Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 71, January 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1001


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Titles / Authors





The necessity of MRI in acute and mild knee trauma


Ali Birjandinejad1, Mohammad Taghi Peivandi1, Amir Reza Kachooei2, Amin Razi3, Sara Amelfarzad4, Farzad Omidi Kashani1


1. Associate professor of Orthopedic surgery, Orthopedic and trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2. Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic and trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3. Orthopedic Resident, Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4. Pharmacologist, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran



Abstract: In patients with mild knee injury, there is usually a lack of thorough examination concerning evaluation of the type and severity of articular damage; future knee complaints are referred to a previous mild trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among knee examination under general anesthesia, patients' signs and MRI findings shortly after mild and acute knee traumas. Thirty four patients with mild knee trauma which were admitted to Emdadi Hospital's orthopedic unit during the year 2006 were included in this study. Forty one knees of 39 patients were admitted during the author's shifts, some of which were excluded and the remaining completed follow-up and treatment and the related data were accessible. In all the patients, the following measures were taken:  plain x-ray, under general anesthesia examination, demographic and historical data gathering, knee MRI. Then, questionnaires were completed. The gathered data were analyzed using SPSS software, descriptive statistics and frequency distribution tables. The mean age of the patients was 29.5 ranging from 14 to 46. There were 5 female and 29 male patients. 5 patients showed positive clinical finding (14.7%) of which 4 patients had pathologic findings in MRI (80%) and one patient was normal. 29 patients had stable knee exams, of which 16 patients had pathologic MRI (55%) and the remaining 13 patients (45%) were normal. ACL tear was the most common pathologic finding in MRI (12 patients). There was a meaningful relationship between clinical exam and joint effusion and the possibility of pathologic MRI after mild and acute knee trauma. That is, in cases with positive clinical signs the possibility of pathologic MRI is quite high (80%). On the other side, in patients with normal knee exam and without joint effusion, in 48 % MRI is pathologic. In case of any suspicion in clinical examination, basic MRI is advised.

[Birjandinejad A, Peivandi MT, Kachooei AR, Razi A, Amelfarzad S, Omidi KF. The necessity of MRI in acute and mild knee trauma. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.01


Keywords: Knee trauma, MRI, Under GA exam, Ligament rapture.

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Evaluation of Gestational Age with Fetal Foot Length Using Ultrasonography


Moawia Gameraddin1,2, Suliman Salih1,4,Mohamed yousef1,3

1 Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, College of Medical Applied Sciences, Taibah University Fax: 00966 8475790 P.O: 30001 AlmadinahAlmunawwarah, KSA

2 Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, Alzaeim Alazhari University.P.O.Box1432 Khartoum Bahri 13311-Sudan

3 College of Medical Radiologic Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology.P.O.Box 1908, Khartoum, Sudan

4National Cancer Institute - University of Gezira, Sudan



Abstract: Correct assessment of gestational age is a cornerstone of management of any obstetric case. Several anatomical parameters are useful in the assessment of gestational age. The ultimate aim of this study is to determine the fetal gestational age through the measurement of the foot(foot length) and to determine the accuracy of fetal foot length in estimating gestational age. Methods: There were one hundred pregnant ladies in 2nd and 3rd trimesters had been selected randomly in different medical centers and hospitals in Khartoum State. They were scanned with ultrasound using the international protocols and guidelines of obstetric ultrasonography. Statistical analysis using regression equation and correlation was obtained. Results: There was a strong correlation between fetal foot length and gestaional age. Conclusion: Fetal foot length is a reliable parameter for use in the assessment of gestational age and is particularly useful when other parameters do not accurately predict gestational age. The study derived an important equation to estimate the GA, the GA= 82.411+2.191FtL.

[Moawia Gameraddin, Suliman Salih, Mohamed yousef. Evaluation of Gestational Age with Fetal Foot Length Using Ultrasonography. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):5-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.02


Keywords: Gestational Age, Fetal Foot,Length, Ultrasound, measurement.

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A New Solution for the Diversify of Network Access Equipment


Mortaza Mokhtari Nazarlou, Amir Omidi, Javad Badali


Computer group, Islamic Azad University, Maku Branch, Maku, Iran



Abstract: With various carriers which transmit information arising, they further meet the needs of users. However, they also bring some new problems, such as difficulties in the data communication among devices, data inconsistencies in devices, complexes with application development, etc. This paper presents a new network structure which uses the current mature or existing technology to solve the problems caused by hardware diversity. Using the new network structure, we can reduce data redundancy and data inconsistency, making the distributed software owns a higher availability, reliability and better maintainability.

[Mortaza Mokhtari Nazarlou, Amir Omidi, Javad Badali. A New Solution for the Diversify of Network Access Equipment. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):8-10]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.03


Keywords: Network structure; availability; reliability; data communication

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Needs and Concerns of Jordanian Mothers with Thalassemic Children: A Qualitative Study


Ghada Mohammad Abu Shosha


Department of Child Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zarqa University, Jordan



Abstract: Thalassemia is a genetic blood disorder that considered as a major public health problem. It is a challenge for patients, their families and health care system since it requires a life-long treatment of blood transfusion and chelating drugs. Aim: This study aimed to explore the needs and concerns of Jordanian mothers who have thalassemic children. Methods: A qualitative approach was employed to better elucidate the mothers perceptions of their needs and concerns. Twenty five mothers were recruited purposively from two major thalassemia clinics in The Ministry of Health in Jordan. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted. These interviews were transcribed verbatim and then translated into English.  Data were analyzed using the process of thematic analysis. Results: The study revealed two major core themes. These themes were: "exaggerated worries and fear", and "supportive care needs". Participants showed their worries resulting from frequent absenteeism from school, body image changes, puberty delay, fear of death, and uncertainty about their children’s future. They also expressed their needs for more information about thalassemia and its treatment, social and professional support, and financial support. Conclusion: Thalassemia has a significant impact on children and their mothers. A holistic approach should be used while caring with patients and their families. Nurses and health care professionals are invited to explore the feelings, concerns and needs of mothers who have thalassemic children and eventually design appropriate care plans that alleviate their suffering. 

[Abu Shosha GM. Needs and Concerns of Jordanian Mothers with Thalassemic Children: A Qualitative Study. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):11-16]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.04


Keywords: Thalassemia, Jordan, Needs, Concerns, Mothers, Children, Nursing.

