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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 10, Special Issue 4 (Supplement Issue 4), August 18, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1004s; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003

 

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CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

A Study on the effects of tourism stress on silvicultural parameters of forest areas of Mirza Kochak khan Park

 

Hooman Abbasi * 1, Mohammad Reza azarnoosh 2, Ali Kialashakei 3

 

*1 PhD candidate in forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, University of Sari, Mazandaran, Iran

Email: abbasi_2533@yahoo.com

Assistant Prof, Islamic Azad University, Chalous Branch, Iran

3 Associate Prof, Islamic Azad University, Chalous Branch, Iran

 

Abstract: Since the studied forest park is outside the city and time and money must be spent to reach it, Clawson method (economic – social method) was applied in this paper. So, 100 questionnaires were firstly distributed among tourists of this park. These factors were analyzed by using SPSS software and chi-square test. It is noteworthy that Cronbach's alpha test was applied to determine reliability and validity of the questionnaires. Then to study the effects of tourism stress on silvicultural parameters after dividing the region into maximum, medium, and minimum tourism stress, such factors as number per hectare, percentage of each tree species, reproduction as silvicultural parameters and carving on trees, branch – cutting, burning trees, etc. as damages of tourists were measured. Presence of tourists has a great effect on increase in the height of pruning, burning trees, removal of grass coverage, and increase in garbage, soil erosion, and reduction of wild animals, carving, and cutting branches of trees. Also the relation between income and desired recreations, relation between people awareness and forest knowledge, relation between education and previous visit to park have a significant difference with 95% probability.

[Hooman Abbasi, Mohammad Reza azarnoosh, Ali Kialashakei. A Study on the effects of tourism stress on silvicultural parameters of forest areas of Mirza Kochak khan Park. Am Sci 2014;10(4s):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.01

 

Key words: forest park, silvics, tourist, ecosystem maintenance, damage.

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2

Association between Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphisms and obesity in Palestinian individuals living at Gaza City.

 

El-Sweify, K. 1; Al-Sarraj, H.2; Sirdah, M. 3; Hassanane, M. 4

 

1-Department of Zoology, Women's College for Arts Science and Education, Ain Shams University

2- Department of laboratory and blood bank, El Shifaa Hospital, Ministry of Health, Gaza. Palestine.

3- Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Gaza. Palestine.

4- Department Cell Biology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Corresponding author: hmsaber@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study Angiotensin converting enzyme gene was genotyped in 102 adult normal and obese individuals from both sexes living at Gaza city. Moreover, some biochemical parameters: Kidney functions (urea, creatinine, uric acid); liver functions (AST, ALT); lipid profile (cholesterol; triglycerides and high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins); glucose (fast blood sugar) were also studied to confirm that the obese individuals were free of other diseases. Blood samples were collected on vacutainer tubes supported with anticoagulant and each sample was divided to two equal parts, the first used for biochemical analysis while the second used for DNA isolation for gene typing. The PCR was performed with specific primer set for the gene understudy. The results showed the presence of two alleles I (insertion), D (deletion) which gives three genotypes of the gene II, ID and DD in the Palestinian individuals, the genotype DD was the more frequent genotype observed. It is concluded that no clear association was observed between the three ACE genotypes and the incidence of obesity in adult Palestinians living at Gaza city.

[El-Sweify, K.; Al-Sarraj, H.; Sirdah, M.; Hassanane, M. Association between Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphisms and obesity in Palestinian individuals living at Gaza City. Am Sci 2014;10(4s):10-17]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.02

 

Keywords: Palestinian, obesity, ACE, gene, polymorphism.

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Spore morphologyof some south Indian species of Asterella P. Beauv. (Marchantiophyta) 

 

Naveen Sahu1, Afroz Alam2*, Krishna Kumar Rawat3, Praveen Kumar Verma4  

 

1Naveen Sahu, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow-226 007 (U.P.) India.

2*Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith-304022 (Rajasthan) India. Email: *afrozalamsafvi@gmail.com

3K K Rawat, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow – 226 001, India; Email: drkkrawat@rediffmail.com

3Praveen Kumar Verma, Rain Forest Research Institute, Deovan Sotai Ali, Post Box # 136 Jorhat – 785 001 (Assam), India; Email: pkverma_bryo@yahoo.co.in 

 

Abstract: The study provides morphological data of spores of three south Indian species of Asterella Beauv. viz., A. wallichiana (Lehm. et Lindenb.) Grolle, A. mussuriemis (Kashyap) Kasyap, Asterella khasyana (Griff.) Pande, K.P. Srivast. & Sultan Khan, in relation to the taxonomy of the genus.

