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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online)

Volume 10, Special Issue 8 (Supplement Issue 8), August 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1008s, doi prefix: 10.7537

 

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CONTENTS

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1

Literatures Introducing of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Stem Cells

 

Ma Hongbao 1, *, Margaret Young 2, Yang Yan 1

 

1 Brookdale Hospital, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

ma8080@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4) is one of toll-like receptors that detects lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. The various TLRs exhibit different expression patterns. TLR 4 is most abundantly expressed in placenta. Mutations of TLR 4 gene have been associated with differences in LPS responsiveness. The molecular weight of TLR 4 is approximately 95 kDa.

[Ma H, Young M, Yang Y. Literatures Introducing of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Stem Cells. J Am Sci 2014;10(8s) 2014;10(8s):1-19] (ISSN 1545-4570). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.01

 

Keywords: lipopolysaccharide (LPS); toll-like receptor (TLR); endotoxin; stem cell; bacteria

 

Abbreviations: LPS, lipopolysaccharide; TLR, toll-like receptor

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2

Study on the Role of Pet Animals for Helicobacter pylori Transmission

 

Mohamed Abdel-Raouf1, YousefAbdel-Gleel2, Ayman Enab3

 

1Gastro - Enterology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Microbiology Department, Faculty of Vet. Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Microbiology Department, Faculty of Vet.Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

mohamed.raouf999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from person to person are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. Helicobacter colonizes the stomachs and intestines of humans and several animal species, such as cats, dogs. Prevalence in healthy a symptomatic persons and in apparently healthy dogs and cats. H. pylori might have jumped quite recently from animal hosts to people. Because it has been possible to transfer from humans to animals it's reasonable to suppose that animals might have been the original source of the bacterium. The aim of this work is to investigate the role of pet animals in Helicobacter pylori transmission and, to study the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori isolate. Recent reports suggest that the overall prevalence of H. pylori in stool, saliva and, stomach juice samples of examined dogs are 41.4 %, 42.9%, and 50%, respectively. Although the incidence of H. pylori in stool, saliva, and stomach juice samples of examined cats are 30 %, 42.9% and 20 %, respectively. Moreover, we discussed the incidence of H. Pylori in stool and saliva samples of healthy persons related to dogs ware 23.9% and 8.7%, respectively, but in diseased persons ware 64.3 % and 42.9 %, respectively. Also, the incidence of H. Pylori in gastric juice samples of diseased men and women’s related to dogs with an incidence were 60 % and 66.7 %, respectively. Whole, the incidence of H. pylori in stool and saliva samples of healthy persons related to cats were 40.9 % and 45.5 %, respectively, however diseased persons were 75 % and 62.5 %, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori in gastric juice samples of diseased men and women’s related to cats were 66.7 % and 80 %, respectively. H. pylori isolates sensitive to cefotaxime sodium, ceftazidime, ceftraxone, cefuroxime sodium, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, meropenem, nitrofurantion and ofloxacin. Thus, H. pylori can be isolated from feces, saliva and stomach juice of dogs, cats and human by microbiological methods without need of Endoscopy. Pet animals may be a good reservoirs for the transmission of H. pylori between domestic pets and their owners.

[Mohamed Abdel-Raouf, Yousef Abdel-Gleel, Ayman Enab. Study on the Role of Pet Animals for Helicobacter pylori Transmission. J Am Sci 2014;10(8s):20-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.02

 

Keywords: Pet animals; Helicobacter pylori; Transmission; Incidence

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 ROLE OF CK20, CK5/6 and P53 in the Diagnosis of Flat Urothelial Lesions with Atypia

 

Hayam E. Rashed1, Eman H. Abdelbary1, Ahmed Ragab Ali. 2

 

