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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 70, December 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0912, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Comparison between Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as indicators of ulcerative colitis activity

 

Yasser M. Kamal1, Ali A. Ghweil2, Ashraf Khodeary3

 

1Internal Medicine Department – Faculty of Medicine- Sohag University- Sohag- Egypt

2Departments of Tropical Medicine and Gastroenterology- Faculty of Medicine-South Valley University- Egypt

3 Clinical Pathology Department – Faculty of Medicine- Sohag University- Sohag- Egypt

dr.yasserkamal@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background / aims: Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein are two acute – phase reactant proteins, although procalcitoin is a more specific marker for bacterial infections. Procalcitonin level might also be helpful to predict the disease activity of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as indicators of disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Methods: Patients admitted to the gastro-intestinal disease inpatient clinic with suspected inflammatory bowel disease who had not yet been treated with immunosuppressive treatments were included. Disease activity, white blood cell count, sedimentation rate, serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels were evaluated in 20 newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis. Twenty healthy volunteers were analyzed as a control group. Results: Ulcerative colitis patients had slightly higher procalcitonin levels and significantly higher C-reactive protein levels than controls (Procalcitonin: 0.107 ± 0.042 ng/ml; C-reactive protein: 23 ± 5.5 mg/dl). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that C-reactive protein is the best marker of disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients while procalcitonin has low sensitivity and specificity. Serum procalcitonin levels were highly correlated with serum C-reactive protein but no other disease activity parameters. Conclusions: Although still within normal ranges, procalcitonin levels were not elevated in ulcerative colitis patients compared to healthy controls. Serum C-reactive protein is a reliable marker for disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Procalcitonin has no diagnostic value in determining disease activity.

[Yasser M. Kamal, Ali A. Ghweil, Ashraf Khodeary. Comparison between Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as indicators of ulcerative colitis Activity. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.01

 

Keywords: Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, ulcerative colitis.

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Evaluating Yield and Quality of three Alfalfa Cultivars Using Laboratory and Saline Affected Soil

 

Abd El-Naby, Zeinab, M1., Amany M. Sallam2, Nabila, A. Mohamed1

 

1 Forage Crops Res. Dept., Field Crops Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

2 Seed Technology Dept., Field Crops Res. Inst. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

zeina_bree@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Salinity is a main limiting factor to grow alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Sahl El-Tina region (North Sinai) of Egypt. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the response of three alfalfa cultivars to salinity using field experiments and laboratory. The laboratory experiment include evaluation of seed germination under increasing levels of salt concentration (EC's = 8, 12 and 15 dSm-1)). Significant laboratory differences were found between cultivars. Seed content of proline % and potassium were increased with increasing levels of salinity. The forage production and quality were evaluated in the field experiment under saline soil conditions with significant differences between cultivar yields Canonical Correspondence. Siwa cultivar was more tolerant to salinity stress in North Sinai conditions.

[Abd El-Naby, Zeinab, M., Amany M. Salam, Nabila, A. Mohamed. Evaluating Yield and Quality of three Alfalfa Cultivars Using Laboratory and Saline Affected Soil. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):5-14]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.02

 

Key Words: Alfalfa, Salt, Salinity, Forage, Quality.

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Motivational Factors for Expatriates Teachers in Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Presentation

 

Raj Bahadur Sharma

 

 Department of Accounting, College of Business Administration

Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

rbsharmaji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Saudi Arabia is a member in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). It has the largest underground oil reservoir in the world. Hence, economic recession has never been a problem for Saudi Arabian economy. In fact, the budget of the Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia has increased significantly as the price of the oil increased in the last couple of years. There are a number of depressive factors for expatriates working in Saudi Arabia such as strict enforcement of the laws, dust storms, high degree of temperature during summers, conservatism, death punishment, labor exploitation etc. Even then, more than 5 million foreign workers are employed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The largest percentage of expatriates is in educational industry of Saudi Arabia. The present study examines the factors motivating and encouraging the foreign teachers to work in Saudi Arabia. It has been concluded that visit of holy mosques (Muslim pilgrimage), along with a number of personal gains such as overseas job opportunities, tax free salary and perquisites, infrastructure, low living cost, peace, health care facilities etc are the main motivational factors for expatriates to work in Saudi Arabia.

[Raj Bahadur Sharma. Motivational Factors for Expatriates Teachers in Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Presentation. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):15-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.03

 

Keywords: Motivation, Expatriates

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Effect of Elemental Sulphur on Solubility of Soil Nutrients and Soil Heavy Metals and Their Uptake by Maize Plants

 

Safaa, M. Mahmoud; Khaled, S.M. and Hanan, S. Siam

 

National Research Centre, Plant Nutrition Department, Cairo, Egypt

safaaayman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pot experiment in green house at national research center was conducted on loamy sand soil (polluted soil by industry wastes) to study the influence of elemental sulphur on solubility of soil Cd, Ni, pb and Cu, Zn, Mn, and their uptake by maize plant. Three rates of elemental sulphur applied (100, 200 and 300 kg/ha). The result showed that with S application at 300Kg/ha, soil pH decreased about 0.7 unit compared with control, extractable sulfate concentration increased with increase S application and the all parameters of plants and the concentration of chlorophyll were increased with increasing rates of suphur application, The concentration of N, P and K in maize plant was increased with sulphur application. The solubility of the Fe, and Cd was significantly increased in all treatments with S application, however, the solubility of pb and Ni increased little by the treatment with S. soil extractable copper and Zinc concentration remained at a stable level or little change with all treatment of sulphur. Mn, Pb and Cd content in the plant markedly increased with increased rates of sulphur application; on the other hand, Nikel concentration had adverse effects with sulphur application. Application of elemental sulphur can enhance uptake of Zn by Maize plant. Removal of pb and Cd did not significance increase with application of S. because Maize plant was sensitive to the toxicity of pb/Cd.

[Safaa, M. mahmoud and Khaled, S.M. and Hanan, S. Siam. Effect of Elemental Sulphur on Solubility of Soil Nutrients and Soil Heavy Metals and Their Uptake by Maize Plants. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):19-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.04

 

Keyword: heavy metal – polluted soil - elemental sulphur – Maize plant – chlorophyll.

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5

Junior Undergraduates Nurse Students' Images of Nursing as a Career Choice

 

Lobna Khamis Mohamed1 and Karima Ahmed El-Sayed2

 

1Nursing Administration Dept., Faculty of Nursing / Tanta University, Egypt, & Nursing Education Dept., College of Applied Medical Science / Dammam University, KSA,

2Nursing Administration Dept., Faculty of Nursing / Tanta University, Egypt

lkibrahim@ud.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Despite the great advances in the nursing career, nurses still face considerable challenges related to its image that impact on status, power and the ability to affect changes in health care. The image of nursing is vital to the profession, necessary in today's changing workplace, and an important concept for future nurses to understand. Aim: This study aimed to determine the junior undergraduates nurse students' images of nursing as a career choice. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized. Settings: The study was conducted at Nursing Faculty and Public Service Center of Medical Secretarial at Tanta University, as well as Health Technical Institute related to Ministry of Health. Sample: A convenient sample of 386 junior undergraduates nurse students selected randomly; 196 students from Public Service Center of Medical Secretarial, 149 students from Nursing Faculty and 41 from Health Technical Institute. Tools: The study used the Perceptions of Professional Nursing Image tool, which included 27 items; 13 items measuring self valuing image, 11 items measuring nursing practice value. The second tool called the Perceptions of Public Valuing of Nursing Image, which contained 11 items. The third tool called Sources of Influences over Perception of Nursing Image as a Career Choice, which involved three items. Results: The findings demonstrated that good salary was the most important reason for entering nursing career. The vast majority of female and male junior undergraduates nurse students perceived positive image toward nursing career and concerning respect from other health care professionals. Conclusion: Understanding the perception of nursing career through the eyes of future nurses regardless of their place of study will provide valuable information to assist faculty and nurse leaders in bridging the gap between nursing education and practice. Recommendations: The researcher recommended that curricular should emphasis on expanding and raising nursing students' awareness of their responsibilities toward patients, especially in challenging or difficult situations, and on improving their concept of nursing as a career.

[Lobna Khamis Mohamed and Karima Ahmed El-Sayed. Junior Undergraduates Nurse Students' Images of Nursing as a Career Choice. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):25-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.05

 

Keywords: Images of nursing, Career choice, Self-image, Public image, perception.

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6

Collagen Cross linkage in Management of Moderate Progressing Keratoconus

 

Faried. M. Wagdy, Ahmed. A. Elhagaa, Amir.M. Hassan, Moustafa. K. Nassar

 

Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Menofia, Egypt

faried.wagdy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To Evaluate the efficacy of riboflavin ultraviolet (UVA-induced) corneal collagen cross-linking in stabilization of moderate progressive keratoconus. Patients and Methods: (20) eyes of (17) patients with moderately progressing keratoconus were treated by corneal cross-linkage and followed up for 6 months. Results: there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean keratometric ( K value) at the apex between the preoperative values and six months values (P < 0.05). The preoperative mean apex K value was (50.8 ± 2.07D) and changed to (45.54D) at six months. The K value at the apex decreased by a mean of 5.26 D from preoperative values. Central corneal thickness (CCT) reduced from 441.85 ±27.67µm pre-operatively to 430.5 ±26.4 µm at one month that increase gradually to 433.5±25.4 µm but it was statistically insignificant and there was no statistically significant improvement in best corrected visual acuity( BCVA ) between the preoperative and 6 months evaluations (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Cross linkage is an effective and safe procedure in treatment of moderate progressing keratoconus.

[Faried. M. Wagdy, Ahmed. A. Elhagaa, Amir. M. Hassan, Moustafa. K. Nassar. Collagen Cross linkage in management of moderate progressing Keratoconus. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):35-38]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.06

 

Keywords: cross linkage – moderate- keratoconus.

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7

Clomid induced hormonal and histological alterations in ovary of albino rats

 

Hawazen A. Lamfon, Salma S. Al-matrafi

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al Qura, University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

E-mails: hlamfon@yahoo.com, halamf@uqu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Clomid is a drug used in treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome. On the other hand, its use was accompanied with many adverse effects. The present study aims to assess the hormonal and histological changes in ovary of rats given clomid. Treating rats with clomid at doses 10, 50 and 100mg for a week induced degenerative effects in the ovary. The ovarian stroma contained large number of vacuoles, atretic follicles of different sizes and congested blood vessels. The abnormal Graafian follicles appeared with enlarged antrum and degenerated zona pellucid. Morphometrical results indicated significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles and increase in atretic ones. The results of hormonal analysis revealed significant decrease in the serum level of progesterone and estradiol. These effects may be attributed to the anti-estrogenic effect of clomid.

[Hawazen A. Lamfon, Salma S. Al-matrafi. Clomid induced hormonal and histological alterations in ovary of albino rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):39-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.07

 

Key words. Clomid, ovary, histology, estradiol, progesterone.

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8

Exploring Value Preferences among Students: An Empirical Study of Salman bin Abdulaziz University

 

Nasser S. Al-Kahtani, Zafrul Allam

 

College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdulaziz University,

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

 

Abstract: The present investigation contemplated to focus on the terminal and instrumental value preferences of students. The sample consisted of 180 students of college of business administration and college of computer engineering and science in Al-Kharj, KSA. Rokeach Value Survey and demographical information sheet used to collect the information from the students. Mean, SDs and rank order methods has been applied to analyze the data. The findings of the present research revealed that: (i) a comfortable life and salvation appeared highest ranked whereas salvation and a comfortable life ranked 1 and 2 by the students of CBA and CCES in terminal values respectively, (ii) ambitious and independent of instrumental values ranked 1st and 18th by the students of two different colleges respectively (iii) overall preferences in terminal values preferred by the students as salvation and a comfortable life and (iv) overall preferred in instrumental value ranked by the students as ambitious and clean whereas least preferred instrumental values are independent and helpful. The study has given some suggestions for future research based on findings.

[Al-Kahtani, NS, Allam, Z. Exploring Value Preferences among Students: An Empirical Study of Salman bin Abdulaziz University. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 44-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.08

 

Key words: terminal values, Instrumental values, students, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Metabolic Changes and Hormonal Disturbances in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Rats and the Amelioration Effects of Metformin and/or Cinnamon Extraction

 

Heibashy, M.I.A.1; Mazen, G.M.A.1 and Shahin, M.I.2

 

1 Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

2 Zoology Department, Women's Collage, Ain Shams University

Semsma.mona2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affects about one in 15 women worldwide. It is a major disorder characterized by elevated levels of male hormones (androgens), acne and hirsutism. It can even cause insulin resistance, anovulation and infertility on prolong incidence of cysts. Because it is known that increasing insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovarian syndrome results in improved ovulatory function and decreased serum androgen concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of metformin or/and cinnamon to improve the disturbance occur in the clinical and biochemical parameters in an animal model of PCOS. The obtained results revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in hormonal profile (17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dihyrotestosterone, LH, FSH) in PCOS rats than those in control ones. Furthermore, insulin, insulin resistance, lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin) and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were significantly elevated in PCOS rats compared with the control group. On the other hand, induction of polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. When PCOS rats group was treated with metformin or/and cinnamon, considerable amelioration effects in all previous studied parameters were pronounced dependent on certain mechanisms which were discussed according to available recent researches.

[Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A. and Shahin, M.I. Metabolic Changes and Hormonal Disturbances in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Rats and the Amelioration Effects of Metformin and/or Cinnamon Extraction J Am Sci 2013;9(12):54-62]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.09

 

Key words: Polycystic Ovarian syndrome, Metabolic Changes, Hormonal Disturbance, Metformin, Cinnamon

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Diagnostic value of rapid Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test

 

Mohamed Abdel-moghny Moustafa1, Sameh Ahmed Abdel-bary1, Eslam Safwat1, Mohamed Elnemr2

 

1internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Internal Medicine Department, 6 October University, Giza, Egypt.

samehmind@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test is a noninvasive rapid qualitative test for the detection of H. pylori in human stool.It is monoclonal test based on lateral flow chromatography technique. Aim: To evaluate the reliability of ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for detecting H. pylori infection. Patients and methods: 160 patients with dyspepsia were enrolled in the study. Patients were not on H. pylori eradication therapy, PPI, H2 blocker for the last 4 weeks and not in active gastrointestinal bleeding. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with 4 quadrants antral and 4 quadrants corporeal gastric biopsies taken. Histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining were done on gastric biopsies. Stool examination with ImmunoCard STAT HpSA was done in the same day as the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results: Patients included 124 males (77.5%) and 36 females (22.5%) with their ages ranged between 18-70 years and mean age 39.1 ± 12.1 years. According to histopathology as a gold standard, 112 patients (70%) were positive for H. pylori infection and 48 patients (30%) were negative. According to Immunocard testing 106 patients (66.25%) had positive test and 54 patients (33.75%) had negative test. The Immunocard test had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and total accuracy of 85.7%, 79.2%, 90.6%, 70.4% and 83.8%, respectively. The test was more sensitive in patients below 39 years old (the mean age)(n=98) (88.6% vs 81%) with higher PPV (91.2 % vs 89.5%), NPV (73.3% vs 66.7%) and accuracy (85.7% vs 80.6%) but less specificity than in patients aged 39 years or older (n=62) (78.6 % vs 80%). Immunocard testing in females had higher sensitivity (92.9% vs 83.3%), PPV (92.9% vs 89.7%), NPV (75% vs 69.6%) and accuracy (88.9 % vs 82.25%) but lower specificity than in males (75% vs 80%).Conclusion: ImmunoCard STAT HpSA is efficient and rapid noninvasive test, having a diagnostic value comparable to other invasive and noninvasive methods in detecting H. pylori. The test had higher sensitivity, PPV, NPV and accuracy but less specificity in young and female patients.

[Mohamed Abdel-moghny moustafa, Sameh Ahmed Abdel-bary, Eslam Safwat, Mohamed Elnemr. Diagnostic value of rapid Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):63-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.10

 

Keywords: ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, H. pylori, rapid stool antigen

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A Study to Design an Ultrasound Cylindrical Phased Array Used for Hyperthermia Treatment

 

Ayman S. Selmy, Wael A. Mohamed, and Mahmoud F. M.

 

Electrical Engineering Department, Benha Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt

eng_ayman_tech@yahoo.com - ayman.mohamed01@bhit.bu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is usually treated with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Fever-range hyperthermia treatments (HT) enhance the effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in terms of local tumor control and survival rates. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is commonly used, however there is an increasing interest for using ultrasound (US) due to the larger penetration depth and better focusing capabilities. An adequate applicator for fever-range HT treatment of tumors in the entire intact breast region is not yet available. This work describes the theoretical design and characterization of an ultrasound cylindrical phased-array applicator. The US applicator is used to compute heating profiles in breast tumors and the results are obtained. The objectives of this paper is to describe the system of imaging using ultrasound, to analyze the current therapies of breast cancer, to simulate the fetus phantom using field ii program and then apply this program to the breast cancer, and to evaluate the heat distribution in the breast using k-wave toolbox.

[Ayman S. Selmy, Wael A. Mohamed, and Mahmoud F. M. A Study to Design an Ultrasound Cylindrical Phased Array Used for Hyperthermia Treatment. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):68-76]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.11

 

Keywords: Hyperthermia Treatment /Breast Cancer / Ultrasound Cylindrical Phased Array

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Biomechanical Analysis of Different Implant-Overdenture Loading Protocols under Dynamic loads

 

Mostafa Omran Hussein

 

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA

Dr.mostafa.hussein@qudent.org

 

Abstract: Each implant loading protocol had its merits and demerits. After loading, immediate loading implants and surrounding bones may respond differently to the applied masticatory force. Two 3D finite element models were designed representing each loading condition (immediate and delayed loading). The implant components included implant fixture carrying a stud overdenture attachment. All materials were set as isotropic except for bones where anisotropic behavior was selected. A frictional surface-to-surface contact was assigned to the bone-implant interface of the immediate loading finite element model while a bonded contact was used for delayed loading model. Another frictional contact was also used between the plastic clip and stud abutment for both groups. The models were mesh and refined in the finite element meshing module. Both models were constrained at the inferior border of the bone with (0-Dgree) of freedom in all axes. Three combined dynamic loads (time-dependent) were applied on the outer surface of the metallic housing of the attachment. Von mises stress and strain were evaluated for implants and attachments and maximum and minimum principles stresses were assessed for both compact and cancellous bones. The results of the immediate loading model showed higher von misses stress values at the implant and the stud abutment components than the delayed loading group, respectively. Similarly, both maximum and minimum principle stress of the immediate loading bones were higher than that of the delayed loading bones.

[Hussein MO. Biomechanical Analysis of Different Implant-Overdenture Loading Protocols under Dynamic loads. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):77-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.12

 

Keywords: Dynamic loading, immediate loading, delayed loading, implant-overdenture, frictional contact, 3D-finite element.

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Sociotropic and Autonomic Personal Traits of Volleyball Referees: Turkish Case

 

Pervin Bilir

 

Ēukurova University, High School of Physical Education and Sports, Department of Sports, Management, Adana 10330, Turkey. pbilir@cu.edu.tr

 

Abstract: What is intended in this study is to examine the sociotropic and autonomic personal traits of the volleyball referees. Sample group of the research has been comprised of 194 volleyball classification referees, having been elected by way of the randomized sampling method. The Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale, which has been developed by Beck et al. (1983) and transcribed into Turkish by Şahin et al. (1993), was used as the data collection instrument of the study. According to the respectively attained findings, volleyball referees have been found as displaying a more autonomic personality.

[Bilir P. Sociotropic and Autonomic Personal Traits of Volleyball Referees: Turkish Case. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):86-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.13

 

Keywords: Volleyball referee; sociotropy; autonomy; personality

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Reduction of Microbial Contamination along Medical Polymeric Implants

 

Nehal E. Yousef1,3 and Amani A Shaman2,3

 

1Departments of Microbiology, Zagazig University, Egypt

 2Department of Gynecology

3Faculty of Medicine, Tabuk University, KSA

nehalyousef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pathogenic bacteria colonized the mucus coating the tails of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD). This suggests that the IUCD tail may be responsible for the passage of vaginal bacteria into the uterus. Pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli, Staph. epidermidis and Bacteroid distasonis were observed to migrate readily along polymeric fibers (nylon, silk, polypropylene, polyurethane and polyethylene) on the surfaces of nutrient and blood agar. Migration speed was greatest for E. coli and slowest for Bacteroid distasonis. Nylon was found to support bacterial migration to lowest extent. Antiseptics such as cetrimide, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), polyvinyl pyrolidone and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were tested for efficacy as inhibitors of microbial migration along polymeric fibers. Cetrimide was the best antiseptic used in reduction of microbial migration along the five polymeric fibers.

[Nehal E. Yousef and Amani A Shaman. Reduction of Microbial Contamination along Medical Polymeric Implants. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):92-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.14

 

Keywords: contamination of Medical Polymeric implants.

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A GIS-Based Spatial Classification Technique to Identify the Groundwater Quality and Type Classes

 

 Yehia Ahmed Idris

 

Research Institute for Groundwater (RIGW), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt,

Yehia_Idris@Yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Classification either quality or type based for groundwater can offer great advantages especially in regional groundwater management. It provides a short, quick processing, interpretation for a lot of complete hydrochemical data sets and concise presentation of the results. Traditional statistical classification methods which aim at defining natural groups of groundwater quality or types, do not take the spatial dimensional into consideration during the classification process. The main objective of this study is to introduce a GIS spatial clustering technique to the hydrochemical data in order to identify over geographical space the different homogenous groundwater quality and type classes present in the study area without the use of any prior knowledge. In this approach the multivariate tool available in the ARCGIS (ArcInfo) Spatial Analyst Toolbox was utilized. This approach was successfully applied to a set of 13 hydrochemical parameters determined in 45 groundwater sampling sites in the Nile Delta aquifer, located between longitudes 29° 59’ 00” to 32° 00’ 00” East and latitudes 30° 08’00” to 31° 12’ 00” North in the Nile Delta region north Egypt. As a preprocessing stage, the parameters were modeled to produce representative surfaces of the concentration level in ppm to illustrate their spatial distributions in the study area. Unsupervised classification process which was evaluated by the Dendrogram, followed by supervised classification process that utilized the Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm was carried out. The results showed that the groundwater in the study area can be classified into homogenous seven groundwater quality classes and five groundwater types geochemically interpretable. Also, the results revealed reliable agreement between the groundwater quality and its type in the same class. This approach is believed to be an effective tool in understanding the spatial variability of measured parameters in the study area more easily by providing a visual representation in great details. It also assists policy and decision makers to report the state of the groundwater quality, and provide land managers with knowledge of the precise groundwater quality problems affecting the aquifer. This technique can also serve as a guide for assessment of the hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater. The study recommended reuses this classification approach at regular and suitable temporal resolution with different classification algorithms to investiga­te the spatial and temporal changes of the groundwater quality and type in same area and other different locations.

[Yehia Ahmed Idris. A GIS-Based Spatial Classification Technique to Identify the Groundwater Quality and Type Classes. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):100-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.15

 

Keywords: Spatial Classification; GIS; Cluster; Groundwater; Groundwater Quality; Groundwater Type.

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CIN in Upper Egypt (LEEP Treatment)

 

Edessy M.S1, Aldarwish A 1, Hala Naguib Hosni2, Galal M and Ali F1.

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department-Al Azhar University (Assiut) 1 and pathology Department- Cairo university2. Egypt. mohammedanter252@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), Women participating in a cervical screening study with histologically confirmed cervix were visually inspected with acetic acid, followed by coloposcopy and biopsy taken from abnormal areas, Cure was defined as no clinical or histologic evidence of CIN. Factors influencing cure rates were evaluated by χ2 tests Out of the 1000 screened women 126 were found to be CIN positive (12.6%), 120 underwent LEEP. Six months follow up of 114 cases showed complete cure of 108 women (94.7%), LEEP Cure rates were 96.7%, 88.9%, and 80% for CINI, CINII and CINIII respectively. Single Pass and Multiple Pass cure rates were 97% and 90% respectively. Minor adverse effects were observed in 15 women and complications were seen in 5 women. LEEP was associated with minimal complications and good cure rates especially in those with CINI even in cases with large lesions.

[Edessy M.S, Aldarwish A, Hala Naguib Hosni Galal M, and Ali F. CIN In Upper Egypt (LEEP treatment). J Am Sci 2013;9(12):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.16

 

Keywords: CIN, LEEP, colposcopy.

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Evaluating diagnostic significance of magnifying narrow band imaging endoscopy in various gastric lesions

 

Yahia Al-Shazly1, Mohammed Abd El Moghny Mostafa1, Nanees Ahmed Adel Abd Elmageed 1, George Safwat Riad1 and Eman Abdel-Salam Ibrahim 2

 

Internal medicine 1 and pathology2 Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

moh.mazen2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique that may enhance the accuracy of diagnosis by using narrow-bandwidth filters in a red-green-blue (R/G/B) sequential illumination system. In the current study we try to evaluate the diagnostic significance of magnifying narrow band imaging endoscopy in various gastric lesions, this may provide an early diagnosis of malignant and premalignant changes of the mucosa with enhanced selection of appropriate treatment, as gastric malignancy is one of the most common malignant tumors, and is the second commonest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Methods: The current study included 101 patients whose upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed different gastric lesions not in active bleeding and those patients were reevaluated by using magnifying narrow band imaging technique. Biopsies were taken from these target lesions for histopathological examinations. The presence of gastric carcinoma and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy samples was considered as a positive pathological result, which is used to assess the accuracy of endoscopic diagnosis. Results: There were differences in the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the magnifying narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) endoscopy in detecting presence of dysplasia or neoplasia in different gastric lesions. With overall sensitivity 63.6% which is superior to that of conventional white light imaging (C-WLI) endoscopy (36.3%). Conclusion: Magnifying NBI is more sensitive than conventional white light endoscopy in detection of high grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer in different gastric lesions. But, still ME-NBI endoscopy is not sufficient to replace conventional histopathology.