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The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber in darrehshahr city


Ali Moghadam1, Mohamadreza Hassandokht2, Vahid abdose3. . Masoomeh Amoozadeh 4


1Department of Agriculture , Payame Noor University. IR. Of IRAN

2Department of Agriculture,  Islamic Azad Tehran University. IR. Of IRAN

3Department of Agriculture,  Islamic Azad Tehran University. IR. Of IRAN

4Department of Geography,  Payame Noor University. IR. Of IRAN


Abstract: The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber (Super Daminus and Maxim) in Darrehshahr city in complete accidental blocks design with four kinds (including direct seed cultivation, seedling in two foliar steps, seedling in three foliar step, and seedling in four foliar step) in three duplication (frequencies). The obtained results revealed that the accessory stock attributes, bushy length, fruit weight, precocious operation, the first fruit formation date, total function, fruits number, the first grade fruits percent, the second-rate fruit percent, one percent level and leaf width features, the main stock thickness, the accessory stock thickness, fruit thickness, the first flower formation date, leaf numbers, and the bushy wet weight were meaningful in 5 percent level. As well, the comparison of seedling age average and brand showed that the trifoliate seedling of Superdaminus from precocious function (606/26 gram in bushy) and the total function (2813/749 gram in bushy) views was better than other kinds. Meanwhile, the average direct seed cultivation of Superdaminus from precocious function (334/12 gram in bushy and the four foliate seedling of Maxim with the total function of 1504/36 gram in bushy are smaller in comparison to other experimented kinds. The results clarified that seedling use in comparison to direct seed cultivation from precocious and total function. Aspects were excessively better and are recommended to be used in Darrehshahr aired for cucumber cultivation.

[Ali Moghadam, Mohamadreza Hassandokht, Vahid abdose. Masoomeh Amoozadeh. The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber in darrehshahr city J Am Sci 2014;10(1):17-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.05


Key words: cucumber, Seed, seedling, quantity and quality of the two kinds, atmospheric and barrowing method

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Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage Associated with Antiphospholipid Antibodies Treated with Low Dose Aspirin and Unfractionated Heparin


Ahmed M. Abdelaziz (MD) & Khalid abd Aziz Mohammad (MD).


Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

ahmed.abdelaziz@fmed.bu.edu.eg,   Khaled.ibrahim@fmed.bu.edu.eg


Abstract: Objective To determine maternal and fetal outcomes in women with APS managed with aspirin or unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus aspirin during pregnancy. Design: prospective cohort study. Setting: high-risk pregnancy unit- Benha university hospital. Methods: Pregnant women with APS attending at high-risk pregnancy unit. Seventy seven selected patients with clinical and/or serological findings of antiphospholipid syndrome were divided into 2 groups: group A (n = 47) had received low-dose aspirin (81 mg once daily orally) plus heparin (5000 IU) every 12 h while group B (n = 30) had received aspirin (81mg once daily orally) with the first positive pregnancy test. Main outcome measures: Maternal outcomes included thromboembolic and haemorrhagic complications and pregnancy-induced hypertension .Prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal death were considered as maternal and fetal complications. Results: There were significant differences in antenatal and maternal complications between the groups. Aspirin plus UFH was more efficacious than aspirin alone in women with antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent miscarriage. There were significant differences between Groups A and B in the rate of miscarriages [3 miscarriages in Group A (6%) versus 8 miscarriage in Group B (27%); p = 0.03], the mean gestational age [381.73weeks versus 36 1.57; p ˂0.0001], the neonatal birth weight [3352.27 368.2 versus 2620.45 370.54 gm; p ˂0.0001] and pre-eclampsia [4/44 (9%) versus 8/22 (36%); p =0.03]. Although not statistically significant, women in Group A tended to have higher rates of number of live births [44/47(94%) versus 22/30(73%); p =0.49] but have lower rates of IUGR [5/44 (11%) versus 4/22 (18%); p =0.51] and preterm births [5/44 (11%) versus 6/22 (27%); p =0.18] than women in Group B. Conclusions: Use of low dose aspirin and heparin (5000 IU) every 12 h subcutaneously in patient with recurrent pregnancy loss due to antiphospholipid syndrome resulted in higher live birth rates compared to using low dose aspirin alone.

[Ahmed M.Abdelaziz and Khalid abd Aziz Mohammad. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage Associated with Antiphospholipid Antibodies Treated with Low Dose Aspirin and Unfractionated. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):22-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.06


Keywords: Anticoagulation, antiphospholipid syndrome, Aspirin, heparin, pregnancy, recurrent miscarriage.

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Analysis and Determination of the Stress Intensity Factor of Load-Carrying Cruciform Fillet Welded Joints


Nabil Mahmoud, Ahmed Badr, Fikry Salim and Amro Elhossainy


Structure Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansourah University, Egypt.



Abstract: Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the formation of cracks in materials. The determination of stress intensity factor (SIF) plays an important role in fracture analysis. This stress intensity factor (SIF) can be determined by experimental, numerical or analytical methods. However, with complicated component and crack geometry or under complex loading only numerical procedures are applicable. In this study, SIF of load-carrying cruciform welded joints has been evaluated using finite element method (FEM). Load-carrying cruciform welded joints with isosceles triangles and non-isosceles triangle fillet weld shapes were considered and have been analyzed by the (FEM) based simulator FRANC2D/L [1] program. Moreover, the effects of the crack position (toe, root or cold lab crack) have been considered. The objective of this paper is to study analytically the effects of variation of crack position as well as the effect of mesh fineness and crack increment on the stress intensity factor (KI) under a constant load for load-carrying cruciform fillet welded joints.

[Nabil Mahmoud, Ahmed Badr, Fikry Salim and Amro Elhossainy. Analysis and Determination of the Stress Intensity Factor of Load-Carrying Cruciform Fillet Welded Joints. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):30-36]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.07


Keywords: Fracture mechanics, stress intensity factor, cruciform joint and fillet weld.

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Developing and Validating Nursing Care Standards for Patients with Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy at South Egypt Cancer Institute at Assiut University


Hanaa Esmail Sabra1, Harrisa M. A. El. Shemy2, Magda ABdel Aziz Mohamed1,  Samir Shehata Mohamed1, Hala Ramzy Yousef1


1Nursing Administration Department, Medical Surgical Nursing Department., Faculty of Nursing Ain Shams University.

2Clincal  Oncology Department., Nursing Administration Department., Assiut University



Abstract: The descriptive study aimed at developing and validating nursing care standards for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy at South Egypt Cancer Institute through determining the nurses' performance in South Egypt cancer institute, developing standards based on the nurses' performance, and validating the developed standards based on the jury opinions. The collection of data was achieved by using two developed tools. The first observation checklist: this tool aims at asserting performance of the nurses working in the designated settings. This tool consisted of two parts.  Part I: Entailed personal and job characteristics of the studied nurses such as age, sex, qualification, and years of experience. Part II: It was developed to assess the nursing care for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy through an initial list of performance. The second a structured opininnaire sheet aims at investigation opinion of the nursing and medical experts regarding the developed standards. It includes queries regarding personal and job characteristics of respondents. The results of the study showed that the initial checklist entailing nursing care for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy was valid through full acceptance by experts, and nursing care provided for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy was inadequate. Based on the finding of the study nursing care standards for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy was developed.

[Hanaa Esmail Sabra, Harrisa M. A. El. Shemy, Magda ABdel Aziz Mohamed,  Samir Shehata Mohamed, Hala Ramzy Yousef. Developing and Validating Nursing Care Standards for Patients with Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy at South Egypt Cancer Institute at Assiut University. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):37-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.08


Keywords: Nursing care standards, Patient with Cancer, Chemotherapy.