Pathology1 and Urology2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

aragab1972@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diagnosis of carcinoma in situ in bladder specimens is of great benefit because it has prognostic and therapeutic value. Morphology alone may not be sufficient in the differentiation of reactive urothelial atypia (RUA), urothelial dysplasia (UD) and carcinoma in situ (CIS). Specific markers to enhance morphology would be of great value in differentiation of RUA from CIS and UD. Objectives: We aim to determine the utility of a selected panel of markers (CK20, CK5/6 and P53) as an adjunct in the diagnosis of reactive urothelial atypia, urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by comparing their results with the histopathological finding in the follow up cystoscopic biopsy; and help to reach a definite diagnosis in atypia of unknown significance (AUS). Methods; A case-controlled study included 60 patients were selected from Urology outpatient clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. Fifty cystoscopic biopsy specimens of flat urothelial lesions and 10 of normal urothelium as (control) were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against Cytokeratin20, CK5/6 and P53.They were also enrolled in the follow up schedule which was planned according to histopathological finding. Results; All normal urothelia showed normal staining patterns with CK20, CK5/6 and P53. In the CIS group, 84.6%, 100% and 69.2% of cases showed abnormal expression pattern with CK20, CK5/6 and P53 respectively. Regarding dysplasia group, 81.8%, 100% and 54.5% of cases showed abnormal expression with CK20, CK5/6 and P53 respectively. In the AUS group, 50% showed abnormal CK20, increased P53 expression and negative CK5/6, all were suggestive of urothelial dysplasia; the remaining cases were thought to be (RUA). The follow up results were comparable with the immunohistochemical finding. Conclusions; CK20, CK5/6 and P53 are promising to be reliable diagnostic markers of UD and CIS in conjunction with morphological changes especially in cases of diagnostically challenging biopsies and help to reach a definite diagnosis in AUS cases. Ck20 only cannot differentiate between UD and CIS, in biopsies of flat intraurothelial lesions with atypia.

[Hayam E. Rashed, Eman H. Abdelbary, Ahmed Ragab Ali. ROLE OF CK20, CK5/6 and P53 in the Diagnosis of Flat Urothelial Lesions with Atypia. J Am Sci 2014;10(8s):29-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.03

 

Key Words: Dysplasia, Carcinoma in situ, Reactive atypia, Atypia of unknown significance, Cytokeratin 20, CK5/6, P53, Immunohistochemistry

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Pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol and bupivacaine improves outcome of tonsillectomy in adult patients

 

1Mohamed F. Shindy MD and 2Tamer S. Abd El-Hamid MD

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

2Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate postoperative (PO) analgesic efficacy of pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration (PI) using tramadol alone or in combination with bupivacaine in adults assigned for tonsillectomy.Patients & Methods: Eighty patients were allocated into four equal groups: Control group received saline, Bupivacaine group received bupivacaine (5 mg/ml), Tramadol group received tramadol (2 mg/kg b.wt.) and Combination group received combination of bupivacaine and tramadol. All medications were injected as 1 ml per tonsil 3 min prior to incision (pre-incisional). Evaluated parameters included duration of PO analgesia and PACU stay and total hospital stay. Postoperative pain sensation was evaluated using 10-points visual analogue scale (VAS) score and rescue analgesia (morphine 0.05 mg/kg i.v.) was administered at VAS score ≥4. Patients were asked to rate their satisfaction with analgesia on a 7-point scale. Results: All patients had smooth intraoperative within mean operative time of 624.9 minutes and mean intraoperative blood loss of 41.74.7 ml. Collective VAS pain scores were significantly higher in control group compared to other groups, while combination therapy provided significantly lower pain scores compared to tramadol alone or bupivacaine alone. Twenty-five patients were discharged without requesting rescue analgesia. Combination therapy provided better PO analgesia lasting for longer duration with significant difference compared to other groups. Duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients received infiltration therapy compared to control group with significantly shorter duration with combination therapy. Patients received infiltration therapy were significantly satisfied compared to control group with significantly higher satisfaction scores in combination and tramadol groups compared to bupivacaine alone. Conclusion: Pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration is a safe and effective analgesic modality for post-tonsillectomy pain in adults and combined bupivacaine and tramadol infiltration is the appropriate for achieving superior postoperative analgesia.

