Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Special Issue 9 (Supplement Issue 9), September 25, 2013

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0909s

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

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1

Militancy And State-Dialogue On Insecurity In Africa: The Case Of Nigeria’s Boko Haram

 

Sheriff Ghali Ibrahim, Mohammad Wader And Abdullahi Liman

 

Department Of Political Science And International Relations, University Of Abuja, Abuja-Nigeria

 

Abstract: The unprecedented emergence of violence and insecurity in Nigeria is a replication of the occurrences in the Middle East and what is glaringly obtainable in Pakistan, Afghanistan and other places in the world. The paper captures the concept of militancy and how it relates to the government of a state in maintaining security and protection of the civilians and their properties. The paper analyzes some of the fundamental ways through which militancy may emanate and how the state can halt or foil the militant activities. It tries to choose among all possible approaches of arresting violence using the best alternative method in the state. The paper is a result of critical-descriptive research which adopts content instrument of analysis for scientific submissions. The paper discovers that militancy is not the creation of the militants per se, but the creation of conglomerated forces that result in the militancy. The paper however, concludes that the Boko Haram uprising has not been properly addressed by the Nigerian government and only the wrong way has been taken, which is the refusal to hold discussions with members of the sect, due to some intervening variables. The paper also recommends proper dialogue with the Boko Haram members, amnesty and rehabilitation be considered.

[Sheriff Ghali Ibrahim, Mohammad Wader And Abdullahi Liman. Militancy And State-Dialogue On Insecurity In Africa: The Case Of Nigeria’s Boko Haram. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.01

 

Key words: Militancy; State; Insecurity; Dialogue; Book-Haram; Amnesty

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Demand For Clean Energies Efficient Development In Building Technologies

 

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

 

Energy Research Institute (ERI), Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU, UK

 

Abstract: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2011 and July 2011. An approach is needed to integrate renewable energies in a way to meet high building performance. However, because renewable energy sources are stochastic and geographically diffuse, their ability to match demand is determined by adoption of one of the following two approaches: the utilisation of a capture area greater than that occupied by the community to be supplied, or the reduction of the community’s energy demands to a level commensurate with the locally available renewable resources. The adoption of green or sustainable approaches to the way in which society is run is seen as an important strategy in finding a solution to the energy problem. The key factors to reducing and controlling CO2, which is the major contributor to global warming, are the use of alternative approaches to energy generation and the exploration of how these alternatives are used today and may be used in the future as green energy sources. This study highlights the energy problem and the possible saving that can be achieved through the use of renewable energy technologies. Also, this study clarifies the background of the study, highlights the potential energy saving that could be achieved through use of renewable energy technologies and describes the objectives, approach and scope of the study. The move towards a de-carbonised world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. We present and focus a comprehensive review of energy sources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore these energy sources. We conclude that using renewable energy technologies, efficient energy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate changes. [Abdeen Mustafa Omer. Demand For Clean Energies Efficient Development In Building Technologies. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):10-22 ]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.02

 

Keywords: Clean Energy; Efficient; Development; Building; Technology

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Effect of Organic Loading Rate on the Performance of Ultrasonic-Assisted Membrane Anaerobic System (UAMAS) in Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

 

N.H. Abdurahmana; N.H. Azharib

 

a,Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering

bFaculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, University Malaysia Pahang-UMP

Fax: 60-95492889; email: nour2000_99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance of ultrasonic-assisted membrane anaerobic system (UAMAS) in treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), based on the following indicators: (i) methane gas contents; (ii) chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency; and (iii) effluent variability (phenol, suspended solids, volatile fatty acids, and pH stability). Six steady states were attained as a part of a kinetic study that considered concentration ranges of 15,830 to 21,600 mg/l for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and 9,450 to 18,200 mg/l for mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). Kinetic equations from Monod, Contois and Chen & Hashimoto were employed to describe the kinetics of POME treatment at organic loading rates ranging from 0.5 to 15 kg COD/m3/d. The removal efficiency of COD was from 93 to 98.7 % with hydraulic retention time, HRT of 4 days. The growth yield coefficient, Y was found to be 0.59 g VSS/g COD the specific microorganism decay rate was 0.26 d-1 and the methane gas yield production rate was between 0.264 l/g COD/d and 0.47 l/g COD/d.

