Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 5, Cumulated No. 75, May 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1005


You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.




Titles / Authors





Comparison of Multidetector computed tomography with Digital Subtraction Angiography and lipidol CT in detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma


Mohammed Ramadan Alkholy M.D, Osama Lotfy Alabd M.D, Osama Mohamed Ebied M.D, Basma Adel Abd Elaziz Mostafa M.B.B.ch


Department of Radiology, National Liver Institute, Shebin elkom, Menoufiya University, Egypt.



Abstract: Objectives: this study aims to compare the sensitivity of MDCT, DSA and lipidol CT in detection of small HCC. Back ground: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy in Egypt, their management depend greatly on the size and number of the lesions so they should be precisely defined. Multiple imaging modalities can be very helpful in this purpose, as MDCT,DSA and lipidol CT. Methods: fifty patients known to have HCC were evaluated for more small (<3cm) nodules by MDCT (as base line CT study), DSA with lipidol injection and 2 weeks later by post embolization CT study.then the number of the small HCC detected in every modality is calculated and further categorized according to their size into (A<1cm, B1-2cm and C2-3cm) to be compared. Results: the total number of small HCCs detected by DSA (142 =86,6%) is higher than those detected by base line CT study (97=59,15%),but both are less than lipidol CT(post embolization study) =100%. DSA has higher Sensitivity (87%) than Baseline CT study (78%) and higher specificity (94%) relative to ((73%) by baseline CT study. And for categorization of the lesions according to their size into;(A <1cm,B=1-2cm,C=2-3cm), DSA detected higher number of focal lesions than those detected by base line CT study in every category as follows; category A(50fl=75.75%):(22fl=33.33%), category B(65 fl=92.6%):(52 fl=74.3%) and category C(27fl=96.43%):(23fl=82.14%) respectively. Conclusion: DSA has higher Sensitivity and specificity than Baseline CT study in detection of small hepatic focal lesions and this sensitivity is more in category A>B>C.

[Mohammed Ramadan Alkholy, Osama Lotfy Alabd, Osama Mohamed Ebied, Basma Adel Abd Elaziz Mostafa. Comparison of Multidetector computed tomography with Digital Subtraction Angiography and lipidol CT in detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.01


Key Words: multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).

Full Text



Effect of Frequent Application of Code Blue Training Program on the Performance of Pediatric Nurses


Ghada Saeed AL-Ghamdi 1; Magda Aly Essawy 2 and Dr. Mohammad Al-Qahtani 3


1 College of Nursing, University of Dammam.

2Professor of pediatric Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam

3Pediatric Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Dammam.



Abstract: Introduction: Code Blue training is essential for nurses, as nurses often discover the patients of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Aim: the study aims to investigate the effect of frequent application of Code Blue training program on the performance of pediatric nurses. Material and Method: Quasi-experimental design was used. Simple randomization sampling of 22 pediatric nurses who are working in pediatric inpatient departments at King Fahad Hospital of University composed the study subjects. Observation checklist of pediatric nurses’ performance and the training program were developed by the researcher according to American Heart Association guidelines, 2011 and Hospital Policy for Code Blue. The study subjects received the training program for three times in two weeks interval. Nurses’ performance of Code Blue was assessed before and after each session. Results: It is revealed from the present study that frequent Code Blue training program enhances the performance of pediatric nurses. This upward trend is evidenced by the statistical significant differences in nurses’ performance before and after each session of the training program implementation (first session Z=4.109/ p<0.001, second session Z= 4.116/ p < 0.001, third session Z=4.024/ p < 0.001). Additionally, significant differences were demonstrated between the first and second sessions, and between the second and third sessions [(before Z=4.114/ p <0.001, after Z=3.511/ p <0.001), (before Z= 3.966 / p <0.001, after Z= 3.542/ p <0.001)] respectively]. Conclusion and Recommendation: the frequent application of Code Blue training program enhances the performance of the pediatric nurses, and it is recommended from this study that pediatric nurses should attend Code Blue training frequently.

[Ghada Saeed AL-Ghamdi; Magda Aly Essawy and Mohammad Al-Qahtani. Effect of Frequent Application of Code Blue Training Program on the Performance of Pediatric Nurses. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):9-17]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.02


Keywords: Frequent Application; Code Blue Training Program; Performance; Pediatric Nurses

Full Text



Education and its Role in Developing the Global Peace Culture "A Future Vision"


Ahmed Abdallah El Sagheer El-Banaa


Foundations of education Department, Assiut-Faculty of Education-Assiut University, Egypt



Abstract: This research was done in order to shed light on the role of school education in instilling and developing the peace culture for students. In order to fulfill these aims, the researcher used the perspective method in presenting and analyzing; the concept of peace culture, the justifications of its development for students, the aims, methods and techniques of teaching the peace culture for students besides to its obstacles. In addition to what mentioned previously, the researcher tried to extract a future vision for the Egyptian school role in instilling and developing peace culture for the young and youth. The researcher came down to many results, most important of which is that there are many obstacles in Egypt that hinder the school from doing its role in developing the global peace culture for children and youth. The researcher came down to a future proposal for the Egyptian school role n instilling and developing peace culture for students. Thus, the researcher ended up his study with a set of recommendations, most important of which is the reviewing of the educational composition at the Egyptian school in order to make it contribute effectively in developing peace culture for students.

