging technology will drive power electronics into distribution applications as device efficiency and reliability increases whilst the cost of the switched megawatt falls. The key semiconductors enabling this predicted transition will be reviewed and the anticipated demands of system builders on device suppliers discussed

[Mohsen Abedian zadeh. Power Electronics For Very High Power Applications. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):219-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.32

 

Keywords : Thyristors, Criteria

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The study of the effect of omitted variables on the results of earning rational pricing test and its components in TSE

 

Nazanin hosseini1, sayed Ali Vaez 2, soghra ghobadi 3

 

1 Master of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch-Islamic Azad university-Khorramshahr-Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch, Shahid chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

3. Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch, ISLAMIC AZAD University, Ahvaz-Iran, Ahvaz, Iran

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of omitted variables on the results of earning pricing test and its components in the companies listed in TSE. In the present study 341 companies were applied during 2002-2009. To investigate this issue, 6 hypotheses were used and by regression analysis by panel data and Mishkin test, they were studied. The results of the study showed that accounting earning is priced well without considering the variables of size and growth from the market. But by considering size and growth variables and earning persistence is not evaluated rationally. The results of accruals showed that without considering and by considering size and growth variables, the market has a true understanding of rational pricing of this variable and its understanding is based on expectations. In addition, the results of operating cash flow variable showed that without considering size and growth in valuation model, the market has true understanding of persistence of this variable but by considering size and growth variables, the market understanding of the persistence of this variable is not improved.

The study of the effect of omitted variables on the results of earning rational pricing test and its components in TSE J Am Sci 2013;9(8):226-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.33

 

Keywords: Accounting earning; Mishkin pricing test; Company size; Company growth

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Eating habits and obesity and their relationship with certain socio-demographic characteristics among Saudi Nursing Students at the University of Dammam

 

Al-Mahmoud, Sana Abdulkareem

 

Management & Leadership, University of Dammam – College of Nursing, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Sana98saudi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obesity is a global and substantial public health crisis in developed world. Overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. This growing rate represents a pandemic that needs urgent attention if its potential morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences are to be avoided. The Aim of this study was - to assess the relationship among certain socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and overweight or obesity on a sample of undergraduate nursing students. Design: Cross sectional survey-descriptive correlation study, design was used to conduct this study. Setting: The study was conducted in College of Nursing University of Dammam. Subjects: convenient sample consisted of 300 nursing students who accepted to participate in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 22 years. Two tools were used in this study namely: "Structured Interview Sheet", to assess socio-demographic characteristics, health history & physical examination and Students' weight status based on BMI categories and percentage body fat. Calculate waist circumference and hip/Waist Ratio. "Life Style Questionnaire" to assess student’s lifestyle practices including eating habits, meal patterns, physical activity and smoking habit. Results: The unhealthy eating habit of students was noticed in the intake of fried food (majority reported eating fried food one or two times/week). Frequent snacking and eating fried food can adversely affect students' health status, given the abundance of energy dense and high fat ingredients they contain. Physical exercise was practiced at a lower rate by nursing students; 19.7%.

[Al-Mahmoud, Sana Abdulkareem. Eating habits and obesity and their relationship with certain socio-demographic characteristics among Saudi Nursing Students at the University of Dammam. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):234-242]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.34

 

Keywords: Eating habits, obesity, Saudi Nursing Students

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Effectiveness of Aspiration and Sclerotherapy of Ovarian Cyst: A Comparative Study of Ethanol 95% or Tetracycline Solution versus Simple Aspiration

 

Mahmoud Abosrie (MD) & Ahmed M. Abdelaziz (MD)

 