[Yahia Al-Shazly, Mohammed Abd El Moghny Mostafa, Nanees Ahmed Adel Abd Elmageed, George Safwat Riad and Eman Abdel-Salam Ibrahim. Evaluating diagnostic significance of magnifying narrow band imaging endoscopy in various gastric lesions. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):115-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.17

 

Keywords: ME-NBI endoscopy, C-WLI endoscopy, gastric lesions.

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Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI examination for highly suspicious breast lesions detected initially on mammography: MR and mammographic Findings.

 

Ehab A. Helal1, Abd Ellah Nazeer Yassin1, Hisham W. Anwar2, Merhan A. Nasr3

 

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-AzharUniversity.

2Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-AzharUniversity.

3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University.

ehab_rad2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of our study was to assess the clinical utility of mammography directed dynamic contrast enhancing-MRI (DCE-MRI) examination to search for highly suspicious breast lesions detected initially on mammography. Material And Methods. A prospective review was performed of the records of 50 patients with breast abnormalities initially detected on mammography between September, 2009 and March, 2010. All lesions were detected on mammography study and were subsequently evaluated with DCE-MRI which was performed using mammography images as a guide to lesion location and morphology. Pathological findings were confirmed by subsequent per-cutaneous biopsy. Results: Of the 50 mammography-detected lesions, DCE-MRI correlation was made in all patients including 80% (40 cases) malignant lesions and 20% (10 of cases) benign lesions. MRI diagnosis was based on qualitative and quantitative assessment of each lesion. The qualitative assessment of shape, margin, pattern of enhancement, skin thickening and enhancement, as well as, chest wall involvement. The quantitative evaluation of threshold enhancement, early peak, early washout and type of curve. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of the type of contrast enhancement kinetic curveon breast DCE-MRI resulted in significantly higher diagnostic performance for establishing or excluding malignancy compared with assessment based on the standard qualitative method for breast lesion detected initially on digital mammography.

[Ehab A. Helal, Abd Ellah Nazeer Yassin, Hisham W. Anwar and Merhan A. Nasr Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI examination for highly suspicious breast lesions detected Initially on mammography: MR and mammographic Findings. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):124-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.18

 

Keywords: Breast, Suspicious lesions, Dynamic MRI, Mammography

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Predominant learning styles in Saudi preparatory schools

 

Ibrahim Abdu Saadi1, Anthony P Watt2, Ahmed Salah Eldin Abou Elhassan1

 

1Department of Educational Psychology, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

2College of Education, Victoria University, Australia

iaasaadi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The study proposes to investigate the predominant learning style of Saudi students in grade 7 and 8. The sample of the study consists of 399 students from eight schools. The study used VARK questionnaire - younger version to determine student learning style. The quad learning style was the predominant learning style for both grade and gender. Tri and bi learning styles typically followed the quad style with a variation in order of preference between the reading achievement groups.

[Ibrahim Abdu Saadi, Anthony P Watt, Ahmed Salah Eldin Abou Elhassan. Predominant learning styles in Saudi preparatory schools. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):140-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.19

 

Keywords: Learning styles, VARK, Achievement, Saudi students, Reading

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Isolation and Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Primary and Permanent Teeth

 

Mohammad Samiei 1, Marziyeh Aghazadeh 2, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour 3, Ali Fallah 4, Naser Asl Aminabadi 5, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid Pakdel 6, Ebrahim Sakhinia 7, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar 8, Yadollah Omidi 9, Farzaneh Pakdel 2

 

1. Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

2. Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

3. Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

4. Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

5. Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

6. Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

7. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center and Department of Medical Genetic, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

8. Students' Scientific Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

9. Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Farzaneh_pakdel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) share similar gene expression profiles and differentiation capabilities to that of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs). DPSCs are potentially superior to other types of adult stem cell, as teeth are easy to access and are extracted routinely throughout life. The permanent (4 premolars and 2 third molars) and deciduous (4 first molars) teeth were removed using local anesthesia. The dental pulps were exposed using a sterile hand-held low-speed disc and the teeth were split using a chisel along the groove. The pulps of the teeth were then extracted with endodontic files or pansies and digested in collagenase type I and dispase. The resultant cell suspensions from each tooth were then centrifuged, cultured and evaluated by flow cytometry. The DPSCs from both permanent and deciduous teeth proliferated rapidly whilst attaching to the floor of the flask with a spindle-shaped morphology. More than 80% of the cell population exhibited the expression of surface antigens known to be found on mesenchymal lineages such as CD105, CD90, CD166, and CD73, whilst only less than 4% expressed endothelial-hematopoietic epitopes including, CD11b, CD34, CD133, CD64, CD106, CD31 and CD45. DPSCs and BMSSCs, which can differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages, are putative candidate cells for tooth and bone-tissue engineering, respectively. Considering the results, dental pulp stem cells can be thought of as being part of the MSC population and may be considered suitable for use in regenerative medicine.

 [Samiei M, Aghazadeh M, Movassaghpour A.A, Fallah A, Asl Aminabadi N, Vahid Pakdel S.M, Sakhinia E, Asghari Estiar M, Omidi Y, Pakdel F. Isolation and Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Primary and Permanent Teeth. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):153-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.20

 

Keywords: dental pulp stem cell; primary teeth; permanent teeth

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The Role of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Personal Characteristics and Their Teaching Contexts in the Amount of Affective Support They Provide their Students with

 

Neda Taherkhani

 

M.A. in Applied Linguistics, Foreign Languages Department, Faculty of Humanities, Kharazmi (Tarbiat Moallem) University, Tehran, Iran

taherkhani.neda@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Affective aspects have been generally identified to influence Second Language Acquisition (SLA) processes; nevertheless, the topic is yet to attract systematic attention from scholars and teachers in language learning contexts, especially in Iran. The present study aims at determining the relationship between (a) the Iranian EFL teachers’ personal characteristics as well as their contexts of teaching and (b) the amount of affective support they provide for language learners. To this end, an Affective Support Scale was constructed to assess the general perceptions of 60 Iranian EFL teachers and 810 language learners regarding the affective scaffolding provided by teachers for learners. The teachers’ characteristics (age, gender, EFL related experience, and academic degree) as well as their contexts of language teaching (schools, language institutes, and universities) were also taken care of in the developed scale. The data were then analyzed using SPSS IBM. Significant differences were detected between the perceptions of the EFL teachersand those of the learnersregarding teachersaffective support (P 0.01). Besides, according to the learnersratings, the EFL teachers at language institutes were believed to provide more affective support while the ones at schools had the lowest rank in providing affective support for the learners (P 0.05). The more educated, the younger, and the less experienced the EFL teachers were, the higher they were rated by language learners on the scale of affective support; furthermore, female teachers were believed to provide a bit more affective support than the male ones in language institutes. On the other hand, according to the EFL teachers’ own ratings, no significant differences were found in terms of the affective support provided by teachers in the three contexts and with regard to their age, gender, experience, and educational level (P0.05). The result of the present study has implications for EFL teachers, teacher educators, and even curriculum developers in improving the affective state of EFL learners. These implications are supplemented with suggestions for further research in order to bridge the gap between the present and the desired emotional state in EFL educational contexts.

[Taherkhani N. The Role of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Personal Characteristics and Their Teaching Contexts in the Amount of Affective Support They Provide their Students with. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):158-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.21

 

Keywords: affective support, Affective Support Scale, EFL teaching contexts, EFL teachers’ characteristics

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Nurses Managers' Decision Making styles and It's Effect on Staff Nurses' Job Performance

 

Amaal S. Mohammed2; Magda E. Nassar1; Soad A. Ghallab2 and Sahar M. Morsy2.

 

1Nursing Administration. Faculty of Nursing Alexandria University, Egypt.

2Nursing Administration. Faculty of Nursing Assiut University, Egypt.

Amalsaid76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at determining decision-making styles used by nurse managers at main Assuit university hospital, and the effect of these styles on technical nurses' job performance. Methods: the sample consisted of 96 technical nurses and 35 nurse managers from medical and surgical units, the data collected using structured questionnaire form and technical nurses' performance evaluation sheet. Results: The highest percentage of nurse managers were used authoritarian, and the lowest used delegative decision making style. Performance of technical nurses working with nurse managers who used authoritarian decision-making style was significantly effective in care planning and evaluation of patient condition, while with nurse managers who used participative decision making style was significantly effective in all dimensions except evaluation of patient condition. Lastly, with nurse managers used delegative decision making style staff was significantly effective in implementation of patient care and their role in education Recommendation Arrange for meetings on regular basis between nurse managers and employees and nurse managers and director of nursing to give feed back about employees' performance.

 [Amaal S. Mohammed. Magda E. Nassar Soad A. Ghallab. Sahar M. Morsy. Nurses Managers' Decision Making styles and It's Effect on Staff Nurses' Job Performance. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):170-179]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.22

 

Keywords: Decision making styles –Performance

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Synthesis and Reactions of 2-(1-Oxo-4(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phthalazin-1(2H)-yl)acetohydrazide

 

Maher A. El-Hashash2, Dalal B. Guirguis1 and Mohamed A. kadhim2

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abassia 11566, Cairo, Egypt

2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Anbar University, Iraq

dalal.guirguis@hotmail.co.uk

 

Abstract: The 4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phthalazin-1(2H)-one was prepared and reacted with ethyl chloroacetate, followed by hydrazine hydrate giving the acid hydrazide (5). The acid hydrazide (5) was subjected to different reagent giving different heterocylic molecuoles and an unexpected spirophthalazine (4) upon treatment with thiosemicarbazide. The structure of the prepared compounds were identified by IR,1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis.

[Maher A. El-Hashash, Dalal B. Guirguis and Mohamed A. kadhim. Synthesis and Reactions of 2-(1-Oxo-4(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phthalazin-1(2H)-yl)acetohydrazide. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):180-185]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.23

 

Keywords: Phthalazinone, spirophthalazine, oxadiazole, thiadiazole

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Effect of interferon and ribavirin treatment on hearing in chronic hepatitis c patients

 

Ahmed Shehata1, Taha Mohammed1, Naslshah G. Kazem1 and Ashraf Khamis 2

 

1Otorhinolaryngology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

2 Hepatology & Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt modytaha10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To study the effect of treatment with interferon and ribavirin on hearing level in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 patients with compensated chronic HCV. They were selected from hepatology outpatient clinic in Benha university hospital. Audiological assement were done for all patients in audiology clinic, Benha university hospital between March 2010 and March 2012,meanauditory hearing threshold (MHT), day before therapy (MHT-0), after 1st day (MHT-1), after 7th day (MHT-7), after 21st day (MHT-21), monthly during therapy, 1 month after termination of therapy (MHT-30 post TTT) and 2 months after termination of therapy (MHT-60 postTTT). Results: There were 30 cases (60%) without noticeable change in audiometry readings & 20 cases (40%) with sensori-neural hearing loss(SNHL), half of them (10 cases) returned totally, (8 cases) of them (16% of total) returned but less than previous and 10% (2 cases) of them (4% of total) disabled. Conclusion: Interferon/ribavirin combination therapy may cause SNHL, Possible mechanisms involved include direct ototoxicity, autoimmunity and hematological changes. Hearing loss did not fully resolve after termination of therapy with this combination therapy. So care should be taken for sings of ototoxicity.

 [Ahmed Shehata,Taha Mohammed, Naslshah G. Kazem,Ashraf Khamis. Effect of interferon and ribavirin treatment on hearing in chronic hepatitis c patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(4):186-192]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.24

 

Key Words: Hepatitis C virus, Interferon, Ribavirin, Hearing loss

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Relationship between Dependency Level among Burned Patients and Different Burn Parameters

 

Wafaa N. Ahmed Besely, Amna Y. Saad, Thanaa M. A. Alaa-Eldeen

 

Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

Wafaa_besely70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Burn injuries contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Outcomes are made worse by a lack of resources, which contribute to unacceptably high level of complications, such as wound infection, contractures and death. Although the earlier phases of burn care didn’t specifically focus on rehabilitation, rehabilitation begins as the patient enters the health care system and may extend for years following major burn injury. Attention to nutrition, activity and psychological status continues to increase the independency level in performing the activities of daily living. Careful assessment skills are essential to evaluate the effects of treatment method on the healing of burn wound and dependency level of burned patient. The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between dependency level among burned patients and different burn parameters. The study was carried out in the burn unit of the Main University Hospital in Alexandria. The assessment questionnaire sheet was developed which compromised three parts: socio-demographic data of the studied subjects, parameters of burn injury and activities of daily living. Results: The study revealed that there was a significant difference between the most of daily activities of daily living and different burn parameters. In conclusion, this study showed that there were a highly significant difference between the most of activities of daily living and different burn parameters.

[Wafaa N. Ahmed Besely, Amna Y. Saad, Thanaa M. A. Alaa-Eldeen. Relationship between Dependency Level among Burned Patients and Different Burn Parameters. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):193-205]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.25

 

Keywords: Dependency Level, Burned Patients, Burn Parameters

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Experimentally Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Ginger

 

Manar A. Faried, Fouad K. Mansour, Ahmed S. Zolfakar, Wael B. El-Kholy

 

Anatomy and Embryology department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufyia University

manarfared@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing at an alarming rate and is considered as one of the main threats to human health in the 21st century, in both developed and developing nations. Therefore, with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes, ocular complications have become a leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Unfortunately, diabetic keratopathy (DK) has poor relation with regard to both clinical and research interest. So this study was carried out to throw more light on the corneal complications in a streptozocin (STZ)-induced rat model of DM and to understand the role of caspase-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of DK and to explore the possible protective role of ginger. Methods: Seventy five adult male albino rats were divided into three experimental groups: control, diabetic, and ginger-treated diabetic. DM was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50mg/kg body weight) and ginger was administered orally (500mg/kg body weight daily). Animals were grouped and sacrificed 4, 6 & 8 weeks after induction of diabetes. Body weight, blood glucose level, and glycated haemoglobin were measured. Corneal specimens were subjected to light microscopic study (histological, histochemical & immunohistochemical) in addition to electron microscopic study using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results: Diabetic rats showed marked decrease in their body weight with highly significant increase in their blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. Moreover, corneal section of diabetic rats revealed intense degenerative changes eg; epithelial and endothelial cytoplasmic vacuolations, stromal spacing and degradation of its collagen fibers, increased corneal thickness, increased glycogen content and increased expression of both caspase-3 and VEGF. In addition, electron microscopic evaluation revealed intracellular spaces between neighboring cells with degeneration of intracellular organelles. These damaging effects of DK were considerably ameliorated in ginger treated diabetic group. Conclusion: It could be concluded that caspase-3 & VEGF have played a pivotal role in damaging effect of the DK induced by STZ and that ginger supplementation considerably mitigates STZ Induced DK.

[Manar A. Faried, Fouad K. Mansour, Ahmed S. Zolfakar, Wael B. El-Kholy. Experimentally Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Role of Ginger. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):206-220]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.26

 

Key words: STZ-cornea-ginger-caspase-3-VEGF

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Role of Office Hysteroscopy in Evaluation of Cases with Unexplained Recurrent Embryonic Pregnancy Loss

 

Ameer abdallah, Mohamed Abdallah, Hossam Shawki, Hepa Hassam

 

Department of Obstetrics& Gynecology, El Minia Faculty of Medicine

ameerelsherief@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: to evaluate the value of Role of office hysteroscopy in evaluation of cases with unexplained recurrent embryonic pregnancy loss Design: prospective case control study Setting: university hospital. Patients: one hundred and Fifty patients with early recurrent pregnancy loss recruited from the attendees of Gynecology Outpatient Clinic and office hysteroscopy clinic. Interventions: All women were subjected to hysterosalpingography (HSG) and hysteroscopy with a follow up for the pregnancy outcome of who have uterine abnormalities. Results: Hysteroscopy revealed 65 uterine abnormalities out of 150 patients in the form of 51 acquired uterine anomalies which include (15 fibroid, 6 polyp, 13 adhesion 10 infection, 7 mixed) and 14 congenital anomalies (8 subseptate, 4 unicornate, 2 bicornate).While HSG revealed 51uterine anomalies out of 150 patients in the form of 32 acquired uterine anomalies (11 Adhesions and 21 filling defect) and 19 congenital anomalies (7 subseptate, 8 bicornate, 4 unicornate). Conclusion: Office Hysteroscopy is an easier, safer and better tolerated for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, is an excellent diagnostic tool can be used as preliminary test for screening of uterine anomalies and prepare them for operative hysteroscopy, must be done for every patient with unexplained early recurrent pregnancy loss.

[AmeerAbdallah. Role of Office Hysteroscopy in Evaluation of Cases with Unexplained Recurrent Embryonic Pregnancy Loss. J Am Sci 2013; 9(12):221-228]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.27

 

Key words: embryonic loss, TVUS, HSG & hysteroscopy

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Serum Interleukin (IL)-17 in Psoriasis

 

M.Y. Abdel Mawla *,Y. Abulmajd **, M. Soliman*, A.M. Amer*, M. Nasr* and O. Victor*

 

Dermatology* and Medical Biochemistry**, Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

mahmoudyousry53@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Psoriasis is characterized by increased activation of CD4+T lymphocytes, and systemic and local over expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines indicating that immunopathogenesis of the disease is T helper 1 (Th1) mediated. Upon antigenic stimulation CD4+ T-cells differentiate to either Th1 or Th17 according to local cytokine milieu environment. This study was designed to detect the serum level of IL-17 in 30 chronic plaque psoriasis patients within age range 20 -40 years as compared to sex and age- matched 20 control subjects. There was a statistically significant elevated serum IL17 level in patients group versus control subjects. Topical therapy with a combination of betamethasone dipropionate and salicylic acid ointment, two times a day for three weeks induced statistically significant lower serum IL17 levels in patients. Suppression of serum IL17 levels after therapy was not associated with a statistically significant change in PASI score. Conclusion: Blocking of the IL-23/Th17 pathway can be achieved at different levels producing striking improvement in psoriasis patients

[M.Y. Abdel Mawla, Y. Abulmajd, M. Soliman, A.M. Amer, M. Nasr and O. Victor. Serum Interleukin (IL)-17 in Psoriasis. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):229-232]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.28

 

Keywords: Psoriasis, Immune, IL 17, Therapy, Pathogenesis.

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A Revisit to the Kinetics and Mechanstics of Electron-Transfer Process in Oxidation of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Macromolecule by Permanganate Ion in Aqueous Perchlorate Solutions with Novel Synthesis of Coordination Biopolymer Precursors

 

Ishaq A. Zaafarany*

 

*Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah 13401, Saudi Arabia Kingdom.

*Correspondence to: ishaq_zaafarany@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The kinetics of oxidation of poly (vinyl alcohol) as synthetic polymer (PVA) by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 2.0 mol dm-3 has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The reaction kinetic seems to be of considerable complexity. Pseudo first-order plots were found to be of inverted S-shape type throughout the entire course of reaction. The initial rates were relatively slow in the early stages, followed by an increase in the oxidation rates at the longer time periods. The experimental results indicated first-order kinetics in permanganate and fractional second-order dependence in [PVA] for both induction and autoacceleration periods. The influence of the [H+] on the reaction rates showed that the oxidation reaction was acid-catalyzed in both stages. A fractional-second order in [H+] was observed for the induction period, but this order has not maintained throughout the autoaccleration period. Added salts indicated that MnIII and/or MnIV play an important role in the reaction kinetics. A kinetic evidence for formation of 1:2 intermediate complexes was revealed. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and a tentative reaction mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is suggested.

[Ishaq A. Zaafarany. A Revisit to the Kinetics and Mechanstics of Electron-Transfer Process in Oxidation of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Macromolecule by Permanganate Ion in Aqueous Perchlorate Solutions with Novel Synthesis of Coordination Biopolymer Precursors. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):233-247]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.29

 

Key words: oxidation; kinetics; synthesis; poly (vinyl alcohol); permanganate

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Identification of a NovelHuman estrogen Receptor (Delta receptor) and its chromosomal localization by Laser Flashes Femtosecond Spectroscopy

 

Ali Farid Mohamed Ali1; Anas El-Attar 2 and Laila Ali3

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2 Laser Nuclear Biology Center, Pennsylvania, USA

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculry of Medicine Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We introduced for the first time in the literature by Laser Flashes Femtosecond Spectroscopy a new novel human estrogen receptors. This we defined it as (Delta receptor).It has a molecular weight of approximately 67500 with 695 amino acids. The Delta receptor had a half life of approximately 9-16 hours. It has to some extent antiosterogenic action. It is encoded by a gene localized to chromosome No. 14 in close proximity to the genes related to Alzheimer’s disease. It is located on the same chromosome of estrogen receptor B on chromosome Number 14. This new discovery can explain different action of estrogen in the body and the different actions of antiosterogen (tamoxifen) so a new hypothesis will be addressed for the first time that, there is a receptor had agonistic and antagonisticso this will open a revolution in the field of treatment of malignant osterogenic tumor and in the field ohormones replacement therapy. There is a homology between estrogen receptor Delta and estrogen receptor .

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali, Anas El-Attar and Laila Ali. Identification of a Novel Human estrogen Receptor (Delta receptor) and its chromosomal localization by Laser Flashes Femtosecond Spectroscopy. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):248-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.30

 

Keywords: Delta receptors, estrogen receptor, Laser flashes femtosecond spectroscopy.

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New Placental Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonist

 

Ali Farid Mohamed Ali1; Anas El-Attar 2 and Laila Ali3

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2 Laser Nuclear Biology Center, Pennsylvania, USA.

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We isolate for the first time in Literature a new placental gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist in trying to test the effectiveness of this newly discovered compound we compared with other known GnRH antagonists Antagonand Cotrotide. We found that the potency of placental GnRH Antagonists is more than other compounds with a minimal side effect so a new placental GnRH Antagonists has been born

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali, Anas El-Attar and Laila Ali. New placental gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):251-254]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.31

 

Keywords: Placenta, gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist, cetrotide

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Laparoscopic Intraovarian Injection of Cerebrolysin a New Modality for Treatment of Unexplained Infertility

 

1Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and 2Laila Ali

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2Department of obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Mediine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate laparoscopic intraovarian injection of cerebrolysin in the treatment of unexplained infertility prospective study. Heliopolis Infertility Research Centre. 100 unexplained infertility patients divided into 2 equal groups I, II (group I study, group II control group). In group I 10 ml cerebrolysin laparoscopicaly injected in each ovary, in group II (no injection) control. Pregnancy rate after 4 months follow-up was determined after 4 months follow up period pregnancy rate in group I was 50% comparable to 4% in the control group. Statistically highly significant. Cerebrolysin is a new modality for treatment of unexplained infertility with no reported side effects after 4 months follow-up.

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and Laila Ali Fouad. Laparoscopic Intraovarian Injection of Cerebrolysin a New Modality for Treatment of Unexplained Infertility. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):255-257]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.32

 

Keywords: Unexplained infertility, cerebrolysin, Laparoscopy, IUI, BDNF.

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Curcumin a New Modality for Treatment of Uterine Myoma

 

1Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and 2Laila Ali

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2Department of obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Curcumin is known for its antitumor, anticancer, strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, proapoptotic, antiamyloid, antiarthritic, potent inhibitors of cytochrome p450, reduced cholesterol level. Uterine fibroid are the most common pelvic tumors and occur in 20 to 25% of premenopausal women. Current pharmacological therapies include gonadotrophin releasing hormone GnRH agonists/antagonists, oral contraceptive, progestin selective modulator of progesterone receptor( Aspprisnil) and mifipristone.The aim of this work is to use for the first time in the literature curcumin for treatment of uterine myoma. A total of 50 women had uterine myoma were enrolled in the study, the inclusion criteria were age between 20-35 yrs mean age 32±3.25, no more than (3) intramural myomas the main diameter at 3 D transvaginal ultrasound >5mm. Curcumin is used in the tablet form each tablet 450 mg one tablet after meal 3 times daily for 12 weeks, assessment of uterine bleeding by using daily bleeding diapers and Hb concentration, uterine dimensions and myoma dimensions are measured by 3D ultrasound. Result we found statistically significant decrease in the uterine volume and myoma volume (cm3) p<0.001, again we find statistically significant increases in Hb percentage after treatment (p <0.05) the bleeding stop completely in 88% after 2 weeks treatment and after 4 weeks in 12% of the cases In conclusion, curcumin is a new drug with multiple pharmacological actions, no reported side effects of significances for treatment of myoma.

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and Laila Ali. Curcumin a New Modality for Treatment of Uterine Myoma. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):258-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.33

 

Keyword: curcumin, mayoma, medical treatment

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Bee propolis as a new modality for treatment of H1N1 Influenza

 

Ali Farid M.Ali1, Ermelando V.Cosmi2, Sanaa M. Ali3 and LailaFarid4

 

1Heliopolis research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2 La Sapienza, Roma Italy

3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Kafr Elshiekh University, Egypt

4Department of obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Influenza is a respiratory infection with significant morbidity and mortality.Drug which inhibits the uncoating process of influenza virus growth have been available for treatment of the virus there as common concern about the development of drug resistant virus strains hence the need of a new drug. Propolis is a natural product collected by bees from plant sources which is used to seal holes and repair many structures in the hive. The biological activities of propolis include antibacterial antifungal, antiportozoan, antitumoural and other therapeutic properties. The Aim of this work is to introduce Bee propolis for the first time in the literatures for treatment of H1N1 virus to compare between Bee propolisand oseltamivir regarding its therapeutic and adverse effect. One hundred mice (50 received oseltamivir, 75mg and 50 received Bee propolis0.5 gm) Plaque Assay, Virus regrowth after removal of the compound (Bee propolis- Oseltamivir) and estimation of telomere length were performed Plaque formation of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus was completely inhibited by 15mg/ml of bee propolis after 12h incubation, whereas visible plaque formation was detected in the plate treated with oseltamivir. In mice infected with a high challenge dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus orally administrated 500 and 1gm/kg/day completely prevented the death of mice and the survival rate mice was significantly higher than those in mice treated with oseltamivir (P<0.01), the weights of mice were increased on bee propolis this effect is not seen with oseltamivir. (P<0.01), Cost Benefit ratio of Bee Propolis is less than that with oseltamivir., There is a statistically significant decrease in telomere length with osetamivir (P<0.01). Conclusion Bee propolis is new modality of treatment of human influenza virus infection H1N1, with more positive results than oseltamivir.

