Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 9, Cumulated No. 79, September 25, 2014

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1009; doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003


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Titles / Authors





Sustainability of Paper & Sugar Industries via Molasses: Novel Green Nanocomposites from Upgraded Recycled Cellulose Fibers


Tamer Y. A. Fahmy*and Fardous Mobarak


Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, Sh. El-Tahrir, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: The present work leads to sustainability (responsible management of resources consumption) of both paper and sugar industries. It, simultaneously, upgrades recycled waste paper (namely old newsprint) and creates a new use for molasses (an important byproduct of the sugar industry). This study introduces -for the first time world wide- a novel environmentally safe approach to upgrade recycled natural cellulose fibers (waste paper namely old newsprint), for use as specialty paper green nanocomposites suitable for several advanced purposes. The recycled cellulose fibers are upgraded by increasing their alpha cellulose content, and restoring their natural nanoporous structure, which is -normally- collapsed due to the first cycle of papermaking. Molasses is then incorporated into this restored nanoporous structure to obtain paper green nanocomposites filled with kaolin in presence of molasses. In comparison to conventionally recycled waste paper, the green paper nanocomposites -produced in this work- exhibit high dry and wet strength, and a surprisingly tremendous retention of inorganic fillers used in papermaking.

This was achieved through a green nanotechnology process, where the solvent used is water (the ideal green solvent). The input and output components are renewable environmentally safe materials i.e. waste paper (cellulose fibers) and molasses (a by product of the sugar industry). The procedures used are simple physical processes conducted at room temperature rather than hazardous chemical reactions. Thus, saving energy, and decreasing the risk of chemical and thermal accidents, pollutive releases, explosions, and fires.

[Tamer Y. A. Fahmy and Fardous Mobarak Sustainability of Paper & Sugar Industries via Molasses: Novel Green Nanocomposites from Upgraded Recycled Cellulose Fibers. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.01


Keywords: Sustainability; Upgrading recycled old newsprint; Restoring nanoporous structure of cellulose fibers; Molasses; Paper and Sugar industries.

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Assessment of Nutritional Status for Preschool Children (From 3-6 Years)


 Mahmoud El-Sayed Abu Salem1, Rabie Al-Desouky Al-Bahnasy1 , Manal Ahmed El-Batanony1, Mona Abd-Raouf Ahmed2 and Ola Shawky Ahmed3


1Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University,Egypt.

2Public Health and Community Medicine Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufyia University, Egypt.

3National Nutrition Institute



Abstract: Objective: To determine the nutrient intakes and status of preschool children from a representative population sample in governorate and public nurseries. Background: Nutritional status of Preschool children was deteriorated in the last years. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed to simple random sample of 500 preschool children from governorate and public nurseries in Cairo governorate Data were collected by interviews with the primary caregivers with their children, Weight, height, mid arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness were measured to the children also dietary assessment like 24 hours recall and food frequency questionnaire and biochemical investigation were done. Results: A total of 500 children were assessed, of whom 16.8%, 32.6%, and 17.8% were wasted, stunted, and underweight, respectively, the prevalence of stunting and underweight is higher in males than females while wasting is higher in females than males. (19.8%) of females and (18.2%) of males consumes below 50% of total caloric intake which is unsafe level of consumption. CHO intake, (33.6%) of males and (43.5%) of females consumes below 55% of total caloric intake and about half of children reach to recommended daily intake form 55% to 70%. The majority of males (96%) and females (92.1%) take > 120% of RDA of proteins. fat intake, (60.3%) of males and (58.5%) of females consumes below 20% of total calories and (30%) of males and (37.5%) of females consumes more than 30% of total caloric intake. Conclusions: The nutritional status of studied children was significantly lowered with increase family numbers, inappropriate feeding practices and Socio-economic level.

[Rabie Al-Desouky Al-Bahnasy, Mahmoud El-Sayed Abu Salem, Manal Ahmed El-Batanony, Mona Abd-Raouf Ahmed and Ola Shawky Ahmed. Assessment of Nutritional Status for Preschool Children (From 3-6 Years). J Am Sci 2014;10(9):8-16]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.02


Key Words: Nutritional status, Underweight, Obesity, Stunting, Caloric intake.

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Adaptation to the Impact of Sea Level Rise in the Nile Delta Coastal zone, Egypt


Eman R. Nofal1, Akram M. Fekry2 And Sherif M. El-Didy3


1 Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center (El-Kanater El-Khairiya- Egypt).