[Ahmed Abdallah El Sagheer El-Banaa. Education and its Role in Developing the Global Peace Culture "A Future Vision". J Am Sci 2014;10(5):18-25]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.03


Keywords: Education, Role, Peace culture

Full Text



Relationship between Isometric Muscle Force and Surface EMG of Wrist Muscles at Different Shoulder and Elbow Angles


Ahmed A. Ashour


* Assistant Lecturer, Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, October 6 University, Egypt.



Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between myoelectric activities of wrist flexors and extensors and hand grip strength at four different positions of shoulder and elbow joints. Subjects: Thirteen normal male university students volunteered to participate in this study. Their mean ages, weights and heights were 19.6 (± 1.06) years, 75.9 (± 7.51) Kg and 173.5 (± 4.67) cm respectively. Method: Four positions of shoulder (Sh) and elbow (El) joints were assumed during which both hand grip strength and EMG of wrist flexors and extensors were measured and correlated. The tested positions were (1) 0° Sh 90° El, (2) 90° Sh flexion 90° El flexion, (3) 90° Sh abduction 0° El, and (4) 90° Sh abduction 90° El flexion. Each subject was instructed to produce a powerful grip and maintain this grip force for 5 seconds during which the raw EMG signals were recorded. Three trials of recording of EMG and grip strength were collected with a rest period of 3 minutes between each trial to prevent fatigue Analysis: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was conducted using StatGraphics plus with alpha level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Correlation between hand grip strength measured in kg and Root Mean Square (RMS) EMG of wrist flexors revealed significant positive correlation between both variables in positions (2), (3) and (4) (r = 0.38, 0.45, 0.48 respectively). Correlation between hand grip strength and RMS EMG of wrist extensors revealed significant positive correlation between both variables only in positions (2) and (3) (r = 0.48, 0.62 respectively). In positions (1) and (4) the (r) values were (r = 0.27, 0.30 respectively) which indicate non significant positive correlation. Conclusion: The findings of this indicated that abducted shoulder with extended elbow is the best position to produce hand grip strength with great correlation between hand grip strength and EMG activities of wrist flexors and extensors.

[Ahmed A. Ashour. Relationship between Isometric Muscle Force and Surface EMG of Wrist Muscles at Different Shoulder and Elbow Angles. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):26-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.04


Keywords: Hand Grip strength, EMG, Forearm Muscles, Ergonomics

Full Text



Acceleration of Recovery of Muscle Injuries through Massage Based Therapies


Enas Aboul Ella Mohamed Zaki


Department of Track and Field, El Gezeera Faculty physical Education for girls, Helwan University



Abstract: Repair of injured skeletal muscle is an area that continues to present a challenge for sport medicine researchers due, in part, to complete muscle recovery being compromised by development of fibrosis leading to loss of function and susceptibility to reinjury. This study was carried out on 20 players affected with muscle injuries. Massage therapies was tested together with therapeutic exercises. Treatments was administered on injured players, they were divided into experimental and control groups (n = 10 each). Blood samples were withdrawn from both groups before and after therapeutic exercise only or plus massage based therapies. Pain data was recorded together with creatine phosphokinase and b-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and cortisol were estimated using spectrophotometer and Elisa technique. Determination of performed tests: vertical jump, pain score, isometric strength of the leg extensors using standard leg press dynamometer and shuttle run test over 30 m. course, to run 6 times between markers placed four meters apart. Results indicated significant changes between experimental and control groups for the benefit of experimental one in different parameters. In conclusion, therapeutic exercises in combination with massage based therapies might have a potential role in muscle healing.

[Enas Aboul Ella Mohamed Zaki. Acceleration of Recovery of Muscle Injuries through Massage Based Therapies. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):35-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.05


Key words: Massage therapies, therapeutic exercises, pain score creatine phosphokinase, b-fibroblast growth factor, cortisol.

Full Text



Influence of Internet Websites on Children Study


Abdul Razaque Chhachhar1*, Barkatullah Qureshi 2, Zulfiqar Ahmed Maher3, Shakil Ahmed4


1Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, 43400 Selangor

2Faculty of Computer Science and Technology Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang, 43400 Selangor

3Information Technology Centre, Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan

4Department of Computer Engineering, Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Email: abdulrazaquechhachhar@yahoo.com


Abstract: The Internet is a medium that is growing rapidly. Children, to a certain extent, may have been exposed to the Internet, where they may have learned using it an early age. Many of the children may have used the Internet without being guided and supervised by their parents and teachers. This makes them susceptible to the negative effects of the Internet. Parents’ involvement in monitoring their child's behavior and relationships and ensuring a safer use of the Internet is very important. This paper focuses on the Internet usage of children, the negative effect of using the Internet and it summarizes several approaches to foster safe Internet behavior and highlights some studies done in different countries about the negative impact of the Internet on their studies and other activities. However, parents could play an important role to control their children’s activities that have anything to do with the Internet and further protect their children from the danger brought about by the Internet.

[Abdul Razaque Chhachhar, Barkatullah Qureshi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Maher, Shakil Ahmed. Influence of Internet Websites on Children Study. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):40-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.06


Keywords: Internet usage, Children and Media, Negative effect

Full Text



Impact of Climate Change upon SummerHeat waves in Jordan


Shehadeh, N. 1 and Tarawneh, F.2


1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

2Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan



Abstract: Summer heat waves in Jordan are analyzed for the period 1960- 2010. Meteorological data for six main climatic stations distributed throughout the country and representing the main climatic regions of Jordan are used. Various statistical techniques including t- test, regression lines, moving averages and CUSUM charts are used to test the main hypothesis of this paper regarding recent trends of monthly maximum temperature, heat wave frequency, length and intensity. Findings of this paper illustrate that, due to the impact of climate change in the Eastern Mediterranean, summer heat waves in Jordan are becoming more frequent, longer and more intense. The coefficients of variation of those characteristics during the period 1995- 2010 are greater than the coefficients of variation for the period 1980-1994. Monthly average maximum temperature shows increasing trends for all stations and for all of the three summer months.