[Ali Farid M. Ali, Ermelando V. Cosmi, Sanaa M. Al and Laila Farid. Bee propolis as a new modality for treatment of H1N1 Influenza. J Am Sci 2013;9(34):261-264]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.34

 

Keywords:Influenza virus H1N1, oseltamivir, Bee propolis, antiviral activity

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Ultrasound Guided Injection of GnRHα in the Treatment of Leiomyoma

 

1Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and 2Laila Ali

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The most common Medical treatment used nowadays is GnRH agonists which relies upon hypoestrogenic state.The treatment however is often associated with hypoestrogenemia and significant bone loss, that preclude the long term use of GnRH α. GnRH2 and GnRHR2 were expressed in fibroid at the mRNA level and GnRH2 at the protein level Activation of GnRH2 receptor pathway may have a very distinct functions compared with activation of GnRH receptor, so it was speculated another mechanism of action of GnRH agonist by direct effect which resulted in anti proliferative effect via GnRHR2 expressed by leiomyoma.Based on a previous work that a second form of GnRH and corresponding receptors exist in fibroid and that an autocrine loop exist GnRH could potentially exert a direct anti proliferative action on fibroid via GnRHR2.Aim of the work Is to test this hypothesis that a second form of GnRH and corresponding receptor exists in the fibroid and that GnRH agonists interact directly with GnRH receptors present in fibroids, and produce an new modality of treatment of fibroid avoiding hpoestrogenic state and bone loss by ultrasound guided injection of GnRH in the fibroid. Ten women had uterine myoma were enrolled in the study, the inclusion criteria were Age between 20 to 35 years mean age is( 32±5.22), single, myoma interstitial or subserous myoma (5 cases for each), mean diameter at 3D transvaginal ultrasound >56mm As an outpatient using sedation in the form of 15 mg pethidine and 10 mg pentazocain intravenously, GnRH α is given directly into the center of the myoma by 3D transvaginal ultrasound guided injection, we developed a new equation in order to calculate the dose of GnRH (Leuprolide acetate 3.75mg). The results of this work shows statistically significant decrease in uterine volume and myoma volume after the treatment and statistically significant increase in the Hemoglobin concentration. In Conclusion Ultrasound Guided Injection Of GnRH α In The Treatment Of Liomyoma is a new modality and new delivery system, reducing the cost of treatment, no effect on bone metabolism, no hypoestrogenic symptoms, but and very big but we needed more cases and more randomization before testing the efficacy of this new line of treatment.

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and Laila Ali. Ultrasound Guided Injection of GnRHα In The Treatment Of Leiomyoma. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):265-267]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.35

 

Key word: Ultrasound, GnRH α, Leiomyoma

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Follicular Fluid Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in unexplained infertility

 

1Ali Farid Mohamed Ali andLaila Ali

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2Department of obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine,Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Unexplained infertility is diagnosed where routine investigations including semen analysis, tubal evaluation and tests for ovulation yield normal results. It has been recognized that neurotrophins known for their role in neuronal survival involved in the maturation of the ovarian follicle. These neurotrophins include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 4/5 (NT- 4/5), and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) have been identified in the mammalian ovary. The aim of this work is to elucidate the role of BDNF in follicular fluid from unexplained infertility patient. Thirty patients complaining from unexplained infertility and 30 patients as control were subjected to laparoscopy. Group I for evaluation and confirmation of unexplained infertility. Group II for laparoscopic tubal sterilization. BDNF assay: follicular fluid BDNF were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. According to manufurcherprotocol, follicular fluid BDNF was taken during laparoscopy done for tubal sterilization at mid-luteal phase, day 22 of menstrual cycle. There was no statistical difference between both groups regarding age and BMI but There was a statistical difference between the 2 groups regarding the follicular fluid BDNF (P<0.05). BDNF is reduced in ovarian follicular fluid in unexplained infertility and this will open a new era in the treatment of unexplained infertility.

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and Laila Ali. Follicular Fluid Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in unexplained infertility. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):268-270]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.36

 

Key words: Unexplained infertility, laparoscopy BDNF.

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Arteriovenous aberration as a cause ofidiopathic repeated foetal wastage and it`s treatment by laparoscopic intrauterine injection of Interferon (LII)

 

1Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and 2Laila Ali

 

1Heliopolis Research Center, Cairo Egypt

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

elshayb1950@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Arteriovenous aberration of the uterus is a new aetiological factor of repeated early pregnancy wastage. Historically hysterectomy has been the only treatment option of these patients. Advances in interventional radiology have allowed for conservative management. We introduce for the first time in the literature laparoscopic intrauterine injection of interferon Alfa 2 [LII]. So our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of this modality in the treatment of this problem. Eight patients complaining of repeated early fetal loss, with no demonstrable causes after exclusion of genetic, environmental uterine anomalies, infection, Endocrine disease, immunological causes as a cause of repeated abortion. They have arteriovenous aberration (AVA) mean age and mean number of repeated pregnancy wastage were 32 ± 3.2 years, and 6 ± 2.1 respectively. The diagnosis of this problem was based on earful clinical examination, 3 D ultrasound, and pelvic stereography. Laparoscopically intrauterine injection of interferon 3 million units at 12.3.9 clock of the uterus, followed by 4 months follow up by serial 3D ultrasound, and pelvic arteriography. Complete disappearance occur in 6 cases (75%), partial disappearance in one cases and no change in one case, pregnancy rate and continuation of pregnancy was seen in 6 patients (75%), no complication of significance was reported. Laparoscopic intrauterine injection of interferon [LII] is a new effective line of treatment of anteriovenous aberration (AVA), this line is aiming at preservation of the uterus with no reported complication. Anteriovenous aberration (AVA), is a new cause of Idiopathetic repeated foetal loss and should be searched in the evaluation of this problem.

[Ali Farid Mohamed Ali and Laila Ali. Arteriovenous aberration as a cause of idiopathic repeated foetal wastage and it`s treatment by laparoscopic intrauterine injection of Interferon (LII). J Am Sci. 2013; 9(12):271-273]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.37

 

Keyword: Arteriovenousaberration, FoetalWastage, Laparoscopy, Interferon.

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Effect of adding Silica fume to the Cement Kiln Dust (CKD)

 

Rafik K. Abdel Wahab

 

Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Qena Branch- Al-Azhar University

Dr.rkhairy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper reports the results of a study conducted to assess the effect of adding silica fume to the cement kiln dust on the compressive strength of concrete mixes.Fifty nine concrete mixes were prepared to determine the effect of adding cement kiln dust (CKD) to concrete mixes as a replacement quantity by weight from cement. The substitution percentage were (0% control, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 100 %). Also percentage of silica Fume of (3%, 6%, 9%) has been added to all mixes. The results of substitution sand in lieu of cement and CKD had been obtained also and compared with those determined in case of CKD substitution.

[Rafik K. Abdel Wahab. Effect of adding Silica fume to the Cement Kiln Dust (CKD). J Am Sci 2013;9(12):274-281]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.38

 

Keywords: Concrete, Cement, CKD, Sand, Silica fume, Compressive strength, replacement

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Employer Perceptions of Workforce Preparation of the Graduates of the Health Information Management and Technology Program

 

Mona Faisal Al-Qahtani, Rawan Almansour, Abier Alharbi, Maha Aljasser, and Haifa Alsunaid

 

Department of Health Information Management & Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

malqahtani@ud.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Background: Harmonization of the outcome of educational programs and the actual skills requirement of the labor market is a necessity in all countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of employers on whether the academic experience of HIMT alumni/ employees is properly suited to the work environment. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in hospitals where graduates of HIMT / alumni / employees had begun their careers at the current study time. A questionnaire was used. Results: All employers indicated considerable satisfaction with the ability of their employees (HIMT alumni) to function in multi-disciplinary teams, to communicate adequately with clients and peers, to adhere to work rules and policies, to display interest and industry in work assignments, to understand of ethical issues, and with their ability to learn and use the computer and other modern tools of technology. Conclusions: All employers participating in this study demonstrated their satisfaction with HIMT alumni / employees, but indicated that there was, however, room for improvement.

[Mona Faisal Al-Qahtani, Rawan Almansour, Abier Alharbi, Maha Aljasser, and Haifa Alsunaid. Employer Perceptions of Workforce Preparation of the Graduates of the Health Information Management and Technology Program. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):282-286]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.39

 

Keywords: Employer; Alumni; Health information Management

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Lidocaine Nebulizer reduce response to endotracheal intubation and the need for postoperative analgesia after nasal operations

 

Ahmed M. Abd El-Hamid1, Ali M. Hasan2, M. Hamed Abd El-fattah1 and Ahmed Shehata3

 

1Anesthesia department - Benha University.

2Anesthesia department - Zagazig University.

3Otorhinolaryngology department- Benha University.

Ahmedshehata_ent@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study to investigate whether lidocaine nebulizer attenuates airway-circulatory reflexes during induction and emergence, tube tolerance, nasal pack tolerance and reduced total dose of opioid analgesia Patients and methods: This prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients scheduled for nasal surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two equal groups: Group A (Study group) was given Lidocaine 2% (2 mg/kg) in 5 ml saline was added to a standard nebulizer with a full face mask attached with O2 flow at 3 L/min., then the patient was asked to inhale the local anesthetic vapor deeply for 15 minutes and Group B (control group) was given5 ml saline 0.9% was added to a standard nebulizer with a full face mask attached with O2 flow at 3L/min. over 15 minutes. Hemodynamic parameters, tube tolerance, nasal pack tolerance, amount of bleeding, time to first analgesic request, total Morphine consumption over the 1st 24 hours and postoperative pain score were recorded. Results: Patient’s tolerance to endotracheal tube in the study group showed a highly significant increase in numbers of patients in grade 0 and highly significant decrease in numbers in grades 1 and 2 in comparison with the control group. The study group showed better tolerance to nasal pack than the control group. The amount of blood collected was significantly higher in the study than the control group. Time to 1st analgesic request was highly significant longer in study group than control group. Total morphine dose given to patients in the 1st 24 hours postoperatively was significantly higher in the control group than the study group. Conclusion: Lidocaine nebulizer technique is simple effective way to suppress the cough and hyper dynamic reflex responses with minimal side effect.

[Ahmed M. Abd El-Hamid, Ali M. Hasan, M. Hamed Abd El-fattah and Ahmed Shehata. Lidocaine Nebulizer reduce response to endotracheal intubation and the need for postoperative analgesia after nasal operations. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 287-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.40

 

Keywords: Lidocaine Nebulizer, endotracheal intubation, postoperative analgesia, nasal operations.

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Communication Climate at Main Assiut University Hospital

 

Fatma Rushdy Mohamed, Samah Mohamed Abdalla and Nahed Shawkat Abo-elmaged

 

Nursing Administration, Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University.

drfatmarushdy@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Communication is the lifeblood of every relationship, while communication climate is the emotional tone of the relationship. Employees can work well within their organizations if there is a relationship and good communication between the organization represented by the management as a supervisor and the employees as subordinates. In order to run organization smoothly and well coordinated, a communication aspect plays role in the organizational life, where every individual in the organization can convey personal interest and it’s solution will be collectively solved. Aim of the Study: This study was conducted with the aim of identifying the communication climate as perceived by nurses and employees, and determining the type of communication climate at Main Assiut University Hospital. This study was carried out by using descriptive study design. The study sample consisted of 266 nurses classified into, 30 bachelor degree nurses, 215 diploma degree nurses and 21 institute nurse, and 115 employees working in different administrative units. Results: Shows that highest mean scores were found among nurses in provisionalism, description, and empathy respectively. While, among employees were found in description, problem-oriented, and empathy respectively with statistically significant differences among the studied subjects as regard to supportive communication climate factors (P<0.000). There was a highly statistically significant difference between age of nurses and supportive communication climate scale (P <0.007). Conclusions: In Defensive communication climate: More than one third of nurses were in supportive level (36.8%). While, nearly half of employees were neutral to supportive (47.0%) with a highly statistically significant differences (P <0.000). In Supportive communication climate: Nearly one third of nurses were in supportive to neutral (31.6%). While, nearly half of employees were supportive (46.1%). Recommendations: Based on the forgoing conclusions, the following recommendations are proposed: Encouragement of and planning for participative decision making, teamwork, in-service training program and open communication are recommended to be present in the work units.

[Fatma Rushdy Mohamed, Samah Mohamed Abdalla, and Nahed Shawkat Abo-elmaged. Communication Climate at Main Assiut University Hospital. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):292-303]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.41

 

Key Words: Communication- Climate – Defensive- Supportive – Nurses – Employees

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The Effect of the Free-Throws Shot at the End of Every Period of the First Half-Time on the Final Result of the Match at Units of Basketball Promotion

 

Slim Khiari1 and Habib Ghedira2

 

1 Permanent Teacher-Researcher (Assistant of High Teaching) specialized in Sciences of Education, Didactics and Basket-Ball. Ex-Player of Tunisian National Team of Basket-Ball / Trainer Third Degree of Basket-Ball.

High Institute of Sports and Physical Education / Department of Didactics / University of Sfax, Tunisia.

2 Professor of Medicine / Department of Pulmonology / University of Tunis.

Head of Service of Pulmonology and Head of Laboratory of Breathing Exploration / Hospital Abderrahman MAMI / Ariana / Tunis / Tunisia.

slimkhiari@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: This research has for goal to disclose the degree of the importance of the free-throws shot after every period of the first half-time on the final result of the match at units of promotion. Globally, our work is based on the evolution of the rules of promotion units during the three years 2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. After the study of these free-throws through matches that are written on papers of matches, we noticed that rates of these free-throws are too weak. Therefore, we deducted that the free-throws are disregarded in workouts of these promotion units. Statistically, in order to validate results, we opted for the percentage.

[Slim Khiari and Habib Ghedira. The Effect of the Free-Throws Shot at the End of Every Period of the First Half-Time on the Final Result of the Match at Units of Basketball Promotion. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):304-314]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.42

 

Key-words: Free-throws, Units of promotion, Basketball, League of south.

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Effects of the Gender and the Nature of Sport on the Choice of Adoption of Teaching Styles by the Training Teachers

 

Slim Khiari1 and Habib Ghedira2

 

1 Permanent Teacher-Researcher (Assistant of High Teaching) specialized in Sciences of Education, Didactics and Basket-Ball. Ex-Player of Tunisian National Team of Basket-Ball / Trainer Third Degree of Basket-Ball.

High Institute of Sports and Physical Education / Department of Didactics / University of Sfax, Tunisia.

2 Professor of Medicine / Department of Pulmonology / University of Tunis.

Head of Service of Pulmonology and Head of Laboratory of Breathing Exploration / Hospital Abderrahman MAMI / Ariana / Tunis / Tunisia.

slimkhiari@yahoo.fr

 

Abstract: Our objective of research is to disclose styles of teaching the more adopted by the starting teachers (training), in order to assure, to their points of view, an efficient teaching and an active involvement of pupils in the educational act. To this object, we made recourse to a questionnaire addressed to 80 training teachers of the ISSEP of Sfax, distributed according to the gender and the nature of the sport taught. We note that the starting teachers always look for the sense of security that doesn't give them programs based on principles, rather than on a precise organization of progressions or matters to teach, while trying to imply, carefully, the pupil in the simple educational tasks. In general, the reproductive styles are the more used; what inhibits the role of pupils like active actors in the production of their own trainings.

[Slim Khiari and Habib Ghedira. Effects of the Gender and the Nature of Sport on the Choice of Adoption of Teaching Styles by the Training Teachers. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):315-323]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.43

 

Key-Words: Styles of teaching - teacher starting - gender - nature of the sport.

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Impact of Grass Carp Stocking Densityon Vegetation Managementin AswanReservoir - Egypt (case study)

 

Salwa M. Abou El Ella

 

Channel Maintenance Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621, Egypt

salwaabouelella@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Stocking grass carp Ctenopharyngodonidella Val. is a commonly applied technique used to management nuisance aquatic vegetation spread in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative feeding preferences of grass carpto the plant species. In Aswan Reservoir there are several islands, the shorelines are infested by submerged weeds. The infested areas were one of the main resources of submerged weeds which were often removed by fisher’s activities and finally accumulated upstream the power stations (1) and (2). The study evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a reservoir for control of Ceratophyllumdemersum, Vallisneriaspirlis L. and Naiasarmatalindb. and the associated effects on water quality. The significant differences were detected before and after grass carp stocking for temperature, pH, secchi depth, or dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate sulphate, copper and iron concentrations during the months from November 1998 to October 2011. The results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant and reveal associated changes in water quality. The results of this study, the effectiveness and ecological impacts of utilizing grass carp for aquatic plant control will help managers in developing aquatic plant management plans.

[Salwa M. Abou El Ella. Impact of Grass Carp Stocking Densityon Vegetation Management in Aswan Reservoir - Egypt (case study). J Am Sci 2013;9(12):324-332]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.44

 

Key word: Grass carp, biological control, submerged weed, reservoir.

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Efficient Cluster Initialization Method Using Principal Component Analysis

 

Yousef Kh. Majdalawi

 

Computer Information Systems Department, the University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

E-mail: ymajdal@ju.edu.jo

Tel: +962-77-7487105

 

Abstract: Clustering is a very well known technique in data mining, pattern recognition and image processing, used to group data according to shared characteristics or a degree of convergences. One of the most widely used clustering techniques is the k-means algorithm. Solutions obtained from this technique are dependent on the initialization of cluster centers (centroids). Whenever the initial centroids are closed to the representative one in each cluster, k-means algorithm gives better results. In this article I proposed a new method to initialize the clusters. The proposed method is based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A comparison made between the conventional (random) and proposed method is performed. The new (proposed) method when applied to different data sets showed good results.

[Yousef Kh. Majdalawi. Efficient Cluster Initialization Method Using Principal Component Analysis. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 333-336]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.45

 

Keywords: Clustering, K-means, Principal Component Analysis, Data Mining, Pattern Recognition, Image Processing.

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Hypolipidemic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of avocado fruit on high cholesterol fed diet in rats and its antioxidant effect in vitro.

 

Elsayed Elbadrawy1, 2 and Lobna Shelbaya2

 

1Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, KSA

2Faculty of Specific Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

lobnashelbaya1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of avocado as a natural antioxidant at different concentration (0.1% and 0.3%) during heating cotton seed oils to different periods of time (7, 14, 21 days). Its antioxidant activity was studied in vitro by determination of peroxide, TBA and DPPH. The results showed that after heating for 21 days, the peroxide value of cotton seed oil, samples treated with different concentration of avocado extract (0.1% and 0.3%) and BHT were 12.9±0.70, 7.20±0.30, 6.73±0.47 and 9.66±0.32meq/kg, respectively. Also, this work aimed to study the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of avocado extract on rats. Hyperlipidemia in the animal was induced by feeding high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the rats consumed avocado extract showed significant decreases in serum ALT, AST, Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid and Bilirubin levels. Also, significant decreases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were observed while there was an increase in serum HDL-C.

[Elsayed Elbadrawy and Lobna Shelbaya. Hypolipidemic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of avocado fruit on high cholesterol fed diet in rats and its antioxidant effect in vitro. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): page 337-343]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.46

 

Key words: Avocado extract - antioxidant- DPPH- hypolipidemia- rats.

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A Phase II Study of Nd-YAG Laser Therapy in Patients with Non-Operable Malignant Obstructive Endobronchial Lesions after Prior Chemotherapy and/or Radiation Therapy

 

Hanan Shawky1, Ashraf Sayed Abd El- Haleem2, Ibraheem Salah3, Adel Alnozahy4 and Anke Klingner5

 

1Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital

2Armed forces

3Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital

4National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University

5Department of Physics, Basic Science, German University in Cairo

hannshawky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nd-YAG laser has long been used to treat cancers within the tracheobronchial tree. It offers the advantages of a relatively short duration of treatment, a low side effect profile, and a relatively low risk in patients with non-operable malignant obstructive endobronchial lesions. We report the first successful use of Nd-YAG laser as palliative management of non-operable malignant obstructive endobronchial lesions at Tanta University Hospital in cooperation with National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University and German University in Cairo. Patients and methods: A series of 16 patients with non-operable malignant obstructive endobronchial lesions after prior chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy at Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital were treated with laser therapy at Chest Department, Tanta University Hospital, in cooperation with National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University and German University, in Cairo during the period between January 2011 and October 2013. Endpoints were response rate (RR) and safety. Results: The mean age was 50.2 ± 9.7 years old. Malignant primary lung cancer was reported in 62.5% of the cases; and in 37.5% of the patients the diagnosis was metastatic tumors. All patients had obstructive pneumonitis at time of start of Nd- YAG laser therapy, while dyspnea was, reported in 93.75% of the patients followed by cough (87.5%) and hemoptysis (81.25%). Response rate was 81.4% with a significant improvement of clinical signs and symptoms, arterial blood gas indices and spirometric results, however, complete response (CR) occurred only in 2 (12.5%) patients. Progressive disease (PD) was recorded in 3 (18.75%) patients. Complications of the Nd- YAG laser therapy occurred in 8 of 16 cases (50%), included; bleeding in 31.25%, and respiratory failure in 6.25%. Conclusion: Nd-YAG laser is well-tolerated, and provides prompt and durable palliation in unresectable patients with malignant obstructive endobronchial lesions.

[Hanan Shawky, Ashraf Sayed Abd El- Haleem, Ibraheem Salah, Adel Alnozahy and Anke Klingner. A Phase II Study of Nd-YAG Laser Therapy in Patients with Non-Operable Malignant Obstructive Endobronchial Lesions after Prior Chemotherapy and/or Radiation Therapy. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):344-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.47

 

Key words: Nd-YAG laser, primary and secondary lung cancer, malignant obstructive endobronchial lesions.

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The Efficacy of Using Systemic Alendronate in Combination with Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Osteotomy Implant Site of Osteoporotic Rabbits

 

Amr Elkarargy 1, Mostafa Omran 2

 

1. Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA

2 Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA

dr.amr.elkarargy@qudent.org

 

Abstract: The success of osseointegration is mainly dependent on the state of the host bed. Therefore, concerns have been raised about osteoporosis, which is a condition believed to be associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Alendronate (ALO) is a potent bisphosphonate that have the ability to control systemic bone remodeling and inverting the osteoporotic effect. Moreover, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents an autologous source of growth factors essential for bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using systemic Alendronate drug combined with topically applied platelet-rich plasma at the osteotomy implant site of osteoporotic rabbits. Thirty-two non-pregnant female New Zealand white rabbits, weighting 2500-4000 gm and aged 6-9 months, were selected. All rabbits undergo bilateral ovariectomies (OVX operation) and followed low Calcium diet for 6 weeks to induce osteoporosis. After incidence of osteoporosis the animals were randomly categorized into 4 equal groups : Group I; one implant placed in the animal right tibia without treatment (control group), Group II: one implant placed in the animal right tibia after topical application of PRP (PRP group), Group III: one implant placed in the animal right tibia followed by weekly single dose of 5 mg/kg oral Alendronate sodium dissolved in normal saline for 8 weeks (ALO group) and Group IV: one implant placed in the animal right tibia after topical application of PRP and using oral (ALO) dissolved in normal saline, 8 weeks after implantation (ALO+PRP group). Bone density at the bone-implant interface was evaluated at 2,4,6 &8 weeks after implantation by a radiographic analyzing software (Digora). All rabbits were sacrificed and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) was used to evaluate implant-bone interface after 8 weeks of implantation. The greatest mean bone density was recorded in the ALO+PRP group, followed by the ALO group, then the PRP group, while the least value was the control group. the difference between groups was statistically significant (p<0.0001). The SEM results at 8th week after implantation showed the highest mean gap distance (µm) at the control group, followed by PRP and ALO groups whereas the ALO+PRP group showed the least distance. A statistically significant difference was seen between control group and all other groups while the difference between ALO group and ALO+PRP was insignificant. The combination of Alendronate and platelet-rich plasma could normalize the high rate of bone turnover that accompanied osteoporosis. Subsequently, enhancing the implants stability, reserving bone mass around the implant and activating bone growth on the implant surface, thereby promoting efficient implant osseointegration.

[Amr elkarargy, Mostafa Omran. The Efficacy of Using Alendronate in Combination with Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Osteotomy Implant Site of Osteoporotic Rabbits. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):353-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.48

 

Keywords: Dental implants, osseointegration, osteoporosis, biphosphonates, Alendronate, platelet-rich plasma.

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Estimation of the Radiation Dose for Some Individuals Working With Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

 

Tarek Mahmoud Morsi, Wael Mahmoud Badawy and Talaat Salah El Din Ahmed

 

Radiation Protection&Civil Defense Dept., Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Abu Zaabal, Egypt.

waelaea@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to estimate the radiation dose for some individuals who are working in oil companies. Radiation hazard arises due to high content of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the field of work. The radiation workers under investigation were examined externally by using thermoluminescence detectors such as TLD-100 for assessing the external dose and internally by using whole body counter with NaI(Tl) detector to evaluate the internal dose. The present results indicated that there is no any internal contamination. Total body potassium content was detected and ranged from 1.59 to 2.59 g K/kg. In addition; the annual effective dose resulting from 40K varied from 174 to 287 µSv. On the other hand, the external dose measured using TLD-100 dosimeters ranged from 0.38 to 0.73 mSv/y. These values are below the published worldwide limits according to latest ICRP publications (ICRP 103, 2007). Finally, the activity concentration of the analyzed NORM samples by using HPGe detector is 187 kBq/kg for Th-232, 607 kBq/kg for U-238 and 416 kBq/kg for Ra-226.

[Tarek Mahmoud Morsi, Wael Mahmoud Badawy and Talaat Salah El Din Ahmed. Estimation of the Radiation Dose for Some Individuals Working With Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):364-368]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.49

 

Key word: NORM; TLD; External dose; Internal dose; Whole body counter.