[Mohamed F. Shindy and Tamer S. Abd El-Hamid. Pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol and bupivacaine improves outcome of tonsillectomy in adult patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(8s):38-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.04

 

Keywords: Tramadol, Tonsillectomy, Adults, peritonsillar infiltration.

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5

Pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol and bupivacaine improves outcome of tonsillectomy in adult patients

 

1Mohamed F. Shindy MD and 2Tamer S. Abd El-Hamid MD

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

2Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate postoperative (PO) analgesic efficacy of pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration (PI) using tramadol alone or in combination with bupivacaine in adults assigned for tonsillectomy. Patients & Methods: Eighty patients were allocated into four equal groups: Control group received saline, Bupivacaine group received bupivacaine (5 mg/ml), Tramadol group received tramadol (2 mg/kg b.wt.) and Combination group received combination of bupivacaine and tramadol. All medications were injected as 1 ml per tonsil 3 min prior to incision (pre-incisional). Evaluated parameters included duration of PO analgesia and PACU stay and total hospital stay. Postoperative pain sensation was evaluated using 10-points visual analogue scale (VAS) score and rescue analgesia (morphine 0.05 mg/kg i.v.) was administered at VAS score ≥4. Patients were asked to rate their satisfaction with analgesia on a 7-point scale. Results: All patients had smooth intraoperative within mean operative time of 624.9 minutes and mean intraoperative blood loss of 41.74.7 ml. Collective VAS pain scores were significantly higher in control group compared to other groups, while combination therapy provided significantly lower pain scores compared to tramadol alone or bupivacaine alone. Twenty-five patients were discharged without requesting rescue analgesia. Combination therapy provided better PO analgesia lasting for longer duration with significant difference compared to other groups. Duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients received infiltration therapy compared to control group with significantly shorter duration with combination therapy. Patients received infiltration therapy were significantly satisfied compared to control group with significantly higher satisfaction scores in combination and tramadol groups compared to bupivacaine alone. Conclusion: Pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration is a safe and effective analgesic modality for post-tonsillectomy pain in adults and combined bupivacaine and tramadol infiltration is the appropriate for achieving superior postoperative analgesia.

[Mohamed F. Shindy and Tamer S. Abd El-Hamid. Pre-incisional peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol and bupivacaine improves outcome of tonsillectomy in adult patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(8s):46-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.05

 

Keywords: Tramadol, Tonsillectomy, Adults, peritonsillar infiltration

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6

Genetic components and heterotic effect in 3x3 diallel crossing experiment on egg production and hatching traits in chickens

 

Emad M. Amin

 