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The Impact of Field Trips on Students’ Creative Thinking and Practices In Arts Education


1Yassir M Mahgoub, BA(hons), MA, PhD and 2Abeer A Alawad, HND, BA(hons), MA, PhD


1Associate Professor King Faisal University, Faculty of Education, Department of Art Education.

2Assistant Professor, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Home Economics, Department of Housing and Home Management, track of Interior Design

Email: aalawad@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: This study was to explore the relationship between the field trips and the potential benefits of these visits to students’ creativity and practices in art tasks. In particular, it considered the following research question: Can field trips positively affect students’ creative thinking and practices in art tasks? The study sample consisted of 60 female students in the third level, for the academic years (2011 – 2012) from Rofaidah basic school level of the African Council schools in Khartoum - Republic of Sudan. Descriptive, analytical and experimental methods are used in this research to explore the benefit of field trips to natural and industrial environments to stimulate students’ creativity and practices on art tasks. Research from the area of environmental psychology suggests that humans will benefit both psychologically and physiologically from spending time in the natural world and outside environment. Additionally, designers also commend the natural world as a source of inspiration for their conceptual designs and art ideas. The results showed there was a significant difference between the performance of students on an art task within the experimental and control groups. It was concluded that field trips to natural and industrial locations were a beneficial learning aid and a means of fostering students’ creativity and practices in art education. The contribution to new knowledge in this study included the development of advice for all participants working within and related to the field of education and in particular art education the benefit of field visit to the natural and industrial places. The researchers recommended that educational trips should be included in the art curriculum wherever possible.

[Yassir M Mahgoub, and Abeer A Alawad. The Impact Of Field Trips On Students’ Creative Thinking And Practices In Arts Education. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):46-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.09


Keywords: creative thinking, art education, field trips, practices, and natural environment.

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Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria during Pregnancy-Dipstick Urine Analysis versus Simple Microscopic Urine analysis


Hosam M. Hemeda, Alaa M. El-Ghannam and Eenaas Y. Yusuf


Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University



Abstract: Background: During pregnancy the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and symptomatic UTI may be as high as 8% with potentially harmful maternal and fetal results .Nearly 1-2% of women may develop acute pyelonephritis secondary to bacteriuria during pregnancy.Detection of asymptomatic bacteriurea is essential in pregnancy .The gold standard test for detection of ASB is urine culture. Objective: To assess whether or not dipstick and simple microscopic urine analysis are helpful for detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant patients. Accuracy is evaluated by using urine culture as a gold standard. Material and Methods: Midstream  voided urine samples obtained from 1st trimesteric 200 pregnant  women attending the OPC of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital  then tested using dipstick urine analysis (to detect nitrite and leukocyte esterase enzyme) and simple microscopic urine analysis ( to detect  pyuria (≥10 WBC/hpf) and bacteriuria (any Bactria/hpf)). Urine cultures were performed using CLED (cysteine, lactose, electrolyte deficient agar) and, and more than 100,000 colony forming units per ml indicating asymptomatic bacteriuria. Each result was compared with urine culture. Validity of dipstick and simple microscopic urine analysis were investigated, using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for each parameter and in combination. Results: Nitrite test was found to be the most accurate (85%) for detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and showed the best agreement with the urine culture (k=0.264, P <0.01), Nitrite test showed high specificity (92.75%), low sensitivity (32%), high NPV (90.5%), low PPV (38.1%). Sensitivity of leukocyte esterase test was 84%, specificity was 92.75%, PPV was 18.1% and NPV was 90.5%, it has the highest NPV (95.24%), good negative test. leukocyte esterase test showed low degree of agreement  with culture bacteriuria (k = 0.116, P =0.005). Combining nitrite test with leukocyte esterase makes no difference, sensitivity becomes 84%, specificity becomes 44%, PPV 17.65% and NPV 95.06%, combining  the two tests showed little agreement with  culture bacteriuria(k = 0.107, P =0.008). Microscopic examination of bacteriuria showed a little degree of agreement with culture bacteriuria (kappa value= 0.197%), by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, it showed low sensitivity (52%), specificity (72%), low PPV (20.97%), high NPV (91.3%). Microscopic examination of pyuria showed little degree of agreement with culture bacteriuria (kappa value= 0.147%). Using either microscopic bacteriuria or pyuria parameter increases its sensitivity (60%), deceases its specificity (62.29%), decreases PPV (18.52%), made no difference with NPV (91.6%). Conclusion: Dipsticks or microscopic urine analysis, are not optimal methods for screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria.

[Hosam M. Hemeda, Alaa M. El-Ghannam and Eenaas Y. Yusuf. Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria during Pregnancy-Dipstick Urine Analysis versus Simple Microscopic Urine analysis. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):51-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.10


Key words: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Nitrite test, Leucocyte Esterse test, Microscopic urine examination, Urinary tract infection.

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Investigation of Effective Factors on Organizational commitment Case Study: Education Staff


Najim najimi 1, Mohammad Hossein Alishiri 2, Hossein Rostami3


1. Department of Sociology, Payam Noor University of Fars province, IRAN

2. Mohammad Hossein Alishiri, Department of Accounting, Payam Noor University of Fars province, IRAN

3. Hossein Rostami, Department of Teachers Education, Farhangian University Rajaee Teacher Training University of Shiraz, IRAN



Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the factors affecting the organizational commitment of employees is education in Shiraz. This research is a survey study and the data were collected by questionnaires from a sample of 374 personnel of the four-districts of Shiraz education system. Parson’s act theory was used in a four-subsystem level to explain the organizational commitment. Results show that there were no significant relation between independent variables of age and service background and dependent variable of organizational commitment, but there are significant relations between independent variables of organizational justice, fiscal satisfaction, mental satisfaction and organization management capacities and dependent variable of organizational commitment. The results of some variables analysis show that job satisfaction from mental aspect organizational justice fiscal satisfaction and management capacities are the variables which had the most effect and were imported in Regression equation in an organizational commitment context. They could also explain more than half of the changes independent variable. Considering that half of the variance independent variable (organizational commitment) is explained by this pattern, it seems that the theoretical model which is derived from Parson’s theory could be a suitable model for organizational commitment evaluation.

[Najimi, N, Alishiri, M.H, Rostami, H. Investigation of Effective Factors on Organizational commitment Case Study: Education Staff. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):55-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.11


Keywords: organizational commitment, education.Staff

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Study Of Overgrazing Effects In Koohnamakgrasslands Of Darab


Seyed Mahdi Hosseini 1, Ebrahim Sarfaraz 2


1. Legal Expert, Farhangian University

2. Sport Expert



Abstract: The present research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the present situation, capacity and abhearnce of koohnamak pastures, effects of overgrazing, identifying type and pasture plants density in the region, to estimate effects of overgrazing a random sample of 71 ranchers were selected and interviewed by suing questionnaires based on collected data, cobb – duglas and transcendental functions were estimated. The results of linear logarithmic function revealed that number of goats, ewes and hygienic expenditures had positive effects while grass and hired labor had negative effects on meat production, the transcendental function was applied to determine elasticities of variables. The results revealed that forage grass and hired labor have been overused and had negative elasticity. The number of goats, ewes and hygienic costs had positive effects on meat production. The factors affected overgrazing, were estimated by using linear function. The results showed that number of goats and ewes, drinkable water had significant effect on overgrazing. Benefit cost ratio of herds in the region was equal 1.2 and optimum size of herd was 108. finally, some recommendation are made to overcome overgrazing problem.