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Introducing Standardized Patients (SPs) into the Clinical Teaching at Taif University’s College of Medicine Girls Section (A Pilot Study).

 

Fatima A. M. Rushwan1, Dalal M. Nemenqani1, Amal I. Siddig1, Mutasim O. Ali2

 

 1College of medicine, Taif University, Taif, KSA.

2Faculty of medicine, University of Medical Sciences & Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

fatimarushwan@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: A Standardized Patient (SP) is an individual who is trained to portray an actual patient in order to be used in the teaching and assessment of medical students. The information available on using SPs in Saudi Medical schools is both limited and deficient. Aims: To assess the feasibility of using SPs in the clinical teaching at the Taif University College of Medicine (Girls Side) & to assess students’ responses to a SP based clinical exercise. Methods: The study was conducted over 2 phases: Phase I (Preparatory): case designing was completed, resources and requirements were outlined and made available, and SPs recruitment was conducted. Phase II (SP based exercise): A SP based clinical exercise was implemented on 4th year female students, later the students responded to a survey concerning the exercise. Results: Male candidates were excluded from the SPs recruitment process due to gender segregation rules. Female candidates recruitment from the community failed due to cultural concerns expressed by the candidates, other candidates failed to meet the English language requirements. SPs were recruited from college academic staff. 27 out of 36 students responded to the survey. 88.9% of students expressed some degree of satisfaction with the SP based exercise. Conclusion: The findings of our study supported the use of SPs, but special cultural considerations must be made when doing so. Further research is required to establish a valid national approach.

 [Fatima A. M. Rushwan, Dalal M. Nemenqani, Amal I. Siddig, Mutasim O. Ali. Introducing Standardized Patients (SPs) into the Clinical Teaching at Taif University’s College of Medicine Girls Section (A Pilot Study). J Am Sci 2013;9(12):369-373]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.50

 

Keywords: Standardized patients, medical education, teaching, assessment.

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Simulation of Water Hammer Oscillations in Single Pipe Line due to Sudden Valve Closure

 

O. S. Abd El Kawi1,2, H. F. Elbakhshawangy1 and M. N. Elshazly1

 

1 Egyptian Nuclear Research Center- Egypt

2 Faculty of Engineering – Al Baha University, Saudi Arabia.

usama_ali35@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Modeling and simulation are very powerful tools and have become an integral part in the design and development of engineering systems. The objective of this research is to develop a computer program to simulate water hammer oscillations in a single pipe line. A mathematical model has been developed to simulate water hammer in one dimensional single pipe line. A new FORTRAN program called HAM01 is developed to achieve the present work goal. The program is used to predict the discharge and pressure distribution in single pipe line. The predictive results are compared with previous numerical results. The results show the damping of pressure and discharge with time after fast close of the valve.

[O. S. Abd El Kawi, H. F. Elbakhshawangy and M. N. Elshazly. Simulation of Water Hammer Oscillations in Single Pipe Line due to Sudden Valve Closure. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):247-380]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.51

 

Keywords: water hammer, surge pressure, hydraulic transient.

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Investigation of Software Defects Prediction Based on Classifiers (NB, SVM, KNN and Decision Tree)

 

Amjad Hudaib1, Fawaz AL zaghoul1, Jaber AL Widian

 

IS Department, Jordan University, Jordan

j.alwedyan@arabou.edu.sa

 

Abstract-Constructing predictive model process can be considered as one important approach to improve software quality and testing efficiency. Testing and maintenance phases are the main factors which have to be taken when the cost estimation is carried out for the software product. Thus, accuracy of defects prediction will reduce the efforts in the testing process and give estimation for the product's required maintenance. This paper main goal is to investigate the potential use of automated data mining techniques in software defect problem. The results of this paper showed that the performance of the compared algorithms have a potential results against the software defects problem. Moreover, Naļve Bayesian method (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Trees, and K-nearest Neighbor (KNN) have been investigated on NASA data set. The bases of our comparison are the most popular evaluation measures for the classification techniques (F1, Precision, and Recall). The average of the three measures obtained against false data set indicated that the NB classifier outperformed the SVM, KNN and Decision Tree algorithms.

[Amjad Hudaib, Fawaz AL zaghoul, Jaber AL Widian. Investigation of Software Defects Prediction Based on Classifiers (NB, SVM, KNN and Decision Tree). J Am Sci 2013;9(12):381-386]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.52

 

Keyword: Software defect; data mining; classification

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An empirical study of quality in higher education in relation to stakeholders perspectives

 

Zafrul Allam, Siraj Ahmad

 

Assistant Professor, College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, K.S.A.

z.allam@sau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In the eyes of stakeholder, the quality in higher education varies in terms of degree. The present research conducted on stakeholder to know their perception about quality in higher education. This study contemplated to ascertain the institutional factors, the curriculum content, institutional resources of quality in higher education and also focus stakeholder’s perception of outcome and assessment related to quality in higher education. Sample consisted of 162 stakeholders selected randomly from Al-Kharj and Riyadh region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Results of the present study revealed that faculty and employer perceived similar preferences with regard to admission criteria, curriculum content and outcome and assessment as the most important factor contributing to quality in higher education. Although students preferences are in all dimension is lesser than other stakeholders. However, the employer has the view that institutional factor and teaching and learning experiences considered as the highest preferences than other stakeholders that contributing to quality in higher education. Investigators incorporated certain suggestions for future research.

[Allam, Z., Ahmad S. An empirical study of quality in higher education in relation to stakeholders perspectives. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):387-401]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.53

 

Key words: Quality, Higher Education, Stakeholders, Perception, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Study of Motivational Factors of Relapse among Substance Abuse Clients in Jordan

 

1Nevin Mostafa El-Aslry, 1Samah A. Abdel Waheed and 2Mutasem Khaled Abdulla Al-Ajalein

 

Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty Nursing, Ain Shams, University, Egypt

Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty Nursing, Alzaytoona University of Jordan, Jordan

Mema_lolo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Most of substance abuses are defined as ‘relapsing diseases’, meaning that there is a high frequency of relapse. But there are motivational factors that encourage clients to relapse; this study is about relapse and its motivational factors. Aim: identify the relapse, and motivational factors around the substance abuse client, as well as the relation between them. Design: A descriptive study was used. Setting: National Rehabilitation Center in Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Subjects: A convenience sample of all available substance abuse clients (no=72). Tools: Clients' Tools: a) an Interview Questionnaire Sheet, b) Relapse Situations Screening Questionnaire (RSSQ). Results reveals that: the mean age of substance abuse clients is 31.6, majority of the clients are males with secondary education, also shows highly significant negative relation between law and legal sanctions as a rehabilitation motivator with age and monthly income, highly significant relationship between religious and religion ethics as rehabilitation motivator regarding to the increase of period between relapse and joining rehabilitation. Furthermore the severity of emotional factors as relapse motivator highly significant affected by age and profession, the severity of substance and physical factors as relapse motivator highly significant affected by academic qualification and profession. The severity of social factors as relapse motivator highly significant affected by the age and academic qualification. Conclusion: Family and community relationship is the powerful motivator for rehabilitation or relapse. Decrease number of female at the rehabilitation center is a dangerous point at our societies despite of the high number of female clients. Most of relapsed client used alcohol as first substance. Law and legal sanctions do not make any motivation to the substance abuse client to join rehabilitation program Recommendations: Improve the rehabilitation program and provide more services for substance abuse clients and their families, improve the follow up system.

[Nevin Mostafa El-Aslry, Samah A.Abdel Waheed and Mutasem Khaled Abdulla Al-Ajalein. Study of Motivational Factors of Relapse among Substance Abuse Clients in Jordan J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 402-408]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.54

 

Key words: Substance Abuse Client; Relapse; Rehabilitation; Motivational Factors

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[J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 409-417]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55. doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.55

withdrawn

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Early Clomiphene Citrate for Induction of Ovulation in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome a randomized controlled trial

 

Elguindy A.1, Hussein M. 1* and El-Shamy R 2

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ain Shams University

2 Research Fellow- Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital

Moh_marwa_omar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the current trial was to compare early (starting immediately following the progestin given to induce withdrawal bleeding) to the conventional (starting on day 2 of the withdrawal bleeding) clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment in induction of ovulation in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: The current randomized controlled trial included women with a diagnosis of PCOS. Only women who have oligo/amenorrhea were recruited. Women were then randomized into one of two groups: group I, including women who received CC for 5 days, starting on the day after the last dose of the oral progestin without waiting for the withdrawal bleeding; and group II, including women who received CC at the same dose and for the same duration, but starting on day 2 of the induced withdrawal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) for folliculometry and measuring the endometrial thickness was performed on day 10 from the onset of the induced withdrawal bleeding, and repeated every 48 hours till a mature follicle was detected. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included number and size of recruited follicles and endometrial thickness. Results: A total of 40 women were recruited in the current trial. Early CC was associated with a slightly higher rate of detecting at least one mature follicle when compared to early CC; this difference was, however, not significant. The mean endometrial thickness (at the day of detecting at least one mature follicle) was significantly higher in early CC group. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding the cycle day at hCG administration. The clinical pregnancy rate was slightly higher in early CC group; this difference was not significant [3 (15%) vs. 2 (10%), respectively, p=0.999]. Conclusion: For induction of ovulation in women with PCOS, early CC administration seems to be associated with significantly thicker endometrium, slightly higher ovulation and pregnancy rates, when compared to the conventional CC administration.

[Elguindy A., Hussein M. and El-Shamy R. Early Clomiphene Citrate for Induction of Ovulation in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome a randomized controlled trial. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 418-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.56

 

Key word: polycystic ovary syndrome – induction of ovulation – clomiphene citrate – early clomiphene citrate

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Study of Some Non-Woven Hygiene Products Properties Manufactured In Egypt

 

Heba Assem El-Dessouki

 

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shamis

h_eldessouki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The properties of non-woven women's sanitary pads locally made were studied. Four locally made non-woven absorbent pads samples namely; Roro absorbent pad (sample A), AoFu absorbent pad (sample B), Always ultra thin absorbent pad (sample C) and Cinderella absorbent pad (sample D), were analyzed. They were subjected to physical and performance test such as weight, thickness, length/width, air permeability, absorbent capacity, and fluid test using standard equipment. The results obtained showed that pad’s length, width, and thickness affect the density of the sanitary pads. This also greatly affects the free absorbent capacity of the pads. Thus, sample D appeared to have the highest absorbent capacity than the rest of the absorbent pads, while sample A had the least absorbent capacity.

[Heba Assem El-Dessouki. Study of Some Non-Woven Hygiene Products Properties Manufactured In Egypt J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 423-425]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.57

 

Keywords: Hygiene Products, Sanitary pads, Absorbent, Thickness, Dimensions.

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Development Effect of Attention and Memory through Ph. Ed Lesson on School Boys Skill Level

 

Dr. Abdullah Mohamed Mannaa Altahawy

 

Curriculum and teaching methods, Faculty of Education, Physical Education, Zagazig University

Sm_03_05@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The research aims at developing the skills level in the main part of sports lesson through developing attention and memory.The experimental methodology is used by a design of pre-measurement and post-measurement of two groups. The sample of study consists of the pupils of the 1st year of Sadat preparatory School in Sharkia whose number is 188. The sample embodies 80 in three groups.

[Abdullah Mohamed Mannaa Altahawy. Development Effect of Attention and Memory through Ph. Ed Lesson on School Boys Skill Level. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 426-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.58

 

Keywords: Attention, Memory, Skill Level

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Urinary Mercury Level, Neurobehavioral Performance And Some Biochemical Markers In Children with Amalgam Restorations

 

Nahed Abu Hamila1, Merfat Oreby 2, Tarek Al-nimer 3, Hanaa Hibishy 4 and Mohammed Seleem 5

 

1Department of pedodontics, Faculty of dentistry, Tanta University.

2Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

3Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University.

4Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

5Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University.

dr_nahed2009@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: At present, there is a lack of scientific evidence on toxicity from low-level mercury exposure in children. Despite the debate over the safety of dental amalgam fillings, amalgam is still widely used to restore posterior teeth in pediatric dentistry. Although, children could be at greater risk to harm from low-level exposure due to their developing nervous systems. Hence, this research was carried out to define some potential health effects from dental amalgam on children's health. Children were selected from those attending the Pedodontic clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University. They were subjected to clinical examination, neurobehavioral and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment, urinary mercury level, serum; malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn), and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) measurement. The present study revealed that the mean urinary mercury level was significantly higher in the amalgam group (8.15+0.99 μg/L) than in the control group (3.53+0.94 μg/L). The urinary mercury level in children who had more than two amalgams or had duration 2 years or more was higher than children who had less than 2 amalgams or had duration less than 2 years. There was no difference in IQ between children with and without amalgam fillings. The children who had amalgam restoration were estimated to be more withdrawn, more anxious/depressed, and to have more social problems than the control group. Furthermore, greater attention problems and delinquent/rule-breaking problems were recorded in the children with amalgam filling than in the control children. Also there was significant increase of serum MDA level and significant decrease of serum levels of GSH, Zn, and GABA levels in amalgam group than the control. These changes were more evident in children who had more than 2 amalgams or had duration 2 years or more.

[Nahed Abu Hamila, Merfat Oreby, Tarek Al-nimer, Hanaa Hibishy and Mohammed Seleem. Urinary Mercury Level, Neurobehavioral Performance And Some Biochemical Markers In Children with Amalgam Restorations. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 430-440]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.59

 

Key Words: Mercury; Intelligence; Neurobehavioral Performance, Malondialdehyde; Reduced glutathione; Zinc, Gamma amino butyric acid.

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Proposal to apply CBAHI standards on five primary healthcare centers in Holy Capital in Saudi Arabia

 

1M.M Alameer, 1K. l Alshareef, 1A.A Almalky, 1k.M Jamal, H.H.Alkaf, T.M.Alsoubhi, A.S.Dablool and 2A.A Abdulmaksoud

 

1Ministry of Health Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Health Management Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm AlQurra University

adelabusaif87@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the level of service at five health centers in the holy capital before and during the application of quality standards of central board accreditation health institute (CBAHI) for primary health care centers which are expected to be applied by the Ministry of Health in order to provide high quality health services to satisfy society. It also aims to challenge health services appreciated by reviewers in these centers. The study identified five of the health centers namely prosperous Al-zahir PHCs and Kuwdi &Al-hijra PHCs from Prince Ahmed health sector, Al-adel PHCs, and East Al-azizia from Al-adel health sector and Al-nuwaria PHCs from Al-taneem health sector. The five healthcare centers have been selected by the Ministry of Health in the Holy Capital to qualify for the accreditation of quality. The current study included 250 reviewers, which represent a random sample of the population in the holy capital city. Where 50 questionnaires were distributed to each of these centers (25 to male reviewers and 25 to female reviewers) to see their opinions about the service provided for them from the healthcare centers.

[.M Alameer, K. l Alshareef, A.A Almalky, K.M Jamal, H.H. Alkaf, T.M. Alsoubhi, A.S. Dablool and A.A Abdulmaksoud. Proposal to apply CBAHI standards on five primary healthcare centers in Holy Capital in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 441-444]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.60

 

Keywords: CBAHI : Central board accreditation health institutePHCs : Primary health care centers

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Elevated Body Mass Index in Expectation of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

 

Ali Farid Mohamed1, Noha Hamed Rabei1 and Samer Samir Lamey2

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo Egypt

2Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology Heliopolis Hospital

Noha.rabei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the risk of elevated body mass index (BMI) in expectation of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Patients and methods: This is an observational case-control study which was carried at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital in the period between April 2010 to April 2011. It included 480 patients divided into two groups: Group I included 300 pregnant females with elevated BMI from 25-40 kg/m2 and group II which included 180 pregnant females as controls with normal BMI from 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2. They were pregnant from 25 to 35 weeks gestation. History taking and examination were performed. BMI was calculated for the participants. Blood pressure measurement was performed. They had oral glucose tolerance test OGTT. Results: There was a high statistical significant difference between both groups with higher mean age, BMI, fasting sugar, 1,2,3 hours postprandial sugar, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. There was a high statistical significant difference between both groups as regards the presence of GDM. Conclusion: BMI and age were the significant risk factors for GDM.

Ali Farid Mohamed, Noha Hamed Rabei and Samer Samir Lamey. Elevated Body Mass Index in Expectation of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 445-451]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.61

 

Key words: elevated body mass, (GDM), OGTT.

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Do Psychological Motives, Social Factors and Religion Effect oncollege Female Students’ Clothes Choice?

 

Eslam Abd Elhafiz Emara and Rabab Taher Abd Ellatif

 

Psychology Department, Faculty of Specific Education in, Damietta University, Egypt

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education in, Damietta University, Egypt

eslam.mara@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aims to examine to what extent the psychological and social motives of 233 Muslim and Christian college female students are associated with social factors. A second focus of the study is to explore clothes choice motives and factors ranks for both Muslims and Christians. Finally, the study reveals differences in motivates and factors for both Muslim and Christian college female. Using survey questionnaires, the researchers investigate the influences of the following: motivates (psychological and social) and social factors (societal traditions, media, religious, political and economic factors) on clothes choice. In addition, the effect of sample religion (Muslims and Christians) on clothes choice. Results indicate that there is significant correlation between both psychological and social motives and political factors and between psychological motives and media factors for Muslim college female students. There is significant correlation between social motives and societal traditions for Christian college female students. Findings reveal that different religion factor doesn't affect cloth choice for both Muslim and Christian college female students. Finally, results show significant difference between Muslim and Christian college female students in all dimensions of the questionnaire except political factors.

[Eslam Abd Elhafiz Emara and Rabab Taher Abd Ellatif. Do Psychological Motives, Social Factors and Religion Effect Oncollege Female Students’ Clothes Choice? J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 452-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.62

 

Key Words: psychological motives, social motives, societal factors, religion,clothes choice, Muslim college female students, Christian college female students

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Dentary of Masracetus markgrafi, Archaeocete in the north of Lake Qaroun, Fayoum Egypt

 

Gebely A. Abu El-kheir(1), Mohammed I. El Anbaawy(2), Sobhi A. Helal(3), Susan Gibbs(4)

 

(1) Egyptian Environmental Ministry, Qaroun protected area, Fayoum, Egypt. gebely2006@yahoo.com

(2) Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University. Egypt.

(3) Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Egypt. sobhihelal@yahoo.com

(4) Australian museum, Austarlia. sue.gibbs@bigpond.com

 

Abstract: This paper describes for the first time the dentary of the Masracetus markgrafi collected from the Late Middle Eocene (Late Bartonian) Gehannam Formation at Qaret umm Regl section, north of Lake Qaroun, Fayoum, Egypt. These teeth are found as isolated, well preserved elements among and beneath the remnants of the eroded and deformed vertebrae, ribs and other elements of the Masracetus markgrafi skeleton in calcareous mudstone layer. These teeth are similar in shape and ornamentation to those of the Basilosauridae, especially Basilosaurus isis and Dorudon atrox, but differ in their sizes. These specimens are represented by the upper and lower teeth of incisors, canine, premolars and molars. The internal structure of the teeth is studied in the thin section of the lower incisor of the Masracetus markgrafi.

[Gebely A. Abu El-kheir. Mohammed I. El Anbaawy Sobhi A. Helal, Susan Gibbs. Dentary of Masracetus markgrafi in the north of Lake Qaroun, Fayoum Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(12): 459-469]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.63

 

Keywords: Archaeocetes, Basilosauridae, Masracetus markgrafi, Middle Eocene, Bartonian, north of Lake Qaroun, Fayoum, Egypt.

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Improving breathlessness and fatigue in patient with COPD

 

Manal Salah, Asmaa Hamdi, Hanan Shehata

 

Medical-surgical nursing department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt

asmaa.hamdi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Dyspnea (shortness of breathing) and fatigue are the two most common symptoms experienced by patients with COPD. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of breathlessness and fatigue management guidelines on breathlessness and fatigue among the patients suffering from COPD. Subjects and Methods: A purposeful sample of 50 adult patients was selected from the respiratory disease clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital. Tools for data collection: Patient's assessment and clinical data sheet, patient's breathlessness and fatigue knowledge questionnaire, Patients' practices observational checklists, Modified Borg Scale (MBS), Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale, The Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory Short Form (MFSI-SF) and Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) were used to collect data. Results: All of the studied patients had unsatisfactory knowledge and the minority of them had unsatisfactory practices regarding dyspnea and fatigue management before educational guidelines intervention, which improved after guideline intervention with a highly significant differences. Also, the breathlessness, fatigue and anxiety improved in patients with COPD who received breathlessness and fatigue management guidelines. Conclusions: Implementation of breathlessness and fatigue management guidelines had improved patients' level of knowledge, practices, dyspnea, dimensions of fatigue and anxiety level. Recommendations: Conducting comprehensive health education programs for patients with COPD in outpatients' clinics with simplified printed guidelines through leaflets or brochures explaining how to prevent and control breathlessness and fatigue and Further evaluation of the effect of strategies to prevent and ameliorate breathlessness and fatigue intensity and distress responses in larger sample of COPD patients in order to generalize the results.

[Manal Salah, Asmaa Hamdi, Hanan Shehata. Improving breathlessness and fatigue in patient with COPD. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):470-482]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.64

 

Key words: shortness of breath; fatigue; COPD

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P2/MS index for esophageal varices prediction in hepatitis C related liver cirrhosis

 

Sherif S Shabana, Hany A Hussein, Ahmed S Abo-Halima, Sameh A Abdel-bary

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

samehmind@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Recent guidelines recommend that all cirrhotic patients without previous variceal hemorrhage should undergo endoscopic screening to detect esophageal varices (EV). Noninvasive identification of patients at highest risk for EV would limit investigation to those most likely to benefit. Aim: To evaluate the predictive value of P2/MS index derived from the patient's complete blood count in detecting EV in HCV related liver cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: 100 patients with HCV related liver cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for detection and classification of EV as low risk or high risk (HEV). All patients had complete blood count, AST, ALT, serum albumin, total bilirubin, INR and abdominal ultrasound. P2/MS [platelet count2 (109/L) /monocyte (%) x segmented neutrophil (%)] and some other previously reported non-invasive scores for EV detection (AAR, API, APRI, ASPRI, SPRI and platetlet count/spleen diameter ratio) were calculated for all subjects. Results: the prevalence of EV was 73% and of HEV 48%. For detection of EV, P2/MS showed a sensitivity of 98.63%, specificity of 92.59%, 97.3% positive predictive value, 96.2% negative predictive value, 13.32 positive likelihood ratio and 0.01 negative likelihood ratio at cutoff value ≤ 15.57. For detecting high risk esophageal varices (HEV), P2/MS showed a sensitivity of 95.83%, specificity of 84%, 92% positive predictive value, 91.3% negative predictive value, 5.99 positive likelihood ratio and 0.05 negative likelihood ratio at cutoff value ≤ 10.12. P2/MS had the highest AUROC compared with other scores in both detecting the presence of esophageal varices (0.987, 95% CI 0.940 - 0.998) and in HEV detection (0.930, 95% CI 0.846 - 0.977). Conclusion: P2/MS is a reliable simple non-invasive index for the detection and classification of EV in patients with HCV related liver cirrhosis and it is recommended that patients with P2/MS ≤ 10.12 should have screening endoscopy.

 [Sherif S Shabana, Hany A Hussein, Ahmed S Abo-Halima, Sameh A Abdel-bary. P2/MS index for esophageal varices prediction in hepatitis C related liver cirrhosis. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):483-488]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.65

 

Key Words: HCV, cirrhosis, P2/MS, esophageal varices, noninvasive.

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Using the Finite Element Analysis of Digitalized Photos to Evaluate the Quality of Concrete

 

Ragab M. Abd El-Naby, Emad A. M. El-Dardiryand Naji A. Abo Azzom

 

Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Shoubra, Benha University

e_eldardiry@yahoo.co.uk, emad.eldardiry@feng.bu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The characterization of concrete on macrostructure based evaluation using the numerical techniques is still limited because modeling the concrete as a single-phase material. Therefore, misunderstanding the actual behavior of the concrete elements is the end result. On the other hand, microstructural analysis are still qualitative technique and very difficult to be used to assess the mechanical characteristics of the concrete. The foregoing difficulties motivated researchers to seek new concepts to maximize the benefits from using the finite element analysis. The Digital Image Analysis has been used to identify aggregate quality and gradation. Recently, attempts are carried out torelate the output of the digital image processing to the numerical analysis. Concrete cylindrical specimens of different mixes that manually or mechanically compacted were used to implement the experimental program. The concrete specimens were saw cut and photographed using digital camera. The photos were treated using computer software to be transferred to the AUTOCAD program as two layers; cement mortar and aggregate. Then, the AUTOCAD files were exported to the finite element analysis software SAP2000 to verify the influence of the aggregate type and the method of compaction on the quality and the mechanical properties of the concrete mixes. The results showed that linking the output data of the digital image processing to the finite element analysis led to identify the concrete as a multiphase layers system and consequently, the finite element program succeeded to predict the location of failure inside the system ( in the cement mortar, the aggregate, or at the interface). Also, the finite element analysis succeeded to distinguish among concrete mixes that contained gravel or dolomite aggregates which were compacted using manual or mechanical compaction.

[Ragab M. Abd El-Naby, Emad A. M. El-Dardiryand Naji A. Abo Azzom. Using the Finite Element Analysis of Digitalized Photos to Evaluate the Quality of Concrete. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):489-505]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.66

 

Keywords: Single phase material, Double phase material, Cement mortar, Interface, Failure, Digital image analysis

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Prediction of Hepatorenal Syndrome by Model of End Stage Liver Disease Score

 

Mahmoud A. Kora, Ahmed Zahran and Ahmed Ragheb

 

Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Egypt.

ahmed173@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a sever complication of liver cirrhosis with ascites. Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) is a widely accepted objective scoring system for patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to investigate if MELD score can predict the short term development of HRS or not.