[Shehadeh, N. and Tarawneh, F. Impact of Climate Change upon Summer Heat waves in Jordan. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):46-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.07


Key Words: Heat Wave, Thermal Discomfort, Atmospheric Trough, Air mass

Full Text



Human Face Recognition by Using Image Coding


Haitham Farooq Ibrahim


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Misan University-Iraq, Iraq-Baghdad-Al-Zafraniya



Abstract: This paper describes of convert front human face to image coding and histogramof pixel position to provide a measure for automatic face recognition. The edge of face image are detected by using canny algorithm, Then image code algorithm are used to transform the two- dimension black and white image to one dimension vector. The histogram is used to identify between faces. Results have demonstrated potential measure for face recognition while head movement, hair style and to small changes in illumination. The identify rate is 91.27%.

[Haitham Farooq Ibrahim. Human Face Recognition by Using Image Coding. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):53-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.08


Keywords: Face recognition, Image code andhistogram.

Full Text



Assessment Of Oxidative Stress, Haematological, Kidney And Liver Function Parameters Of Libyan Cement Factory Workers


Khaled S Al Salhen


Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, P.O. Box 919, El-beida, Libya

E-mail: khaledk630@yahoo.co.uk


Abstract: Cement workers are exposed to different types of health hazards, which are risk factors in developing occupational diseases. The hypothesis of this study focuses on the opinion that cements worker impact on their health by pollution with cement dust and this affects the different tissues including liver and kidney. This study was carried out in exposed workers of the cement factory of Libya that has not yet been studied. This study measured the plasma oxidant, antioxidant status and haemopoietic, liver and kidney functions in workers occupationally exposed to cement dust in order to test the hypothesis that cement dust exposure may perturb these parameters. 21 volunteer cement plant workers and 30 volunteer office workers (control) with a mean age of 38.79 ± 4.68 and 39.40 ± 2.19 years respectively (Mean ± S.E) participated. The levels of P-MDA, P-ALT, P-AST, P-AlP, P-LDH activities, TLC count and total bilirubin level were significantly increased (P<0.05), while TEC, PLT count, Hb concentration, P-E, P-C, β-carotene levels, P-SOD, P-CAT, P-GST activities and the total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with the unexposed group. The results presented in this study showed that cement workers are exposed to more oxidative stress compared to the control group. The present data showed that the exposure of humans to cement dust is capable of inducing free radicals, marked hazardous alterations in some enzymatic activities, liver functions and some biochemical parameters. To protect the health of their workers dust needs to be removed from the critical area of the factory and with the use of industrial masks.

[Khaled S Al Salhen. Assessment Of Oxidative Stress, Haematological, Kidney And Liver Function Parameters Of Libyan Cement Factory Workers. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):58-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.09


Keywords: Cement dust; Free radicals; Antioxidant enzymes; Non-enzymatic antioxidants; Oxidative stress

Full Text



Stabilization of Sacroiliac Joint Disruption through Anterior Approach by Plates and screws.


El –Sayed Morsi Zaki, Mohamed Abd-Alla Elsawy, Yasser Saad El-Deen Hannout and Bahgat Ahmed El-Dakhakhney


*Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: To study and evaluate the clinical results of stabilization of sacroiliac joint disruption through anterior approach by plates and screws and its outcome after fixation. Background: Sacroiliac joint disruption result from high energy trauma is complicated with chronic pain and long term morbidity. Open anterior stabilization with plates and screws allow direct reduction and stabilization with biomechanically advantages. Methods: Surgery on sacroiliac joint injuries is the time demanding surgery that requires skills and thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy of pelvic ring. Twenty cases of sacroiliac joint disruption were managed by plates and screws through anterior approach. Open reduction and internal fixation is the ideal way to treat the SI joint disruption in order to prevent shortening mal-union and marked pelvic tilt. Anatomical reduction is the basic aim in the management of all SI joint injuries, true anatomical reduction of the joint and restoration of the length of limb were the main aim during the surgery. Results: Twenty patients were included in this study, 13 males and 7 females with (10) excellent patients, (6) good patients, (3) fair patients and (1) poor patient. Conclusion: Sacroiliac joint disruption should be fixed early through anterior approach by plates and screws to prevent complications especially in young patients.

 [El –Sayed Morsi Zaki,, Mohamed Abd-Alla Elsawy, Yasser Saad El-Deen Hannout, Bahgat Ahmed El-Dakhakhney.. Stabilization of Sacroiliac Joint Disruption through Anterior Approach by Plates and screws. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):66-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.10


Keywords: Sacroiliac joint disruption- anterior fixation - plates - screws.