Desert Rese Center, Ministry of Agric., Egypt

h_h562000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three genotypes of chickens [one local strain named Mandarah (MM) and two exotic parental commercial meat type strains [Saso (SS) and Italian (II)] were crossed in a 3 x 3 diallel mating (nine combinations) throughout two successive years to evaluate crossbreeding effects, combining ability, general (GCA) and specific (SCA), percentage of heterotic effect (H%), reciprocal effect)RE(, maternal effect) ME (and, direct additive effect) DA (for egg production and hatching traits in purebred parental and their crosses. Moreover, using GCA and SCA to predict the hybrid performance, breeding (BV) and genetic (GVFM) values for purebred parental and their crosses. There were highly significant differences among the different genotypes for body weight (BWSM) and age (ASM) at 50 % egg production, egg number per hen-housed at the first 90 days (EN1), the first 180 days (EN2) of production, egg weight at the mentioned periods (EW1and EW2, respectively), egg production rate (ER%) and egg mass (g / hen /180 days) (EM), feed intake (g / hen / day) (FI1), feed intake (g / egg) (FI2),feed efficiency (g feed / egg) (FC), in addition to hatch traits [fertility percentage (F%), hatchability percentage of fertile eggs (HFE%), hatchability percentage of total eggs (HTE%), embryonic mortality (EM%), egg pip (EP%) and total egg loss (TEL%)]. The pure strain MM had the highest significant values of EN1 (65eggs), EN2 (120 eggs), ER% (67eggs), F% (91.7%), HFE% (89.1%) and THE% (81.7%), moreover, the best values for FC and M% compared to the other pure strains, followed by Italian II strain. No significant difference between S x I cross and it's reciprocal I x S were found for BWSM, ASM, EN2, ER, EW1, EW2, FI1, M%, F% and EP% traits. Moreover, the reciprocal crosses(I x M and M x I) had statistically the highest values for ER%, EM, FC, HFE%, HTE% and EM% compared to the other genotypes, while no significant difference were found between the two crosses for the rest studied traits. Fortunately, MM strain and both of its reciprocal crosses with II strain (I x M and M x I) had the highest values for EN1, EN2, ER, EM, FC,M%, HFE%, HTE% and EP% traits compared to the other genotypes. The MM strain had positive significant values of GCA for BWSM, EN1 and ER traits. The II strain had positive significant GCA estimates of BWSM and EM. Both of the reciprocal crosses (Ix M and M x I) had the highest positive significant estimates of SCA for EN1, FI2 and M% traits, while, M x S and M x I had significantly the highest positive estimates for EN1, EW1, EW2 and EM traits compared to the other genotypes. Reciprocal crosses (S x I and I x S) had significantly the highest values of SCA for BWSM, While, I x S hens had significantly positive values for EN2, ER, F%, HFE% and THE% traits followed by M x S cross for the former traits. Heterotic percentages (H %) of both of the reciprocal crosses S x I and I x S had positive and significant values of H% for BWSM, EN2 and EM traits were found. Cross S x M had significant and positive estimates for EN2, ER, EW1, EW2 and EM traits were observed. Moreover, I x M cross and it's reciprocal M x I had positive significant values for BWSM, EN1, EN2, ER %, EW1, EW2, EM and M%. On the other hand, the three crosses (S x I, S x M and M x I) and their reciprocal crosses had positive significant values of H% for F% and hatchability traits (except M x I for F %). Both of S M and I M crosses had positive significant values of reciprocal effect (RE (for BWSM and EM. The MM strain had positive significant values of maternal effect (ME) for BWSM and negative significant estimates for EM. The SS strain had positive significant estimates of ME for EN1, EN2, ER, EM FI2, and F% and hatchability traits. Positive significant estimates of ME were found for MM strain concerning PE% and TEL% traits. The MM strain had positive significant values of (DA) for EN1, EN2, ER, EM traits. Both of the SS and II strains had positive significant values of DA for BWSM, ASM and EW2, On the other hand, II strain had positive values for EN2,ER%, EW1, EW2 and EM traits. Both of MM strain and Ix M cross had the highest expected breeding values for EN1, EN2, ER, EM, HFE%, and HTE % traits. Both of SS strain and I x S cross had the highest breeding values for BWSM, ASM, EW1, EW2, FI1, FI2, FC, M %, EM %, PE % and TEL% traits. Moreover, SI cross had the highest estimates of GVFM for BWSM, ASM, FI1, FI2, FC, PE % and TEL% traits, while, MI cross had the highest values of GVFM for EN1, EN2, ER,EM, and hatchability traits.

[Emad. M. Amin. Genetic components and heterotic effect in 3x3 diallel crossing experiment on egg production and hatching traits in chickens. J Am Sci 2014;10(8s):55-71]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.06

 

Keywords: Egg production, hatching traits, combining ability, heterotic, reciprocal effect, maternal and, direct additive, prediction of hybrid performance, breeding and genetic values.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from August 12, 2014. 
 
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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.01

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.02

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.03

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.04

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.05

doi:10.7537/marsjas1008s14.06

 

 

 

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