[Hosseini S.M, Sarfaraz E. Study Of Overgrazing Effects In Koohnamakgrasslands Of Darab. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):58-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.12


Keywords: Grasslands, Overgrazing, DARAB, IRAN.

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Influence of Environmental factors on Olive Oil Production and Quality in the Northern Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Mabroka H. Hemida1, Amal A.E. Ibrahim1, Rasha M. Al-Bahnsawy2 and Mona R. Al-Shathly1


Faculty of Girls’ for Science, Ara’r, Northern Borders University, KSA.

1Biology Department, 2Chemistry Department



Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the variations in the productivity and oil quality of Olea europaea L. cv. Picual fruit trees cultivated in Al-Jouf (JF), Gurayat (GT), Hail (HL) and Tabuk (TK) orchards in the northern region of KSA. The soil type is a sandy loam in Gurayat orchard and sandy in the other three orchards. The pH values for the four orchards were nearly similar while the electrical conductivity (EC) was about 2.40, 2.17, 0.68 and 0.52 dsm-1, respectively for the four regions. Al-Jouf followed by Gurayat orchards attained the highest percentage of oil and the lowest percentage of moisture compared to the other orchards. Variations in free acid value and iodine and saponification values showed that olive oil of Al-Jouf followed by Gurayat orchard had the highest values amongst the other four regions. The variation in refractive index was insignificant among the four orchards. On the other hand, peroxide value attained the maximum value in Tabuk orchards while the minimum was achieved in Al-Jouf orchards in reverse with oxidative stability. The total saturated fatty acids percent did not show a specific trend among the four regions. On the other hand, the percent of the estimated unsaturated fatty acids is much higher than that of the saturated ones. The highest percent (86%) was attained by olive oil extracted from Al-Jouf orchards followed by that of Gurayat (GT) orchard (84.5%).

[Mabroka H. Hemida, Amal A.E. Ibrahim, Rasha M. Al-Bahnsawy and Mona R. Al-Shathly. Influence of Environmental factors on Olive Oil Production and Quality in the Northern Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):61-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.13


Key Words: Olea europaea, soil type, oil and moisture content, oil properties, fatty acid composition.

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Effects of Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Muscular Performance in Young Adults


Samah A Moawd1, Nermeen M. Abdelhalem1, Ahmed F. Samhan1, Waleed S. Mahmoud 1


1. Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy and Health Rehabilitation Department, College of Applied Medical Science, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.



Abstract: Whole body vibration (WBV) training is rapidly gaining in popularity in health and fitness centers, as an alternative method to improve muscle performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks program of WBV in combination with resistance training on muscular performance on healthy untrained adults. Subjects: A group of 40 young male adults; age 21.6 1.5 yrs were assigned into two equal groups: WBV group performed a WBV plus resistance training program (WBV + RES) and placebo group, performed the same resistance training program in absence of vibration (PL + RES). Methods: Participants were evaluated for anthropometry, isokinetic dynamometry and counter-movement jump (CMJ). After the intervention The data were collected and analyzed using a paired and un-paired t-test to compare the difference between the results within each group pre test and post test and between the two groups. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in isometric strength, in both groups. There were significant differences between post test of WBV and placebo groups. Concerning CMJ, there was significant improvement in whole body vibration group only. Conclusion: The addition of WBV to resistance training for 12 weeks, in healthy untrained adults result in a larger muscular performance improvement compared to an identical exercise program in absence of vibration. So vibration exercise may be more effective and low time consuming tool to enhance muscular performance.

[Moawd S, Abdelhalem N, Samhan A, Mahmoud WS. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Muscular Performance in Young Adults. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):67-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.14


Keywords: Muscle strength, Whole-body vibration, Resistance training, Muscle performance

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Defining Facilitative Anxiety in Strategic Terms: A Delphi Study


Mohammad Jahangiri1, Azizah Binti Rajab2


1. Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia(UTM), Skudai, Malaysia.

2. Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, D05, 414.



Abstract: The present study employs the Delphi Technique to establish consensus on the long-needed definition of facilitative anxiety amongst education professionals and to reveal the strategies they resort to in the course of turning debilitative anxiety into facilitative anxiety. Through a literature review the study demonstrates the gap for a definition and the lack of entries for the term in references. Drawing upon the data the study yields a strategy-oriented facilitative anxiety definition paving the way for relativistic reconsideration of the term indicating the possible directions along which the literature on anxiety may proceed. The following emerged as the most salient facilitative anxiety strategies: (1) positive competition & challenge (2) active participation (3) avoidance of individual-specific DA-triggering thresholds (4) positive reinforcement & encouragement (4) preparedness & practice in advance through sufficient exposure (5) motivation to succeed & willingness (7) teamwork & cooperation (8) orderliness & discipline and (9) creation of interest.

[Jahangiri, M., Rajab A. B. Defining Facilitative Anxiety in Strategic Terms: A Delphi Study. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):74-80]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.15


Key Words: Facilitative Anxiety (FA); Delphi Technique; Facilitative Anxiety Definition; FA-Inducing Strategies; Debilitative Anxiety (DA).

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Recognition of Entamoeba histolytica Gal-Lectin Heavy Subunit Epitopes by Serum IgA and IgG Antibodies from Diverse Populations


Mohamed D. Abd Alla1, William M. Stauffer2, Christina R. Phares3, Deborah Lee3, Annelise Doney3, David M. Urasa4, Yasser M. M. El-Dessouky1, William Mlake4, Elibariki A. Nkoo4, and Jonathan I. Ravdin5.


1Tropical Medicine Department, Al-Azhar School of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt;

 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, University of Minnesota; 3Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 4Arusha Lutheran Medical Center, Arusha, Tanzania; 5 Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin.



Abstract: A fragment of the Entamoeba histolytica Gal-lectin heavy subunit (LC3) contains four epitopes recognized by IgA and IgG from a South Africa population immune to reinfection. We studied diverse endemic populations, including Tanzanian subjects (n=231) and USA refugees from Liberia (n=200), Somalia (n=200), or an ethnic Hmong population (n=200) by ELISA; among anti-LC3 seropositive subjects 55% to 100% possessed both serum IgG or IgA antibodies to at least one of the four LC3 epitopes (p<0.001). Recognition was most intense for epitopes 2 and 9 (p<0.01) compared to epitopes 11 or 12; the anti-IgA prevalence was highest for epitope 11 (p<0.032) in Liberian subjects, epitope 2 (p<0.05) in Hmong and Tanzanian subjects, epitopes 2, 9 and 11 (p<0.034) in Somalian subjects and epitope 9 (p=0.013) in the immune South African cohort. Therefore, these four putatively protective LC3 epitopes have potential for application in an amebiasis subunit vaccine.