Full Text



Multi-Imaging Modalities in Evaluation of Recipient’s Non-Vascular Complications after Living Donors Liver Transplantation


Wafik Ebrahim1; Mohammad A. Yusuf El-Shazely1; Amr Ahmed Mostafa1; Ahmad A. Fotouh Al-Daly1; Mokhtar Ragab Ramadan1; Mohamed A. Abdel-Razek1; .Gaber M Bakheet2


1Radiology Department, Faculty of medicine Al-Azhar University Egypt

2Surgery Department, Faculty of medicine Al-Azhar University Egypt



Abstract: Objective: We evaluate the role of the different imaging modalities in postoperative assessment of recipients of living donor liver graft.  Methods: 30 patients were included. They underwent routine laboratory and radiological investigations. Ultrasound and Doppler are the corner stone tools. CT scan was performed for suspected vascular abnormalities. MRCP, PTC and/ or ERCP were performed for biliary system abnormality. Results: we met the following non-vascular complications; significant abdominal collections and pleural effusion (33.3% for each), rejection (30%), and biliary tract complications (26.7%).The mortality rate was 30%. Ultrasound was sufficient for assessment of collections and helped in the suspicious of rejection (P value 0.014 for portal blood pulsatility and 0.000 for portal blood velocity). It was efficient in detecting dilated biliary radicles but MRCP had the upper hand in detecting level of obstruction. Doppler US was efficient in assessment of vascular channels and CTA was efficient in excluding vascular abnormalities when there is unexplained clinical or laboratory abnormality. Conclusion: An imaging algorithm should be put in mind in the postoperative follow up of patients. US and Doppler were able to detect most of complications. MRCP was accurate in assessment of biliary tract obstruction. ERCP and PTC are effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

[Wafik Ebrahim; Mohammad A. Yusuf El-Shazely; Amr Ahmed Mostafa; Ahmad A. Fotouh Al-Daly; Mokhtar Ragab Ramadan; Mohamed A. Abdel-Razek and Gaber M Bakheet. Multi-Imaging Modalities in Evaluation of Recipient’s Non-Vascular Complications after Living Donors Liver Transplantation. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):73-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.11


Key words: Rejection of liver graft. Living donor liver transplantation. Biliary complications of Living donor liver transplantation

Full Text



The Protective Effects of Faba Bean Technological Treatments on Liver Toxicity


1 Sayed-Ahamed, E. F., 2 Saad A. Mahgoub, 2 Walid M. Shehata and 3Afaf A. A. Shaaban


1Special Food and Nutrition Research Dept.; 2Crops Technology Research Dep. Food Tech. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza-Egypt

3Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology - Faculty of Medicine for Girls -Al-Azhar University



Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to evaluate antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of germinated faba bean on CcL4 induced liver injury in male albino rats. Physio-chemical properties and antioxidant activity of germinated and ungerminated faba bean were investigated. Raw and germinated faba bean seeds for 24, 48 and 72 hrs incorporated diets were investigated against CcL4 induced liver damage. Germination for 48 hrs increased protein digestibility to 92.6%, total flavonoids 13.6 (mg Quercetin/g DW), total phenolic compounds 48.4 (mg GAE/g DW) and antioxidant activity 84.5% compared to dry seeds. Administration of Ccl4 at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the activities of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Body weight and weight gain were recorded. Serum liver enzymes, albumin and globulins were analyzed. Hematological parameters and lipid profile were improved by increasing in germination time. Rats fed on germinated faba bean diets decreased AST 68.51 U/L and ALT 39.55 U/L. On the other hand, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C were decreased while HDL-C was increased. Albumin and globulins were increased, also kidney functions were improved. In conclusion, it was suggested that faba bean seeds could protect the liver cells from CcL4 induced liver damage, may be due to their antioxidative effect against toxic metabolites of CcL4 and increase of protein digestibility as compared to dry seeds.

[Sayed-Ahamed, E. F., Saad A. Mahgoub; Walid M. Shehata and Afaf A. A. Shaaban. The Protective Effects of Faba Bean Technological Treatments on Liver Toxicity. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):84-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.12


Keywords:Faba bean, Germination, Liver toxicity, Rats.

Full Text



Evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in albino rats consumed instant coffee and non-dairy creamer.


Hanna L.S. and Abd Elmonem H.A.


Department of Biological Applications, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.



Abstract: Instant coffee (Nescafé) and non-dairy creamer (Coffee- Mate) are the commonly consumed beverages all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of consuming 1% instant coffee, 2% non-dairy creamer and a solution of 1% instant coffee plus 2% non-dairy creamer (v/v) on some cardiac biomarker parameters. The study was conducted on twenty four male albino rats for 30 days. Heart contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to serum troponin, lactate dehyrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lipid profile, glucose, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were investigated. All treatments significantly increased CPK, triglycrieds (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) but, significantly decreased GSH and insulin and significant increases of MAD, LDH, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and glucose regarding coffee consumption, VLDL, LDL/HDL and glucose after non-dairy creamer treatment in addition to MAD and LDL/HDL ratio after consumption of coffee plus non-dairy creamer were also shown.  The obtained results showed that the consumption of instant coffee and non-dairy creamer showed an adverse effect on various biological markers of the heart and suggestive of increased cardiovascular disease risk.

 [Hanna L.S. and Abd Elmonem .H.A.  Evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in albino rats consumed instant coffee and non-dairy creamer. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):96-102]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.13


Key words: Instant coffee, non-dairy creamer, cardiac biomarker parameters, rats.