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

drahmed74@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the therapeutic yield of aspiration and sclerotherapy of simple ovarian cyst or endometrioma, using tetracycline or ethanol 95%. Patients & Methods: The study included 120 multigravida multipara women with average age of 30▒4.6 years old. women were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups included (Group A ) : Aspiration group assigned to undergo transvaginal ultrasonography guided cyst aspiration without sclerotherapy, (Group T ) Tetracycline group assigned to undergo cyst aspiration and instillation of tetracycline 5% solution (5-10 ml) and (Group E ) Ethanol group assigned to undergo cyst aspiration and instillation of ethanol 95% in a volume equal to the volume aspirated out of the cyst. Patients were assessed after 3 months for cyst resolution and at 6th and 12th postoperative (PO) months for recurrence; the cyst was considered recurrent if it >4cm in diameter. Results: the results indicated that 49 women (40.8%) had simple serous cyst and 71 women (59.2%) had endometrioma. All procedures were conducted uneventfully as one-day procedure. At the end of the 3rd PO month, all cysts showed significant diminution of diameter compared to preoperative diameter. At the 6th PO month, 17 women had recurrent cysts and at the 12th PO month, another 20 patients had recurrent cysts. Collectively, there were 13 recurrent serous cysts and 24 recurrent endometrioma. Aspiration only showed a significantly higher recurrence rate (55%) compared to aspiration and instillation (18.8%), irrespective of the sclerosant used. Moreover, Group A showed significantly higher recurrence rate compared to Group T and Group E, 20% and 17.5%, respectively with non-significantly higher recurrence rate with tetracycline than with ethanol. Morever recurrence rate of endometrioma was significantly higher in Group A compared to Group T and Group E with non-significantly higher recurrence rate of endometrioma in Group T compared to Group E. Conclusion: Aspiration and sclerotherapy of ovarian cyst is a safe and effective treatment with a significantly low recurrence rate compared to simple aspiration only. The non-significant difference between the outcome of tetracycline and ethanol sclerotherapy allowed the choice to depend on the surgeon’s preference.

[Mahmoud Abosrie & Ahmed M. Abdelaziz. Effectiveness of Aspiration and Sclerotherapy of Ovarian Cyst: A Comparative Study of Ethanol 95% or Tetracycline Solution versus Simple Aspiration. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):243-248]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.35

 

Key words: Ovarian cyst, Aspiration, Ethanol, Tetracycline, Instillation.

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Comparative study between nidek Quest OPDCAT software aspherical ablation and OPA optimized prolate ablation software as regards visual and topographic elements

 

Gamal Mostafa Abo Elmaaty, Abd Elmagid M.Tag Eldin, Ehab Abd Elsamei Elazab, and Mohamed Al Taher A.A, FRCS

 

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

abdotag@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the Work: To compare MRSE (mean refractive spherical equivalents), Q value (corneal asphericity) HOA RMS (high order aberration of root mean square) in patients submitted to lasik using optimized prolate ablation (OPA) and optical path difference custom aspheric treatment (OPDCAT)algorithms for myopia correction. Site of the Study: Private practice, EYE CARE CENTER, Maadi, Cairo, Egypt. Design: Prospective randomized masked clinical trial. Methods: Forty six eyes of 32pt subjected to LASIK using OPA and 46 eyes of 32 patients subjected to LASIK using OPDCAT. OPD (optical path difference) topography and OPD station was done preoperatively, MRSE, Q value and HOA RMS were done preoperatively, one week, one month and six months postoperatively. Results: The study enrolled 64 patients.thirty two patients with 64 eyes subjected to LASIK using OPA and 64 eyes using OPDCAT. MRSE was 0.08 G 0.49 D, 0.20 G 0.43 D, and 0.19 G 0.37 D, one week, one month and six months respectively, in the aspheric ablation group and _0.18 G 0.36 D, 0.00 G 0.34 D, and 0.00 G 0.33 D, respectively, in the prolate ablation group.. no significant difference in the mean preoperative root mean square (RMS) At 6 months, the mean ocular HOA RMS increased to 0.500 G 0.132 mm in the aspheric ablation group and 0.398 G 0.100 mm in the prolate ablation group. Preoperatively, there was no statistically significant difference in corneal asphericity (Q value) between the 2 groups. At 6 months, the mean corneal asphericity increased to 0.301 G 0.285 in the aspheric ablation group but remained unchanged (_0.120 G 0.233) in the prolate ablation group Conclusion: The prolate ablation algorithm induce fewercorneal HOAs, and conserved more preoperative corneal asphericity than the aspheric algorithm.

[Gamal Mostafa Abo Elmaaty, Abd Elmagid M.Tag Eldin, Ehab Abd Elsamei Elazab and Mohamed Al Taher A.A. Comparative study between nidek Quest OPDCAT software aspherical ablation and OPA optimized prolate ablation software as regards visual and topographic elements. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):249-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.36

 

Key words: nidek Quest OPDCAT, aspherical ablation, OPA optimized prolate ablation

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Clinical Presentations of Atypical Arthritis in Egyptian Children with Acute Rheumatic Fever

 

Hala H. EL Banna and Rawia A. Swelam

 

Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

rawiaswelium@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) remains difficult and complex. This difficulty is mainly attributed to the changing pattern of the disease with a variety of clinical manifestations, which are not included in the latest updated-revised Jones criteria (WHO 2004).Classic acute migratory polyarthritis involving large joints is not always present highlighting the potential diagnostic problems of ARF. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations of atypical arthritis in children with ARF admitted to Al-Zahraa Hospital, AL-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Also to assess the adequacy of the latest revised WHO Jones criteria (2004) in diagnosis of ARF. Methods: We retrospectively studied the records of 201 patients previously diagnosed to have ARF and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) between January 2003 to December 2008.Out of 201 medical records reviewed, 44 cases of acute arthritis and concomitant carditis were selected after exclusion of isolated arthritis, isolated carditis, rheumatic chorea and chronic RHD. Results: Atypical arthritis was presented in 86.36 % of ARF patients, while 13.64% presented typical acute migratory polyarthritis of large joints. An atypical pattern of rheumatic arthritis was based on the following criteria: oligoarthritis in 19 patients (43.18%), Monoarthritis in 12 patients 27.27%, polyadditive in 7 patients (15.90%), small joints of the hand in 4 patients (9.09%) and feet in 2 patients (4.54%). Our results revealed association of these atypical arthritis with late or insidious onset carditis in 8 patients (18.18%) and also with silent carditis in 2 patients (4.54%) making the diagnosis more difficult. Conclusion: we concluded that atypical arthritis was present in significant proportion of the acute rheumatic fever attacks, making the diagnosis of this intriguing disease even more difficult. The diagnosis of atypical arthritis need more attention, as strict adherence to the revised WHO (2004) Jones criteria would results in under diagnosis of ARF. Our study reinforces the need to interpret the latest modified Jones criteria, possibly incorporating the atypical presentation and to support the view that echocardiographic finding as a major criterion for diagnosis.

[Hala H. EL Banna and Rawia A. Swelam. Clinical Presentations of Atypical Arthritis in Egyptian Children with Acute Rheumatic Fever. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):253-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.37

 

Keywords: Clinical, Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever.

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Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training Programme On Self Esteem & Academic Achievement in adolescents girls at secondary school at Abha city

 

Sahar Mahmoud and Rania Abd Hamid

 

 Psychiatric mental health nursing department. College of Nursing. king khald University

drsaharmahmoud@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Assertive training program is a systemic approach to more assertive self-expression, based on a balance between achieving one’s own goals and respecting the needs of others. It is a psychological intervention which helps participants learn to integrate assertive behavior skills into their daily lives. It deals with attitudes, beliefs, and cognitions about assertiveness as well as specific, overtassertive behaviors. This study was Quasi Experimental study aiming to determine the effect of an assertiveness training program on assertiveness and self-esteem and academic performance on student girls at Abha. The study was conducted in3 secondary school affiliated to Abha city (first, second and third secondary school). The study sample consisted of 145student girls. Data were collected by using. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Assertiveness inventory and Achievement score. The result of this study revealed that the there was a significant improvement in mean score of assertiveness, self esteem and achievement after training program. the study recommended that Further researches is need to investigate the socio cultural circumstances that may hinder or enhance the individual to be assertive.

[Sahar Mahmoud and Rania Abd Hamid. Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training Programme On Self Esteem& Academic Achievement in adolescents girls at secondary school at Abha city. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):262-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.38

 

Keyword:adolescent -assertiveness – self esteem- academic achievement

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Effect of Educational Program on Improving Quality Of Life of Diabetic Children and Adolescents

 

Faten Shafik Mahmoud, Mirret Mohammed Darouish, Mohammed Hesham El - Hefnawy, Samah Moustafa Mohammed Ali Khalaf

 