2 Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center (El-Kanater El-Khairiya- Egypt.

3 Irrigation and Hydraulics Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo Univ. Giza, Egypt).



Abstract: The study area comprises a stretch between Ras El Bar and Gamasa along Egypt’s northern coast with an average width of 15 Km from the shore line, in the north-south direction. The study area covers a reach of Damietta branch and a portion of Manzala Lake. A detailed hydrogeological data concerning groundwater flow and vertical distribution has been collected. In order to investigate the impact of saltwater/ freshwater interface behavior with different Sea Level Rise on groundwater aquifer system in Nile Delta Coastal zone, a numerical solute transport model was simulated, to provide a clear understanding of saltwater/ freshwater interface behavior. The results showed that the effect of sea level rise will affect the groundwater aquifer system to a certain limit. Taking into consideration that the applied mechanism used in assigning different sea level rise scenarios to the model was assigned as a vertical component only, due to the lack of data about the expected location of the new sea shore line related to the different sea level rise scenarios. The expected variation of heads due to sea level rise was a change in head ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 meters and the change in groundwater salinity marked only at a distance of 7 km from the sea (southwards). Several mitigation measures were proposed and evaluated using the model related to the three expected SLR scenarios. These mitigations include artificial recharge through injection wells, impervious barriers (slurry wall), constrains on groundwater extraction and implementation of local monitoring network.

[Eman R. Nofal, Akram M. Fekry and Sherif M. El-Didy. Adaptation to the Impact of Sea Level Rise in the Nile Delta Coastal zone, Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):17-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.03



Key Words: Climate change, Groundwater Management, Sea water intrusion, Groundwater modeling, SEAWAT.

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Foreign Direct Investment, Openness and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan (1972-2011)


Ahmed Mohammed Khater Arabi


Department of Econometrics and Social Statistics, Faculty of Economic, University of Bakht Alruda, Alduiem, Sudan

Tel: 00249912252271; E-mail: ahmedkhatir@outlook.sa


Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between foreign direct investment, openness and economic growth in Sudan during the period 1972-2011 using Granger causality and Johansen co-integration techniques to analyze the relationship and direction of causality between the variables. The study used autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to co- integration analysis proposed by Pesaran and Shin (1999) to estimate the short-run and long-run relationship between the variables. The co integration analysis suggests that there is a long run equilibrium relationship among the variables by considering relationship between gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI) and openness of the trade policy regime. The results indicate that foreign direct investments exert an independent influence on economic growth and there is unidirectional causality running from foreign direct investment to economic growth. The government and policy makers should employ strategies to attract foreign investment so as to promote economic growth.

[Ahmed Mohammed Khater Arabi. Foreign Direct Investment, Openness and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan (1972-2011). J Am Sci 2014;10(9):30-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.04


Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth, Causality. ARDL.

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Low Serum Adiponectin Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection


Nashwa Noreldin1 and Mohamed M. Shareef 2


1Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt

2 Department of pathology, College of Medicine, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt



Abstract: Background/Aims: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection was shown to be frequently associated with insulin resistance (IR). Adiponectin (AD), the adipocyte derived hormone, possesses insulin-sensitizing properties. Metabolic syndromes such as obesity and DM represent a risk factor for having IR and may co-exist in those patients. CHC patients with IR have higher rates of progression to liver fibrosis. Little is known about the role of adiponectin in CHC virus infection. The aim of our study was to find a relationship between serum adiponectin level and insulin resistance as well as different grades of steatosis and fibrosis in non obese non diabetic patients. Methods: Thirty CHC patients (group H) were compared versus 15 controls (group C) regarding alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin activity, serum cholesterol (Ch), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin level, IR calculated as Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and serum AD. Liver biopsy was taken in CHC patients for grading of steatosis and fibrosis. Results: ALT, AST and bilirubin were significantly higher while albumin was significantly lower in group H compared to group C. There were significant increase in serum insulin level and HOMA-IR and significant decrease in serum AD in group H compared to group C. In group C, as well as group H, there was significantly increased AD level in females compared to males (P=0.00). Inverse correlation was shown between serum AD and each of HOMA-IR., steatosis and fibrosis while IR was directly correlated with each of steatosis and fibrosis while direct correlation was found between steatosis and fibrosis. Conclusion: Serum AD level was decreased while IR was increased with negative correlation in CHC, non-obese, non-diabetic patients. Steatosis and fibrosis stages were shown to be directly correlated with each other and with IR while inversely correlated with AD.