Method: A prospective follow up study of a 51 patients with known advanced chronic liver disease for the development of HRS. MELD score was calculated initially for all patients. Patients were followed during their admission for development of HRS. 33% of the patients developed type 1 HRS (group 1), 37% developed type 2 HRS (group 2) and 29% did not develop HRS (group 3). Forward logistic regression analysis was done to detect the predictors of HRS. Receiving Operation Characteristic (ROC) was constructed to detect the cut off value for the best predictor of HRS. Results: MELD score was found to be differ significantly among the 3 groups (25.26 + 5.42 for group 1, 21.01 + 3.35 for group 2 and 16.78 + 2.00 for group 3), P <.001. Forward logistic regression analysis and ROC curve showed that MELD score can shortly predict the development of type 1 HRS at cut off value 23.4 and HRS in general with cut off value 17.7 with good sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values. Conclusion: MELD score can be helpful in the short term prediction of HRS which allows early initiation of therapy and improvement of prognosis.

[Mahmoud A. Kora, Ahmed Zahran and Ahmed Ragheb. Prediction of Hepatorenal Syndrome by Model of End Stage Liver Disease Score. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):506-511]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.67

 

Keywords: Hepatorenal syndrome, Model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score, Decompensated liver cirrhosis and Hepatic failure.

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Schizophrenic Patients's Perception of Factors Leading to Relapse

 

* Zubida Abd El Gawad Alsherif and Sohier Goda El Said Abd Elrahman

 

Psychiatric Nursing Dept. Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt,

Psychiatric Nursing Dept, Faculty of Nursing, Port said University, Port said, Egypt

alsherifzobida@yahoo.com;

 

Abstract: Background: Relapse in schizophrenia remains common and cannot be entirely eliminated even by the best combination of biological and psychosocial interventions. Relapse is one of the major contributing factors to the high burden of disability of mental illness. The present study was conducted; to identify factors leading to relapse in schizophrenia as perceived by patients. Methods; this study Is a descriptive study, Data were collected from psychiatric patients (76; 60 male and16 female) were chosen and agreed to share in this study from El-Fuhais Psychiatric Hospital in Jordan during the year 2011. Results: the most of patients aged between 36-60 years of age. 64.4% of them were not working, and most of them were male patients (78.9). 46% of patients were single patients and 38.1% were married. Most of patients (38.2%) had quite home atmosphere and 27.6 % had social and 17.1% had financial troubles. Regarding the factors that affect patient's relapse rate as perceived by patients in relation to their marital status; there was a significant relationship between male and female in relation to vital functions of them (p<0.054) Conclusion: In order to further the development of scientific knowledge, and research the findings of this research must be communicated to patients and families for developing psychoeducational program for relapse prevention; Educational interventions for families must be done to reduce symptoms and prevent relapse; Recruitment of patients to support design, improvement that should be done directly and personally; Awareness of early signs of relapse and adequate recognition of these signs make early intervention possible.

 [Zubida Abd El Gawad Alsherif and Sohier Goda El Said Abd Elrahman. Schizophrenic Patients's Perception of Factors Leading to Relapse. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):512-517]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.68

 

Keywords: Psychiatric relapse, schizophrenia, compliance

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Determinants of the Likelihood to Pay Dividends: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

 

Husam-Aldin N. Al-Malkawi1, Abdullah E. Twairesh2, Khadija Harery3

 

1Department of Finance, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

E-mail: h.almalkawi@gmail.com

2Department of Finance and Investment, College of Business Administration, University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Finance, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of the likelihood to pay dividends of firms listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange (SSE). The analysis is based on panel data techniques covering the period from 2005 to 2011 with 483 firm-year observations. The study develops ten testable research hypotheses and uses the general-to-specific modelling approach to choose between the rival hypotheses. We estimate the determinants for a given firm to pay dividends to its shareholders through the binary response model, namely Logit regression. The results show that larger, profitable and mature firms are more likely to pay dividends while firms with high leverage and business risk are less likely to pay dividends in the Saudi context. The results also reveal that ownership structure, growth opportunities and asset tangibility are not statistically significant determinants of corporate dividend decisions in Saudi Arabia. These results are generally consistent with the agency costs and the transaction costs hypotheses. The evidence also lends some support for the signalling and the pecking order arguments.

[Al-Malkawi H, Twairesh A, Harery Kh. Determinants of the Likelihood to Pay Dividends: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013; 9(12):518-528]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.69

 

Keywords: Dividend decision, General-to-specific modelling, Logit model, Panel data, Saudi Arabia

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The Curative Effects of some Antioxidants on Endotoxin Induced with Lipopolysaccharide in the Liver of Rats

 

Heibashy, M.I.A.1; Mazen, G.M.A.1 and Shahin, M.I.2

 

1 Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

2 Zoology Department, Women's Collage, Ain Shams University

Semsma.mona2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate the ameliorating effect of α-lipoic acid, L-carnitine or N-acetylcysteine and their mixture in salvaging endotoxin-induced hepatic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the liver of rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a single dose of 5mg/kg intraperitoneally to the animals, which were being treated with α-lipoic acid, L-carnitine, N-acetylcysteine or their mixture daily for 30 days. The obtained data revealed that LPS induced a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum liver function tests (ALT, AST, ALP & γGT), cyclooxygenase-2 and resistin than those in control ones. Liver lipid peroxidation was significantly (p <0.05) elevated in LPS rats compared with those obtained in the control animals group. In addition, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 & TNF-α) were significantly (p <0.05) increased associated with a remarkable elevation in the level of serum plasminogen inhibitor-1 in LPS rats. On the other hand, LPS caused significant (p <0.05) decrease in liver antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase) and serum total nitric oxide levels. After LPS rats group treated with α-lipoic acid, L-carnitine, N-acetylcysteine or their mixture for 30 days, a considerable amelioration effects in all previous studied parameters were pronounced dependent on certain mechanisms which were discussed according to available recent researches.

[Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A. and Shahin, M.I. The Curative Effects of some Antioxidants on Endotoxin Induced with Lipopolysaccharide in the Liver of Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):529-538]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.70

 

Key words:Endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharide, α-lipoic acid, L-carnitine, N-acetylcysteine

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Design and Development of Head and Neck Swellings Automatic Resection Tool Based on Artificial Intelligent Technique

 

G.N.Gouid1, A.AA. Nasser2, M. Z. Mostafa3and D. M. El-Hennawi4

 

1 Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt,

2 2Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transports, Alexandria, Egypt.

3 Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt.

4 Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

gamal_dr1430@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Resection of Head and Neck Swellings by current medical instruments is a time consuming task and has inability to assist in accurate operation and injury in the adjacent structures during surgery. Research automatic tool has been developed to overcome these issues. But Automatic Resection of Head and Neck Swellings is a complicated task due to the variance and intricacy of Swellings; to over by this problem we have developed a new Tool for automatic Resection of Head and Neck Swellings (HANSR Tool). In the proposed tool the Resection of Head and Neck Swellings is done based on Artificial Intelligent Technique. In this method support vector machine is utilized for classification of two dimensional brain tumor MR images to extract the tumor and that tumor can be projected into the three dimensional plane to analyze the location and dimensional of the Swelling tissue. Research tool equipped with a C-MOS camera to utilize new image recognition in order to intelligently and autonomously grasp objects. Aggregation cavity which is used to aggregation fluid during surgery and small lamp which located backward of visualization sensor that allows perfect vision during the operation. It is also reported the development of the basic electronic devices and machine to run an intelligent HANSR tool and proposes, as well, a software developed in computer system to establish the communication between the intelligent tool and the surgeon. As a result the Resection of Head and Neck Swellings performance becomes faster and safer than before while the surgeon's hand used. Finally, the main objective of this research is the introduced of an intelligent tool is utilized to perform automatic Resection of Head and Neck Swellings without causing any injury in the adjacent structures during surgery.

[G.N.Gouid, A.AA. Nasser, M. Z. Mostafa and D. M. El-Hennawi. Design and Development of Head and Neck Swellings Automatic Resection Tool Based on Artificial Intelligent Technique. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):539-546]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.71

 

Keywords: Head and Neck Swellings, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Support Vector Machine (SVM), intelligent control system

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Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy On The Expression Pattern Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) And Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) In Gingival Tissues Affected By Chronic Periodontitis

 

Amr Elkarargy

 

Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA

dr.amr.elkarargy@qudent.org

 

Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the expression of both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in gingival tissues affected by chronic periodontitis. Gingival samples (2-3mm) were collected from thirty chronic periodontitis patients before and 4 weeks after non-surgical periodontal therapy, twenty periodontally healthy subjects were included in the study as a control group. All tissue samples were processed using immunohistochemical technique. The results demonstrated expression of iNOS and VEGF in healthy and diseased gingival tissues, there was a statistically significant difference regarding the expression of the two markers in chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy (P<0.05). Also there was a significant difference in the iNOS and VEGF expression between chronic periodontitis patients and the healthy control subjects (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the two studied biomarkers regarding the immunohistochemical expression in the gingival tissues before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy (P<0.05). In conclusion VEGF and iNOS are continually produced and expressed in healthy and diseased gingival tissues; non-surgical periodontal therapy with antibiotics combination greatly affects the expression patterns of both biomarkers. Further investigations are required to determine the actual changes in the levels and volumes of iNOS and VEGF after periodontal therapy

[Amr Elkarargy. Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in gingival tissues affected by chronic periodontitis. J Am Sci 2013; 9(12):547-556]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.72

 

Keywords: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), non-surgical periodontal therapy, chronic periodontitis.

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The Statistical Analysis between Instant Solar Radiation and Instant Temperature in Fayoum Governorate - Egypt

 

M. Abdelmonem1, N. Yasein 2, H. Hassan 3and G. Said 4

 

1Physics Department, Science Faculty, Fayoum University

2Applied Nuclear Physics, Science Faculty, Helwan University

3Applied Solid State Physics, Science Faculty, Cairo University

4Applied Solid State Physics, Science Faculty, Fayoum University

man9max@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An empirical relation correlating the instant measured solar radiation R1 (W/m2) and the instant temperature T (K) was undertaken. A mathematical analysis was performed to give a relation expressing the instant calculated solar radiation R2 (W/m2) and the corresponding temperature T (K) by two coefficients a and b. A FORTRAN computer program has been employed to predict these regressing coefficients together with the instant calculated solar radiation R2. Also, we have manipulated a useful statistical analysis between R1 and R2 together by calculating the mean bias error MBE = (1/n)∑(R1-R2) and the root mean square error RMSE = (1/n)[∑(R1-R2)2](1/2) QUOTE . QUOTE  This study was performed by using measurements extended along four days in different seasons between Jan 17, 2010 and Oct 17, 2010 in Fayoum Governorate-Egypt (Latitude 29.308374 o N and longitude 30.844105o E). We predicted the value of the annual daily average of the global solar radiation RG in Fayoum region (19.7MJ/m2/day) in comparison with its values in different global locations.

[M. Abdelmonem, N. Yasein, H. Hassan and G. Said. The Statistical Analysis between Instant Solar Radiation and Instant Temperature in Fayoum Governorate - Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):557-567]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.73

 

Keywords: Annual average daily global solar radiation; Statistical analysis; Correlation equation; FORTRAN computing; Fayoum-Egypt.

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Utilization of Nursing Process in Clinical Practices: Nurses Knowledge and Barriers

 

Salwa El-Badry Aly, Wafaa N. Ahmed Besely.

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

annyelbadry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The nursing process is central to nursing ac­tions in any setting because it is an efficient method of organizing thought processes for clinical decision making and problem solv­ing. This study was carried out to determine the extent of understanding to its use and barriers as viewed by academic and professional nursing staff. The convenience studied subjects (447) comprised academic nursing staff at the Medical Surgical Nursing department, Alexandria Faculty of Nursing, nursing graduates working at the units at the Main University Hospital and the faculty students enrolled to the medical surgical nursing courses from the year 2006 till 2010. The developed tool included three parts which describe knowledge and barriers in applying nursing process in different medical surgical clinical settings. The results revealed limited knowledge in academic nursing staff, while it was approximately absent in both undergraduate and graduate nurses. The main difficulty to applying the nursing process was nursing diagnoses. The barriers included lack of knowledge, skills, and time. Moreover lack of nursing assessment and care plan formats in addition to the lack of support and enforcement by administrative policies might explain the results.

 [Salwa Al-Badry Aly, Wafaa N. Ahmed Besely. Utilization of Nursing Process in Clinical Practices: Nurses Knowledge and Barriers. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):568-574]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.74

 

Keywords: Nursing Process, Clinical Practice, Utilization Barriers.

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The Effect of Common using Acupressure Points on Decreasing Pain

 

Salwa El-Badry Aly

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

annyelbadry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pain management encompasses various types of pain experiences throughout an individual’s life cycle from birth to the end of life. Pain experiences may include acute and chronic pain. The basics assessment of pain is determine site and severity. According to this assessment the nurse select the proper nursing care to decrease or relieve pain. Acupressure is one of nursing technique which used in decreasing acute and chronic pain through its meridian according to the disease related. Nevertheless there are general points reduce any pain whatever its cause. The aim of the present quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect of common points of acupressure on decreasing intensity in different types of pain. This was clinically tested at “the surgery units” of the Main University Hospital at Alexandria. The study comprised 90 adult patients with three different types of pain. Patients of both sexes were equally assigned to three equal groups, 30 patients each. Data of the study was collected using a tool named” pain assessment sheet”. Two parts was included in the tool, one of them; Holistic pain assessment sheet and the other is Visual Analogue Scale.Results of this study revealed that acupressure technique decrease acute pain, post operative wound pain and chronic pain, headache related to brain tumor and low back pain related to lumbar disc prolapsed by using common acupressure points This concluded that common acupressure points decreasing acute and chronic pain. So, using common points on decreasing both acute and chronic pain is recommended.

[Salwa El-Badry Aly. The Effect of Common using Acupressure Points on Decreasing Pain. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):575-582]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.75

 

Keywords: Effect; Common; Acupressure Point; Decreasing Pain

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Proportionla Integral Derivative versus Proportional Integral plus Control Applied to Mobile Robotic System

 

E. M. Shaban1 and Ayman A. Nada2

 

1Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, Jazan – PO 706, Saudi Arabia

2Benha Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Benha – 13512, Egypt

eeshaban@jazanu.edu.sa, ayman.nada@bhit.bu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: An autonomous robot is an embedded intelligent system that operates independently with real time computing constraints. These embedded systems are dedicated to specific tasks, therefore most researchers and design engineers are focusing to optimize its size and cost, as well as increase its reliability and performance. The development of complex control procedures within computerized and integrated systems is crucial and attracts high prospect in research and industry. One of the primary factors considered in the navigation of autonomous robot is dynamic modeling and real time control. In this regard, the recently developed Proportional Integral Plus (PIP) control is implemented over an autonomous guided robot. In the PIP control, full identification process for the discrete time model is carried out and the control law is estimated according to the measured data. The PIP control performance is compared with the optimal Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control methodology, for which the Internal Time Square Error (ITSE) index is used to design the controller constants. The advantages and limitations for these distinct approaches are identified in terms of both performance and design effort. A primitive semi-circle route is proposed for the robot when the two controllers are applied. Simple differential wheeled mobile robot is used with laptop host and LabView software.

[E. M. Shaban and Ayman A. Nada. Proportionla Integral Derivative versus Proportional Integral plus Control Applied to Mobile Robotic System. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):583-591]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.76

 

Keywords: Proportionla Integral Derivative; Proportional Integral; Mobile Robotic System

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Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Common Carotid Arteries Resistance and Pulsatility Indices in Current Sudanese Smokers

 

Khalid S. Alzimami 1, Mustafa Z. Mahmoud 2, 3, Abdelmoneim Sulieman 2, M. A. AliOmer 4

 

1. Radiological Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh- Saudi Arabia

2. Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj- Saudi Arabia

3. Basic Sciences Department, College of Medical Radiological Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum- Sudan

4. Department of Radiologic Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Al-Qassim- Saudi Arabia

kalzimami@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The effects of smoking on human health are serious and in many cases, deadly. This study intended to evaluate the effect induced by the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the common carotid arteries (CCAs), in Sudanese current smokers by using ultrasound. A prospective study was performed between July 2012 and October 2013 in a group consists of 900 (mean age of 28±1.1 years) healthy adults who categorized after scanning to 26.7% smoked 1-4 Cigarettes/day, 16% smoked 5-9 Cigarettes/day, 53.3% smoked ≥ 10 Cigarettes/day and 4% were nonsmokers. The CCAs ultrasound scanning protocol used should meet the standards established by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) to measure RI and PI. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the results. Significant, linear and positive correlation (P<0.0001) noted between the increases in consumption of cigarettes smoked per day and CCAs mean RI and PI, when compared to the nonsmokers participants. Increase the number of cigarettes smoked per day significantly altered the CCAs hemodynamics by increases the RI and PI values.

[Alzimami KS, Mahmoud MZ, Sulieman A, AliOmer MA. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Common Carotid Arteries Resistance and Pulsatility Indices in Current Sudanese Smokers. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):592-597]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.77

 

Keywords: Common carotid arteries (CCAs); pulsatility index (PI); resistance index (RI); ultrasound

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The Correlation between Life Satisfaction and Psychological Adjustment among a Group of Illicit Drug Addicts under Residential Treatment in Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Esam Elakad1, Ahmed Kobeisy2

 

1 Psychology Dept., Faculty of Arts, Sohag University, Egypt and King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

2 The Center for Social and Humanities Research, King AbdulAziz University.

akad80@yahoo.com & akobeisy@kau.edu.sa or akobeisy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Substance dependence in Saudi Arabia is a wide-spread problem and is destroying the lives of many individuals and families. Furthermore, authorities in Saudi Arabia consider this problem a threat to the Kingdom’s national security and to its economic stability. In the Kingdom, crimes of smuggling and/or distributing illicit substances subject the perpetrators to the death penalty. Based on Islamic law (sharia’), the Country prohibits all intoxicants of any kind and applies various serious penalties on any level or form of consumption. In order to encourage seeking treatment and rehabilitation by afflicted individuals, the government allows hospitals, both private and public, to provide treatment for those who seek it without having to report their information. Aim: This study aims at finding the level of life satisfaction and its correlation to psychological adjustment among a group of male illicit drug addicts who are in residential treatment at Al-Amal hospital in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia for the hope of finding ways to enhance the level and speed of recovery and prevent relapse among rehabilitated individuals in the future. Method: The researchers applied a multi-item satisfaction with life scale that is based on Hubner’s Manual for the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction scale (2001). This scale was translated into Arabic and adjusted for use in the Arab culture by Abdel Maqsoud (n.d.). In addition, the researchers used the Psychological Adjustment Scale in Arabic. The two scales were administered to a sample of illicit-substance male addicts seeking treatment in Al Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Results The participants’ group number is 54 male inpatients whose ages ranged from 17-31 with the Mean of 25, and Standard Deviation of 2.35 years. The Study found that a statistically significant correlation exists (0.05) between the level of life satisfaction and both personal and familial adjustment. The study, however, did not indicate the existence of correlation between satisfaction with life and other factors such as health, social, and overall adjustments among the study group. The researchers discuss the results in light of earlier studies and present some recommendations for both, prevention and rehabilitation of illicit-drug users.

[Esam Elakad and Ahmed Kobeisy. The Correlation between Life Satisfaction and Psychological Adjustment among a Group of Illicit Drug Addicts under Residential Treatment in Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):598-608]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.78

 

Key words: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Drug Abuse1, Addiction, Life Satisfaction, Psychological Adjustment, Al-Amal Hospital.

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The Attitudes and Barriers towards Evidence-Based Practice among Nursing Educators

 

Azza H.M. Hussein and Rehab G. Hussein

 

Assistant Professor, Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Lecturer of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt.

rehab.hussein@alex-nursing.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background: Nursing schools are challenged to use evidence-based approach in their own educational practice and to teach students to appreciate and practice it in nursing care. Yet many barriers hinder the widespread use of evidence-based practice within the academic and clinical nursing settings. Purposes: This study was developed to assess nursing educators' attitudes towards evidence-based practice and determine their perceptions of its related barriers. Method: A questionnaire includes 35 questions was hand delivered to 144 of nursing educators at nine academic nursing departments at the Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University pertaining to their attitudes towards evidence-based practice and their perceptions of its related barriers. Results: A positive attitude towards evidence-based practice was generally found to increase with advancing educational level, academic ranking, years of experience, and teaching and research role. Conversely, demonstrators and assistant lecturers less recognized evidence-based practice and they perceived organizational barriers (73.8±16.8) more than individual barriers (65.0± 24.1). Conclusion: Although nursing educators showed a positive attitude toward evidence-based practice, certain barriers were addressed which could hinder their smooth adoption to evidence-based practice. It is, therefore, desirable that the management of schools of nursing and health care agencies should develop a comprehensive strategy for building evidence-based practice competencies through proper training. Moreover, hospital libraries should also play an active role in developing adequate information literacy skills among the nurses and nursing educators.

 [Azza H.M. Hussein and Rehab G. Hussein. The Attitudes and Barriers towards Evidence-Based Practice among Nursing Educators. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):609-618]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.79

 

Key words: evidence-based practice, attitude, perceptions, barriers, nursing educators

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Sero-Epidemiological Studies of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hail region Saudi Arabia

 

Al-Olayan E M1, Metwally D M1&2and Alabooshkh F3

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA

2Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Hail University, Hail, KSA

eolayan@ksu.edu.sa, mdbody7@yahoo.com, dhasanin@ksu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic (cat born) disease caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. This disease pass from animal to human by eating undercooked meat or food, drink contaminated water with oocysts, management of contaminated soil or eating vegetables and fruits directly without proper cleaning. Research has established that toxoplasmosis can be passed through the placenta during pregnancy causing a hazard of abortion or even death of the fetus inside the uterus. If infection takes place during the last trimester of pregnancy, the baby will be born with congenital toxoplasmosis. This study was regulated to verify the percentage of pregnant women affected with toxoplasmosis in Hail region. Serum samples of 318 pregnant women ranging in age from 20 to more than 31 years old were collected from patients at the women’s hospital in Hail. Serum samples were separated and examined to evaluate toxoplasmosis antibodies by using four serological tests: (LAT- IHA – IFAT – ELISA IgM, IgG). The study results were obtained by applying serological tests (LAT, IHAT, IFAT, ELISA IgG, ELISA IgM) indicate that infection has reached (73.0%, 60.7%, 44.3%, 28.9%, 2.8%) correspondingly. In addition, it was set that the infection rate among women between 20 -30 years old has increased. The study indicated there was no Significance different among age groups for all the serological tests except for the tests (LAT, IHAT, ELISA IGM) and its value is (0.909, 0.483, 0.036) respectively. These results show that there is a significant percentage of pregnant women in Hail Region infected by the toxoplasmosis parasite, which expresses that women in the Kingdom are predisposed to this infection. So, raise awareness programs for pregnant women have to be drive everywhere in the Kingdom to inhibit primary infection that may lead to injurious complications for the unborn child.

[Al-Olayan E M, Metwally D M and Alaboosh kh F. Sero-Epidemiological Studies of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hail region Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):619-625]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.80

 

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, LAT, IHA, IFAT, ELISA IgM & IgG.

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Effect of Massage on Sleep Disturbances of Children after Abdominal Surgeries

 

Safy S. Al-Rafay and Eman A. Ali

 

Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

Corresponding Author: Safy S. AI-Rafay, Assistant Professor of Pediatric Nursing, Ain Shams University. 29 Ahmad Hosni st., Nasr City, Cairo 11371, Egypt. Email: salrafay@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: After abdominal surgery, sleep patterns are usually disturbed. Eighty-four post-operative pediatric patients were randomized into two groups; intervention and control. Children in the study group received massage intervention for 3 days postoperatively. The study concluded that the children in the study group improved and experienced more relief of sleep disturbances after surgery. The differences were statistically significant (p <0.001) for the massage intervention group and showed a non-significant trend for control group. The findings reported that the sleep disturbances of abdominal postoperative children were improved and the sleep/wake cycle was regulated with sessions of massage, although the results are based on a study with a relatively small number of patients. However, this should be confirmed in future studies.

[Safy S. Al-Rafay and Eman A. Ali. Effect of Massage on Sleep Disturbances of Children after Abdominal Surgeries. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):626-632]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.81

 

Keywords: sleep disturbances; massage; abdominal surgeries

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Full car Model Active Suspension System with PID and Fuzzy Controls to Improve Ride Comfort

 

Salem M.M.M.

 

Automotive and tractor Dept, Faculty of Eng., Minia University, Minia, Egypt

zeyadslm@gmail.com, ali_tawwab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of any suspension system is to improve ride comfort and handling. this is achieved by controlling the state variables in order to reduce the effect of road input vibration(discomfort). This paper presents the modeling and validation of a7-degree of freedom (DOF) full vehicle model to study ride performance of vehicle. To improve suspension control system that can reduce roll over effect and improve ride comfort, dynamic modeling of passive vehicle model was constructed. Such simulation model was developed in MATLAB Simulink software. Several assumptions related to 7-degree of freedom modeling were made and stated in this paper. This vehicle model was validated using vehicle dynamics simulation software. The validation was done by comparing the simulation results. In this paper introduced the concepts of PID and Fuzzy logic and its application toward the development of active suspension system. The fuzzy logic based model is begging developed based on inputs, body acceleration, suspension working space and dynamic tyre distance. The control signal, which is a function of inputs, is determined from the rule base. The results show major improvement over passive suspension system and minor improvement over PID control.

[Salem M.M.M. Full car Model Active Suspension System with PID and Fuzzy Controls to Improve Ride Comfort. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):633-645]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.82

 

Keywords: Vehicle dynamics, PID control, fuzzy logic control, Ride comfort, Active suspension system, and Full car model.