Full Text



The Progression of Muscle Healing By Using Voltaren Gel (NSAID) in Cases of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)


Mohamed Salah El Din Mohamed


Faculty of Physical Education, Port Said University



Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the progression of muscle healing by using NSAID (Voltaren gel) in cases of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty injured players were engaged in the study, they were divided to two equal groups, ten injured players each. They were affected with DOMS, the diagnosis is based on clinical findings by specialists. The voltaren gel is applied locally to the skin 3 times daily and rubbed in gently in case of experimental group where as the control received placebo and the general approach after injuries: Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation and Support. Biochemical variables estimated: B-endorphin, creatine kinase, ACTH before and after treatment, together with performance tests. Visual pain score and healing time.Results indicated a decreased concentration of B-endorphin, and creatine kinase in experimental group compared to control. Performance tests revealed a positive results also in experimental group which exhibit also better pain score and reduced healing time. Conclusion: Using NSAID in cases of DOMS induced rapid healing process and lower pain perception in favor of experimental group.

[Mohamed Salah El Din Mohamed. The Progression of Muscle Healing By Using Voltaren Gel (NSAID) in Cases of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). J Am Sci 2014;10(5):103-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.14


Keywords: NSAID, DOMS, B-endorphin, CK, ACTH, performance tests.

Full Text



Mapping Heavy Metals in Sediment from Aswan Reservoir Using GIS Geo-statistical Analyst


Hala M. Ebaid 1 and Salwa M. Abou ElElla 2


1 Survey Research Institute, National Water Research Center, 308 El Harm S., Giza, Egypt;

2 Channel Maintenance Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Cairo, Egypt;

E-Mails: hala_srif@yahoo.com, salwaabouelella@yahoo.com


Abstract: Evaluation, analyzing spatial variability of Heavy metals (HM) concentration in sediment of Aswan Reservoir was carried out. Samples were collected and tested for determining the true concentrations of: Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Lead (pb), and Iron (Fe) through 2009. Ggeostatistical analyst tools were used to explore this data, test spatial interpolation methods, analyze spatial distribution and autocorrelation of HM concentration, and finally predicted HM concentrations maps. The results reveals that Ordinary Kriging was the best method for prediction HM maps based on RMS errors and R2.Also J-bessel was selected as the best fitted Semivariogram model for almost all HM data set. The results also demonstrated that Fe and Cu have strong spatial dependence structure 8.7%, 15%, while Zn and Mn have moderate and week spatial dependence respectively (38.48%, 99%). Also effective range of most HM parameters is close together with the range of 0.972 to 1.641 km. Top eastern parts of study area have higher concentration of Cu, and Mn pollution due to man’s activities, while top western parts have higher concentration of Fe, and Zn pollution due to presence of rocks. Lead pollution map was interpolated using Inverse Distance Weighted because it was detected in little specific locations.

Hala M. Ebaid and Salwa M. Abou ElElla. Mapping Heavy Metals in Sediment from Aswan Reservoir Using GIS Geo-statistical Analyst. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):108-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.15


Keywords: Heavy metals; GIS; Geo-statistics; Aswan reservoir; Ordinary Kriging

Full Text



Evaluation of lightweight polypropylene mesh in Stoppa pre-peritoneal repair of bilateral inguinal hernias


Mohamed Wahba


Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Repair of bilateral inguinal hernias (recurrent or primary - direct or indirect) is associated with a high recurrence rate. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (Stoppa GPRVS) with heavyweight polypropylene mesh is popular in America and Europe, but there are no prospective data concerning the use of lightweight polypropylene mesh in Stoppa repair. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with bilateral inguinal hernias (40 hernias) underwent repair using a large lightweight polypropylene mesh based on Stoppa pre-peritoneal technique. Mean age was 48 years (range 40 to 65) and 40% had one or more comorbid conditions. In the 20 patients, 36 hernias were primary, 3 were recurrent and one was re-recurrent. Results: Mean hospital stay after surgery was 4.5 days (range 2-14 days). The mean operative time was 75 minutes (range 52-95 minutes). There were no intestinal or pulmonary complications. Local complications consisted of two cases of seroma in the dead space of the distal part of the hernia sac, and one case of pre-peritoneal hematoma. No inguino-scrotal neuropathies, chronic testicular pain or atrophies occurred. No postoperative stiffness, foreign body sensations, or pain related to the groin. Mean time of return to work after surgery was 3 weeks (range 3-5 weeks). The recurrence rate was 0% per inguinal repair and 0% per patient after one year of follow up. Conclusion: Stoppa pre-peritoneal repair of bilateral inguinal hernias is anatomic, sutureless, and tension-free procedure that completely eliminates all types of groin hernias especially recurrent and re-recurrent. The use of lightweight polypropylene mesh instead of traditional heavyweight one induces less fibrosis with no postoperative stiffness, foreign body sensations, or pain. Patient satisfaction and the absence of limitation in the level of activity postoperatively were impressive.

[Mohamed Wahba. Evaluation of lightweight polypropylene mesh in Stoppa pre-peritoneal repair of bilateral inguinal hernias. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):116-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.16


Keywords: Inguinal hernia, bilateral, pre-peritoneal repair, Stoppa.