[Nashwa Noreldin and Mohamed M. Shareef. Low Serum Adiponectin Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):36-40]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.05


Key words: Liver, hepatitis C, AD, IR.

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Histological Study of the Skin and Leather Characteristics in Two Types of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius)


Hekal, Samia A.


Wool Production and Technology Dept., Desert Research Center, El-Matareya, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Six growing male one-humped camels (3 Maghrabi and 3 Sudani) were used to study histological skin structure and leather characteristic. Both primary and secondary follicles dimensions were affected by breed. External diameter of primary follicle was found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher (145.85µ) in Maghrabi than in Sudani camel (115.95µ). The internal diameters of primary follicles were 86.83µ and 63.38µ in Maghrabi and Sudani camels, respectively. The wall thickness of secondary follicles was highly significant in Maghrabi (59.01µ) than Sudani (52.57µ). Fibre diameter of both primary and secondary follicles were significantly higher in Maghrabi (64.2µ vs 47.0µ) than in Sudani camel (26.8µ vs. 21.6µ). The dermis thickness was found to be 4136.77 µ in Maghrabi and 3840.07 µ in Sudani. Reticular thickness was significantly higher (3304.9 µ) in Maghrabi than in Sudani camel (3218.69 µ) while papillary thickness was significantly higher in Maghrabi (831.86 µ) than in Sudani (621.37 µ). No significant differences existed between values of leather physical properties in both camel breeds expect for tensile strength which was higher in Maghrabi (390.07 kg/cm2) than in Sudani camels (322.23 kg/cm2). Highly positive correlation coefficients of 0.95, 0.97, 0.93 and 0.99 were found between tensile strength and secondary follicles dimensions in terms of external and internal diameter as well as wall thickness and fibre diameter, respectively. The number and dimensions of primary follicles are closely related to tearing strength than those of secondary follicles. Tear strength was correlated with fibre diameter (0.78) and s/p ratio (0.77). Elongation showed highly positive correlations with the primary follicle dimensions in terms of external and internal diameter, wall thickness and fiber diameter (0.93, 0.93, 0.92 and 0.93, respectively) while had negative correlations with the corresponding values of the secondary follicle dimensions (-0.75, -0.70, -0.79 and -0.56, respectively). The present study indicated the possibility of using some camel skin characters such as primary and secondary follicle dimensions in predicting the quality of tanned leather in terms of tensil strength, tearing strength and elongation.

[Hekal, Samia A. Histological Study of the Skin and Leather Characteristics in Two Types of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Am Sci 2014;10(9):41-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.06


Key words: Magrabi, Sudani camels, skin histology, leather characteristics

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Is Private Health Insurance in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on The Right Track? A GCC Comparative Analysis


Dirar Al-Otaibi, Ahmed El-Kholei, Yassin Taher and Waleed El-Sayed


King Khalid University, Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences, Abha, KSA

Email: elkholei@yahoo.com


Abstract: This paper explores the role of private health insurance (PHI) in Gulf Cooperation Council states (GCC). It is assumed that the GCC states share similar characteristics and policy challenges for the effective integration of private insurance into national health care systems where there is a projected strong growth of PHI that needs to be accompanied by efficient regulation. Overall, this paper shows that the role of private insurance varies depending on the economic, social, and institutional settings in a country. Private health insurance schemes can be valuable tools o complement existing health-financing options only if they are carefully managed and adapted to local needs and preferences.

[Dirar Al-Otaibi, Ahmed El-Kholei, Yassin Taher and Waleed El-Sadyed. Is Private Health Insurance in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on The Right Track? A GCC Comparative Analysis. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):49-62]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.07


Keywords: Private Health Insurance (PHI), GCC States.