 [Mohamed D. Abd Alla, William M. Stauffer, Christina R. Phares, Deborah Lee, Annelise Doney, David M. Urasa, Yasser M. M. El-Dessouky, William Mlake, Elibariki A. Nkoo, and Jonathan I. Ravdin. Recognition of Entamoeba histolytica Gal-Lectin Heavy Subunit Epitopes by Serum IgA and IgG Antibodies from Diverse Populations. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):81-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.16


 Key Words: Entamoeba histolytica, Gal-Lectin, Epitopes, Peptide Vaccine, Diverse Sera.

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Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant


Abdurrahim A. Elouzi1, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi1, Ali M. Elgerbi2


1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tripoli University, Tripoli,

P.O. Box 13645 Libya.

2Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sebha University,

Brack Ashati, P. O. Box 68 Libya.



Abstract: Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of biosurfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5X105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-folds dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pathogens and Gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

 [Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi. Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):93-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17.  doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.17


Keywords: Biosurfactants, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin, hydrophobic antibiotics.

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Impact of urbanization on agricultural land losses and climate change Case study: Gharbiah Governorate, Egypt


Hassanein M. K. 1; Fahim M. A.1; Khalil A. A.1; Abolmaty S. M. 1; Refaie K. M. 1; Taqi, M.O.1 and Abou Hadid A. F. 2


1Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, P.O. Box 296 Dokki, 12411 Giza, Egypt

2  Prof. of Horticulture, Ain Shams Univ., Egypt



Abstract: Urban expansion is one of the main problems that threaten the limited highly fertile land in the Nile Delta of Egypt. This study examines the impact of future urban expansion on local near-surface temperature for some regions in the Delta of Egypt using topographic map during 1985, SPOT5 satellite images 2,5m resolution during 2005 and satellite images from Google Earth during 2012 to monitor and measure the loss of agricultural land and urban expansion in the two districts of Gharbiah Governorate (Al Mahallah Al kubra and Samannoud). The future climate scenario (A2) was used to simulate the present (1985–2012) and future period (2030) climates of the regions. The future simulation incorporates the projected changes in the urban area of some regions of the Delta to account for the expected urban expansion.  The rate of changes from 1985 to 2005 is higher in Al Mahallah Al kubra district in comparison with Samannoud district. Agricultural land decreased by 5.3% and the urban sprawl increased by 83.8% from 1985 to 2005 for the two districts. Per capita share of agricultural land was dwindled to around 0.17, 011, 010 and 0.07 feddan for the periods of 1985, 2005, 2012 and projection period of 2030. In spite of applying laws and regulations for curbing the encroachment on agricultural land, such policies have not succeeded in stopping urban encroachment on agricultural land. The analysis of the temperature changes revealed that future urbanization will strongly affect minimum temperature, whereas little impact was detected for maximum temperature. However, during summer and spring these differences will be particularly large and the increases could be double the increase due to global warming alone at 2030. Results indicated that the changes were mostly due to increased heat capacity of urban structures and reduced evaporation in the cities and their surroundings environment.

[ Hassanein M. K.; Fahim M. A.; Khalil A. A.; Abolmaty S. M.; Refaie K. M.; Taqi, M.O. and Abou Hadid A. F. Impact of urbanization on agricultural land losses and climate change Case study: Gharbiah Governorate, Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):99-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.18


Key words: Urban expansion; remote sensing; GIS; future climate scenario, near-surface temperature, climate change.

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Determination of Doses to Breast Cancer Patients during EBRT at KBTH


1Mvoufo, F., 1, 2Amoako, J.K, 1Schandorf, C., 3Tagoe, S.N and 4Dery, T.B


1School of Nuclear and Allied Science, University of Ghana

2Radiation Protection Institute, GAEC, Box LG 80, Legon, Accra, Ghana

3Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Centre, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra

4Radiological and Medical Research Institute, GAEC, Box LG 80, Legon, Accra, Ghana

Email of Corresponding Author: joe.amoako@gmail.com


Abstract: The study focused on investigating the absorbed dose to fifty-one (51) selected breast cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment with Cobalt-60 source at the National Centre of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghana using TLDs and a water phantom. The percentage deviation of the absorbed doses ranged from <0.1% - 5.7% and 0.3% - 9.2% for the lateral and medial irradiation of the breast respectively. The results obtained clearly show that, the overall limit of error required in dosimetry of 5% was achieved in about 92.2% of the cases studied. Measurement and analysis of scattered radiation from patients show that the average scattered radiation is about 24%.

[Mvoufo, F., Amoako, J.K, Schandorf, C., Tagoe, S.N and Dery, T.B. Determination of Doses to Breast Cancer Patients during EBRT at KBTH. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):108-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.19


Keywords: TLD, absorbed dose, irradiation, dosimetry

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Amino and fatty acids composition and the effect of selected marine yield available in Egyptian markets on serum lipid profile


Usama El-Sayed Mostafa and Ayman Fathey Khalil


Department of home economics, Faculty of specified education, Ain Shams University



Abstract: Marine yield such as oyster, crustacean and fishes are known to be a source of protein rich in essential amino acids. Moreover, those yields contain high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids that might favorably improve lipid profiles and reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus this study was carried out to determine fatty and  amino acids compositions and determine the effect of feeding with different amount of different common marine fishes on serum lipid profile. The results indicated that, Marine crustacean (Shrimp) tended to have the highest moisture content (76.3%). Marine yield with the least moisture content was freshly Mugil Cephalus (Bore) (63.6%). Tridacna maxima (Boser) had the highest protein content (22.5%). While, Shrimp and Mugil Cephalus (Bore) samples collected from Egyptian markets had approximately similar protein content (19.4% and 19.7%, respectively). Crude fat was lowest in Shrimp (1.15%) and highest in Mugil Cephalus (Bore) (8.6%). The predominant amino acids amongst the non-essential amino acids were aspartic acid and glycine, and those amongst the essential amino acids were lysine and leucine. The sum of essential amino acids ranged between 25.52% in Mugil Cephalus (Bore) to 38.79% in Pandalus borealis (Shrimp). Leucine, isoleucine plus valine account for 13.01%, 14.7% and 17.45% of total amino acids for Mugil Cephalus, Tridacna maxima, and Pandalus borealis, respectively. The PUFA contents were much higher (26-47 %) than the saturated fatty acid (24-40%). All investigated fish, oyster and crustacean are rich sources of a special class of polyunsaturated fatty acids known as the omega-3 or n-3 fatty acids (DHA, EPA and ALA). Investigated samples were richer in omega-3 PUFAs (15-27%) than omega-6 PUFAs (5-9%). Treating hyperlipidemic groups fed on basal diet with different kinds and levels of investigated marine yields to significant decrease in the mean value of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-c and VLDL-c as compared to the positive control group. In conclusion, inclusion of marine sources of the n-3 PUFA in the diet seems reasonable because they are good sources of protein without the accompanying high saturated fat seen in fatty meat products. Therefore, to benefit from vital nutrients like ω-3 HUFA, protein, essential amino acids, a moderate quantity of marine yields should be consumed by people.