[N.H. Abdurahman; N.H. Azhari. Effect of Organic Loading Rate on the Performance of Ultrasonic-Assisted Membrane Anaerobic System (UAMAS) in Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):23-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.03

 

Keywords: POME, UAMAS, COD reduction, organic loading rate, kinetics

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Cooperative Blasting of Explosive Initiating Black Powder

 

X.H. Xie & G. Tang J. Xie

 

School of Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, 232001, China

Shanghai Branch, Xinhua News Agency, Shanghai, China

 

ABSTRACT: In the experiment, sulfur-free black powder used to replace the traditional black powder, and the preparation of the performance of sulfur-free black powder was tested to ensure that the sulfur-free black powder explosive performance and storage use in the process of security, but also reduce environmental pollution. In order to reduce the production cost, reduce labor intensity and improve the quality of precious stone blocks, Design of a new charging structure applied to directional fracture controlled blasting. Using slotted stress concentration, through cement mortar test block to simulate the synergistic Explosive blasting stone cutting in the blasting effect. Experimental results show that the design of Explosives common charge structure is reasonable and cooperative Explosives blasting method is feasible. Finally, through the process of analysis of the role of the combined effects of blast and explosion of gas theory, apply that collaborative Explosive Energy Explosive blasting can be made more rational use, to reduce the cost of stone mining ,improve the mining cycle, and improve the quality of the role of blocks.

[X.H. Xie & G. Tang and J. Xie. Cooperative Blasting of Explosive Initiating Black Powder. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s): 32-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.04

 

Keywords: Fast blasting; Explosive structure; Black powder

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[J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):36-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

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[J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):44-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

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An Economic Analysis of the Rural-Urban Migration in China

 

Zhijun LIIU 1 and Bing PENG 2

 

1- Zhijun LIU, Associate Professor of the Dept. of Sociology at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Email: liuzhijun@zju.edu.cn

2- Corresponding Author: Bing PENG, Associate Professor of Lishui University, Lishui, China. Email: 42214033@qq.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to do an elementary economic probe into the rural-urban migration in China with respect to China’s particular realities. After introducing the Harris-Todaro Model, the Minquan LIU Model and doing some extended discussions. The author analyzed the insurance role of the rural sector under the uncertainty of employment in the modern sector and did some comparative statics analysis by examining the influences of several “push” forces from the rural sector and “pull” forces from the urban sector, etc. on rural-urban migration decision-making.

[Zhijun LIIU and Bing PENG. An Economic Analysis of the Rural-Urban Migration in China. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):56-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.07

 

Keywords: Economic; Analysis; Rural-Urban; Migration; China

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Principles of Expropriation in Verdicts issued by Iran–United States Claims Tribunal

 

Mostafa Taghizadeh Ansari1, Mina Nayeri 2

 

1. PhD in International Law, Faculty Member, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Master of International Law, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Nowadays claims arising from foreigners' expropriation constitute a major part of actions raised in the international courts which has created a valuable judicial precedent. Expropriation is the legitimate right of governments who have tried to reduce foreigners' penetration into different economic, social, and political arenas by legislation of various rules; nationalization, dispossession, and confiscation of properties are among its examples. Expropriation occurs when it is align with public interest and is not discriminatory, and governments are bound to pay compensation; yet foundation of governments' responsibility varies in terms of legal description of expropriation. If expropriation is legitimate, this responsibility is justified based on two theories namely "unjustified enrichment" and " vested right", and the related government is merely bound to pay a compensation equal to the value of the expropriated properties (actual damages). But in illegitimate expropriation, as it is regarded an illegal act, the government is liable to compensate for the losses caused by its illegal act. Finally, there is no significant difference in international votes and judicial precedents between expropriated movable and immovable properties. This paper investigates principles governing expropriation in the verdicts issued by Iran–United States Claims Tribunal.

[Mostafa Taghizadeh Ansari, Mina Nayeri. Principles of Expropriation in Verdicts issued by Iran–United States Claims Tribunal. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):64-70]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.08

 

Keywords: expropriation, legitimate right, Iran–United States Claims Tribunal

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The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber in darrehshahr city

 

Ali Moghadam1, Mohamadreza Hassandokht2, Vahid abdose3, Masoomeh Amoozadeh 4

 

1Department of Agriculture , Payame Noor University. IR. Of IRAN

2Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad Tehran University. IR. Of IRAN

3Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad Tehran University. IR. Of IRAN

4Department of Geography, Payame Noor University. IR. Of IRAN

 