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Noise Mapping using GIS: A Case Study from Amman

 

Bayan mofeed 1, Rana Imam 2 (Corresponding Author), Ahmad Jamrah 3

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942

2. Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942

3. Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan 11942

r.imam@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: This study aims at creating a contour map that shows the noise intensities and variations at Al-Shaheed Street. The study will emphasize the impacts of traffic on the generated noise in the area. The study will also attempt to understand the physiological and psychological effects of noise on people and understand the relationship between noise and public health. Leq values ranged between 60 dB (A) and 77 dB (A), L10 values ranged between 64 dB (A) and 80 dB (A) while L90 ranged between 51 and 77 dB (A). The equivalent noise levels in the presence of barriers showed a noticeable decrease. Same is for L10 and L90 where these two terms are lower for the points in the presence of barriers with values range between 66 dB (A) and 69 dB (A), 56 dB (A) and 58 dB (A) respectively than those for the locations without barriers where L10 and L90 values were in the ranges between 75 dB (A) and 77 dB (A), 71 dB (A) and 74 dB (A) respectively. The study also compared the Leq of the measured noise levels values with the local and international standards and found that it exceeds the permissible limits. The study reveals that there is similarity in the trend for both daily traffic volume and Noise levels pattern since increasing daily traffic volume values results in higher noise levels values. on the average 27 % reduction in medium heavy vehicles results in 3 % reduction of noise levels, 25 % reduction in buses results in 3 % reduction of noise levels of the studied section of Al-Shaheed Street, and 25.5 % reduction in light vehicles results in 2.5 % of noise levels. A questionnaire was distributed to 122 residents to highlight the relationship between noise and public reaction to noise. 89 % of the respondents believe that noise affects their productivity and 73 % think that noise can affect their academic achievement. 83% of the respondents said that noise make them feel stress and worry. Also 58 % of the respondents believe they can cope with noise. The questionnaire revealed that the residents believe they were more exposed to noise on Sunday and Thursday.

[Bayan mofeed, Rana Imam, Ahmad Jamrah. Noise Mapping using GIS: A Case Study from Amman. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):646-652]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.83

 

Keywords: Contour map; traffic noise; barriers; light vehicles; buses; heavy vehicles.

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[J Am Sci 2013;9(12):653-655]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84. doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.84

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Reactive Power Compensation Using Static Var Compensators (SVCs)

 

Mansour Babiker Idris

 

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Misurata University

 

Abstract: Reactive power compensation is a very important task in the control, expansion, planning and operation of power system. Reactive power has a profound effect on the security of power systems because it affects voltages throughout the system: deficiencies of reactive power cause voltages to fall, while excesses cause voltages to rise. Static var system (SVS) is equivalent to a shunt capacitor and a shunt reactor, both of which can be adjusted to control reactive power in a prescribed manner. This paper discusses the use of SVS for reactive power compensation and its allocation. Reactive power compensation for: National Grid of Sudan (NGS) 77-bus is taken as a case study.

[Mansour Babiker Idris Reactive Power Compensation Using Static Var Compensators (SVCs). J Am Sci 2013;9(12):656-659]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.85

 

Keywords : reactive power, SVS, reactive power allocation, NGS

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Occupational Exposure to Airborne Wood Dust during Carpentry Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

 

Reem A Abbas1*, Hisham S Roshdy2 and Samar M Sharaf 3

 

1Community, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2 Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

3 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*reemabbasabbas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Occupational exposure to airborne dust is possibly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The exact mechanism linking the inhalation of airborne particulates to ischemic heart disease is not fully understood yet. This study aimed to investigate the role and the possible mechanism of chronic occupational exposure to airborne wood dust particulates emitted during carpentry work in increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease among a sample of daytime carpenters. Sixty seven male daytime carpenters who met the inclusion criteria and sixty nine non-exposed daytime administrative and health care workers in Ismailia city were recruited in this comparative cross-sectional study. All participants were subjected to a structured questionnaire, clinical examination, and relevant investigations that included fasting blood glucose level, lipid profile, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophils count, interleukin-6, and fibrinogen); and selected oxidative stress markers (blood antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) and a lipid peroxidation product such as serum malondialdehyde). Serial measurements for respirable wood dust at different worksite areas throughout one working week were conducted and the average of readings in mg/m3 was calculated. The average concentrations of respirable wood dust particulates at different wood processing machines (sawing machines, planers, and grinding/sanding machines) were (6.39, 44.19, and 131.28 mg/m3, respectively). The studied markers of systemic inflammation were significantly elevated among carpenters compared with the control group. Serum malondialdehyde was significantly elevated in carpenters compared with the control group. Also, significant reduction of the studied blood antioxidant enzymes in the studied carpenters was observed compared with the control group. It could be concluded that this group of carpenters may be at increased risk for ischemic heart disease and oxidative stress may have an important role in the pro-inflammatory effects of ambient airborne wood particles. Consequently, exposure to airborne wood dust at carpentry workshops should be kept below the permissible exposure limit. Carpenters should be provided with suitable personal protective equipment. Prospective cohort studies are recommended to establish casual relationship between wood dust exposure and the increased risk of ischemic heart disease in carpenters.

 [Reem A Abbas, Hisham S Roshdy and Samar M Sharaf. Occupational Exposure to Airborne Wood Dust during Carpentry Work and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):660-668]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.86

 

Keywords: Airborne wood dust; Ischemic heart disease; Fibrinogen; Particulate air pollution; Inflammatory markers; Oxidative stress.

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Effects of of a– tocopherol and L. NAME on experimental chronic hepatic iron overload in adult male albino rats

 

1Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, 2Ali K. Asala, 1Ahmed A. Hendawy,2 Shereen El arabi bdeer, 1Maha H. Nagy

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

Kenzy1984@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although an optimum level of iron is always maintained by the hepatic cells to balance between essentiality and toxicity, in some situations this is disrupted, resulting in iron overload induced oxidative stress with the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) e.g. Nitric oxide (NO). Objective: The current study aimed at evaluating the in vivo antioxidant effects of both vitamin E (a – tocopherol) and NG – nitro – L – arginine methyl ester (L.NAME) which is a specific non- selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor on chronic hepatic iron overload oxidative stress in a adult male albino rats. Design: 40 adult male albino rats divided into four equal groups were included. Group (1): served as a control group. Group(2): Injected with intra peritoneal(IP). Iron dextran at a dose of 1000mg /kg/day, three alternate days/week for 4 weeks, to induce a chronic iron overload state. Group (3): Iron dextran co-administrated with a – tocopherol (100 mg / kg i.p) three alternate days/week for 4 weeks Group(4): iron dextran co-administrated with L.NAME(100 mg/kg subcutaneously), three alternate days/week for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected to estimate serum iron levels, liver enzymes, bilirubin, albumin hepatic iron deposition and histopathologic changes in all groups. Results: The administration of iron dextran has significantly increased serum levels and hepatic content of iron when compared with the control group, which was proved by increased iron deposition by perl,s stain and was associated with pathological changes represented by significant decreases in liver albumin level together with significant increases in liver enzymes and bilirubin as well as injurious cellular changes observed in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. In addition, there was a significant improvement of serum hepatic biomarkers induced by co-administration of the antioxidant a – tocopherol with iron dextran when compared with their elevated levels in the iron-dextran group alone and associated with marked reduction in hepatic cellular injury observed in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. In chronic iron overload.However, the present study revealed a significant worsening in the hepatic biomarkers by co-administration of L-NAME with iron-dextran versus their increased levels in iron-dextran group. The liver sections obtained from this group showed histopathological worsening denoting enhanced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the antioxidant a – tocopherol has a partial protective effect against iron-overload-induced hepatic toxicity. This is evidenced by biochemical and histopathological improvement suggesting its beneficial use as a promising hepatoprotective agent in hepatic iron overload states. However, the treatment by the antioxidant L-NAME was harmful in such condition.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Ali K. Asala, Ahmed A. Hendawy, Shereen El arabi bdeer, Maha H. Nagy. Effects of of a – tocopherol and L.NAME on experimental chronic hepatic iron overload in adult male albino rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):669-678]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.87

 

Key words: Chronic iron overload; Hepatotoxicity; Antioxidants; L-NAME; Reactive oxygen species

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Effect of phonophoresis on selected gait parameters in patients with knee osteoarthritis

 

Fathy A. Elshazly1, Al Shimaa Ramadan Azab2, Nadia Lotfy Radwan2, Waleed Salah El-Din Mahmoud3

 

1. Professor and head of Physical Therapy and health rehabilitation department, College of Applied Medical Science, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

2. Lecturer of Physical Therapy and health rehabilitation department, College of Applied Medical Science, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

3. Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy and health rehabilitation department, College of Applied Medical Science, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

elshazlyf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of phonophoresis in the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects: Sixty male patients with knee OA were assigned randomly into two equal groups.Their ages were ranged from 40-50 years old. Methods: The patients were evaluated for the following parameters: Pain and knee joints kinematics, kinetics and spatiotemporal parameters by 3-D motion analysis Lab before and after three months of treatment program. patients in the control group received selected physical therapy program in the form of stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), ultrasound whereas patients in the study group received the same selected physical therapy program in addition to phonophoresis therapy. The data were collected and analyzed using a paired and un-paired t-test to compare the difference between the results within each group pre test and post test and between the two groups. Results: this study revealed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) of all of the measured variables (pain score, cadence, stride length, knee flexion ROM at stance and swing phase, knee flexion and extension moment) between pre test and post test in the control and experimental groups for right and left knees. There were significant differences between post test of control and experimental groups for right and left knees except knee extension moment there was no significant differences. Conclusion: Phonophoresis has got clear effect when added to treatment program in reducing the pain and improving mechanics of knee joint in patients with osteoarthritis.

[Elshazly FA, Azab AR, Radwan NL, Mahmoud WS. Effect of phonophoresis on selected gait parameters in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):679-690]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.88

 

Key Words: Ultrasound, phonophoresis, osteoarthritis

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Nurses' Perception and Developing an Improvement Plan Regarding Child Safety in Benha Hospitals

 

 Rahma Soliman Bahgat1, Ismail Abou - El- Ela Ramadan2 Asmaa Gamal El - Said El – Salieh3

 

1Faculty of Nursing,Suez Canal University

2 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University

3Pediatric Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

rahma_soliman@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Nurses' perceptions about safety are important because organizations with strong safety consistently report fewer workplace injuries and fewer harmful events than do organizations with weak safety. Aim: The study aimed to assessing nurses' perceptions of child's safety at medical of pediatric and critical of pediatric units and developing an improvement plan to enhance child safety at the study setting. Subjects and method: The study was conducted in critical care units and medical units of pediatrics at Benha University Hospitals, Benha Educational Hospital Affiliated to the Ministry of Health and Specialized Children Hospital in Benha City. Research design: A descriptive study design was used. Tools of the study included 1st part: Interview questionnaire sheets were used to collect the participants' characteristic data, 2nd part: knowledge of the studied nurse regarding child safety, 2) observational checklists to assess the safety of nursing care for the children in hospital. Results: nurses perceive child's safety positively. There were statistically significant differences between perception of nurses working in critical care units and perception of nurses working medical department of pediatric.There were a statistically significant differences between perception of the staff nurses and perception of head nurses in all items related to child' safety. Conclusion: nurses perceive child's safety positively and there was a statistically significant difference between nurses working in critical of pediatric care units and nurses working in medical of pediatric unit regarding there perception of child safety. Also, there are a statistically significant difference between staff nurses and head nurses regarding there perception of child safety. Recommendation: Hospital should have available policies for promoting child safety. Incidence reports for children's exposure to hazards in hospitals that threaten their well being should be available.

[Asmaa Gamal El - Said El – Salieh, Rahma Soliman Bahgat and Ismail Abou - El- Ela Ramadan. Nurses' Perception and Developing an Improvement Plan Regarding Child Safety in Benha Hospitals. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):691-699]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.89

 

Key words: child; Safety; Nurse

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Interleukin 28B Gene Polymorphism as a Predictor of Early Virological Response to Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin in Treatment of Egyptian Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients

 

Gamal Mohammad Soliman1, Ashraf Taha Abdelmouttaleb2, and Mohamed Abdelaleim Abdelazeiz3

 

1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

2 Medical Biochemistry Department, Assisted Reproductive Unit, International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Al-Azhar University.

3 Physiology Department Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University.

ashraf_tahafayum@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin (IL) 28B gene have been associated with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin treatment response mainly in genotype 1 HCV infections. However, there are few data on HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4) infections. We evaluated the association of IL28B polymorphism with early virological response to treatment. This study included 100 Egyptian HCV-4 patients. Free DNA extracted from all the 100patient’s serum samples was analyzed by restriction enzymes of the SNP rs12979860 of IL28B. Genetic and bio-clinical features from patients having early virological response (50 EVR patients) and from those who did not respond to treatment (50 NR patients) were compared. Our data showed that most patients included in the study have CT genotype of the IL28B gene SNP rs12979860. The responders versus non responders were CT: 44% Vs 52% CC: 28% Vs 16% & TT 28% Vs 32%. No statistical significant was found between responder and the non response in CT and TT genotype while there is statistical significant difference in CC genotype which is higher in responder than non responder p value < 0.05. Conclusion: Patients with a CC genotype are much more likely to achieve an SVR compared with those with genotype TT or CT in patients infected with HCV-4. The degree of fibrosis and base line viral load with analysis of IL28B genotype might be used to guide treatment for these patients.

[Gamal Mohammad Soliman, Ashraf Taha Abdelmouttaleb, and Mohamed Abdelaleim Abdelazeiz. Interleukin 28B Gene Polymorphism as a Predictor of Early Virological Response to Pegylated Interferon Plus Ribavirin in Treatment of Egyptian Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):700-707]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.90

 

Keywords: Interleukin 28B, Egyptian chronic hepatitis C, pegylated interferon, single nucleotide Polymorphism.

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Clomiphene Citrate Alone or Followed by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin In Induction of Ovulation.

 

Mohamed Elkadi, Amr Elhelaly, Ahmed Ibrahim, Shereen Abdelaziz

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – Ain Shams University

mkadi71@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of ovulation and pregnancy rates in anovulatory females who received clomiphene citrate (CC) alone and those who received clomiphene citrate then Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) to trigger ovulation. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Ain Shams maternity hospital during the period from December 2011 to December 2012.One hundred and fifty ladies, complaining of anovular infertility, were divided into two groups. Group A: 75 ladies received CC only. Group B: 75 ladies received CC plus HCG (choriomon® 10000 IU IM) to trigger ovulation when one or more follicles reached 18-22 mm in diameter using transvaginal ultrasound folliculometry. Midluteal serum progesterone was evaluated. Pregnancy was detected with serum β-hCG in blood after missed period then transvaginal ultrasound. Results: There was no significant difference between women of both groups regarding the number of mature follicles (≥ 18 mm in average dimension). Although midluteal serum progesterone ≥ 3 ng/ml (as an evidence of ovulation) was slightly higher in women of group B [CC plus HCG Group] when compared to women of group A [CC Only Group] [63/75 (84%) vs. 55/75 (73.3%), respectively]; the difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistical significant difference between women of both groups regarding pregnancy rates. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between infertile women due to anovulation who received CC alone and those who received CC then HCG in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rates.

[Mohamed Elkadi, Amr Elhelaly, Ahmed Ibrahim, Shereen Abdelaziz. Clomiphene Citrate Alone or Followed by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin In Induction of Ovulation. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):708-713]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.91

 

Key words: Induction of ovulation, human chorionic gonadotropin.

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Tetralogy of Fallot repair: influence of surgical technique on post operative morbidity and mortality

 

Mohamed E. Sharaa1, Alaa Roushdy2 and El shazly A. Hammouda3

 

1 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Sams University, Cairo, Egypt

3 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

mohamedsharaa1970@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common cyanotic heart diseases. Total repair of such cardiac lesion is now spreading with intentions to save children at younger age and lower body weight. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different associated anatomical variations if present and evaluate the outcome of different surgical approaches. Patients and Methods: Between June 2008 and October 2012, seventy two children with TOF were operated upon. Children were divided into two groups: group A included 36 patients who had trans-atrial with or without associated trans-pulmonary approaches, and group B included 36 patients where ventriculotomy was needed in the repair whether minimal or extended in addition to the approach in group A. Results: There was significant drop in both Right ventricle ( RV) pressure and Pressure gradient (PG) across the Right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) in both groups denoting successful surgical relief of the RVOT obstruction in either surgical techniques (P value <0.0001). However the RV pressure was significantly higher in group A versus group B in the immediate postoperative period (P value = 0.01) but the PG across the RVOT showed no significant difference between the 2 groups during the same period (P value > 0.05). This difference improved on follow up so did the pulmonary regurgitation ( PR) in both groups. On follow up, none of our patients needed re-intervention for residual/recurrent ventricular septal defect (VSD) or residual significant RVOT obstruction Through this study, there were two mortalities (2.78%) both were in group B and were due to RV dysfunction. Conclusion: Children undergoing TOF repair had excellent short-term outcome with the current protective strategy aiming to spare valvular function, and conserving myocardial function. We encourage full trans-atrial repair with pulmonary approach whenever feasible, avoiding ventricular incisions, otherwise a limited ventriculotomy could be sufficient in most cases rather than extended ventriculotomy with trans-annular repair. Long term follow up is needed to evaluate long term effects of the different techniques.

[Mohamed E. Sharaa, Alaa Roushdy and El shazly A. Hammouda. Tetralogy of Fallot repair: influence of surgical technique on post operative morbidity and mortality. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):714-722]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.92

 

Keywords: Tetralogy of Fallot, RVOTO, RV pressure, ventriculotomy

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Sensorineural Hearing affection in Sickle Cell Disease Patients with Chronic Renal Failure and under Dialysis

 

Waleed F Ezzat1, Hanaa Fathey2, Walid Bishari3, and Hesham M Taha4

 

1Otolaryngology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Hematology Unit, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

3Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

4Audiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

wfezzat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective- To assess the hearing thresholds in patients with sickle cell disease having renal failure and under regular dialysis, and comparing them with other matched groups. Design; Cross sectional study. Methods – Audiological assessment of patients and controls, with special concentration on the 1 kHz, 2 kHz, and 4 kHz frequencies. Results; The overall results show that there is no significant affection of hearing thresholds, at least in the 1000-4000 Hz range between chronic renal failure patients under dialysis between sicklers and non-sicklers, this may be explained by the more severe and permanent metabolic effect of chronic renal failure on hearing that overrides the effect of chronic and repeated sickling on hearing. Conclusion; SNHL accompanying RF is apparently not aggravated if associated with SCD, and if any effect would be present, it would only be additive, not synergistic.

[Waleed F Ezzat, Hanaa Fathey, Walid Bishari, and Hesham M Taha. Sensorineural Hearing affection in Sickle Cell Disease Patients with Chronic Renal Failure and under Dialysis. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):723-728]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.93

 

Keywords: Renal Failure, Sickle cell disease, Sensorineural hearing loss.

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Guidelines for the Factors Affecting Compliance of Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft toward Therapeutic Regimen

 

Jackleen F. Gendy, Fatma M. Mahrous and Aziza Y. El ghatey

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, King Khalid university, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

dr.fatma_mostafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effective prevention of CABG complications is based on the correct adoption of life style and patients' compliance with therapeutic regimen as a lot of patients refuse treatment or give it up in the fight against the disease. Therefore, chronic illnesses needs modifications in a person's life style and require continuous adaptation. Therapeutic adherence can only be obtained if the patient has accepted his/her disease and understands the significance of the treatment proposed. This study was aiming to assess compliance of patients with CABG, assess the factors affecting compliance to therapeutic regimens among patients with CABG. The study was conducted at the Cardiology outpatients' clinic at El khames military hospital. Purposive samples of one hundred adult patients with CABG. A questionnaire sheet was used for data collection. The results of this study illustrated that there was statistically significant relation between over all patients compliance & their information about therapeutic regimen including : post-operative complication & how to avoid it, side effect of drugs & how to deal with it, care of wound during of bathing, health diet, possible complication and to discover it, and avoid infection. The study recommended that the therapeutic education for patients undergoing CABG should be started from the first day of their admission to the cardiothoracic unit. And nurses should educate patients and their families about the therapeutic regimen including medications, diet, exercise and activity, early warning signs, self-care and precipitating factors that should be avoided. Also, follow-up for the patients' compliance with therapeutic regimen by a community health nurse should be done periodically.

[Jackleen F. Gendy, Fatma M. Mahrous and Aziza Y. El ghatey. Guidelines for the Factors Affecting Compliance of Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft toward Therapeutic Regimen. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):729-742]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.94

 

Keywords: Guidelines, compliance, patients with coronary artery bypasses graft, therapeutic regimen.

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The self–learning in Basketball at adult beginners

 

Slim Khiari1 and Habib Ghedira2

 

1 Permanent Teacher-Researcher (Assistant of High Teaching) specialized in Sciences of Education, Didactics and Basket-Ball. Ex-Player of Tunisian National Team of Basket-Ball / Trainer Third Degree of Basket-Ball.

High Institute of Sports and Physical Education / Department of Didactics / University of Sfax, Tunisia.

2 Professor of Medicine / Department of Pulmonology / University of Tunis.

Head of Service of Pulmonology and Head of Laboratory of Breathing Exploration / Hospital Abderrahman MAMI / Ariana / Tunis / Tunisia.

 

Abstract: Our research is made in Morocco, with the students of the Institute of Sports, specialised in Volley–Ball, Handball, Foot–Ball, Boxing, Gymnastics, Athletics and Sailing, from the 17th January 1994 (date of initial test) to the 18th of April 1994 (date of final test); so for three months, twice or three times a week, let a total be 37,5 hours, as average time. We had 24 students, shared in two groups of 12: the experimental group and the control group. During these courses of learning, we have seen that it is advisable to make acquire the students: In defence: stances, mark, pressing, block, rebound, interception and against. In attack: dribble, shoot, pass, revolve, dummy, rebound, mark down, playing without ball and some simple attack systems. After the acquisition of these initiatives with the help of “one against one”, we have chosen to observe in matches the following variables: defensive rebound, offensive rebound, pass, interception, against, free–throw, running–shoot, shoot from a middle distance, repeat and running with the ball. Although, we have evaluated the defensive rebound for the pivot, the shoot from a middle distance for the winger and the decisive pass for the quizmaster. Our purpose is finding the most flexible and interesting method, which gives importance to the personality of learner in its acquisition of technical skilfulnesses in Basketball. So we have based our research on: ü The psychological factor of player in general, studying the most significant characteristics: motivation, willingness, character, responsibility, stability and moral. ü The mental factor, particularly of Basketball player, which consists of spatio–temporal perceptions, attention, cleverness and the tactic thoughtful to see its treatment of informations with the Feed–Back, motor diagram during the different mental operations (identification, selectivity and codage). As a statistical test, we have used the Student Test (and percentage). We have deducted that the self-learning is the final phase of learning (first hypothesis). So, learner must begin by cognitive phase, passing by the associative phase –necessary for fixing and diversification of motor–skills– to finish with the autonomous phase. About the most efficient method, it is effectively which combine the two methods: the analytical and the overall; the analytical with its two characteristics: progression and repetition; the overall with the intensive participation of subject, leaning on the help which can bring the modern method with its audio–visual techniques and its “programmed teaching” (third hypothesis). About second hypothesis, we have invalidated it, because we have verified that the self-learning can not be conceived as a process for a collective and sportive activity like Basketball. Learning and teaching of technico–tactical gesture have to lean on lows of physics, the principles of biomechanics and on psychology, which make the relationship between trainer and players a relationship of comprehension and cohesion. This kind of relationship is taken over from the following factors: The balance (physical, social, psychological and mental) of players and trainer. The technique, which is a matter for the sciences of sportive motions. The timing, proportional of financial and pedagogical conditions, on the one hand, and of the use of suitable gestures during the match in the appropriate moments, on the other hand.

[Slim Khiari and Habib Ghedira. The self–learning in Basketball at adult beginners. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):743-754]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.95

 

Key–words: Self–learning, Teaching, Analytic method and Global method.

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96

Azurin: A Powerful Anticancer from "A" Local Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolate

 

Yehia A. Osman1, Douaa R. El-Deep2 and Sadia A. Younis1

 

1 Department of Botany, Molecular Microbial Lab, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt.

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Microbiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

lazeikyao@gmail.com; modoy500@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Microbial anticancer compounds such as azurin, constitute promising therapeutic agents against different types of human cancers. They have higher affinity and penetrate cell membranes of the target cancer cells, reaching the target sites, than other peptides used to treat cancers. Classical microbiological techniques were used to isolate 95 Pseudomonas aeruginosa from inpatients and outpatients attended the clinics at Mansoura University Hospitals from January 2010 to July 2012. All isolates were identified using manual biochemical tests and confirmed by the Microscan Walk away 90 systems. The gene encodes for azurin in the local P. aeruginosa isolates was detected using specific oligonucleotide primers in a PCR, amplifying a single 545bp DNA fragment characteristic of azurin gene. Column chromatography (superdex 75) followed by dialysis was used to purify the ammonium sulphate-precipitated azurin to near homogeneity. The crude and partially purified azurins killed the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells, with an estimated IC50= 37.6 µg/ml (pure) for the ATCC 15442 strain and IC50= 3 µg/ml for purified azurin from local isolate II.

[Yehia A. Osman, Douaa R. El-Deep and Sadia A. Younis. Azurin: A Powerful Anticancer from A Local Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolate. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):755-764]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.96

 

Key words: Antitumor, azurin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cytotoxicity.

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Early Diagnosis and Management of Charcot Foot in Libya

 

1Amjad T. Shaktur, 1Ali M. Abuhalfaya, 1,2,3Abdurrahman K. Najjar and 1,4 and Khalid O. Traish

 

1-Department of Intensive Care and Anesthesia, Faculty of Medical Technology, Tripoli University

2- Aboslim trauma Hospital, Tripoli-Libya

3- Diabetes and endocrine glands hospital, Tripoli-Libya

4-AL-hadba AL-khadra hospital, Tripoli-Libya

Libyanvetinpoland@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The present study was aimed to reduce the incidence of foot deformity and poor deformity complication which lead to amputations. This research was conducted on 50 patients presented to OPD. 20 patients referred early as case group A (incipient Charcot foot), and 30 patients were referred delayed as case group B (overt Charcot foot). In this study, we used checklist of factors to consider a diagnosis of charcot foor and we compare this list of factors between case group A and case group B. In this study, 60% of patients with clinical picture of foot Pain, loss of sensation, and Swelling. 15% from our patients have swelling, hotness in one foot. 25% of patients have mild changes in foot shape. Early diagnosis of charcot foot is very important to start an early treatment to get successful treatment. Patients of Diabetes should keep the levels of blood sugar under control. Follow the surgeon's instructions for long-term treatment to prevent recurrences, ulcers and amputation. Correct the bad education about neuropathy and osteopathy.