[Usama El-Sayed Mostafa and Ayman Fathey Khalil. Amino and fatty acids composition compositions and the effect of selected marine yield available in Egyptian markets on serum lipid profile. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):112-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.20


Key words: amino acid, fatty acid, Mugil Cephalus, Tridacna maxima, and Pandalus borealis

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The Effect of Different Spinning and Finishing Methods on Cotton Fabrics Dyeing With Different Concentrations


Ghada A. Fatah A. Rahman El sayed


Faculty of Specific Education, Zagazig University



Abstract: The research aims at conducting the most appropriate spinning type of cotton fabrics with plain fabric construction 1/1 under variant standard conditions of microwave rays in order to improve the ability to absorb different dyes with different concentrations. The fabrics tried under research and laboratory tests were carried out at Misr Company in Al Mehalla Al- Kobra. The specifications of warp and weft yarns were 100% cotton, the picks counted 25 picks / cm, weft and warp yarn No. 20/1 were woolen Cotton and the used fabric construction was plain 1/1. Two methods of spinning were used (open –ring end spinning).Standard conditions of microwave rays are as follow: (1) Processing by microwave rays time (1,2,3) minutes. (2) Microwave energy (170,340,510,680) Watts. (3) Two types of dyes were used:(direct - active), with using two, (high of 2% - less 1%). Laboratory tests tried on the treated and dyed fabrics were made in the labs of Misr Company in Al Mahalla al-Kubra. These tests were color depth, different fastness types, (fastness against abrasion(dry – humid), fastness against wash (washing – bleeding), fastness against sweat (acidic – alkali), fastness against light. The results were statistically analyzed through using bi variance analysis system (the least significant difference) for the multi comparisons among the spun types, dye and its concentration, standard conditions of microwave rays (time- Microwave energy), tukey test (multi comparisons), quality overall assessment for research properties.The research reached the following: (1) The best sample was of ring spinning, (one minute) time, temperature 510, dye concentration + R 2%. (2) The least samples were of ring spinning, (three minutes) time, temperature 170, dye concentration + R 2%.

[Ghada A. Fatah A. Rahman Elsayed. The Effect of Different Spinning and Finishing Methods on Cotton Fabrics Dyeing With Different Concentrations J Am Sci 2014;10(1):120-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.21


Keywords: Microwave energy, Ring end Spinning, Open end Spinning, Absorption

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Secure Mobile Banking


Hussam Elbehiery1, M. Saied Abdelwahab1, Ghada Abdelhady2


1Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST), Faculty of Information Technology, Egypt

2German University in Cairo (GUC), Faculty of Engineering, Egypt



Abstract: Most of banks have introduced the mobile banking service in many countries. Mobile banking is a system that allows customers of a financial institution to conduct a number of financial transactions through a mobile device such as a mobile phone or assistant. The introduced application has been created on a smart phone with the help of facial recognition and ciphering algorithms for increasing security. The aim of this application for bank customers is to perform banking transactions such as transferring money, paying bills and to make survey(s) on the users account through the mobile application wherever the user is and at any time. Many developed countries are using now the android application systems, so the introduced application mainly based on this operating system which becomes widely used all over the world in the smart phones.

[Hussam Elbehiery, M. Saied Abdelwahab, Ghada Abdelhady. Secure Mobile Banking. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):135-142]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.22


Keywords: Mobile and Internet banking, Android operating system, Facial Recognition, and Ciphering Algorithms

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The Role of Urine Screening (In School Children of Menoufiya Governorate) In Early Detection of Renal Disorders.


Ali M El-Shafie, Fathia M. El-Nemr, Mohamed H. Bahbah, Mohamed Shokry and, Ahmed attia


Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is epidemic worldwide. Many countries have performed a population-based screening program aiming at identifying the prevalence of unrecognized renal disease in asymptomatic individuals, allowing further evaluation and disease-modifying interventions. However this kind of programs is not carried out in a nationwide basis in Egypt. Objectives: Our aim was to elucidate the prevalence of renal disorders and risk factors related to them, with spotting light on the role of school population-based urine screening in the early detection and prevention of progressive renal diseases in children in Menoufiya Governorate. Methods: A cross sectional study, was conducted on three thousands school children in Menoufiya Governorate. Children of the study were apparently healthy, aged 6 - 13 years. The screening tool included a questionnaire documenting demographic and historical data together with on-site measurements of blood pressure (BP) and urine dipstick for detection of protein, RBCs, and urinary tract infections. Other confirmatory tests were then performed. The presence of protein was confirmed by using heat and acetic acid test. A microscopic analysis was done for the presence of pus cells, RBC's, and red cell casts. Urine culture was done for 500 randomly selected children to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of dipsticks. Children with abnormal urinary findings were admitted to the unit of Pediatric Nephrology, Menoufiya University Hospital for further evaluation including 24h- urine protein, ultrasonography, Doppler scans, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and DMSA scan. Renal biopsies were performed as indicated. Results: After initial screening with dipstick test, out of 3000 children, 90 cases (3%) were positive for proteinurea, which was persisted in only 64 (2.13%) of cases after confirmatory test. the prevalence of hematuria was 5.5% ( 166 cases out of 3000), twelve of them (0.4%) found to be as glomerular in origin while 154 (5.1%) as lower urinary tract origin. Nine cases (0.3%) had combined hematurea and proteinurea (CHP). Hypercalciuria was found in 141 (4.7%). The prevalence of UTI was 4.9% with E coli being the most frequently found organism. Lower UTI (cystitis) resembled 97.9 % while upper UTI (pyelonephritis) resembled (2.1%) (complicating vesicoureteric reflux and posterior urethral valve). Renal biopsy was indicated and performed in 8 cases, and revealed, minimal change disease in 2 cases, mesangial proliferative glomeruolonephritis, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, Alport's syndrome and two had normal findings. Conclusion: Prevalence of renal disorders among apparently healthy school aged children is considerably high in Minoufiya governorate. Thus, mass school urine screening tests are mandatory for early detection of renal disorders which if left untreated, may progress to develop irreversible renal disease.