Full Text



Design and Assessment of Chlorpheniramine Maleate Sublingual Tablets Using Novel Ternary Phase Superdisintegrants


Asmaa M. Elbakry1, Ghada H. Elosaily1, Ghada E. Yassin1, 3 and Alaa A. Zaky2*


1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Girl Branch,

2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University for Modern Science and Arts (MSA), Egypt

* Corresponding author’s E-mail: azaky69@yahoo.com


Abstract: Sublingual tablets are gaining popularity over conventional tablets due to their convenience in administration and suitability for elderly and children who have swallowing difficulties. The aim of this study was to formulate Chlorpheniramine Maleate (CPM) sublingual tablets to achieve rapid onset of action. CPM is a first generation antihistamines, undergoes first pass metabolism in liver. Sublingual dosage forms bypass the metabolism of CPM in liver and so improve the drug bioavailability. The novel ternary phase developed by co-processed superdisintegrants via solvent evaporation method using crospovidone, croscarmellose and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios (1:1:1, 3:1:1, 1:3:1and 1:1:3) were prepared. The pre-compression parameters (angle of repose, Hausner ratio and Carr’s index) of the prepared co-processed superdisintegrants were evaluated in comparison to physical mixture of superdisintegrants. The developed co-processed formulae were compared with those the corresponding physical mixtures and individual superdisintegrant sublingual tablets. The tablets were evaluated for its disintegration time, wetting time, in-vitro dispersion time as well as hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content and in-vitro dissolution study. Among all the designed formulations, the formulations CP1 and PM1 containing 4% w/w co-processed and physical mixture of superdisintegrant respectively (1:1:1 mixture of crospovidone, croscarmellose and sodium starch glycolate) were considered to be best formulations, which showed the shortest disintegration time (6.29 and 6.31 sec), in-vitro dispersion time (18.67 and 18.83 sec) and wetting time (12.47 and 12.58 sec) respectively. As well as these promising formulae showed highest drug release (100 and 97.52 %) within two min. Finally, the promising formulae were compared with CPM sublingual tablet prepared using commercially available co-processed mixture of excipients containing superdisintegrant (PharmaburstTM500). There were significance differences in disintegration time, in-vitro dispersion time, wetting time and in vitro drug release (p<0.001) using ANOVA-one way test.

[Asmaa M. Elbakry, Ghada H. Elosaily, Ghada E. Yassin and Alaa A. Zaky. Design and Assessment of Chlorpheniramine Maleate Sublingual Tablets Using Novel Ternary Phase Superdisintegrants. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):125-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.17


Keywords: Chlorpheniramine Maleate, co-processed superdisintegrants, sublingual tablets, crospovidone, croscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate and PharmaburstTM500.

Full Text



The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Tripoli, Libya


Elsaid M. M. A,.1 Azbedah A. G. 2 Dia Eddin E. EL-Alem 1 and Alkout A. 1


1Faculty of Medical Technology, Tripoli University - Libya

2Academy of Graduate Studies, Tripoli-Libya



Abstract: Background and objective: Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection by T. gondii is widespread through the world in many species of mammals including humans and in birds. Patients with psychiatric disorders were found to be high Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis. There is no information about epidemiology of T. gondii in psychiatric patients in Libya. Therefore we investigate the seropositivity rate for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in psychiatric patients in Alrazi Neuropsychiatry hospital, Tripoli – Libya by using enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to detect the relationship between T. gondii and psychiatric diseases, and to compare toxoplasmosis rate in patients with control population. Methods: serum samples of 300 psychiatric patients and 300 of control volunteers were examined for the presence of anti T. gondii IgG antibodies by latex and ELISA. Results: The seropositivity rate of T. gondii IgG antibodies by latex was 61.7% in patients and 46.7% in control samples, while by ELISA was 50.3% in patients and 33% in control samples. Conclusions: In this study, psychiatric patients had a significantly higher prevalence of T. gondii IgG antibodies than the control group (p=0.000). Thus, there might be a casual relationship between toxoplasmosis and the etiology of psychiatric diseases.

[Elsaid M. M. A, Azbedah A. G. Dia Eddin E. EL-Alem and Alkout A. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Tripoli, Libya. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):135-140]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.18


Keywords: prevalence; Toxoplasmosis; psychiatric; Tripoli

Full Text



Incorporating Social Sustainability Themes in the Built Environment


Deena Mahmoud Al-Dahmashawi1; Doaa Kamal El-din K. Hassan2; Hanan Mostafa K. Sabry3; Shaimaa Mohamed K. Mahmoud4


1 Architectural Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt. aldahmashawi@gmail.com

2 Architectural Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt. doaa.kamal@eng.asu.edu.eg

3 Architectural Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt. drhanansabry@yahoo.com

4 Architectural Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt. shaimaamkamel@yahoo.com


Abstract: According to the United Nations 2005 World Summit, social sustainability (SS) is one of the three equal pillars of sustainability. However, in practice, sustainable development usually inclines towards one of the pillars, mostly the environmental pillar followed by the economic pillar and least of all, the social pillar. While environmental and economic arguments are often well-defined and measurable, SS is defined differently in various disciplines and the abstraction and complexity of the theory of SS has hindered its translation into policy and practice.  A socially sustainable community is one where the needs of its members are satisfied in the present and for generations to come. Consequently, SS themes can be seen as satisfiers of human needs. SS concerns individuals, communities and whole societies which do not live in a vacuum but within built environments. Previous studies accentuate the mutual effects between people and their surroundings. Thus, it is significant to investigate the role of the built environment – architectural and urban projects- in shaping communities. There is growing acknowledgment that addressing SS in the built environment is an important issue but it has not been adequately investigated. There is extensive knowledge on the challenges and methods of pursuing environmental and economic sustainability but there is much to be learnt about how the built environment –and the process of producing the built environment- can contribute to the SS of the community.  Hence, this study aimed at identifying themes/satisfiers for pursuing SS through the processes and outcomes of the built environment. The study methodology depended on three phases. First, the literature was reviewed for the concept of SS, its general definitions, its relation to the Fundamental Human Needs (FHNs), the general themes of SS and the literature on social needs that can be attained through the built environment. Second, a comparative analysis was done for the identified themes in relation to the FHNs in order to discover which needs have been adequately addressed and which require more attention. Third, the themes identified by all the reviewed researchers were then merged and a reference list of SS themes/satisfiers was compiled. The list included: Creation; Democracy and Participation; Education and Skills; Equity; Identity; Leisure; Social Capital; Wellbeing; Work and Income. Recommendations include the need to explore the themes in the local context to check validity and suitability in order to incorporate social sustainability in all stages of architectural and urban projects.

