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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 10, Special Issue 3 (Supplement Issue 3), April 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1003s

 

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CONTENTS

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Comparative Evaluation between locally manufactured Egyptian and International Implant Systems Used in Mandibular Overdenture Cases

 

Maha A. Mekkawy1, Wahib G. Moussa2, Enaya A. Shararah2, Nevien Sh. Mohamed3, Shahira El-Domiaty4

 

1. Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA

2. Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt

3. Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt

4. Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology. Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University

mahaahmed2024@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate and compare clinically, radiographically and laboratory between locally manufactured Egyptian and international implant systems used in mandibular overdenture cases. Material and Methods: Eighteen systematically healthy edentulous patients were participating in this study to receive mandibular implant overdenture retained by two implants in the canine area. Six implants were also used for laboratory evaluation of dental implant material. Patients were divided into three groups (A, B and C). Six patients for every group. Group A: (control group) patients received two reputable international, titanium, threaded endosseous implants (Prodigy), Group B: patients received two locally manufactured, titanium, threaded endosseous implants (EDIM-II), and Group C: patients received two locally manufactured, titanium, threaded endosseous implants (Tut-II). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were carried out for every patient at the time of loading, then six month intervals up to one year from functional loading. Complications of the abutments and overdentures are carefully checked and reported for prosthetic evaluation. Also, the surgical kit of each implant system was evaluated. Two laboratory tests were performed to determine the chemical composition of implant fixture using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy detection method (SEM-EDS), the other microbiological analysis test was done to check the sterilization and sealing of implant package. Results & conclusion: Locally manufactured Egyptian implants could be accessible to many patients who seek low cost dental implants and could not pay for international types of dental implants due to their high cost. The Egyptian manufacturers should overcome the problems pointed in our study and consider our recommendation to improve their products.

[Maha A. Mekkawy, Wahib G. Moussa, Enaya A. Shararah, Nevien Sh. Mohamed, Shahira El-Domiaty. Comparative Evaluation between locally manufactured Egyptian and International Implant Systems Used in

Mandibular Overdenture Cases. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.01

 

Keyword: dental implants, mandibular implant overdenture, Biohorizon implants.

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An Approach to Improve Acoustic performance in Multipurpose Halls

 

Firas M. Sharaf

 

The University of Jordan

f.sharaf@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: This paper demonstrates a method to improve acoustic performance of multipurpose halls which are noisy and have echoes when used by many people particularly children. The objective is to provide more insights into acoustic design and assessment as part of a functional and pleasant interior. The motivation for this work is a project for a major private school to assess a hall used for different activities, such as a play area, music and theater. The hall becomes noisy and has high echo level when used by children. Measurements presented in this paper include reverberation time and background noise, sound reflection surfaces and volume of the hall. These measurements are taken before and after the implementation of acoustic solutions. Results are used to assess reverberant field in the hall and evaluation of acoustic performance after intervention.

[Sharaf F. An Approach to Improve Acoustic performance in Multipurpose Halls. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):9-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.02

 

Keywords: Multi-purpose hall acoustic; background noise; reverberation time; noise absorbers

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Potential for Export Diversification in Saudi Arabia

 

Dr. Zafar Ahmad Sultan1, Dr. Imdadul Haque2

 

1. College of Business Administration, Alkharj, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Email: zsultan.sultan@gmail.com

2. College of Business Administration, Alkharj, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Email: https://mail.google.com/mail/images/cleardot.gifdr.m.i.haque@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Export diversification can lead to higher growth with stability. Saudi Arabia is striving to diversify the export base over the last few years to reduce excessive dependence on oil. The result shows that Saudi Arabia finds it hard to diversify export as the concentration index has slightly reduced. Some of the products witnessed over 10 percent rate of growth over more than last ten years. The bound test analysis shows that most these products exhibits a long run cointegration relationship with inflow of FDI and real effective exchange rate (REER) and world gross domestic product (GDPw). This implies that Saudi Arabia may promote export of non-mineral products by taking suitable policy measures to promote FDI inflow into these sectors.

[Sultan ZS, Haque I. Potential for Export Diversification in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):16-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.03

 

Key Words: Export Diversification, Revealed Comparative Advantage, FDI, REER, GDPw.