[Naveen Sahu, Afroz Alam, Krishna Kumar Rawat, Praveen Kumar Verma. Spore morphologyof some south Indian species of Asterella P. Beauv. (Marchantiophyta). Am Sci 2014;10(4s):18-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.03

 

Keywords: Asterella, Liverwort, Marchantiales, Sporopderm

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4

Historic school buildings integrating with local community

 

Jawdat Goussous 1, Diala Atiyat 2

 

1. Dr. Jawdat Goussous, Department Of Architecture, University Of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, email: jawdatgoussous@hotmail.com

2. Arch. Diala Atiyat, Of Architecture, University Of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, email: archdiala@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rehabilitation for historic buildings and sites is an important of the cultural heritage of nations and countries, humans hold a nostalgia, respect, even a need for things ancient and when the place combines historic old and being developed to contain activities which is meet the needs of the current area then it could be considered a place which affect and affected by the local community and this is what we will discuss in this context by choosing Salt high school complex and its impact on the local community. The project of preserving the Salt secondary school began in 1990 and it seen by local citizen as providing a sense of direction for the protection of such vulnerable environments. The aim of the project is not just to retain Salt School for its cultural value but also to keep it alive and in use by its local community in Salt city. This paper considers conservation in this context as being process oriented and not product defined.

[Jawdat Goussous, Diala Atiyat. Historic School Buildings Integrating With Local Community. Am Sci 2014;10(4s):25-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.04

 

Keywords: historic school, rehabilitation, local community, salt city.

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Effect of ethical responsibility on clients' satisfaction at Mehrab Eksir Company

 

Parhizkar1 , Faroush Mehrabi2

 

1Department of Management,Faculty Member of Payam Noor University-Tehran-Iran

2Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Yadegar Emam Branch, Tehran-Iran

 

Abstract: Nowadays country economical companies in the globalization trend are encountering with uncountable obstacles. The most difficult obstacle it is ethical professionalism and ethical points at the brands, marketing is committed to default, cheating and not paying attention to social welfare and it is one of the most important invocations at eth end of twenty century knowing the evaluation of client' satisfaction as one the elements of management of financial companies. According to this point Mehran Eskir company id one the important an experienced companies has a main share in producing chemical product in the country such the difficulties in the recent study it is important emerging marketing indexes regarding to evaluation of clients' satisfaction of Mehrab Eksir clients. Then by providing hypothesis and distributing questionnaires it analyzed its results and untimely it was ended by giving solutions.

[Parhizkar,Faroush Mehrabi. Effect of ethical responsibility on clients' satisfaction at Mehrab Eksir Company. J Am Sci 2014;10(4s):35-40]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.05

 

Keywords: Ethical marketing – Evaluation of clients' satisfaction – Commitment – Justice – Honesty – Maintaining human respect – Social rights

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Inland Wholesale Market for Cultured Fishes in Bangladesh

 

Shuraya Tasnoova *, Izumi Iwamoto, Shochi Tashiro, Yutaka Tomoyuki

 

Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890 0065, Japan.

E-mail: tasnoova2000@gmail.com *

 

Abstract: The fish marketing system in Bangladesh is traditional, complex and less competitive but plays a vital role to reach the product fish farmer to consumer. The present study was carried out to describe the history and function of Sattrasia fish wholesale market, to compare the role and the efficiency of landing market with that of terminal market, to observe the impact of Sattrasia fish wholesale market and to identify the problems of marketing system in the study areas. The study was based on a sample survey of 60 randomly selected fish traders from Mymensingh town and Sattasia wholesale fish market and 20 farmers from Muktagacha sub district under Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Data were collected during March, 2006. The average per day cost and return were calculated for Beparis, wholesalers and Retailers in Mymensingh town at Tk.395.20, Tk. 268.19, Tk. 79.14 and Tk.714.70, Tk.987.84, Tk. 378.84 respectively while average per day cost and return in Sattrasia were calculated for Baperis, wholesalers and Retailers at Tk.240.00, Tk.150.20, Tk. 71.25 and Tk.420.00, Tk.643.31 and Tk. 256.96 respectively. The study also revealed that after establishing this market farmers were benefited in many ways (such as getting better price, time consume, sale the fresh fish and reduce the farmers’ marketing cost etc.).