[Ali M El-Shafie, Fathia M. El-Nemr, Mohamed H. Bahbah, Mohamed Shokry and Ahmed attia. The Role of Urine Screening (In School Children of Menoufiya Governorate) In Early Detection of Renal Disorders. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):143-150]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.23


Key Words: Proteinuria, hypercalcuria, hematuria, and school children

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Secured and Transparent Computerized Voting System accessible everywhere


Enas Elbarbary 1, Ghada Abdelhady 2, Hussam Elbehiery 3, Abdelhahim Zekry 4


1VACSERA, Department of Electrical Engineering, Egypt

2Ahram Canadian University (ACU), Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Egypt

3Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST), Faculty of Information Technology, Egypt

4Ain Shams University, Faculty of Engineering, Egypt



Abstract: Aiding the user to have secured voting system is a must. Early regular voting systems have many drawbacks like the overcrowding of people in the polling stations and hence the traffic problems. The need for great amount of documents that are vulnerable, exposed to forgery, also the difficulty of achieving votes counting, analysis are considered as drawbacks for regular voting systems. This work presents a new smart system for voting process to be secured and transparent. We will call it "Secured and Transparent Computerized Voting system (STCVS)". "STCVS" system could eliminate counterfeiting, hacking. Also, while accessing it from any location, this would save the time spent for voting processes and countries economic performance would be better. Finally, "STCVS" system assures that user's vote will be his own opinion, not influenced by any others.

[Enas Elbarbary, Ghada Abdelhady, Hussam Elbehiery, Abdelhahim Zekry. Secured and Transparent Computerized Voting System accessible everywhere. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):151-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.24


Keywords: E-Voting; Cryptography; Asymmetric Encryption; Elgamal; PHP; Javascript; MySQL

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Potential theory method and spectral relationships of a generalized Macdonald kernel in some different domains


M. A. Abdou1 and M. A. Elsayed2


1 Department of Mathematics Faculty of Education Alexandria University Egypt

2 Department of basic science High institute for Engineering Elshorouk Academy Egypt



Abstract: A generalized potential theory method is used to construct spectral relationships, in some different domains, for an integral equation, in three dimensional, with a generalized potential kernel. This kernel, under certain conditions, will take the generalized Macdonald function form. Also, the spectral relationships are discussed and obtained in different domains of integration. Many special cases are derived and discussed from the work.

[M. A. Abdou and M. A. Elsayed. Potential theory method and spectral relationships of a generalized Macdonald kernel in some different domains. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):158-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.25


 Keywords: Spectral relationships (SRs), Boundary value problem (BVP), ordinary differential equation (ODE), integral operator (IO).

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Value of 16S rRNA Gene Amplification for Early Detection of Bacteremia In Immunocompromised Patients


Maha I. El Zaafarany1*, Tawfik R. Elkhodary1, Muhammed I. El Zaafarany2, Seham M.Seif3, Maggie R. Mesbah4 and Wafaa M. Badawy5


1Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.2Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.

4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.5Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Student Hospital, Mansoura University.

Email: maha15866@hotmail.com


Abstract: Background: Treatment of cancer is usually complicated by episodes of fever and neutropenia. Life-threatening infections, especially bacteremia, are common complications in those patients resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Administration of prophylactic or empirical antibiotics has reduced the mortality but decrease the sensitivity of diagnostic tests. So, there is a need for a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool to save those patients. Aim of the work: Our aim was to evaluate the use of more rapid diagnostic tool based on the detection of 16SrRNA gene by PCR with blood culture by using BACTEC 9240 for detection of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients with episodes of fever and neutropenia. Patients and Methods: Ninety-two immunocompromised patients who developed fever whilst neutropenic were included. Two blood samples were taken from each patient during the episode, the first for blood culture and the second for 16SrRNA gene detection by PCR. Results: Forty-five out of the 92 blood samples (49%) were positive for bacterial growth as detected by BACTEC 9240. Of these isolated bacterial species nine isolates were Gram-positive (20%) and 36 isolates (80%) were Gram-negative. These isolates were 4 Gram-positive species and 10 Gram-negative species .The most commonly isolated species were E.coli (17.8%), K.pneumonie and P.aueroginosa (13.3% each) and both S.aureus and K.oxytoca (9% each).The detection time of positive BACTEC 9240 cultures ranged from 1 to 6 days. Forty-one out of the 92 specimens (45%) were positive for the presence of bacteria by16SrRNA gene detection by PCR. Four bacterial species which were detected by blood culture were negative by PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 96%, which shows good agreement and indicates that 16SrRNA PCR gene detection can be used as an alternative method to blood culture for the detection of bacteremia. The method showed high specificity [100 % (91- 100)], sensitivity [91% (78 - 97)], accuracy (96%), PPV [100% (89 - 100)] and NPV [92% (80 - 97) %]. Conclusion: Analysis of 16SrRNA gene is a rapid and powerful tool for identifying pathogens especially in immunocompromised patients with life-threatening infections, and it is recommended to be applied in the clinical laboratory but it is still relatively expensive. So by decreasing the cost, this technology is likely to be applied in the clinical setting.

[Maha I. El Zaafarany, Tawfik R. Elkhodary, Muhammed I. El Zaafarany, SehamM.Seif, Maggie R. Mesbah and Wafaa M. Badawy. Value of 16S rRNA Gene Amplification for Early Detection of Bacteremia in Immunocompromised Patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):165-172]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.26


Keywords:  16S rRNA Gene Amplification , Bacteremia, Immunocompromised Patient

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Prognostic Value of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Women with Ovarian Cancer


Yehia M., Abu-Seeda M., Kamal K., El-Lamie I., Hassan M., Shafik A. * and Kassim G


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ain Shams University



Abstract: Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and both prognostic variables and disease recurrence in women with ovarian cancer. Methods: The current study was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital over the period between October 2006 and July 2010. The study included women admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Unit for having an adnexal mass and planned for exploration laparotomy and abdominal cytoreductive surgery. All included women were subjected to the unit protocol for management of ovarian masses suspected to be of a malignant nature, including preoperative serum samples for tumor markers (including CA125 and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). The included women underwent the appropriate surgical management. Women were followed up every 3 months for the first year. Serum VEGF was rechecked at each visit. Results: A total of 45 women were included. The mean serum VEGF was significantly higher in women who had FIGO stages III/IV, tumor grades 2/3, ascites, positive omental metastases, bilateral tumors and in those where optimal cytoreduction was feasible, as well as in those who had disease recurrence within 12 months. Both women who had disease recurrence within 12 months and those who were disease-free after 12 months had significant reduction of serum VEGF level 3 and 6 months postoperatively. In those who had recurrence, the serum VEGF level significantly re-rose after 12 months, whereas in those who were disease-free, the serum VEGF level remained low. Conclusion: High preoperative serum VEGF was significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage and high tumor grade, and was a significant predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction and disease recurrence within 12 months. Serum VEGF seems to be a promising novel biomarker in prognosis of women with ovarian cancer.

[Yehia M., Abu-Seeda M., Kamal K., El-Lamie I., Hassan M., Shafik A. and Kassim G. Prognostic Value of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Women with Ovarian Cancer. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):173-181]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.27


Key word: ovarian cancer – ovarian malignancy – vascular endothelial growth factor – prognosis of ovarian cancer

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Effectiveness of ginger extract plus therapeutic exercises on ankle sprain


Mohamed salah El Din Mohamed


Faculty of Physical Education Port Said- Suez Canal University, Egypt



Abstract: This study was carried out on 16 football players affected with ankle sprain. Ginger extract was tested together with therapeutic exercises. Treatment was administered on patients, divided into experimental and control groups (8 each). Blood samples were withdrawn from both groups before and after therapeutic exercises alone or plus ginger extract (4g daily). Data on pain was recorded, Nitric oxide and cortisol were estimated using Elisa technique. Also determination of Max. Pressure on sole surface, heel strike, time of fulcrum, circumference of ankle, range of motion in contraction and relaxation and time of healing. Results indicated significant changes between experimental and control groups for the sake of experimental one in all parameters. In conclusion ; therapeutic exercises plus ginger extract might enhance healing processes of ankle sprain and it is recommended to use ginger extract in recommended doses and therapeutic exercises for a better response and speed of healing of ankle sprain.