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A Study on the Administrative Organizations and their Authorities in the Sassanid Era

 

Amir Sabooki

 

Master of Public Lows, Shiraz University, International campus, Shiraz, Iran

 

Abstract: Remarkable research has been carried out regarding the Ancient Iran particularly in the recent years and this indicates the attention of researchers to the rooted civilization of the Ancient Iran. The present paper is a novel work due to its focus on administrative organizations of that civilization. The Ancient Iran has some unique advantages and features, and accurate research into the old history will fade away doubt and suspicious from many facts. The present paper is focused on the administrative organizations of Sassanid era. During 1360 years from the establishment of Medes government unit fall of the Sassanid dynasty, only five dynasties governed in Iran. Sovereignty over a huge geographical area in the ancient era that is about six times greater than the current Iran, despite its natural geographical, human, and economic diversity, has required precise organization of these boundless spaces. By studying important organizations and entities in the Ancient Iran and particularly underscoring Sassanid era, this paper seeks to found out the important role of administrative rights in that era. This paper tries to analyze bases and contents of administrative organizations of the Ancient Iran through documents.

[Amir Sabooki. A Study on the Administrative Organizations and their Authorities in the Sassanid Era. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):25-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.04

 

Key words: Administrative organizations, authorities, Sassanid era

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The Impact of Teaching Explicit Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies and Increasing Structural Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Persian EFL Learners

 

Sareh Bahremandjooy

 

M.A. in Teaching English Language, Faculty of Literature & Humanities, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

 

Abstract: This Article, both qualitatively and quantitatively, investigated the effect of teaching reading strategies and structural awareness on the development of reading ability of Persian EFL learners. Eighty female adult elementary students, randomly assigned to control and experimental groups, participated in the study. The two groups, participating in the classes of a language institute and studying the Interchange series, third edition, Book One (Richards, et al., 1997), received the same instruction with respect to speaking and listening skills. They were, however, treated differently concerning the reading comprehension section of their textbook. That is, while the control group was taught through the NIC method of teaching reading comprehension recommended by the teacher’s book, the experimental group were acquainted with different reading strategies and made conscious of the particular structures, which led to a more efficient comprehension of the reading texts dealt with in class. An alpha level of p< 0.05 was used throughout. An independent t-test was also run to compare the mean strategy use between EG participants with the highest RC scores and those with the lowest scores. The findings of the study indicated that the treatment significantly improved students’ scores on reading comprehension. In the qualitative phase of the study, the students were asked to report the strategies they used while answering the reading comprehension questions. The results obtained from this retrospective think aloud confirmed the findings obtained though the quantitative analysis of the data. Implications of the study have been discussed.

[Sareh Bahremandjooy. The Impact of Teaching Explicit Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies and Increasing Structural Awareness on Reading Comprehension among Persian EFL Learners. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):32-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.05

 

Key words: Cognitive, Metacognitive Reading Strategies , Structural Awareness , Reading Comprehension , Persian EFL Learners

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Influence of Curing Conditions on the Properties of Geopolymers from Untreated Kaolinite

 

Bassel Hanayneh

 

Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan

Email: hanayneh@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: Curing conditions of kaolinite-based geopolymers seems a very efficient process in both dimensional stability and producing quality geopolymer products. Three curing procedures were studied and evaluated in this paper. Experimental results indicated that a dry pre-conditioning before autoclave curing or dry-autoclave curing (C-geopolymers) was very critical for kaolinite geopolymers to achieve desirable strength and high dimensional stability. The strength of geopolymers (C-geopolymers) with dry-autoclave cycle curing was higher to that after conventional dry curing (R-geopolymers). These curing techniques were tested on geopolymers using untreated kaolinite as precursor. The results confirm that the compressive strength increases from 40MPa to 51MPa with this dry-autoclave curing technique. In addition, the density increases accompanied with decreasing in water absorption as well as curing shrinkage/swelling. Autoclave curing (A-geopolymers) dry pre-conditioning causes sharp decrease in strength, swelling, increase in water absorption and decrease in bulk density of the geopolymers.