[Deena Mahmoud Al-Dahmashawi; Doaa Kamal El-din Kamel Hassan; Hanan Mostafa Kamal Sabry; Shaimaa Mohamed Kamel Mahmoud. Incorporating Social Sustainability Themes in the Built Environment. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):141-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.19


Keywords: Social Sustainability; Built Environment; Architecture; Urban Planning; Human Needs; Societal needs.

Full Text



Effect of gamma irradiation on Aspergillus niger DNA and production of cellulases enzymes


Azza A. Mostafa


Department of Biological and Environmental, Faculty of Home Economics, Al- Azhar Univ., Tanta, Egypt

Email :azza_1965_1965@yahoo.com


Abstract: Aspergillus niger isolated from wheat straw was subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation (1KGy and 2KGy) to enhance the production of enzyme carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and filter paper cellulase (FPA).A wild Aspergillus niger and A. niger subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation were screened for the production of cellulases by submerged cultivation in liquid mineral salt medium in which carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), wheat straw and corn cobs had been added as the sole carbon source. Cultivation conditions investigated include variation of the carbon source, pH, temperature and time of incubation. Aspergillus niger,which subjected through 2 KGy irradiation showed highest extracellular CMCase and FPA production which is higher than that of the wild type. Optimum conditions for the production of CMCase and FPA by the wild A. niger and A. niger subjected to 2 KGy. The optimized initial pH and temperature was 5.0 and 30oC respectively and the use of corn cobs as the carbon source gave the highest CMCase and FPA by A. niger exposed to 2KGy after 2 day. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that includes random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was employed to investigate the influence of gamma radiation in inducing DNA-Polymorphisms. Number of amplified DNA fragments were 12 and 20 in irradiated A. niger (1KGy) and irradiated A. niger (2KGY) respectively

[Azza A. Mostafa. Effect of gamma irradiation on Aspergillus niger DNA and production of cellulases enzymes. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):152-160]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.20


Keywords: Gamma irradiation, Aspergillus niger, cellulases, lignocellulosic substrate, submerged fermentation, DNA , RAPD- PCR.

Full Text



Physiological and Productive Performance of Sina Laying Hens Fed Atripex Nummularia Leaves Meal under Arid Conditions of South Sinai


Abd El-Galil, K. 1; Morsy, A.S2*; Emam, K. R. S. 2 and Amal M. Hassan2


1Animal and Poultry Nutrition Department, Desert Research Center, Egypt

2Animal and Poultry Physiological Department, Desert Research Center, Egypt

*Email: Alisaber_Drc@Yahoo.Com


Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of using different levels of Atripex nummularia leaves meal (ALM) on hemato-biochemical, serum mineral parameters, hormonal profiles and productive performance of Sina hens under arid conditions of South Sinai. A total number of 180 Sina laying hens (22 - week of age and body weight of 1196.30 ± 21.09 g) were used until 34 week of age. Experimental hens were randomly divided into four equal treatments (45 hens of each). The 1st treatment was fed a basal diet as a control (0 % of Atriplex nummularia leaves meal), while, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments were fed diets containing 4, 8 and 12 % Atriplex nummularia leaves meal, respectively. The results showed that the hens fed 12 % ALM recorded the lowest values (P<0.05) of red blood cells (RBC’s), hemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) as compared to other treatments. However, hens fed 8 % ALM showed insignificantly effect on RBC’s and Hb concentrations. On the other hand, hematocrite (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) increased (P<0.05) in the diet containing 12 % ALM than those of other treatments. However, Ht increased (P<0.05) in the hens of 8 and 4 % ALM as compared to control diet. While, there were no significant differences between the hens fed 8 % ALM and control group on MCV and MCH. Hens fed diet containing 12 % ALM showed a reduction (P<0.05) of total protein and globulin levels compared with other treatments. No significant differences were observed among other treatments in total protein, globulin and A/G ratio. Cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were significantly decreased in the diet containing 8 and 12 % ALM compared with other two treatments. Alanin transaminase (ALT) and aspartic transaminase (AST) were increased (P<0.05) in the hens fed 12 % ALM as compared to other treatments. Hens fed 12 % ALM showed decreased (P<0.05) total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by 17.2 and 14.2 % as compared to control and 4 % ALM, respectively. However, no significant differences among 0, 4 and 8 % ALM treatments in TAC. Aldosterone hormone decreased (P<0.05) in the hens fed 12 % ALM by 39.5 % than that of control treatment. Triiodothyronine (T3), estradiol and progesterone hormones recorded insignificant decrease with increasing ALM levels. No significant differences among treatments in sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations. Potassium (K) concentration was significantly lower in the diets containing 4 and 8 % ALM by 13.5 and 20.3 %, respectively, compared with control treatment. Serum calcium (Ca) concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the diets containing 8 % ALM compared with other treatments. However, hens fed 8 % ALM showed lower (P<0.05) concentrations of phosphorus) P (and chloride) Cl (by 21.8 and 14.1 %, respectively, as compared to control treatment. Final body weight and boy weight change showed insignificant increase in the hens fed 0 (control) or 4 or 8 % ALM than that of the diet containing 12 % ALM. Hens fed 8 and 12 % ALM recorded an increase (P<0.05) in egg weight by 1.36 and 1.54 %, respectively than that of control treatment. Egg number and egg mass recorded a significant (P<0.05) increase in the hens fed 4 and 8 % ALM as compared to the hens fed 12 % ALM. Substitution of diet by 8 % of ALM level improved feed conversion by 11.9 % as compared to the diet containing 12 % ALM level.