[Amjad T. Shaktur, Ali M. Abuhalfaya, Abdurrahman K. Najjar, and Khalid O. Traish Early Diagnosis and Management of Charcot Foot in Libya. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):765-769]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.97

 

Key words: Charcot foot, Neuropathy, Osteopathy.

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Industrial Characteristics of Wool Produced From Sheep Fed on Salt Tolerant Fodder Crops

 

Helal A.

 

Wool production and technology department, Animal and poultry production division, Desert Research Center

ahelal_drc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present trial was lasted for 14 weeks and used twenty four males of Barki lambs (18.8 Kg average body weight and 6 months of age) to investigate the effect of feeding salt tolerant plants on the industrial characteristics of raw and yarns of wool. Animals fed on different salt tolerant plant mixture (47% Kochia and 53% Pearl millet grass) as hay (G2) or haylage (G3), while control group (G1) fed on Berseem hay as a basal diet. Concentrate feed mixture (CFM) was given to all animals to cover 100% of maintenance. Haylage group had significant differences in fiber diameter, staple strength, staple elongation and medullated fibers compared with hay group. The prickle factor found to be 49.2 (G1), 37.2 (G2) and 46.6 (G3) with significant differences (P< 0.05) between both (G1) and (G3) compared with (G2). Staple strength found to be higher (P< 0.05) in G1 (35.9N/Ktex) and G3 (35.7N/Ktex) compared with G2 (29.1N/Ktex). Yarn strength increased significantly (P< 0.05) in haylage group (7.2 kg) compared with hay one (5.8 kg). Yarn elongation reached the maximum in G1 (12.6%) followed by haylage group (10.3%) and finally hay group (9.2%). Yarn irregularity representative in number of thin and thick places as well as number of nodes, found to be higher significantly (P<0.05) in both G2 and G3 compared with G1. It was concluded that haylage group had better characteristics than hay one while both treatments with salt tolerant plants had lower characteristics compared with control group. Correlation among both yarn and raw wool characteristics were also discussed.

[Helal A. Industrial Characteristics of Wool Produced From Sheep Fed on Salt Tolerant Fodder Crops. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):770-777]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.98

 

Keywords: wool, yarn, salt tolerant plants, strength, fiber diameter.

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Effects of Bulk and Fineness on Thermal Insulation of Egyptian Wool Fabrics

 

Helal, A1; El-Gamal, M2; Hasan, Ghada, A. and Al-Betar, E.M1

 

1: Wool production and technology department, Animal and poultry production division, Desert Research Center

2: Department of spinning, weaving and knitting, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan university

ahelal_drc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:In the present study the Egyptian Barki wool fibers were graded into five grades which are: (G1) coarse fibers with high bulk, (G2) coarse fibers with low bulk, (G3) fine fibers with high bulk, (G4) fine fibers with low bulk and (G5) non-graded fibers (control). Raw, yarn and fabric characteristics were studied to investigate the effect of both bulk and fineness on fabric thermoregulation. Results in this work illustrated that high bulk group with coarse fibers is significantly higher in FD (35.1µ), Med % (13.5), PF (49.4), compared with High bulk group with fine fibers (28.3 µ, 9.2 and 31.1, respectively), while High bulk group with fine fibers tended to be higher significantly in resilience (10.8) and crimp /cm (0.7) compared with High bulk group with coarse fibers (9.7 and 0.5, respectively). Crimpness had a negative correlation with Med% (r = - 0.89), prickle factor (r = -0.44), thin places, (r = -0.69) thick places (r = -0.79) and Neps (r = -0.75). Grading system was effective in decreasing number of Neps in fine category. Neps correlated significantly (r = 0.77) with thick places, while had no significant correlation with thin places. Effect of fiber types is much important than the effect of bulk in air permeability. Air permeability correlated with irregularity in yarn especially with neps which indicate that fineness is really important to keep Air permeability low and keep body warming. Both studied traits of fineness and bulk affected on thermal insulation.

[Helal, A; El-Gamal, M; Hasan, Ghada, A. and Al-Betar, E.M. Effects of Bulk and Fineness on Thermal Insulation of Egyptian Wool Fabrics. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):778-783]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.99

 

Keywords: bulk, fineness, Barki wool, thermoregulation, CLO, fiber diameter, Neps and TOG.

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Optimization of Cement Kiln Dust Usage for Removing Different Metals from Synthetic Raw Water

 

Usama A. Abdel Ghany1 and Rafik K. Abdel Wahab2

 

1Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University

2 Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University

Dr.rkhairy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A pilot plant was constructed at El-Amerea water treatment plant to investigate the effect of using cement kiln dust CKD as a filter media. Different flow techniques were applied to optimize the removal efficiency of manganese and iron from Synthetic raw water. Different rates of filtration were applied 100, 200, 250 and 300 m3/m2.day. It was observed that, rate of filtration 200m3/m2.d can be used and is found to be more suitable for the cement kiln dust particles properties. Different CKD depths were used 20, 40 and 60 cm respectively, fixed bed and rate of filtration 200m3/m2.day. It was noticed that, 40 cm CKD depth is sufficient for removing iron and manganese from raw water. Different flow techniques were applied fixed and fluidized bed. Fluidized bed is better more than fixed bed technique. The removal efficiencies for iron and manganese reached to 100% in different cases. CKD was used as a primary coagulant with different doses ranged from 20mg/l to 120 mg/l. It was observed that, CKD was effective for iron but for removing manganese was not efficient. It was noticed that, when the pH value is raised the removal efficiency for iron and manganese is improved.

[Usama A. Abdel Ghany and Rafik K. Abdel Wahab. Optimization of CKD Usage for Removing Different Metals from Raw Water. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):784-793]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.100

 

Keywords: filtration; water treatment; cement kiln dust; adsorption; iron and manganese; coagulation.

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The Normal Fetal Kidney Measurement in in Normal Pregnant Ladies

 

Mohamed Adam1,2, Jumaa Yousif Tamboul3,4, Mohamed Yousef3,4, Abdelmoneim Sulieman,4,5

 

1Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences Radiological Science Department, King Khalid University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia P.O. Box 61481, Abha

2Alzaeim Alazhari University, Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging.P.O. Box1432 Khartoum Bahri 13311-Sudan.

3College of Applied Science, Taibah University. P. O. Box 30001, Almadinah Almunawarah, KSA

4College of Medical Radiologic Science Sudan University of Science and Technology P. O. Box 1908, Khartoum, Sudan

5College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia,

mohnajwan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Accurate estimation of normal antenatal fetal kidneys size is of great importance, thus determination of normal measurements was help in early diagnosis and optimize fetal safety then reduce the high prenatal morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are: to rule out the normal fetal kidneys dimensions among Sudanese population and to develop a local standard with ultrasound as well as to detect the range of fetal kidneys size in third trimester among Sudanese population and comparing the results with the international standard. This study was carried out in Khartoum state Sudan at Al Ahfad center for familly health, AAU Radiobiology department, and Alsalam AL Raed hospital from 1-8-2012 until 1-11-2012, a total of 100 normal pregnant ladies with no previous delivery of fetus with congenital anomaly or obvious fetal disease at (28-40) weeks gestational age. The study demonstrated that the mean renal length of fetal kidneys in third trimester in Sudanese was 34.2 mm, 40.9 mm and 44 mm in premature, mature and full-term fetuses respectively. The mean renal width of fetal kidneys in third trimester was 18 mm,23 mm, and 25.5 mm in premature, mature and full-term fetuses respectively. The mean renal thickness of fetal kidneys in third trimester in was 17.6 mm, 22.2 mm, and 24.5 mm in premature, mature and full-term fetuses respectively. The mean renal volume of fetal kidneys in third trimester was 5.6 mm3, 9.8 mm3,and 10.5 mm3, in premature, mature and full-term fetuses respectively. The study showed proportional relationship between gestational age and fetal weight. Concerning to the sex there was weak correlation. Comparing the international records the result of the study is more like the Netherlands population. It is recommended to implement this study in ultrasonography departments locally And to establish further studies using large sample volume taking in concern all other factors that affect fetal kidneys size.

[Mohamed Adam, Jumaa Yousif Tamboul, Mohamed Yousef, Abdelmoneim Sulieman. The Normal Fetal Kidney Measurement in Third Trimester in Normal Pregnant Sudanese Ladies. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):794-797]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.101

 

Keywords: S Normal Fetal Kidney, Measurement,Pregnant Ladies, Sonography

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The accuracy of Ultrasound in Estimation of fetal weight

 

Mohamed Adam1,2, Jumaa Yousif Tambul3,4, Mohamed Yousef3,4, Abdelmoneim Sulieman4,5

 

1Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences Radiological Science Department, King Khalid University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia P.O. Box 61481, Abha

2Alzaeim Alazhari University, Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging.P.O. Box 1432 Khartoum Bahri 13311-Sudan

3College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University. P.O. Box 30001, Almadinah Almunawarah, KSA

4College of Medical Radiologic Science Sudan University of Science and Technology P. O. Box 1908, Khartoum, Sudan

5College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia

mohnajwan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in estimating fetal weight among Sudanese as comparing the results with the International Standards. Abdominal Ultrasonography was performed with A real time system MEDISON Ultrasonic machine by using 3.5MHz convex transducer, using Hadlock formal. A total of 533 pregnant women over a 36 month were randomly selected from a group of antenatal patients ranged gestational age from (37-42 weeks). and the data analyzed by Statical package for social science (SPSS)., the study demonstrated that the Hadlock formula is valid in estimating fetal weight locally and it was found that the mean Birth Weight (BW) 3.139 kg, (87.4 %) with 472 g (± 15%) standard deviation, while the actual birth Ranges between 2000 to 4400g. The mean actual birth weight in Sudanese population ranges from 2.000 to 4.400 Kg, with mean of 3.139 Kg (87.4 %) and standard deviation of 472g (± 15%). It was found that there was significant correlation between birth weight (BW) and maternal weight, height and body mass index (BMI) and gestational age, while there was insignificant and week correlation between maternal age, and the mode of delivery.. It is concluded that predicting fetal weight using the formula witch derived by Hadlock et al is accurate and valid and will be useful in our environment.

[Mohamed Adam, Jumaa Yousif Tamboul, Mohamed Yousef, Abdelmoneim Sulieman. The accuracy of Ultrasound in Estimation of fetal weight. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):798-802]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.102

 

Keywords: accuracy, comparison, estimation, fetal, weight.

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[J Am Sci 2013;9(12):803-809]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 103. doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.103

withdrawn

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Tourism in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Facts and Challenges for a Promising Sector

 

Ahmed El-Kholei and Dirar Al-Otaibi

 

King Khalid University, Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences, Abha, KSA.

elkholei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper explores a number of tourism variables such as visitor exports services, travel and tourism consumption and demand, tourism gross domestic product (GDP) throughout the period 1988-2011. In addition to, tourism arrivals, tourism expenditure and percentage of Saudi employment in the tourism sector throughout the period 2012-2017 in KSA. Moreover, services related to tourism sector such as numbers of transport and rent a car companies, recreations, restaurants, travel agencies, furnished apartment units and hotels, in addition to, their value added are analyzed as well throughout the period 2007-2011. The pattern of the earlier mentioned variables is investigated by employing data in levels and first differences. It then predicts their future values throughout the next decade (2012-2023) via employing the Double Exponential Smoothing technique. The results suggest that, tourism variables such as visitor exports services, travel and tourism consumption and demand and tourism gross domestic product are estimated throughout the period 2012-2023 at about (US $ billion) 7.1, 18.8, 58.1 and 13.3 (on average) respectively. Whereas, for tourism arrivals (8.5 million arrivals), tourism expenditure (30 US $ billion) and percentage of Saudi employment (29%) throughout the period 2012-2017. In addition, the prediction for services related to tourism sector (during the period 2012-2017) such as numbers of hotels, furnished apartment units, travel agencies, restaurants, rent a car and transport companies and recreations estimated at 1050, 938, 1917, 28284, 533, 2010 and 12983 respectively. Whereas, total value added for accommodation, food services, recreation, travel agencies and transportation estimated at about (US $ billion) 2.9, 5.2, 0.8, 0.2, and 5.6 respectively(during the same period). Moreover, it investigates the main difficulties facing this important industry and the suggested ways to overcome them.

[Ahmed El-Kholei and Dirar Al-Otaibi. Tourism in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Facts and Challenges for a Promising Sector. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):810-823]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.104

 

Keywords: Tourism, Double Exponential Smoothing, KSA.

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105

Comparison of PCR with ELISA in Diagnosis of recent Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant women

 

Reda L. El Gamal, Monira A. Selim, Sabah M.A. Mohamed, Ghada M. Fathy and Sara A.Abdel Rahman

 

Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

dghadamts@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is necessary to get effective treatment and prevent fetal complications. Objective: The present study aimed to assess the use of PCR and compare it with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Toxoplasma recent infections in sera of pregnant women. Methodology: one hundred and thirty pregnant women were included in this study ranging in age from 17- 38 years selected from patients attending outpatient clinics of the Obstetric & Gynecology Department at Zagazig University Hospital. They were divided into 2 groups, control group of 30 healthy pregnant women and case group of 100 complicated pregnancy states. Both groups were tested for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA in their blood by PCR and specific antibodies to Toxoplasma by ELISA. The results obtained were recorded to evaluate the best technique to detect recent infection. Results: Out of 130 subjects of the study, 62 (47.7%) & 47 (36.15%) cases had positive results for ELISA anti-T. gondii (IgG) and (IgM). In the control group, five (3.85 %) & two women (1.5%) had positive results respectively with statistically highly significant difference(P < 0.001). 73 cases (56.1%) had positive PCR results, 27 cases (20.8 %) and all controls were negative. with highly significant increase of PCR positivity in patient compared with controls (P<0.001). Sensitivity & Specificity of ELISA IgG were 71. % & 63% respectively with accuracy of 69% and of IgM was 54.7% & 74.1% respectively with accuracy of 60% when compared with PCR. There is significant association between women in contact with soil or cats and positive ELISA & PCR. Conclusion: this study highlights the need for a confirmatory test to detect primary acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. It demonstrates the possibility of defining and selecting the high-risk cases for mother-to-child transmission of infection by combining specific serology and PCR tests to formulate a specific approach. Tox-IgG indicated catching Toxoplasma infection but not enough to determine recent infection, while PCR besides, being valuable in diagnosing it.

[Reda L. El Gamal, Monira A. Selim, Sabah M.A. Mohamed, Ghada M. Fathy and Sara A.Abdel Rahman. Comparison of PCR with ELISA in Diagnosis of recent Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant women. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):824-832]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.105

 

Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, PCR, ELISA and Complicated pregnancy.

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Biophysical and Biological Studies on the Effect of Electromagnetic Field on the Ehrlich Tumor Cells Implanted In Mice

 

Magda Hanafy1, Mona Hussein1 and Mohamed Hashem2

 

1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

mhmekky@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract. A study of the growth retardation of liquid tumor cells (Ehrlich tumor) implanted in female mice by employing extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 2 mT) has been carried out for continuous exposure periods 20 and 40 days. Seventy two female BALB/c mice were used. They were equally divided into 4 groups: kept as control, groups 1 and 2, implanted intraperitoneally "I/P" with 2x106 Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) groups 3 and 4 as single dose. Groups 2 and 4 were exposed to EMF for a period of 40 days. Two blood samples were collected after 20 and 40 days for hematological and biochemical examinations. Two samples of tumor cells were used for electrophoresis examination. The results showed that I/P implantation of EATC (group 3) resulted in relative polycythemia; leucocytosis with neutrophilia and a significant increase in the liver and kidney function indicators (bilirubin, α-fetoprotein, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus and sodium) while the serum total proteins, calcium and potassium levels were significantly decreased. The present results show that exposing the mice (group 4) to EMF they near the control ones. The results of protein electrophoresis revealed not only a decrease in the protein content of the Ehrlich tumor, but also considerable changes in its molecular structure as a result of exposing to 20 or 40 days of EMF. Such a decrease was found to be proportional to the exposure periods. Early treatment of the tumor cells by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field gave better results.

[Magda Hanafy, Mona Hussein and Mohamed Hashem. Biophysical and Biological Studies on the Effect of Electromagnetic Field on the Ehrlich Tumor Cells Implanted In Mice. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):833-840]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.106

 

Key words: Ehrlich tumor, electromagnetic field, protein electrophoresis clinic pathological examinations.

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Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Ankle’s Proprioception in Elderly

 

Ayman Hussein El Khatib1, Omaima Kattabei2, Abeer Abdel Rahman2 and Shereen Hamed3

 

1Lecturer of Physical Therapy Department, Beirut Arab University

2Basic Sciences Department, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University

3Lecturer of Physical Therapy for cardiorespiratory disorders and Geriatrics

aymanelkhatib@live.com

 

Abstract: Background: Falls are the most serious and frequent home accident among older people secondary to decreased proprioception, whole body vibration can be used for prevention. Purpose: the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration on ankle’s proprioception in elderly. Materials and methods: Thirty randomly healthy older males and females ranging between 64 and 75 years of age participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two equal groups, each contains fifteen participants. The first control group (A) adopted a squat position with frequency 0 Hz, the second experimental group (B) in addition to the squat position, received a vibration frequency 50 Hz, the amplitude was from 5 – 8 mm; the training period was for 2 months, 3 times per week and the vibration protocol was 5 minutes (1 min vibration, 1 minute rest for 5 minutes); Ankle proprioception was measured using the Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer. Results: There was no statistical significance difference in the ANOVA test for (group A) pre and post treatment as the F value was 1.26 and P value was 0.29, while for (group B), there was a statistical significance difference in the ANOVA test pre and post treatment as the F value was 9.34 and the P value was 0.0001. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of whole body vibration on ankle’s proprioception in elderly.

[Ayman Hussein El Khatib, Omaima Kattabei, Abeer Abdel Rahman and Shereen Hamed. Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Ankle’s Proprioception in Elderly. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):841-845]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 107

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.107

 

Keywords: Whole body vibration; proprioception.

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Utility of an immunohistochemical panel in diagnosis of early hepatocellular carcinoma in post-hepatitis cirrhotic patients

 

Mona George Shafeek

 

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Zigzag University, Egypt.

monageorge217@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although improved imaging techniques have made it possible to detect small liver lesions, differentiating benign lesions from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remains a challenge. There is an urgent need to support histological diagnosis on small biopsy specimens by further immunohistochemical analysis, especially dysplastic nodules and early HCC that differ only in subtle morphological changes. Methods: Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), glypican 3(GPC3), and Enhancer of Zest Homologue 2 (EZH2) immunoreactivities were determined on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues from 56 post-hepatitis cirrhotic patients, including 25 non-malignant nodules (7 large regenerative nodules, 7 low-grade dysplastic nodules, 11 high-grade dysplastic nodules) and 31 HCCs (8 early, 11 grade1, and 12 grade2-3). Results: The sensitivity and specificity for HCC detection were 77.4 % and 96 % for HSP70, 71 % and 92 % for GPC3, and 87 % and 88 % for EZH2.For diagnosis of early HCC-grade1 (eHCC-G1), the sensitivity and specificity were 78.9 % and 90.9 % for HSP70, 63.2 % and 81.8 % for GPC3, and 89.5 % and 72.7% for EZH2. When at least 2 markers, regardless which, were positive, a sensitivity of 73.7% with 100% specificity were found. Conclusion: A panel composed of HSP70, GPC3 and EZH2 is very useful in discrimination between dysplastic and early malignant hepatocellular nodules in cirrhotic patients.

[Mona George Shafeek. Utility of an immunohistochemical panel in diagnosis of early hepatocellular carcinoma in post-hepatitis cirrhotic patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):846-852]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 108

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.108

 

Keywords: Markers; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Dysplastic nodules; Differential diagnosis; Liver biopsy specimens.

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Overweight and Obesity among Saudi Female Population

 

Samaa S. Elsoadaa

 

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

dr.samaaelsoadaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Objective: to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of adults Saudi females. Methods: A total of 1500 female participants of age ≥ 19 from Makkah governorate, were included the study. A Self-reported questionnaire was conducted to collect the data. It composed of socio-economic data, disease history, food habits and anthropometric measurements. Overweight and obesity were defined according to internationally standardized criteria for classification of BMI. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 16.0. Results: The data indicated that (23.9%) of Saudi female adults were overweight and (27.7%) were obese. The most common eating habits encountered were eating two main meals/day, consumed meals with family, drinking carbonated beverages, sweets, and the meals consist mostly of protein. Statistically significant direct correlations were found among these factors (P<0.005). Conclusion: More than 50% of the adults Saudi females were obese or overweight. Additional monitoring of the prevalence of obesity is necessary.

[Samaa S. Elsoadaa. Overweight and Obesity among Saudi Female Population. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):853-862]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 109

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.109

 

Key words: Female obesity, BMI, food habits, Body fat percentage, Body composition.

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Performance of Self-Compacting Concrete Confined using GFRP and Subjected to Compression Loading

 

Tarek Bahaa

 

Building Material and Quality Control Institute, Housing and Building National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

tarekmbaha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research investigates and evaluates the behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) confined in glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) tubes and subjected to axial compression loading. The experimental program included testing of eleven specimens loaded in compression until failure. Seven specimens were subjected to axial loading while four specimens were subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental program is designed to demonstrate the effect of main variables that include: the confinement of GFRP tube, the percentage of longitudinal reinforcement, the diameter of the GFRP tube, the concrete compressive strength and the load eccentricity. The discussion of test results included cracking behavior; failure mode; the load-strain response; and the strains in GFRP tubes. Strength gain and the deformability were used to evaluate the behavior of the tested specimens. The results showed notable enhancement in the structural behavior of SCC due to confinement using GFRP tube. Gain in strength up to 50% and 37% was achieved for plain and steel reinforced SCC, respectively. Increasing the compressive strength of concrete by 81% resulted in only 59% increase in the specimen ultimate load. The evaluated behavior displayed that the improvement in the strength for the axially loaded specimens is more pronounced than specimens subjected to eccentric loading. For specimens subjected to eccentric loading, load eccentricity was found to have a significant effect on the performance of SCC confined by GFRP. It reduced the ultimate capacity while it enhanced the deformability.

 [Tarek Bahaa. Performance of Self-Compacting Concrete Confined using GFRP and Subjected to Compression Loading. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):863-872]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 110

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.110

 

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, FRP, Confinement, Compression, Deformability, eccentricity.

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The Compression and Uplift Bearing Capacities of Helical Piles in Cohesionless Soil

 

Hamdy H.A. Abdel-Rahim, Yahiya Kamal Taha and Walla El din El sharif Mohamed

 

Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University

 

Abstract: Helical piles have been used widely in engineering application. They can be used to provide structural stability against axial compression, uplift and lateral forces. There are few studies about helical piles, while in the recent years, helical pile foundations were used more widely in many countries for this reason the aim of the present paper is to study how to improve the prevision of the compression and uplift capacities of helical piles, and study the effect of embedded depth and helical area of helical piles in sand soil on the compression and uplift bearing capacities. Studies of helical piles with different areas of helices provided are in continuation. Compression and uplift loads were applied at different height within the soil. The embedment length of screw anchor piles was also varied to study the behavior of helical piles under compression and uplift loads. Various size and numbers of helices have been used in the laboratory tests with diameters 5, 6.7, 8.2 and 10cm with varying lengths. The embedment ratios for each, D/d are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. An experimental setup instrumented to allow the measurement of the compression and pullout loads which affect on the helical pile installed into prepared layers of sand until failure. The results show that the compression and pullout resistance of helical anchors is strongly affected by the area and composition of helical plates welded to the pile steel shaft. The compression and uplift loads are increased with increasing of the embedment ratios, D /d and helix diameter, d. In addition to some other useful results are indicated in this paper.

Hamdy H.A. Abdel-Rahim, Yahiya Kamal Taha and Walla El din El sharif Mohamed. The Compression and Uplift Bearing Capacities of Helical Piles in Cohesionless Soil. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):873-878]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 111

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.111

 

Keywords: helical pile, sand, soil, compression load, uplift load, experimental work.

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Effect of bilateral orchidectomy on thyroid gland structure of adult albino rats and the role of Nandrolone Decanoate administration

 

Maha A. AbdAllah

 

Histology and Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

maha18770@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Thyroid gland is one of the non-classical target organs for androgen. The role of androgen in thyroid gland structure is not yet fully understood. Aim of the study: This work aimed to detect the effect of bilateral orchidectomy on thyroid gland structure of adult albino rats and the role of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) administration. Materials & methods: Eighteen adult albino rats were equally divided into three groups; control (I), orchidectomized (II) and ND treated orchidectomized (III) groups. Rats in groups I and orchidectomized ones (II) were sacrificed after one month. Rats of group III were treated with 1 mg nandrolone decanoate /100 g body weight as a single intramuscular injection once a week for another successive 2 months. Animals’ thyroids were dissected out and processed for light and electron microscope examination. Thyroid epithelial thickness as well as serum T3&T4 were estimated and statistically analyzed. Results: Thyroid gland of the orchidectomized rats showed some dilated thyroid follicles lined by flattened cells. Their cavities were distended with vacuolated colloid. Other follicles were lined by cuboidal cells with deeply stained nuclei and pale foamy cytoplasm. The follicular cells had heterochromatic nuclei, few apical electron dense secretory granules, dilated and fragmented cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Parafollicular cells had electron dense heterochromatic nuclei and apparently no secretory granules. Desquamated cells were observed in some follicular cavities. Mast cells were seen in the interstitium. With ND treatment, most of the follicles restore their normal architecture. They were lined by cuboidal follicular cells with euchromatic nuclei and moderately dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Few follicles were lined by flattened cells. Some parafollicular cells had euchromatic nuclei, electron dense granules and mitochondria. Others still had electron dense nuclei and few electron dense granules. Estimated and analyzed follicular epithelial thickness as well as serum T3 and T4 confirmed the results. Conclusion: Orchidectomy induced variable structural alterations in the follicular and parafollicuar cells of thyroid gland. This deleterious effect may be mediated by disruption of cellular organelles that subsequently affects their function. Most of these changes were improved by ND treatment. So, it is considered a good therapy for hypogonadal persons.