[Bassel Hanayneh. Influence of Curing Conditions on the Properties of Geopolymers from Untreated Kaolinite. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):42-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.06

 

Key Words: geopolymers; autoclave curing; shrinkage, strength, kaolinite

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A Study on the relation between height of medial longitudinal arch and sport injuries in lower limb of professional runners by using Navicular Drop and Arch Index clinical tests

 

Nahid Divandari *, Mahdi Vakili **

 

* Bachelor of physiotherapy, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

** General Doctor , Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

 

Abstract: Understanding foot-to-ground contact is not simple due to sophistication of its structure. Plantar pressure measurement devices may be a proper device for determining foot structural situation. The results of the present paper reveal that change in the foot structure, particularly the medial longitudinal arch, may increase probability of injury. Association of pathologic biomechanical changes of foot with an activity such as running that increases the ground reaction force up to 5 times more than the body weight is still among the most important discussed issues. This paper is aimed at studying the effect of longitudinal arch of foot on the sport injuries in professional runners and studying the relation between navicular drop clinical test and plantar pressure measurements (pedobarography). 47 professional runners were selected from Sabzevar City and divided into three groups namely, normal, low arched, and high arched runners by using navicular drop test. Also by using emed-x system, maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area parameters in two static and dynamic postures were measured and recorded. 2x test showed no relation between running injuries and arch height (P=0.58). Correlation between navicular drop clinical test and modified arch index calculated from pedobarography measurements in two static and dynamic postures was between 0.32 and 0.57. Due to multi factorial nature of running injuries, changes in the arch height may not increase risk of injury. Although there was not a very high correlation between navicular drop test and plantar measurements, the obtained correlation is a good correlation since this test is clinical. Despite prior studies differentiate static posture (standing on both feet) from dynamic situation, but it seems that plantar pressure distribution in the static posture of single limb support may have a great similarity with functional situation of walking.

[Nahid Divandari, Mahdi Vakili. A Study on the relation between height of medial longitudinal arch and sport injuries in lower limb of professional runners by using Navicular Drop and Arch Index clinical tests. Am Sci 2014;10(3s):50-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.07

 

Key words: medial longitudinal arch, sport injury, navicular drop clinical test, arch index test

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The Effect of Graphic Organizers on L2 Learners’ Reading Comprehension

 

Maryam Heidarifard

 

Master of English Language Teaching, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

mary_heidarifard@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Many researchers have investigated the effect of using graphic organizers on the reading comprehension of general education students. There is a dearth of research that investigates the use of graphic organizers on the L2 Learners’ reading comprehension of English language learners. This case study seeks to extend the literature on graphic organizers by examining their effect on the reading comprehension. An experimental design with a control group was used in the study. 80 Iranian second-grade high school students formed the groups of participants for the study. All of them were female, and their age was in range from 16 to 19. The participants divided into two groups of equal levels based on their Oxford Placement Test (OPT) scores. 40 participants will receive the graphic organizers intervention as Group A and the other participants will receive the traditional reading instruction as Group B. the participants’ levels of reading comprehension was tested by means of a reading comprehension pretest. The critical thinking questionnaire was given to the participants of Group A to see whether the participants’ critical thinking ability will influence their reading comprehension or not and the posttest was given to the participants in order to examine the extent to which graphic organizers’ instruction will affect L2 learners’ reading comprehension. After collecting the data, analyses was performed through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and ANOVA test was conducted to see whether the results will denote any significant difference between Group A and Group B or not And the result showed that instruction of graphic organizers had a positive effect on the reading comprehension achievement of L2 learners reading comprehension and according to linear regression analysis on the results of the critical thinking questionnaire group A critical thinking ability was not a significant predictor and a significant improvement of the participants reading comprehension ability after a six-week delay was seen as a result of reading instruction with the help of graphic organizers.

[Maryam Heidarifard. The Effect of Graphic Organizers on L2 Learners’ Reading Comprehension. Am Sci 2014;10(3s):62-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.08

 

Key words: Graphic organizers, reading comprehension, L2 learners.