1 Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Benha University,

2 Professor of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University,

3 Professor of Pediatric, National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology Cairo

4 Assistant Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Benha University,

drfaten_shafik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic non curable diseases affect children and adolescents. So, it requires sustained and coordinated educational support for those young patients to live peacefully and happily with it. Implementing educational programs for those children and adolescents is crucial for maintaining their life and improving their quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to illustrate the effect of an educational program on the quality of life of diabetic children and adolescents, through identifying children and adolescents' knowledge and practice regarding care of them, design, implement and evaluate the constructed educational program according to children and adolescents' deficit. A quasi experimental (intervention) study with a sample of 100 males and females diabetic children and adolescents, with age ranged from 10-18 years. The study was conducted at the outpatient pediatric and diabetes clinics of school health insurance hospital at Benha City. The tools of data collection were 1) Interviewing questionnaire was constructed by the researcher, to assess their knowledge about diabetes, and quality of life 2) Observational checklist to assess their care of themselves. The results revealed that, there was statistical significance differences immediately post /3 months after implementation of the educational program compared with pre program implementation in knowledge self care practice. There were highly statistical significant differences in quality of life domains 3 months after the program compared with pre program. There were a highly statistical significance correlation between total knowledge and total practice, total quality of life and total knowledge and total practice, total quality of life and glycemic control before and 3 months after the program. It was concluded from the study that, there were an improvement in knowledge, practice and quality of life of the study subjects after implementation of the program. The study recommended conducting educational programs for medical, nursing staff, socialists, pharmacist, parents, school teachers, school doctor and school health nurse about various aspects of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents about their care, and importance of enhancing their QOL.

[Faten Shafik Mahmoud, Mirret Mohammed Darouish, Mohammed Hesham El - Hefnawy, Samah Moustafa Mohammed Ali Khalaf. Effect of Educational Program on Improving Quality Of Life of Diabetic Children and Adolescents. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):270-282]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.39

 

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, children and adolescents, quality of life.

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Effect of Clinical Pathway Regarding Promoting Quality Nursing Care of Children with Meningitis Exposed to Invasive Procedures

 

Faten Shafik Mahmoud and Basma rabie Abd-ElSadik

 

1 Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Benha University

 2 Lecturer of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Benha University

drfaten_shafik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is an uncommon but potentially fatal neurologic emergency that requires prompt recognition, diagnostic evaluation, and initiation of parenteral antibiotics. Meningitis results from inflammation of the pia-arachnoid meninges as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Thus, patients with meningitis often present with signs of meningeal irritation Overturf, (2005). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of clinical pathway regarding promoting quality nursing care of children with meningitis exposed to invasive procedures through designing, implementing, and evaluating the effect of clinical pathway intervention. A quasi experimental (intervention) study design was utilized to achieve the aim of this study. With a sample of 42 nurses, regardless of their educational level, years of experience, and attainment of training courses. The study was conducted at Benha Fever Hospital and Tookh Fever Hospital in meningitis units. The tools of data collection were 1) Interviewing questionnaire was constructed by the researcher, to assess their knowledge about invasive procedures and meningitis 2) Observational checklist to evaluate quality of nursing care during invasive procedures by using a clinical pathway, 3) Behavioral Pain Assessment Scales for Young Children FLACC Scale to assess level and intensity of pain before, during and after invasive procedures, 4) Observational child assessments sheet It was designed to observe children's level of anxiety during and after invasive procedures.. The results revealed that, there was that the total means score of nurses' performance regarding invasive procedure pre and post clinical pathway guidelines implementation, had a highly significant difference, and there was no significant correlation between total knowledge and total performance pre the clinical pathway guidelines implementation. While post implementation there was a significant correlation between total knowledge and total performance. It was concluded from the study that, implementation of the nursing clinical pathway can improve quality of nursing care of children with meningitis undergoing invasive procedure through improving their knowledge, enhancing their performance regarding invasive procedures, reduces the child's level of anxiety. The study recommended that clinical pathway approach of care can be generalized for utilization by health team members in the different health agencies.

 [Faten Shafik Mahmoud and Basma rabie Abd-ElSadik. Effect of Clinical Pathway Regarding Promoting Quality Nursing Care of Children with Meningitis Exposed to Invasive Procedures. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):383-393]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.40

 

Keywords: Meningitis, invasive procedures, Clinical pathways.

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The Study of Irrevocability Rule in Contracts and Transactions

 

Mostafa Maleki

 

Faculty of Theology, Payam Nour University of Ilam, Iran.

Haj.mostafa.maleki@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Among the jurisprudential rules which exists and is the subject of argument in transaction chapters, i.e. all bilateral contracts like buying, selling, marriage, Mozarea (a contract for agricultural purposes whereby one party provides the land for another to cultivate for a fixed share of a produce), and etc., there is a rule called irrevocability, at the time when there is doubt in their being irrevocable or revocable. It means that whenever we are in doubt about the irrevocability or revocability of a contract and have no specific reason for each, we perform irrevocability rule in the contract and say that the contract is irrevocable. In contract chapters, either in transactions and exchanges or treaties, the primary rule is irrevocability. This revocability may be on one side or both sides. The result of the rule is that if we are in doubt on the contract or transaction’s irrevocability or revocability, the first rule will be its irrevocability unless a certain reason indicates its revocability.