Abstract: The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber (Super Daminus and Maxim) in Darrehshahr city in complete accidental blocks design with four kinds (including direct seed cultivation, seedling in two foliar steps, seedling in three foliar step, and seedling in four foliar step) in three duplication (frequencies). The obtained results revealed that the accessory stock attributes, bushy length, fruit weight, precocious operation, the first fruit formation date, total function, fruits number, the first grade fruits percent, the second-rate fruit percent, one percent level and leaf width features, the main stock thickness, the accessory stock thickness, fruit thickness, the first flower formation date, leaf numbers, and the bushy wet weight were meaningful in 5 percent level. As well, the comparison of seedling age average and brand showed that the trifoliate seedling of Superdaminus from precocious function (606/26 gram in bushy) and the total function (2813/749 gram in bushy) views was better than other kinds. Meanwhile, the average direct seed cultivation of Superdaminus from precocious function (334/12 gram in bushy and the four foliate seedling of Maxim with the total function of 1504/36 gram in bushy are smaller in comparison to other experimented kinds. The results clarified that seedling use in comparison to direct seed cultivation from precocious and total function. Aspects were excessively better and are recommended to be used in Darrehshahr aired for cucumber cultivation.

[Ali Moghadam, Mohamadreza Hassandokht, Vahid abdose, Masoomeh Amoozadeh. The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber in darrehshahr city. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):71-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.09

 

Key words: cucumber, Seed, seedling, quantity and quality of the two kinds, atmospheric and barrowing method

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Investigation of Effective Factors on Organizational commitment

Case Study: Education Staff

 

Najim najimi 1, Mohammad Hossein Alishiri 2, Hossein Rostami3 Mahbobeh Heydari4

 

1. Department of Sociology, Payam Noor University of Fars province, IRAN

2. Department of Accounting, Payam Noor University of Fars province, IRAN

3. Department of Teachers Education, Farhangian University Rajaee Teacher Training University of Shiraz, IRAN

4.Math Expert, Four Area of Shiraz Education, IRAN.

Hrostami111@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the factors affecting the organizational commitment of employees is education in Shiraz. This research is a survey study and the data were collected by questionnaires from a sample of 374 personnel of the four-districts of Shiraz education system. Parson’s act theory was used in a four-subsystem level to explain the organizational commitment. Results show that there were no significant relation between independent variables of age and service background and dependent variable of organizational commitment, but there are significant relations between independent variables of organizational justice, fiscal satisfaction, mental satisfaction and organization management capacities and dependent variable of organizational commitment. The results of some variables analysis show that job satisfaction from mental aspect organizational justice fiscal satisfaction and management capacities are the variables which had the most effect and were imported in Regression equation in an organizational commitment context. They could also explain more than half of the changes independent variable. Considering that half of the variance independent variable (organizational commitment) is explained by this pattern, it seems that the theoretical model which is derived from Parson’s theory could be a suitable model for organizational commitment evaluation.

[Najimi, N, Alishiri, M.H, Rostami, H. Investigation of Effective Factors on Organizational commitment Case Study: Education Staff. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):75-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.10

 

Keywords: organizational commitment, education. Staff

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CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Count in Colonic mucosa of patients with IBD and IBS

 

Ali Ghavidel1, Mohammad Hossein Somi1, Zeinal Abedin Ebrahimzadeh1, Monire Halimi2, Ali Tabrizi3

 

1- Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza hospital, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

2-Department of Pathology, Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran

3- Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

*_Corresponding author: Ali Ghavidel (Ali.ghavidel3@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are of bowel immune-mediated disorders. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multi-factorial functional disease. The aim of study was evaluating of T cells infiltration and counting of two important phenotypes (CD4+,CD8+) between IBS and IBD )Inflammatory Bowel Disease)subtype of Ulcerative colitis patients. Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 83 patients including 35 patients with ulcerative colitis and 48 patients with IBS were compared with 37 healthy volunteers. Tissue samples were obtained by colonic biopsy during colonoscopy and evaluated by histological and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques. Results: The study compared 37 healthy volunteers, 35 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 48 patients with IBS. Statistically, there was not any significant difference between these groups and they were matched considering age and gender. There was similarity between IBS patients and healthy volunteers considering CD4+ and CD8+ T cells count and their ratio. However, CD4+ T cells count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly higher in ulcerative colitis than healthy volunteers (p<0.001) while CD8+ count was lower in comparison with IBS patients and healthy volunteers (p<0.001). Conclusion: CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrations do not play an important role in mucosal immunity disorder of IBS patients. Further studies are required to evaluate others T cells phenotypes or immune mediators in future.