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Influence of Flock Size and Biological Performance Changes on Economic Efficiency of Barki Sheep under Semi-Arid Conditions in Egypt

 

I. Mona Mohammady

 

Desert Research Center, Animal Production and Poultry Division, Mataryia, Cairo, Egypt

monamohammady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of current study was to compare the profitability of nine simulated Barki flocks varying in their biological performance and flock size under semi-arid conditions in Egypt to achieve the most profitable combination among flock performance levels and flock sizes. Data on biological traits of 6331 records represent 2039 breeding ewes obtained from Maryout Research Station were analyzed. Biological criteria considered were number of ewes lambed per ewe joined (EL/EJ), number of lambs born per ewe joined (LB/EJ), number of lambs weaned per ewe joined (LW/EJ) and kilograms weaned per ewe joined (KGW/EJ). Estimates derived from statistical analysis were used to create nine simulated flocks of three biological categories of KGW/EJ (high, medium and low) and flock size of 250, 500 and 750 breeding ewes. Financial criteria were gross margin/ewe, benefit/cost ratio, cost per one kg of weaned lambs produced, and marginal rate of return. The overall least squares means for EL/EJ, LB/EJ, LW/EJ and KGW/EJ were 0.77, 0.80, 0.62 and 12.15 kg, respectively. The current indicators of economic efficiency concluded that, the simulated flock of high biological performance with flock size of 500 head was the most profitable Barki flock, since achieved the highest GM/E (LE 138.9), highest benefit/cost ratio (1.26), lowest cost to produce one kg weaned lambs (LE 33.5) and the highest marginal rate of return (1.33) among the all nine simulated flocks.

[I. Mona Mohammady. Influence of Flock Size and Biological Performance Changes on Economic Efficiency of Barki Sheep under Semi-Arid Conditions in Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):73-80]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.09

 

Key words: Barki sheep, flock size, biological parameters, economic indicators

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Evaluation Of Ten Alfalfa Populations For Forage Yield, Protein Content, Susceptibility To Seedling Damping-off Disease And Associated Biochemical Markers With Levels Of Resistance

 

Abd El-Naby Zeinab M 1, Clara R. Azzam2 and Saieda S. Abd El-Rahman 3

 

1Forage Res. Dept., Field Crop Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

2Cell Res. Dept., Field Crop Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

3Legume and Forage diseases Res. Dept., Plant Pathology Research Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author E. Mail: zeina.bree@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out at Giza research station to evaluate ten alfalfa genotypes against three fungi causing seedling damping-off disease (Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani). Examined genotypes included two exotic varieties (Cuf-101 and Salt America), seven local populations (Balady, Fixed-N, New valley-1, New valley-2, Siwa, Esmaelia-1 and Esmaelia-94) and New salt population (Sinai 1). R. solani was the most causal pathogen reducing significantly fresh and dry shoot yield followed by M. phaseolina and F. oxysporum, respectively. The local populations Siwa and Ismaelia-1 expressed the best performance for yield superiority and agronomical traits in comparison with the exotic populations. New Salt pop., Salt America and Siwa populations ranked as the highly resistant against seedlings damping-off disease. Selection between and within alfalfa populations for high yielding ability and resistance degree to seedling damping-off disease produce a promising population can be used in the future breeding program. SDS-protein banding patterns of the ten alfalfa populations grown under normal (non-stressed) and fungal stress conditions were found to be useful in developing biochemical markers associated with resistance to damping-off pathogens. The obtained results revealed unique fingerprint characterized for each studied population under non-stress conditions. Similarity indices and consensus tree were developed on the basis of the protein banding patterns of the ten alfalfa populations using protein banding patterns under non-stress conditions. Consensus tree was developed on the basis of the bulked protein banding patterns of the ten alfalfa populations grown in infested soil with the three tested fungi caused seedling damping-off disease. The Dendrogram was gathered the resistant populations in one main cluster and almost all highly susceptible populations together in the same group.

[Zeinab, M. Abd El-Naby, Clara R. Azzam and Saieda S. Abd El-Rahman. Evaluation of Ten Alfalfa Populations For Forage Yield, Protein Content, Susceptibility To Seedling Damping-off Disease And Associated Biochemical Markers With Levels Of Resistance. J Am Sci 2014;10(3s):81-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.10

 

Key words: Medicago sativa, populations, agronomical traits, seedling damping-off disease, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, fingerprinting, biochemical markers and consensus Tree.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 5, 2014. 
 
All comments are welcome: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com, or contact with author(s) directly.

For back issues of the Journal of American Science, click here.

Emails: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com

doi:

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.01

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.02

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.03

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.04

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.05

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.06

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.07

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.08

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.09

doi:10.7537/marsjas1003s14.10

 

 

 

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