[Mostafa Maleki. The Study of Irrevocability Rule in Contracts and Transactions. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):394-401]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.41

 

Key words: contracts, contract, principle, irrevocability

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Exergy Analysis of a Steam Power Plant

 

Mohammad Yousef Irandegani1, Prof. Amer2

 

Department of Mechanical Maintenance, Iranshahr Steam Power Plant, Iran, PB 351-99135

Maaz1528@yahoo.com1, Amer@fkm.utm.my2

 

Abstract: An energy and exergy analysis as well as the effect of varying the reference environment temperature on the exergy analysis of an actual steam power plant has been carried out. Simulation methodology of power generation cycle has been employed to perform analysis of case study. The results show, the maximum energy lost in the condenser where 129 MW, while the maximum value of the exergy destruction was found in the boiler system 115 MW. In addition, the calculated thermal efficiency based on the lower heating value of fuel was 27% while the exergy efficiency of the power cycle was found 25%. Consequently, the boiler is the major source of irriversibilities in the system, even though, the percent exergy destruction and the exergy efficiency of each component in the system changed with reference environment temperature.

[Mohammad Yousef Irandegani, Amer. Analysis Exergy Analysis of a Steam Power Plant. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):402-408]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.42

 

Key words: Exergy, Energy, Rankin cycle

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Mixed Cured Model Applied to malnutrition variation data of less than 1 year old children

 

Hamid Reza Ghafarian Shirazi1,5, Kazem Mohamad 2, Mahmoud Mahmoudi2, Kurosh Djafarian3, Abas Rahimi Froushani4*, Ali Keshtkar 1

 

1Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, I.R. Iran.

2Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

3Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

4*Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

5PhD Student, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran, University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

*Corresponding Author: rahimifo@tums.ac.ir

 

Background and purpose: Underweight and malnutrition at birth and the first year of lifetime will have lasting effects on reduction of physical and mental growth, and attenuation of the immune system throughout lifetime. Factors that lead to the incidence or improvement the malnutrition in children during the first year of lifetime include the low birth weight, rank of birth, maternal and child diseases, household economic situation and such that. But this is so important to know which factor and when it will has a greater effect on the incidence and improvement malnutrition in child. The purpose of this study was to examine effective factors, amount and timing of their effect in incidence or improvement malnutrition during first year of life. Materials and Methods: In this study, the health information of 1463 children that were born in the first half of 1390, resident in the rural areas of Boyer Ahmad city were collected in a form which was prepared for this purpose by continuing following up from the birth to the end of one year old. This information includes weight, height, and head circumstance in monthly intervals throughout and also maternal age, rank of baby and child nutrition, maternal and child diseases. Malnutrition was defined as weight-for-age with -1SD<Z standard. Changes of weight-for- normal or malnutrition status were examined and recorded in monthly intervals. In case of appearing malnutrition, child was monitoring especially and her/ his malnutrition changes were recording daily. In this study, 1463 children from birth to one year old, which are about fifty percent of overall people that were born in desired area, were examined. The WHO Anthro software was used to determine the malnourished children and also SPSS21 statistical software for overall data analysis and R programing language and its computational package related to the Semiparametic Mixed Cured model (SMCURED) was used for data analysis. Given that the new cases of changes from malnutrition state to healthy state or inverse was very low compared to the total population, calculating of standard deviation was not possible in monthly intervals. Thus, these intervals divided into intervals of "from birth to 3 months of age", "from 3 to 6 months of age" and also "from 6 to 12 months of age". Model was used during each interval once for shift from healthy state at the beginning of the time interval to health until end of the time interval as cured against the health to malnutrition as uncured and once for shift from malnutrition state to malnutrition or healthy until end of interval, and effect coefficients of independent variables was estimated in each stage. Results: From 1463 children were followed up, 247 cases (16.9%) were suffered malnutrition during the first year of their lifetime that for 109 cases (7.5%), it was occurred in the first month of life. Among the effective factors on the incidence or improvement malnutrition, low birth weight, child disease, maternal disease, maternal age more than 35 or less than 18 years, number of previous parturition of mother, twin babies, and infant sex have had a significant effect. Amount of effect of each variable on the incidence or improvement malnutrition in children in each time interval was estimated and reported. Conclusion: The most important factor affecting on the incidence malnutrition have been child disease, maternal disease, low birth weight and then factors: maternal age, twin babies, the number of previous parturition of mother and infant sex. These findings correspond to similar studies and it is necessary to consider. It should make culture about the number of low parturitions and pregnancy at ages of 18 to 35 years and identical attention to boy and girl. Using the mixed cured model, chance ratio of independent variables on the incidence or improvement malnutrition or invariance of status in each time interval is estimated as independent. One of the problems of this model is that it needs to enough non-cured occurrences to estimate the standard deviation of coefficients of independent variables based on these occurrences.