[Mohamed salah El Din Mohamed. Effectiveness of ginger extract plus therapeutic exercises on ankle sprain. J Am Sci 2013;10(1):182-186]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.28


Keywords: Ginger extract, therapeutic exercises, Ankle sprain, nitric oxide and cortisol.

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The role of diet supplementation (Dynamisan) on the gene expression and diversity of superoxide dismutase and vitamins C, E and vanillylmandelic acid and lactate threshold among swimmers


Ahmed A. Mohamed

Assist. Prof. in faculty of P.E, Port Said Uni., Egypt.



Abstract: Introduction: This research aim to determine the role of  diet supplementation (Dynamisan) on the gene expression and diversity of superoxide dismutase and vitamins C, E and vanillylmandelic acid and lactate threshold among swimmers. Where, High intensity exercise induces oxidative stress, treatment with antioxidants such as vitamin C, E, and minerals in part against free radical-mediated damage in exercise. Where, its exceed and damage the muscle cells. Specially, Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), that causes a defect in cell ability to carry out its functions and destruction. Methods: 8 swimmers chosen from Ismailiy sports club. Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine genotype, gene expression, vitamin C, E, and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA). Also the swimmers exposed to swimming lactate threshold (SLT) test to determine their performance.  Results: there were statistical significant between pre and after training program. Where, the RNA improved 22.25 6.02 vs. 36.13 4.39 ng/l, SOD3 0.33 0.08 vs. 0.72 0.07 mg/l, SOD2 2.40 0.16 vs. 3.97 0.38 mg/l, vitamin E 758.4 25.08 vs. 824.3 20.16 mg/dl, and vitamin C 2.24 0.35 vs. 3.96 0.57 mg/dl. also there were decreased in VMA 4.66 0.61 vs. 3.06 0.29 mg/l, 200m freestyle record 2.91 0.23 vs. 2.52 0.03, 400m freestyle 6.11 0.05 vs. 5.67 0.23 sec., and SLT1.35 0.01 vs. 1.33 0.02 min/100m. Conclusion: The diet supplementations include vitamin C, and E and other antioxidants enhance gene expression RNA, and superoxide dismutase SOD2, 3 that led to decrease VMA level, also improve swimming lactate threshold record.

[Ahmed A. Mohamed. The role of diet supplementation (Dynamisan) on the gene expression and diversity of superoxide dismutase and vitamins C, E and vanillylmandelic acid and lactate threshold among swimmers. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):187-192]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.29


Keywords: Free Radicals, Antioxidants, swimming, VMA and gene expression

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Predictive Controller for Pitch Controller Aircraft


Amir Torabi1 (Corresponding author), Sobhan Salehi2, Ali Karsaz3, Ebrahim Tarsayi4


1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Khorasan University, Mashhad, Iran

2. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

3. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Khorasan University, Mashhad, Iran

4. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Khorasan University, Mashhad, Iran



Abstract: This paper exhibits a comparative assessment based on time response specification performance between fuzzy and Model predictive control (MPC) for a pitch control system of an aircraft system. The dynamic modeling of pitch control system is considered on the design an autopilot that controls the pitch angle. It starts with a derivation of suitable mathematical model to describe the dynamics of an aircraft. For get close to actual conditions. The white noise disturbance applied to the system. The performances of pitch control systems are investigated and analyzed based on common criteria of step’s response in order to identify which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to the desired pitch angle. The design of MPC gave response less quality than that was given from Fuzzy controller but acceptable responses. Finally, it is found from simulation, predictive controller proposed gives the best performance compared to fuzzy controller.

[Amir Torabi, Sobhan Salehi, Ali Karsaz, Ebrahim Tarsayi. Predictive Controller for Pitch Controller Aircraft. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):193-198]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.30


 Keywords: controller, Fuzzy, Model predictive, pitch controller

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Day 3 serum levels of Inhibin – B, FSH and Transvaginal Ultrasound as Predictors for Ovarian Reserve in IVF cycles


Amr A. Aziz khalifa ,Magdi A. Gawad Mohamed, Tagrid M. Mohamed


Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. dr_amraziz@hotmail.com


Abstract: Background: Ovarianreserve is the remaining  of resting and primary ovarian follicles and is used to define the quantity and quality of follicles present in the ovaries at a given time. Ultrasonographic markers of ovarian reserve is non invasive, however, they cannot predict future of the ovarian response to IVF cycle. inhibin B can be used in the same way as estradiol to monitor the follicular growth and correlates with the number of oocytes retrieved and fertilized. The aim of is study is to evaluate the role of cycle day 3 serum inhibin- B concentration, FSH and different ultrasound parameters in the prediction of ovarian reserve and fertility potential ( pregnancy ). Patients and methods: fifty women undergoing for their first IVF cycle in a pregnancy attempt were included. All patients underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation after baseline assessment of hormonal profile and ultrasound parameters, Transvaginal ultrasound monitor of ovarian response was conducted to assess ovarian response. Results: Day-3 antral follicle count and inhibin-B were more sensitive and specific than either day-3 ovarian volume or day-3 FSH in prediction of poor ovarian response (97% and 99% in antral follicle count and 95% and 99% in inhibin-B vs. 91% and 99% in ovarian volume and 40% and 35% in FSH, respectively). Also, day-3 antral follicle count and inhibin –B have higher predictivity for ovarian response than either day-3 OV or day-3 FSH (positive and negative predictive value was 98% and 99%  in inhibin-B and AFC vs. 94% and 92% in ovarian volume and 47% and 50% in FSH, respectively). Conclusions: the predictive value of cycle day-3 inhibin-B and antral follicle countas regards assessment of ovarian reserve is higher compared to ovarian volume or cycle day-3 FSH. Basalinhibin-B and antral follicle counthave more or less similar value in predicting the ovarian reserve and the ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation in women undergoing infertility treatment with IVF.

 [Amr A. Aziz khalifa, Magdi A. Gawad Mohamed, Tagrid M. Mohamed. Day 3 serum levels of Inhibin – B, FSH and Transvaginal Ultrasound as Predictors for Ovarian Reserve in IVF cycles. J Am Sci 2014;10(1):199-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31. doi:10.7537/marsjas100114.31


Keywords:  ovarian reserve, inhibin-B, FSH, ultrasound, ultrasonography, IVF, antral follicle count, ovarian volume, AFC, OV

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 7, 2014. 

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2014 Marsland Press



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2014 Marsland Press