[Maha A. AbdAllah. Effect of bilateral orchidectomy on thyroid gland structure of adult albino rats and the role of Nandrolone Decanoate administration. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):879-888]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 112

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.112

 

Key words: orchidectomy – thyroid gland – androgen deficiency – Nandrolone decanoate – ultrastructure.

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Two-Sample Prediction Of GOS’s From Finite Mixture Distributions Based On Generalized Type-II HCS

 

Ahmad, A. A. and Mohammed, S. A.

 

 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt.

abdelbasetsalem@yahoo.com, dr_shereen83@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the problem of predicting the future generalized order statistics () based on a mixture of two components from a class of continuous distributions. Generalized Type-II hybrid censoring scheme (HCS) of the observed data has been used here. The prior belief of the experimenter is measured by a general class of distributions, suggested by AL-Hussaini (1999b). We consider the two sample prediction technique to compute Bayesian predictive intervals for a future . A mixture of two Weibull components model is considered as a special case of the class. Our results are specialized to upper order statistics and upper record values. Also, we give an example based on real data. Finally, Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to find the Bayesian predictive intervals.

[Ahmad, A. A. and Mohammed, S. A. Two-Sample Prediction Of GOS’s From Finite Mixture Distributions Based On Generalized Type-II HCS. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):889-899]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 113

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.113

 

Keywords: Generalized order statistics; Bayesian prediction; Two-sample scheme;Finite mixtures; Heterogeneous population; Generalized Type-II hybrid censoring scheme;Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm.

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Immunohistochemical Expressions of ER, PR and ALDH1 in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Carcinoma

 

Sahar Aly Daoud1, Hala Naguib Hosni2 and Amal Ahmed Hareedy2

 

1Pathology Department,Faculty of Medicine, BeniSueif, University, Egypt.

2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Sa_har_sh@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Epithelial stem/progenitor cells are considered as cancer initiating cells which has been detected in human endometrium, may initiate and progress endometrial carcinoma. Targeting cancer-initiating cells would be necessary to improve cure rates. The relation of endometrial adenocarcinoma and stem cell markers expression has not been reported yet, in spite of ALDH1 expression is frequently altered in malignant tumors compared to their respective healthy tissues. We studied the endometrium of 54 cases; 44 complaining of peri/postmenopausal bleeding, 10 women in proliferative and secretory phases seeking for other gynecological causes. Immunohistochemical study of the endometrium for ER, PR and ALDH1in normal, hyperplastic and endometrial carcinoma showed that there was statistical significance relation (p<0.001) between ER, PR, ALDH1 epithelial expression and clinicopathological parameters; age, myometrial depth of invasion, also between ALDH1 expression in the stroma of endometrial carcinoma and the clinicopathological parameters. It is concluded that the decline of ER and PR and significant increase in ALDH1 expression may have relation with the tumorigenesis and endometrial cancer progression mainly in type II which might be related to poor prognosis.

[Sahar Aly Daoud, Hala Naguib Hosni and Amal Ahmed Hareedy. Immunohistochemical Expressions of ER, PR and ALDH1 in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):900-905]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 114

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.114

 

Key words: endometrial hyperplasia, carcinoma, stem cells, ALDH1

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Nurse leaders’ behaviors, and its effect on Nurses creativity at Main Assiut University Hospital.

 

Nadia Mohamed Ali Saleh 1, Neamat Mohamed Al-Sayed2, Soad Ahmed Ghallab3 and. Samah Mohammed Abd Alaa3

 

1Department of Nursing Administration - Faculty of Nursing - Sohag University, Egypt.

2Department of Nursing Administratio- Faculty of Nursing - Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Department of Nursing Administration - Faculty of Nursing - Assiut University, Egypt.

nadiamohamed70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Leader should direct subordinate creativity all of the time, to help them to become more creative persons. This study was aimed to assess the effect of Nurse Leaders’ behaviors on nurses' creativity at Main Assiut University Hospital. The study subject consists of (48) nurse leaders and (328) staff nurses who worked in medical, surgical, and ICUs units. Data collected through personal interview by using the demographic data sheet, leader's behaviors questionnaire, and creativity questionnaire, the data collection took about four months. Reliability was high more than 0.9 for all tools. Results showed that; Nurses’ leaders were below average and average level of creativity. Meanwhile staff nurses were below average level of creativity. There is a negative correlation between leaders behavior with creativity. In the light of the finding, the researcher recommended that, Provide atmosphere for values and trends to motivate creativity among leaders, provide psychological support to motivate nurses to use their opinions and suggestion without fear, provide training programs to develop leaders and nurses' knowledge which helps in improving their creativity, and provide incentives for creative activities.

[Nadia Mohamed Ali Saleh, Neamat Mohamed Al-Sayed, Soad Ahmed Ghallab and. Samah Mohammed Abd Alaa. Nurse leaders’ behaviors, and its effect on Nurses creativity at Main Assiut University Hospital. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):906-912]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 115

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.115

 

Keywords: leadership, leader behaviors, and creativity.

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The Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab on the Histological Structure of the Cerebral Cortex of Male Albino Rat

 

Alahmady H. Al-Saman1, Nesreen G. El-Haleim2 and Hoda M. Elsayed2

 

1Lecturer of ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

2Lecturer of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

Hoda_sohag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bevacizumab is one of the anti vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents which has antiangiogenic and oedema-diminishing actions. It is used widely as an intravitreal solution to diminish new vessels formation and reduce the oedema of the ocular diseases. Objectives: to evaluate the safety of an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab on the cerebral cortex of rat. Material and methods: 20 animals were used in the experiment. They were divided into two groups 10 animals each. Group I: rats were injected with saline as a 5 uL single injection into the vitreous cavity of the left eyes. GroupII: rats were injected with 5 uL (25 mg/mL) of bevacizumab as a single injection into the vitreous cavity of the left eyes. Animals were sacrificed 4 days after injection. Brain was dissected and processed for light and electron microscopy. Results: Microscopic examination revealed various histological changes in the nerve cells. Some of them had pyknotic nuclei and acidophilic cytoplasm. This was associated with astrocyte gliosis as well as widening of both pericellular and perivascular spaces. Vacuolations of the neuropil was also observed. Others had irregular nuclei, numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. Apparent decrease of free ribosomes was also observed. There was highly significant increase in the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostained positive cells (astrocyte gliosis). Conclusion: intravitreal injection of bevacizumab had toxic effect on the cerebral cortex of rat.

[Alahmady H. Al-Saman, Nesreen G. El-Haleim and Hoda M. Elsayed. The Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab on the Histological Structure of the Cerebral Cortex of Male Albino Rat. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):913-919]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 116

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.116

 

Keywords: bevacizumab, cerebral cortex, neurons, astrocytes.

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Evaluation of Different Radiotherapy Schedules In Brain Metastases

 

Khaled A. Mansour, Alaa Fayed, Mostafa M. Toom, Abd Almotaleb Mohamad, Muhammad A. Badawy, Nabila Hefzi, Amira E. Muhammad and Wael H. Elsawy

 

Department of Clinical Oncology & Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

fayed_alaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated different fractionation schedules of radiotherapy in brain metastases ; Comparing 20 Gy/5 fractions, 12 Gy/2 fractions and 10 Gy in a single fraction with a dose of 30 Gy/10 fractions whole cranial irradiation (WCI), as regard subjective response and treatment morbidities with quality of life (QOL) assessment. Patients and methods: 200 patients with brain metastases (93 males& 107 females, median age 50 years, range 30-76 years), Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of ≤ 70, were assigned to 4 arms each arm included 50 patients; (group A) who have received 30 Gy/10 fractions; (23 males& 27 females, median age 47 years), (group B) who have received 20 Gy/5 fractions; (20 males& 30 females, median age 49 years), (group C ) who have received 12 Gy/2 fractions; (26 males & 24 females, median age 54 years), (group D) who have received 10 Gy in single fraction; (23 males& 27 females, median age 51 years). Results: All patients were evaluated weekly during treatment and monthly thereafter, for subjective response, survival, related toxicity and QOL assessment; whereas 18 patients (36%) in group A, 17 (34%) in group B, 15 (30%) in group C and 13 patients (26%) who complained from moderate to extremely severe symptoms before treatment had changed to mild or no symptoms after treatment, without statistical significance between groups, The overall survival was significantly affected by 4 factors; age, KPS, primary tumor control and presence of extracranial metastases (Log rank P- value < 0.001) but without significant difference between groups. Overall toxicity was acceptable in all groups. About 50% of patients had maintained their good QOL after treatment and 10 - 20% of patients with bad QOL changed to good QOL after treatment, (P- value >0.05). Conclusion: Different schedules of short course WCI were quite similar to long course WCI regarding subjective response, survival, toxicity and effect on quality of life for patients with brain metastases.

[Khaled A. Mansour, Alaa Fayed, Mostafa M. Toom, Abd Almotaleb Mohamad, Muhammad A. Badawy, Nabila Hefzi, Amira E. Muhammad and Wael H. Elsawy. Evaluation of Different Radiotherapy Schedules In Brain Metastases. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):920-926]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 117

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.117

 

Key words: Brain metastases; Radiotherapy; Hypofractionation; Quality of Life.

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Nurses’ Workload and its’ Impact on Productivity in Trauma and Post Operative Intensive Care Units at Assiut University Hospital

 

Om Hashem Gomaa Ragab1, Mohamed Ali Mohamed Al Torky2 and Samah Mohamed Abdalla3

 

1. Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing - Sohag University, Egypt.

2. Community Health Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt.

3. Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing-Assiut University, Egypt.

gomhashem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Productivity of nurses is an important matter. Nurse’s productivity is well connected to nurses' workload. Through measuring workload productivity can be easily measured. This study aims at measuring nurses’ workload at trauma and post operative intensive care units and identifying the impact of nurses’ workload on nursing productivity. Methods: the subject consisted of the total number of admitted patients 112 patients at trauma ICU and 111 patients at post operative ICU and total number of nurses was 68 at trauma ICU and 23 at post operative ICU. Data collected for the period of three months by observation of nursing care given to all admitted patients at the selected sites for 24 hours from admission to discharge and by interviewing nurses for nurses’ personal data. Data collected using: Patient Information sheet; nurses’ information sheet; Nursing Activities Score; and productivity formulas. Results: Trauma ICU patients had about 60% of workload, while post operative ICU patients had more than 50% of workload. Performance ratio (productivity) was about 50% and 75% for trauma and post operative ICUs respectively. There was negative correlation between workload and productivity at trauma and post operative ICUs. Recommendations: applying of nursing activities score (NAS) to retain nurses staffing, enhance productivity, and avoid waste of nurses’ time. Productivity should be measured annually and comparing the results against productivity standards. Informing staff with patient care results and provide annual productivity indices for them and incentives should be based on the results of measured workload.

[Om Hashem Gomaa Ragab, Mohamed Ali Mohamed Al Torky and Samah Mohamed Abdalla. Nurses’ Workload and its’ Impact on Productivity in Trauma and Post Operative Intensive Care Units at Assiut University Hospital. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):927-939]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 118

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.118

 

Key words: nurses workload - staffing - productivity.

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Impact of Universal Infection Control Intervention Program for Nurses at Asser Hospital

 

Aziza Y. El ghatey, Fatma M. Mahrous and Jackleen F. Gendy

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

dr.fatma_mostafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nosocomial infection is a hospital acquired infection. It is a major health problem all over the world. At least 5 to 10% of all people admitted to a hospital contract a nosocomial infection which is a direct cause to death. Infection control is the systems need to prevent health care workers from transferring, from acquiring infections themselves. Infection control ensures that patients are not exposed to the risk of cross – infection that staffs are protected from occupational risks, and that unnecessary costs to the health service are minimized. Strategy for protecting health care workers from occupational transmission of blood borne organisms is termed standard precautions. This study was aimed to evaluate of Universal Infection Control Intervention Program for Nurses in Asser Hospital. The study was conducted at surgical and medical department in Asser central hospital. Collecting data from thirty Nurses whom working in the female surgical and medical department at Asser central hospital. The results of this study illustrated that there was significant improvement in nurse's knowledge and nurses’ practice after program implementation. The study recommended that develop orientation protective occupational health programs to help the nurses to protect their self against occupational health hazard.

[Aziza Y. El ghatey, Fatma M. Mahrous and Jackleen F. Gendy. Impact of Universal Infection Control Intervention Program for Nurses at Asser Hospital. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):940-948]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 119

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.119

 

Keywords: educational program, Universal precautions, Nurses, Infection Control

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Flow Cytometric Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay as a tool to predict Intrauterine Insemination Outcome in Infertile Couples due to Mild Male Infertility

 

Ahmed M. Gaballah1, Samar M. Sharaf1 and Eman Elgindy2

 

1Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Obstetrics and GynecologyDepartment, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Samar_lab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive and a male cause is believed to be a sole or contributing factor in approximately half of these cases. Damage to the genetic component of spermatozoa seems to play the main role in a majority of cases where current approaches fail to reveal the specific cause of male infertility. As Sperm chromatin/DNA integrity is essential for the accurate transmission of paternal genetic information, a normal sperm chromatin structure is important for sperm fertilizing ability. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is one of the most efficient and successful assay for providing both diagnostic and prognostic evaluations of man’s potential for infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate SCSA as prognostic indicator of the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in infertile couples due to male causes. Methods: Sixty couples with mild male factor infertility, semen samples on the day of IUI were collected. Semen analysis was performed using computer aided semen analysis (CASA) technique. The SCSA was performed using acridine orange (AO) followed by flow cytometric analysis. Results: The successful outcome was 23.3%, with no significant difference between successful cases (14 cases) and unsuccessful cases (46 cases) as regards CASA parameters, while for SCSA there was a significant difference between 2 groups. The successful cases for clinical pregnancy showed a DNA fragmentation index (DFI) 23.6±4.4%) while the group which failed to induce pregnancy was 30.4±4.9%. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the pregnancy rates and the DFI%, where no male couple with DFI ≥30% contributed to an ongoing pregnancy. In the other hand, except for total sperm count, all data from semen analysis were poorly associated with the outcome of IUI. Conclusion: The SCSA has proven its importance in demonstrating DNA damage as a cause of infertility in men with mild male factor and the subsequent events in the ongoing pregnancy.

[Ahmed M. Gaballah, Samar M. Sharaf and Eman Elgindy. Flow Cytometric Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay as a tool to predict Intrauterine Insemination Outcome in Infertile Couples due to Mild Male Infertility. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):949-954]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 120

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.120

 

Key Words: Male infertility, Intrauterine Insemination, CASA, Sperm chromatin structure assay, Flow cytometry.

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The Effect of Obesity during Labor on Pregnancy Outcome in Healthy Parturients

 

Mohammed E. Azzamand andAmr M. El-Helaly

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

amrelhelaly@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To assess maternal obesity as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome during spontaneous delivery. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 2 groups of women with spontaneous onset of labor pains at full term; obese group with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n=600) and a control group with a BMI of 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 (n=600). Abdominal ultrasonography was done for assessment of fetal lie and presentation and estimation of fetal weight. The primary outcome measure was the rate of caesarean delivery and secondary outcome measures were rate of instrumental delivery, fetal macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, prolonged labor and admission to NICU. Results: The obese group had significantly higher frequency of cesarean deliveries compared to normal weight group (24.2% vs. 11.3%, p<0.001). Neonatal weight was significantly higher obese group (3.6±0.3 kg vs. 3.3±0.3 kg, p< 0.001). It was correlated positively with maternal weight (r=0.494, p<0.001) and BMI (r = 0.526, p< 0.001). Macrosomia and shoulder dystocia were significantly more frequent in the obese group (11% vs. 3.5%, p< 0.001 and 17.4% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.003, respectively). Maternal weight ≥ 89.5 kg was predictive of macrosomia (sensitivity 70% - specificity of 65%). BMI ≥ 33 kg/m2 was predictive of macrosomia (sensitivity 69% - specificity 78%). Conclusion: In healthy parturients, obesity is associated with higher proportion of macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and cesarean deliveries. Neonatal weight is correlated with maternal weight and BMI.

[Mohammed E. Azzam and Amr M. El-Helaly. The Effect of Obesity during Labor on Pregnancy Outcome in Healthy Parturients. J Am Sci 2013; 9(12):955-960]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 121

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.121

 

Keywords: Maternal obesity, Labour pains, Cesarian delivery, Fetal weight.

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Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk and cream using multiplex PCR

 

Eman Nabil Abd El-fatah and Asmaa Badar Mostafa

 

Department of Food Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Sharkia Province, Egypt.

dr_eman_82@yahoo.com, satoofa_83@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in raw milk and cream in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. A total of 90 samples 45 of each raw milk and cream was randomly collected from dairy shops. These samples were investigated bacteriologically to detect occurrence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus. Overall, 21 S. aureus isolates were identified from the examined samples with an incidence of 23.3%. The highest isolation rate was observed in cream samples (28.9%) followed by raw milk samples (17.8%). The ability to synthesize classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEA-E) was determined using multiplex PCR, in 9 of 21 samples. Results revealed that 5 (55.6%) enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates were carrying sea followed by 2(22.2%) isolates positive for sec and only one isolate was positive for sed. Both sea and sec genes present in only one isolate. Differences in SE type prevalence compared with the present study likely reflect the distinct origin of the isolates. It can be considered that food handlers are the most usual contamination source leading to food poisoning.

[Eman Nabil Abd El-fatah and Asmaa Badar Mostafa. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphyococcous aureus in raw milk and cream using multiplex pcr. J Am Sci 2013; 9(12):961-968]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 122

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.122

 

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterotoxin genes, Multiplex pcr, Cream and Raw milk.

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Efficienc of Celecoxib versus Magnesium Sulfate to Arrest Preterm Labor: Randomize Controlled Trial

 

Hosam M. Hemeda, Mohammad A. Nasr Addeen and Mohamamd K. Nazeer

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

Hosam1973md@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Preterm birth occur in 7% to 12% of all deliveries, but accounts for over 85% of all prenatal morbidity and mortality The benefit of keeping the fetus in-utero long enough to enable administration of a full course of corticosteroids to assist in fetal lung maturation, and to organize transfer to an appropriate neonatal care unit is very important. the primary aim of tocolysis is to delay delivery for at least 48 hours to allow time for these measures to be implemented. Several methods and drugs are used for the primary tocolysis. Magnesium sulphate is one of the most successfully widely used tocolytic agents worldwide; it is conceivable that magnesium sulfate tocolysis delay delivery for 24 to 48 hours. Newer drugs are regularly added to the list of tocolytics searching for the more efficient and the better side effects profile. Aim of the work: is to compare the efficiency of oral Celecoxib, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, versus Magnesium Sulfate to arrest preterm labor. Methods: a randomized controlled trial including Two hundred pregnant women with preterm labor between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation randomly assigned into two groups whether to receive Celecoxib 100 mg b.i.d. for 48 hrs or intravenous Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) for maximum of 48 hrs. Results: Labor was successfully arrested for 48 hrs in 84 (84%) and 86 (86%) of the patients in the Celecoxib and Magnesium Sulfate groups respectively (p=0.381). Conclusion: Celecoxib is almost equally effective as magnesium sulfate for primary tocolysis.

[Hosam M. Hemeda, Mohammad A. Nasr Addeen and Mohamamd K. Nazeer. Efficiency of Celecoxib versus Magnesium Sulfate to Arrest Preterm Labor: Randomized Controlled Trial. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):969-973]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 123

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.123

 

Keywords: Celecoxib, Cox 2 inhibitors, preterm labor, Magnesium sulphate.

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The value of lumbar puncture in possible late onset sepsis

 

Ahmed A Khattab,and Dalia M El-Lahony

 

Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.

dmlahony@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bacterial sepsis and meningitis continue to be major causes of morbidity and mortality in newborns. However, it is still a question whether the lumbar puncture is a necessary procedure in neonatal sepsis or a risky one that neonates need not undergo. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the significance of lumbar puncture in late onset sepsis. Patients and methods:The study included 92 neonates, their ages ranged between 7-28 days, all of them born without complication to a healthy mothers, also all were achieving the clinical sepsis score. All newborns were subjected to thorough clinical examination, complete blood count with diffrential, blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid analysis and culture. Results: The results showed that 39 out of the 92 newborns with possible late onset sepsis had positive cerebrospinal fluid culture, 4 out of the 39 with meningitis had negative blood culture. Using relative risk, bulging anterior fontanel (RR= 2.47), apnea (RR= 2.21), irritability (RR= 2.02) and seizures (RR= 2.00) increased the risk of acquiring meningitis. By comparing blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid culture, cerebrospinal fluid culture specificity is 87% in detecting sepsis and meningitis. Conclusion: Neonates with possible late onset sepsis should have lumbar puncture. In the presense of these risk factors lumbar puncture is warranted.

[Ahmed A Khattab, and Dalia M El-Lahony. The value of lumbar puncture in possible late onset sepsis] Journal of American Science 2013; 9(12):974-978]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 124

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.124

 

Keywords: Lumbar puncture, late onset sepsis

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Relationship between Depression and Low Vitamin D Level

 

Hussein Attia1, Reda Ismail1, Hala Taha1, Omnia Al-Azazzy1, Rania Hussein and Eman El-Sheshtawy2

 

1 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo Egypt

2 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

Correspondence to Reda Ismail, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo Egypt

redaismail2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Depression is a devastating disease that adversely affects all aspects of one's existence. Ample evidence suggests that vitamin D has important functions in the human brain and may play a role in depression. Low serum vitamin D is linked to depression, Aim of the Work: To investigate the association between serum vitamin D level and depression in a sample of female patients with depressive disorder. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among a random sample of 50 female depressed patients, their demographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, including age, education, marital state, history of smoking, and participation in physical activity were completed. Weight and height were measured directly and used to calculate body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), their age was ranged from 25-65. They also submitted to Complete medical history, Complete medical examination, Laboratory investigations: Assessment of Fasting and postprandial blood sugar, - Vitamin D serum level; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD-Total). Complete Psychiatric interview; with application of Beck Depression Scale for diagnosis and assessment the severity of depression. Results 22% of the sample had mild depression, 44% had moderate depression, and 34% had severe depression, there was statistical significant correlation between severity grading of depression and older age. A direct relation between severity scoring of depression and decreased physical activity, increased body mass index, smoking and hypertension. Low vitamin D level were common in the sample as a whole, with 84% of participants having level in either the deficient range 38 % [25(OH]D< 10 ng/mL], or the insufficient range 46% [25(OH)D < 30 ng/mL]. Mean vitamin D level was 15.2 which was significantly correlated with severity grading of depression. Conclusion; Our findings suggest that screening for vitamin D levels in depressed patients — and perhaps screening for depression in people with low vitamin D levels — might be useful.

[Hussein Attia, Reda Ismail, Hala Taha, Omnia Al-Azazzy, Rania Hussein and Eman El-Sheshtawy. Relationship between Depression and Low Vitamin D Level. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):979-983]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 125

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.125

 

Keywords: Depression, vitamin. D, Female

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Relation between Serum Uric Acid and Vitamin D among Elderly Egyptians

 

Khalid El Sayed Abokhosheim ¹, Magdy Elsayed Mohamed ² and Reem Sabry El bedewy³

 

¹ Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Azhar University. Cairo, Egypt.

² Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

³ Department of Geriatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

drkhalid_abokhosheimQ@hotmail.com, Drreem_sabry2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Association between low level of vitamin D (vit. D) and hyperuricemia has not been reported so far. We aimed to study the association of low level of vitamin D and serum uric acid among elderly Egyptians. Methods: We measured serum uric acid (SUA), lipid profile and vitamin D in 84 aged patients suffering from vit D deficiency regardless the cause of deficiency. The patients were selected from Internal Medicine and Geriatric outpatient clinics Azhar University Hospitals and Aldoaa Hospital -Ministry of Al Awkaf Cairo- as well as AinShams University Hospitals - at a period from 1st of May to the end of July 2011, In addition to twenty three normal volunteers of the same age and normal levels of vitamin D as control. After their consent. 4 ml venous blood was collected in plain tube, incubated 20 minutes at 37 °c then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min, the serum was separated and stored at – 20°C for assay of the studied parameters. Results: We found significant high level of cholesterol(p=0.0001); triglycerides(p=0.0001); LDL (p=0.0001) and SUA (p= 0.0001) than control group, while There was a highly significant lower level of HDL in patient than control, p = 0.001 and in vit D than control,p = 0.0001. Also we founded negative correlation between SUA and vit D levels in patient group r = -0.924, p = 0.0001 but not in control group. Also our result revealed negative correlation between SUA level and HDL in patient group r = -0.734, p = 0.0001.There was a significant positive correlation between SUA and LDL in patient group, r = 0.965, p = 0.0001. SUA and triglyceride r = 0.754, p = 0.0001 as well as SUA and cholesterol = 0.834, p = 0.0001. Conclusions: Low level of vitamin D was significantly associated with high level of SUA among elderly Egyptians.This study suggested that a clinical trial should be conducted to clarify the causal relationship between vitamin D, SUA and lipid profile.

[Khalid El Sayed Abokhosheim, Magdy Elsayed Mohamed and Reem Sabry El bedewy. Relation between Serum Uric Acid and Vitamin D among Elderly Egyptians. J Am Sci 2013;9(12):984-988]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 126

doi:10.7537/marsjas091213.126

 

Keywords: uric acid, vitamin D. lipid profile.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 4, 2013. 

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