[Hamid Reza Ghafarian Shirazi, Kazem Mohamad, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Kurosh Djafarian, Abas Rahimi Froushani, Ali Keshtkar. Mixed Cured Model Applied to malnutrition variation data of less than 1 year old children. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):409-415]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.43

 

Keywords: malnutrition, child, Survival Analysis, Two-compartment Markov Regression

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Analysis of Malnutrition Changes in Children from Birth to One Year Old using Two-Compartment Markov Regression Model.

 

Hamid Reza Ghafarian Shirazi1, 5, Kazem Mohamad2, Mahmoud Mahmoudi2, Kurosh Djafarian3, Abas Rahimi Froushani4*, Ali Keshtkar 1

 

1Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, I.R. Iran.

2Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

3Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

4*Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

5PhD Student, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran, University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

*Corresponding Author: rahimifo@tums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Underweight and malnutrition in the first year of lifetime will have lasting effects on physical and mental growth, reduction of creativity and attenuation of the immune system throughout lifetime. Thus, knowledge of factors that lead to the incidence or improvement of malnutrition in children during the first year of life is so important. The purpose of this study was to examine effective factors, amount and timing of their effect in incidence or improve malnutrition during the first year of life. Materials and Methods: In this study, the information is chosen by continuing following up the children in rural areas of Boyer Ahmad city, born in the first half of 1390, resident in the rural areas of Boyer Ahmad city and information related to their health until one year old were collected in a form which was prepared for this purpose. In this study, having a weight-for-age with -1SD<Z standard is considered as malnutrition. In this study, 1463 children from birth to one year old, which are about fifty percent of overall people that were born in desired area, were examined. The WHO Anthro software was used to determine the malnourished children and SPSS21 statistical software for overall data analysis and R statistical software for the calculations related to two-compartment regression model analysis and computational logic of O'Braian (1980) for data analysis were used. Results: From the 1463 children who were examined in this study, 247 children (16.9%) were malnourished during the first year of their lifetime which in 109 cases (7.5%), malnutrition was occurred in the first month of lifetime. Among the effective factors on malnutrition, maternal age more than 35 years or less than 18 years, low birth weight, numbers of previous maternal parturitions, twin babies, infant sex, maternal and child illnesses have significant effects on the incidence or improvement of malnutrition. Also, the most significant changes in the incidence or improvement of malnutrition have occurred in the intervals of 0-1 months old, 1-2 months old, 4-5 month old and 9-12 month old. Conclusion: The most important factors affecting the incidence of malnutrition are child disease, maternal disease, low birth weight and then: maternal age, twin babies, number of maternal parturitions and infant sex. These findings correspond to similar studies and it is necessary to consider above cases, and to training about low parturition and same attention to girl and boy. Using the two-compartment regression model, odds ratio of effect of independent variables on the incidence or improvement of malnutrition as well as odds ratio of effect of any interval on these changes were estimated.

[Hamid Reza Ghafarian Shirazi,Kazem Mohamad, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Kurosh Djafarian, Abas Rahimi Froushani, Ali Keshtkar. Analysis of Malnutrition Changes in Children from Birth to One Year Old using Two-Compartment Markov Regression Model. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):416-421]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44.

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.44

 

Keywords: Malnutrition, Children, Survival Analysis, Two-compartment Markov Regression

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Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Of Different Composite Resin MOD Inlays

 

Dr. Lamis Ahmed Hussein

 

Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University, Qassim, KSA

dr.lamis.hussein@qudent.org

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of different types of composite resin materials in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavity. An anatomical model of first permanent molar was digitized by a 3-D scanner. The 3-D model was separated into different layers simulating tooth structure components. In addition, MOD cavity was created to receive the different studied restorative materials. Nanofilled, nanohybrid, hybrid and microhybrid composites were selected to simulate the restorative materials bonded to the tooth structures with the adhesive resin cement. A load of 200 N was applied perpendicularly on the occlusal surface of the tooth accompanied with fixed support restrain on its periodontal ligament. Von Mises stresses, maximum principle stresses and total deformation of the restorative materials, enamel, and dentin were evaluated separately. Results showed that in case of materials with low elastic moduli, more stress was transferred to the tooth structures. Therefore, within the limitation of the present study less stresses were transferred to the tooth structures when hybrid and nanohybrid composites were selected.