In conclusion, under arid conditions, Atriplex nummularia leaves meal might be used up to 8 % as a source of alternative feed resources of Sina laying hens without any adverse effects on physiological reactions and productive performance.

[Abd El-Galil, K.; Morsy, A.S.; Emam, K. R. S. and Amal M. Hassan Physiological and Productive Performance of Sina Laying Hens Fed Atripex Nummularia Leaves Meal under Arid Conditions of South Sinai. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):161-170]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.21


Key words: Sina laying hens, Atriplex nummularia leaves meal (ALM), productive performance, hemato-biochemical and mineral parameters and hormonal profiles.

Full Text



Iran, world economy and World Trade Organization (WTO)


Dr. Ahmad saee, Dr.Farzad Piltan


Department of International Relation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



Abstract: To achieve strategic goals, Iran with an oil dependent economy, needs to make arrangements to join world economy. Participating in international economical organizations including WTO is an essential tool to reach this goal. Although disagreements exist among governmental authorities, industry owners and economical experts, becoming observer member and starting full membership process bring up more serious discussions about its relation with world economy and consequences of membership in WTO. In this article the attitude of Iran toward world economy, different views and the process of gaining observer membership, consequences and barriers of Iran’s full membership in this organization have been reviewed.

[Ahmad saee, Farzad Piltan. Iran, world economy and World Trade Organization (WTO). J Am Sci 2014;10(5):171-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.22


Keywords: Iran -World Economy- World Trade Organization (wto)- International Economical Organizations.

Full Text



Lipid Profile in Obese Libyans


Ali A. Fadella and Ibrahim A. Boufaris


 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Omar Almukhtar University, Albaida Libya



Abstract: Background: obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder affecting developed and developing world as well. This study was aimed to examine the relationship between obesity and lipid profiles and to compare them with those with normal body weight. Methods: 52 adult Libyans (42 obese and 10 control) were recruited with age ranging from 30-50 years. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the formula: Weight (kg)/Height (m)². Blood samples were withdrawn for analysis of total Cholesterol, Triglycerides(TG), High-density lipoprotein(HDL), Low-density lipoprotein(LDL), FBS, HbA1c, Urea, Creatinine, TSH, and liver enzymes. Lipid profile values in obese subjects(BMI ˃ 30) were compared with those with normal body weight(BMI ˂ 25). Results: The obese group had higher total cholesterol Tc, triglycerides TG, and low density lipoproteins LDL with the significant differences (P ˂ 0.05) when compared to normal body weight group, where's high density lipoproteins HDL-c was significantly lower in obese subjects. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant association between obesity and dyslipidemia. With several complications associated obesity, in particular the lipid abnormalities which are a leading cause of morbidity, and mortality, it is of importance, that the prevalence of obesity should be reduced.

[Ali A. Fadella and Ibrahim A. Boufaris. Lipid Profile in Obese Libyans. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):179-181]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.23


Keywords: Obesity, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI).

Full Text



Influence of Some Amino Acids on the Mechanism of Dissolution of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals


N. S. Yehia, and D. I. Saleh


Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science, Shebin El-Kom, Menofia University, Egypt.



Abstract: Mechanism of dissolution of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals was studied in the absence and presence of Argnine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp), Alanine (Aln) and Asparagine (AS) at 37ºC, I=0.15 mol dm-3 and PH=6.5 from the study,it was obtained that concentrations as low as 10-6 mol dm-3 for each additive markedly reduce the dissolution rate of COM crystals. As the concentration of additive increase, the active sites on COM crystal surface are blocked through adsorption and the rate of dissolution of crystals decreased. This confirmed from the order of reaction (n=2), the value of activation energy, 7.14 Kcal / mol, and the validity of applying Langmuir- isotherm. The values of affinity constants in the presence of Arg, Asp, Aln and As are: 7.5,6.6,5.19 and 4.17 ×105 dm3 mol-1 respectively. The values of affinity constants (Kl) reflect the high adsorption at the same value of relative degree of undersaturation (σ = 0.09), and the order of inhibition was: Arg >Asp > Aln > As. The values of ΔG supported this order of inhibition of these additives. From the study, the anionic part of the additive molecule adsorbs onto Ca2+ active sites on the surface of COM crystals through electrostatic attraction. The molecular weight, molecular geometry, hydrophilicty and structure of the amino acid molecules were found to be the important factors affecting on the efficiency of the them.

[N. S. Yehia, and D. I. Saleh. Influence of Some Amino Acids on the Mechanism of Dissolution of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals. J Am Sci 2014;10(5):182-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas100514.24


Key words: dissolution, COM, amino acids, adsorption inhibition.

Full Text


 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 1, 2014. 
All comments are welcome: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com, or contact with author(s) directly.

For back issues of the Journal of American Science, click here.

Emails: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com


© 2014 Marsland Press



Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

© 2014 Marsland Press