[Shuraya Tasnoova, Izumi Iwamoto, Shochi Tashiro, Yutaka Tomoyuki. Inland Wholesale Market for Cultured Fishes in Bangladesh. J Am Sci 2014;10(4s):41-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.06

 

Keywords: Inland whole market, fish landing market, Cultured fish, Sattrasia and Bangladesh

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7

Innovation of New Tourism Trails and its Effect on the Ajloun Touristic Process

 

Dr. Jawdat Goussous1, Lana George Haddad2

 

1. Department of architecture, the University of Jordan, Box 9725, Amman

2. Department of architecture, the University of Jordan, Amman

jawdatgoussous@hotmail.com, arch.lana88@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Tourism is a recent trend and one of the most important factors in recreational, leisure and business purposes that has a positive effect on the development process of any destination through its economic contribution and provisional jobs opportunities. Thus, the tourism of cultural heritage, especially in Ajloun (one of Jordanian governorates), is considered as a well-defined term to describe and improve the touristic destination in order to gain the maximum benefits from tourism industry revenues. These objectives are gained by implementing proper tourism strategies which depends on rehabilitation, reuse and innovation of new touristic trails within Ajloun Governorate; with an accompanying sureness of proper integration of all significant physical features may they be of the natural, cultural or archeological segment. The creation and development of such routes are based on a theme of cultural heritage. With intensive support from the local community, these routes will experience the improvement of Ajloun urban context, living qualities, and an increase in the duration of a tourists’ stay. These factors will sustain and improve the whole tourism process.

[Jawdat Goussous, Lana George Haddad. Innovation of New Tourism Trails and its Effect on the Ajloun Touristic Process. J Am Sci 2014;10(4s):50-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.07

 

Keywords: Sustainable tourism, heritage, place identity, innovation process.

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The Possible Ameliorative Effect of Selenium and Vitamins Combination against Amiodarone-Induced Alveolar Damage in Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

 

Amal A. Mahdy

 

Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Gharbia, Egypt

mora2004@live.com

 

Abstract: Background: Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is the most common presentation of amiodarone-induced pulmonary disease. Aim of the work: To throw a light on the damage of the rat lung following amiodarone administration and to evaluate whether selenium and vitamins combination ameliorate this effect on the rat lung alveoli. Material and methods: Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups. The first was control group. The second group received amiodarone (30 mg/Kg/day) for six weeks. The third group received amiodarone as well as selenium and vitamins combination for six weeks. Fibrosis fraction, alveolar wall area fraction in addition to PCNA labeling index of the lung alveoli were measured by using image analyzer and the measured data were statistically analyzed. Results: After amiodarone administration, the lung showed injured as well as collapsed alveoli, mononuclear cell infiltration, thickening of the wall of the bronchioles and pulmonary arterioles with obstruction of some bronchioles. Significant increase in the area % of the inter-alveolar collagen and area % of the alveolar wall was detected. Also, significant increase in the PCNA labeling index of the alveolar cells was noted. By SEM, increased thickness of the inter-alveolar septa and laceration of the alveolar lining cells which were mostly formed of type II pneumocytes were observed. All findings regressed after selenium and vitamins administration. Conclusion: This study has important implications for the treatment of amiodarone-induced lung damage and fibrosis.

[Amal A. Mahdy. The Possible Ameliorative Effect of Selenium and Vitamins Combination against Amiodarone-Induced Alveolar Damage in Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study. J Am Sci 2014;10(4s):61-71]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.08

 

Keywords: Amiodarone, lung, image analyzer, selenium, vitamins, histological, PCNA.

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Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection In Diabetic Patients In Ago –Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

Osanyinpeju Oluwaseun Samuel 1, Akinleye Oludele Mathew1, Deji Agboola Anotu Mopelola 1, Olaniyan Joshua Ayodele Tosin1, Akintunde Bosede Grace 2 and Buhari Olusegun Anthony3.

 

1Department of Medical Micro Biology & Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P.M.B. 2002; Ago Iwoye –Ogun State, Nigeria.

2Nigeria Institute of Medical Research P.M.B 1013, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Haematology and Blood Bank, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

akinleye.mathew@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes is problem of worldwide dimension. Urinary Tract Infection (UTIS) are a common burden in patients with diabetes mellitus .This study was done to determine the prevalence of UTI among diabetic patients, causative pathogens and their antimicrobial pattern. Three –Hundred and fifty -two (352) patients were given sterile wide-mouth universal containers into which a clean - catch midstream urine samples were collected with symptoms or no signs of urinary tract infection. Uropathogens were isolated and identified by using conventional standard micro biological methods. Samples were cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) Media and Incubated at 370c aerobically for 24 hrs. Antibacterial resistance pattern was determined by standard Kirby –Bauers disc diffusion method .A total of 61 (17.3%) bacterial uropathogens were isolated. Out of bacterial isolate, Escherichia coli has the highest isolation rate (45.5%), followed by Klebsiella spp (26.2%), Enterococcus spp (10.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.0%) while Enterobacter spp (6.6%) and (3.2%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus spp each respectively. The Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacterial accounted for (20.0%) and (80.0%) of the bacterial isolates respectively. Significant bacteriuria was strongly associated with history of previous UTI, antibiotic treatment, types of diabetes and blood glucose level (p<0.05). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial show significant level of resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents tested. Treatment of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic bacteriuria in patient with diabetes must be by drug prescribed by physicians after proper laboratory analysis. The misuse of antibiotic, is a major factor responsible for bacterial resistance.