[Hussein LA. 3-D Finite Element Analysis Of Different Composite Resin MOD Inlays. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):422-428]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.45

 

Keywords: Restorative materials, Nanofilled composite, hybrid composite, finite element, stress analysis.

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High brain natriuretic peptide and its related diastolic dysfunction respond to anti-thyroid drugs in patients with overt hyperthyroidism.

 

Hussain A. Yamany JBIM1, Abdulkader R. Allam SBIM 1, Inass M. Taha JBIM 1, Intessar E. Sultan MD, MRCP 1, and Ahmed M Mohamadin MD 2.

 

1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Madina, Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Madina, Saudi Arabia.

heshamnet2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is influenced by hyperthyroidism. The objective of this study was to study the relation between the BNP levels and echocardiographic parameters in hyperthyroid patients and the effect of anti-thyroid therapy. Methods: this is a cohort study, that recruited a 100 drug-na´ve patients with overt hyperthyroidism attending King Fahd Hospital in Madina during the period from October 2008 to December 2010. None of the patients showed clinical or echo-cardiographic evidence of heart failure. Plasma BNP levels and trans-thoracic echocardiography were assessed initially and then six weeks after anti-thyroid drugs. Results: basal BNP level was elevated (49.57 ▒ 5.03 pg/mL), with a significant drop (38.56 ▒ 5.19 pg/mL, p = 0.000) after anti thyroid therapy. The difference in BNP level correlated positively with the differences in both the clinical score (r = 0.729, p = 0.000) and the biochemical thyroid function (FT4: r = 0.312, p = 0.004; and FT3: r = 0.536, p = 0.00). It also correlated positively with the differences in the diameter of the left atrium (r = 0.366, p = 0.006); negatively with the difference in fractional shortening (r = –0.381, p = 0.004), and early diastolic velocity (r = –0.371, p = 0.016). Conclusion: results demonstrate that BNP increases mildly in patients with overt hyperthyroidism and it is associated with subclinical diastolic dysfunction. Both serum thyroid hormones and cardiovascular dysfunction could contribute to the increase in BNP levels. High BNP and diastolic dysfunction responded to 6 weeks of anti-thyroid therapy.

[Hussain A. Yamany JBIM, Abdulkader R. Allam SBIM, Inass M. Taha JBIM, Intessar E. Sultan MD, MRCP, and Ahmed M Mohamadin. High brain natriuretic peptide and its related diastolic dysfunction respond to anti-thyroid drugs in patients with overt hyperthyroidism. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):429-436]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.46

 

Keywords: Hyperthyroidism, Brain natriuretic peptide, Echocardiography, anti-thyroid therapy.

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Morphology and Morphometric studies of Four Scorpions species from Egyptian Deserts

 

Tarek G. Ali

 

Zoology Dept. Faculty of Science - Ain Shams University

tarekali80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : The pervious key of scorpions in Egypt was based on the shape of sternum, colour pro-and retro-lateral pedal spurs on legs and presence of spur below sting or not, the new additions in this paper based on shape of pedipalp, pecten and the shape of the fourth, fiveth segment and sting in four species of scorpions in Egypt. Also on Morphometric data of the four species of Egyptian desert were studied. The four investigated scorpions were: Androctonus australis, Androctonus bicolor, leiurus quinquestriatus and Scorpio maurus.

[Tarek G. Ali. Morphology and Morphometric studies of Four Scorpions species from Egyptian Deserts. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):437-443]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.47

 

Keywords: scorpions, Egypt, Androctonus, leiurus and Scorpio

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Optimal density determination of bouguer anomaly using fractal analysis

(Case of study: Charak area, IRAN)

 

Hamid Reza Samadi, Mehdi Rezaei

 

Ardestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardestan, Iran

H_samadi379@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In exploration geophysics the main and initial aim is to determine density of under-research goals which have certain density difference with the host rock. Therefore, we state a method in this paper to determine the density of bouguer plate, the so-called variogram method based on fractal geometry. This method is based on minimizing surface roughness of bouguer anomaly. The fractal dimension of surface has been used as surface roughness of bouguer anomaly. Using this method, the optimal density of Charak area insouth of Hormozgan province can be determined which is 2/7 g/c QUOTE   for the under-research area. This determined density has been used to correct and investigate its results about the isostasy of the studied area and results well-coincided with the geology of the area and dug exploratory holes in the text area.