[Ghavidel A, Somi MH, Ebrahimzadeh Z, Halimi M, Tabrizi A. CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Count in Colonic mucosa of patients with IBD and IBS. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):79-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.11

 

Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Mucosal Immunity

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A Novel Flat Band Slow Light in Photonic Crystal Waveguide with Elliptical Air Holes

 

Vali Varmazyari 1, Hassan Ghafoorifard 1, 2 and Hamidreza Habibiyan 1

 

1 Photonics Engineering Group, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran

habibiyan@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper, a procedure for generating wideband and low dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) with elliptical air holes is presented. By optimization of major and minor radii of ellipse rods in the line defect waveguide, the maximum value of normalized delay-bandwidth product (NDBP) is obtained. The simulation results and numerical calculations are performed by plane wave expansion method. By adjusting the structural parameters, a slow light with nearly constant group index of 15.1 and a bandwidth over 26 nm is acquired for central wavelength of 1550 nm. For optimized structure, the maximum NDBP of 0.253 is achievable. Moreover, the buffer capability and signal transmission characters of the PCW, is discussed.

[Varmazyari V, Ghafoorifard H, Habibiyan H. A Novel Flat Band Slow Light in Photonic Crystal Waveguide with Elliptical Air Holes. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):84-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.12

 

Keywords: Slow light, Photonic crystal waveguide; Photonic integrated circuits; Delay lines

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Investigating the effectiveness of entrepreneurial skills training on the students' self-efficacy beliefs

 

Firouzeh Mazaheri Tehrani 1, Dr Abdollah Shafiabadi 2

 

1. MA in Counseling, Allame Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Counseling, Allame Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of entrepreneurship skills on Allameh Tabatabaei students' self efficacy skills. The applied tool in this research is the general self efficacy scale (GSE) which is developed by Sherer et al (1982). Its reliability is examined by the split half method and also its validity is reported by the construct validity. The research population included all Allameh Tabatabaei job-seeking students in Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences (2008-2009) and they accepted the invitation to attend the entrepreneurial skills training. Fist, all Psychology and Educational Sciences students were invited to participate in an entrepreneurship skill course. 42 students registered for the mentioned course and 34 ones were chosen randomly. Then, they were classified into two groups: experimental and control groups. After sampling, the members in two groups responded to the mentioned questionnaire. Then the control group was put in the waiting list and the experimental group attended in 2-hour 10 sessions of entrepreneurship skills training course. After performing the training program, a post-test was taken from all the members of both control and experimental groups, and the data was analyzed by the covariance analysis test. The result of research indicates that this training method has been effective in enhancing the students' general self efficacy beliefs.

[Firouzeh Mazaheri Tehrani, Abdollah Shafiabadi. Investigating the effectiveness of entrepreneurial skills training on the students' self-efficacy beliefs. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):90-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.13

 

Keywords: Entrepreneurship skills, self efficacy beliefs, job-seeking students

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Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness and Optic Disk Coherence Tomography in Patient with Open-Angle Glaucoma Secondary to Exfoliation Syndrome

 

Afshin Lotfi Sedig1, Reza Heidari2

 

1-Associated Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Nikocari Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

2- Resident of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Nikocari Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

*_Corresponding author: Reza Heidari (Rh1359@gmail.com)

 

Abstract: Purpose and Background: Pseudo exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is considered to be the most common identifiable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. Whereas the structural variation very soon display than functional variation, so this study designed to evaluate the correlation between structural variation in optic nerve and central cornel thickness (CCT) in patient with XFS and decide to quick diagnose and better elaborate treatment results. Methods and Material: 50 eye from 50 patient with definite exfoliation syndrome (XFS) evaluate under optic disc optical coherence tomography (OCT) and corneal Ultrasound pachymetry.Patıent dıvıded two subgroups: fırst group patıent wıth CCT>540 and secound groups wıth CCT540.Also 50 eye from 50normal groupapartıcıpıate ın thıs study wıth respect to ınclusıon and exclusion crıterıa. Results: Mean of CCT in XFS group was 504/54/6 μm and in control group was 526/32/8 μm compare the mean difference between two groups was statistically significant (P=0/032).However there was not any correlation between optic disc Stereo-metric OCT parameter and intraocular pressure with CCT in all parameter (P>0/05). Conclusion: Despite to thinner CCT in patient with XFS than to control group in this study، there was not any correlation between optic disc stereo-metric OCT parameter and intraocular pressure to CCT in XFS groups and divided subgroups according to CCT.

[Lotfi Sedig A, Heidari R. Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness and Optic Disk Coherence Tomography in Patient with Open-Angle Glaucoma Secondary to Exfoliation Syndrome. J Am Sci 2013;9(9s):97-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.14

 

Keywords: Pseudo Exfoliation Syndrome, Glaucoma, Optical Coherence Tomography, Ultrasound Pachymetry

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.01

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.02

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.03

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.04

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.07

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.08

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.09

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.10

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.11

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.12

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.13

doi:10.7537/marsjas0909s13.14

 

 

 

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