[Samuel O.O, Mathew A.O, Mopelola D.A, Tosin OJA, Grace AB, Anthony B.O Asymptomatic Urinary Tract Infection In Diabetic Patients in Ago Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. J Am Sci 2014;10(4s):72-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.09

 

Key words: Bacteriuria, type I & II diabetes, antibiotics resistances, Urinary tract infection

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Effects of dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats

 

Chuanshe Zhou, Zhiliang Tan*

 

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China

Tel.: +86 731 84619702; Fax: +86 731 84612685; E-mail address: zltan@isa.ac.cn.

 

Abstract: Four goats (20 2.5 kg) fitted with the ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulaes were used in a 2 2 factorial design to estimate the effects of dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and feed intake on the duodenal and ileal flows of endogenous nitrogen (EN) and endogenous amino acids (ENAA) in goats. Goats were fed two diets with dietary RDP to RUP ratios of 65:35 and 45:55 (RDP1 and RDP2, respectively), and fed at 95 and 75% of voluntary feed intake levels (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively). For the four treatments, the duodenal flows (g/d) of EN and ENAA were 1) 1.81, 4.16; 2) 1.67, 4.04; 3) 1.73, 3.87; 4) 1.10, 3.31, and the ileal flows (g/d) of EN and ENAA were 1) 0.20, 2.34; 2) 0.13, 1.92; 3) 0.15, 2.74; 4) 0.13, 2.24, respectively. The intestinal re-absorption (%) of EN and ENAA for the four treatments were 1) 77.4, 77.0; 2) 92.7, 77.2; 3) 86.5, 80.0; 4) 84.5, 77.0, respectively. The duodenal and ileal flows of EN and ENAA decreased by about 22 and 9%, 35 and 22%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The present results implied that the duodenal flows of EN and ENAA decreased when dietary RDP to RUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of ENAA at the ileum also decreased when DMI decreased, whilst increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

[Chuanshe Zhou, Zhiliang Tan. Effects of dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats. J Am Sci 2014;10(4s):79-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.10

 

Key words: Ruminal degraded protein, Feed intake, Endogenous nitrogen, Goats

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Comparison of the Influence of Two Different Flap Designs on Pain and Swelling after Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

 

Javad Yazdani, Masume Amani, Tannaz Pourlak, Davood Maghbooliasl

 

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Ja_yazdani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Swelling and pain are common complications of surgical extraction of impacted teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different flap designs on the pain and swelling after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Twenty-six patients aged 18 D 35 years, who had bilateral mandibular third molars, participated in this study. Each patient was operated with envelope flap on one side and SZMYD type 2 flap on the other side of his/her mouth. The severity of pain and swelling was evaluated on the operation day and thereafter by a surgeon who was blind to the study procedures. Data was analyzed by ANOV A and t-test. There were severe swelling and pain after surgery, with no significant differences between the two groups. The flap design had no significant influence on pain and swelling after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

[Javad Yazdani, Masume Amani, Tannaz Pourlak, Davood Maghbooliasl. Comparison of the Influence of Two Different Flap Designs on Pain and Swelling after Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars. Am Sci 2014;10(4s):88-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.11

 

Keywords: Impacted third molars, Envelop flap, SZMYD, Pain, Swelling.

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Spatio-temporal Variations in Phytoplankton Biomass and diversity in a Tropical Eutrophic Lagoon, Nigeria

 

1Paul. Chuks. Onuoha, 2Dike Ikeagwu Nwankwo , 3Lucian Obinna Chukwu and 4Vyverman, Wim

 

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria.