[Samadi H, Rezaei M. Optimal density determination of bouguer anomaly using fractal analysis. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):444-446]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.48

 

Keywords: Fractal dimension, topography, bouguer anomaly, optimal density, hormozgan

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Effect of Probiotic Bifidobacterium Bifidum PTCC1644 on Lipid Profile in Rat

 

Mohammad Mahdi Norouzi1, Mohammad Reza Fazaeli2 (Corresponding author), Mohammad Abdollahi3, Mojgan Oshaghi4, Nasrin Samadi2, Hossein Jamalifar2

 

1- Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2- Department of Drug and Food Control, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3- Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4- Department of Medical Bacteriology, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

mofazeli@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The preventive effects of probiotics on hyperlipidemia have been reported in recent studies. Bifido bacteria as type of lactic acid bacteria, among probiotics, are one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut. The present aims to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC1644 on lipid profile in rat serum. Methods: The sample of eighteen male rat of Wistare race were assigned into three groups as follows: SD group, fed standard diet; FSD group, fed fat diet; FSD-LAB group, fed fat diet supplemented with LAB (Bifidobacterium strain). At the first (8 week) and end (17 week) of study, lipid serum levels (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG) were measured. Results: B. bifidum PTCC1644 decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol and triglycerides; it also increased HDL- cholesterol slightly in FSD-LAB than FSD groups. Conclusion: the results showed that daily consumption of Bifidobacterium strain used in this study can be effective in managing serum lipid profile and coronary heart disease.

[Mohammad Mahdi Norouzi, Mohammad Reza Fazaeli, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mojgan Oshaghi, Nasrin Samadi, Hossein Jamalifar. Effect of Probiotic Bifidobacterium Bifidum PTCC1644 on Lipid Profile in Rat. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):447-451]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.49

 

Keywords: Probiotic Bifidobacterium, Bifidum PTCC1644, Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)

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Double-Layer Dartos Flap for Neourethral Coverage in Tubularized Incised Palate Hypospadias Repair

 

Abul-fotouh Abdel-Maguid Ahmed 1,2, Kamal Mustafa Al-Qadi 3 and Mohamed Abdel-MaguidMehrez3

 

1Department of Urology; Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University; Cairo; Egypt

2Department of Urology; Faculty of Medicine, Salman Bin Abdul-Aziz University; Al-kharj; KSA

3 Department of Pediatric Surgery; King Khalid Hospital; Al-kharj; KSA

abulfotouhahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective:To present our experience with double-layer dartos flap for neourethral coverage during tubularized incised plate urethroplastyin mid-shaft and distal penile hypospadias repair. Materials and methods: Between April 2008 and March 2012, 79 patients aged between 7 months and 11 years (mean 3.1 years) were enrolled for hyposadias repair. The position of the meatus was distal penile in 61 (77.2%) and mid-penile in 18 (22.8%). All patients underwent standard tabularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass), which was followed by covering of the entire neourethra with an overlapping double-layer dorsal dartos flap before glans closure. Patients were followed for at least 6 months (mean 1.3 year) to determine complications and cosmosis after surgery. Results: The mean operative time was 67.5 minutes. Repair breakdown was encountered in 1 (1.3%), urethrocutaneous fistula in 1 (1.3%), meatal stenosis in 6 (7.6%) and mild penile torsion in 3 (3.8%). The urethral fistula was small and healed spontaneously. Meatal stenosis was severe in 1 patient and needed dorsal slit meatoplasty while in the other 5 the stenosis was mild and successfully managed by frequent urethral dilatation.All patients except the one with repair breakdown had acceptable cosmetic outcome. Conclusion: The results indicate that using double-layer dartos flap for neourethral coverage during tubularized incised plateurethroplasty is associated with low complication rate and provides satisfactory cosmotic results.

 [Abul-fotouh Abdel-Maguid Ahmed Kamal Mustafa Al-Qadi and Mohamed Abdel-Maguid Mehrez. Double-Layer Dartos Flap for Neourethral Coverage in Tubularized Incised Palate Hypospadias Repair. J Am Sci 2013;9(8):452-456]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas090813.50

 

Key words: Hypospadias; TIP urethroplasty; Double-layer; Dartosfalp.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 14, 2013. 
 
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