E-mail- hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Department of Marine Sciences University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Marine Sciences University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

4Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Ghent, Belgium

 

Abstract: Taxonomic inventorisation and spatio-temporal variations in the phytoplankton species biomass and diversity, in relation to environmental parameters at the Ologe lagoon, Lagos were investigated from February, 2002 to January, 2004. The annual rainfall, concentrated in one season, initiated increased total solids and nutrient values whereas low dissolved oxygen, conductivity, transparency, and cation concentrations were recorded. The phytoplankton species biomass, composition and water quality indices exhibited seasonal changes closely related to the pattern of rainfall. Estimation of phytoplankton biomass by cell count showed a range of 849 to 1771707cells/ml with mean value of 44052cell/ml. The phytoplankton flora of the lagoon belonged to five main algal phyla, namely Bacillariophyta (84%), Cyanophyta (15.92%), Chlorophyta (0.06%), Euglenophyta (0.018%) and Prryophyta (0.002%). One hundred and nineteen species belonging to forty-nine genera were observed, with diatoms forming the most abundant and diverse. A total of forty-eight species belonging to eighteen genera was found in diatoms. This was followed by green algae, with thirty-two species from fourteen genera, Cyanobacteria, with twenty-three species from eleven genera, euglenoids with seventeen species from five genera, while the dinoflagelates had one species. Nine phytoplankton species were reported to be potentially harmful/toxic bloom species. 57 bio-indicator species were recorded during the period of study. With regard to existing checklist of phytoplankton species, 10 new species are the first reports for Lagos lagoon complex, south-western Nigeria.The centric diatom Aulacoseira and cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated the phytoplankton community spectrum and their dominance in the Lagoon in both seasons suggests a single floristic grouping. The observed range of bio-indicator species within Ologe lagoon showed that the lagoon is eutrophic. Co-efficient of similarity index indicated that stations close to each other are more similar, than stations further apart.

[Paul. Chuks. Onuoha, Dike Ikeagwu Nwankwo, Lucian Obinna Chukwu and Vyverman, Wim. Spatio-temporal Variations in Phytoplankton Biomass and diversity in a Tropical Eutrophic Lagoon, Nigeria. Am Sci 2014;10(4s):94-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.12

 

Key words: Seasonal changes, phytoplankton composition, cell number, bio-indicator, diversity, eutrophic, rainfall.

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Combination toxicity effects of heavy metals on terrestrial animal (Earthworm- Eisenia andre)

 

1Paul Chuks Onuoha, 2Worgu, D.C.

 

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria. E-mail: hydro_vision@yahoo.com

2Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: Combination toxicity of heavy metals to earthworms has been studied for the first time. Three metals, namely Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) were used as toxicants. The study was carried out in line with the OECD recommended procedure for ecotoxicology tests of chemical substances to soil. Hence, the OECD approved earthworm species Eisenia Andrei was used as biological test organism. OECD artificial soil was used as test substrate. The parameters of interest in the study were the effect of logarithmically increasing concentrations of single, and finally of combinations of metals, to reproduction and body growth of earthworms. These parameters were chosen for the study since sublethal effect on growth and reproduction are of more ecological relevance than an acute toxicity effect studying mortality. Growth was measured as the increased in body weight of the worms in time. Reproduction was estimated based on the number of cocoons produced per worm and the number of emerged juveniles produced per cocoon. The EC50 values of the effect of the toxicants to the organisms were estimated by an extended logistic model which is able to take into account the presence or absence of hormesis in calculating EC50 values. The EC50 values after three weeks of the three metals to growth and cocoon production were first determined singly. Cocoon production and juvenile numbers appeared to be more sensitive parameters than growth. A continuous increase in weight was observed in almost all tested concentrations of each metal except at the highest concentration of lead. Cd appeared to have the strongest adverse on cocoon production, followed by Zn, and then Pb. This is judged from the observed EC50 values of each of the metals on cocoon production. The observed EC50 values were 104.0mg/kg (1.076 mmol/kg), 418.3mg/kg (6.398 mmol/kg), 1570.3mg/kg (7.578 mmol/kg) for Cd, Zn and Pb respectively. Based on the observed EC50 values of the single toxicity tests, combination toxicity tests were carried out for Zn & Cd, Cd & Pb and Pb & Zn. Zn & Cd were found to be antagonistic (less than concentration additive) other tests where not interpretable. The ecological implication of the result of combination toxicity test of Cd & Zn is that single toxicity test alone may not indicate the fate of earthworms exposed to sites polluted with combinations of metals.

[Paul Chuks Onuoha, Worgu, D.C. Combination toxicity effects of heavy metals on terrestrial animal (Earthworm- Eisenia andre). Am Sci 2014;10(4s):107-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.13

 

Keywords: Combination; toxicity; effect; heavy metal; terrestrial animal; Earthworm; Eisenia andre

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 30, 2014. 

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doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.01

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doi:10.7537/marsjas1004s14.13

 

 

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