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The Frequency of Factor V Leiden Mutation among Sudanese Pregnant Women with Recurrent Miscarriage


Asaad Mohammed Ahmed Abd Allah Babker, 1 and Fath Elrahman Mahdi Hassan Gameel 2


1 Department of Hematology and Immunohaematology College of Medical Laboratory

Science Sudan University of Science and Technology

2 Departments of Hematology and Immunohaematology College of Medical Laboratory Science

Sudan University of Science and Technology



Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and analysis of factor V Leiden G1691A (Leiden mutation) among Sudanese women with recurrent abortions; further, to identify a subgroup at higher risk of being carriers of these mutations. Design: A prospective analytical case controls study between 2012 and 2014.Setting: Omdurman Maternity Hospital (Sudan- Omdurman).Patient(s): Hundred women with 3 or more consecutive miscarriages were reported at 94 controls.Materials and Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2014, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with recurrent miscarriages (N=100) as cases and health (N=100) as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA was extracted from 15 CC peripheral bloods and analyzed for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. Result(s): In total, 8(8.6%) of cases and 6(6%) of controls showed the factor V Leiden.

[Abd Allah AM, Hassan F M. The Frequency of Factor V Leiden Mutation among Sudanese Pregnant Women with Recurrent Miscarriage. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):63-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.08


Keywords: Factor V Leiden, Mutation, Sudanese Pregnant Women, Recurrent Miscarriage

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Test of Desert Rose (Adenium Arabicum Forssk) Leaves on Blood Lipid Profile in Male Rats


Abdulbasit I. Al-Sieni


Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Desert rose (Adenium arabicum) leaves powder was supplemented orally in the diet to hypercholesterolemic male wistar albino rats for 8 weeks to test its effect on blood lipid profile. The tested animals (180-200 gm) were divided into three groups (6 rats per each); the first group is untreated control group was fedded by a basal diet, the second group was fedded on 2% cholesterol in the diet to induce hypercholesterolemia (positive control group), and the third group was fedded on 2% cholesterol and treated with 500 mg/kg body weight rose leaf powder for 8 weeks. The positive control group showed a significant increase in lipid profile parameters, liver enzymes, and kidney function parameters. furthermore, the heart and testes showed histopathological alteration compared with that of the negative control group. Treating the hypercholesterlemic rats with desert rose leaves improved the biochemical blood tests and the histopathology of the studied organs. It can be concluded that desert rose leaves have antilipidemic activity and ameliorated the lipid profile of blood in hypercholesterlemic male rats. Moreover, an improvement in liver and kidney functions and histopathology of the studied organs was also noticed in hypercholesterlemic male rats of the desert rose leaves treated group.

[Abdulbasit I. Al-Sieni. Test of Desert Rose (Adenium Arabicum Forssk) Leaves on Blood Lipid Profile in Male Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):67-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.09


Key words: hypercholesterolemic, rats, desert rose, histopathology.

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Oxidative Stress in Lichen Planus


Gaber MA 1 and Amal M. Fakhrey2


1Department of Dermatology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine, Monofya University, Cairo, Egypt

2Dermatology, Andrology & S.T.Is Department, Quwesna Hospital



Abstract: Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory, papulosquamous disorder that affects the skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails. The exact pathogenesis is unknown. Oxidative stress and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of LP. The aim: Is to evaluate the status of the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in patients with LP by measuring the serum nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and the erythrocyte catalase (CAT) levels. Patients and methods: Twenty LP patients and 20 healthy volunteers as controls that were ages- and sex-matched with the patients were included in the study. Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and erythrocyte catalase (CAT) were measured. Results: We detected an increase in the serum levels of NO, SOD and the lipid peroxidation product MDA (P <0.000, P =0.005 and P =0.02, respectively) and a decrease in CAT levels in LP patients compared to controls (P =0.005) in our study. Oxidative stress was greater in mles than in females because MDA levels were increased (P =0.007) and erythrocyte CAT levels were decreased (P = 0.01). In addition, there was also a positive correlation between NO, MDA, and SOD and a negative correlation between erythrocyte CAT and the duration of LP. Conclusion: We concluded that increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation as well as an imbalance in the antioxidant defense system may play a role in the pathogenesis of LP.

[Gaber MA and Amal M. Fakhrey. Oxidative Stress in Lichen Planus. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):75-80]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.10


Keywords: Lichen planus, Oxidative stress, ROS, NO, SOD, MAD, CAT

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Effect of Loratadine on the Renal Cortex of Mother and Offspring of Albino Rats


Manal H. EL kafrawy and Amina M Tolba


Anatomy Department -Faculty of Medicine.El Azhar University, Egypt.

manal.kafrawy@gmail.com, Amina.m.tolba@gmail.com


Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of administration of loratadine on the renal cortex of mothers and offspring of albino rats. Loratadine use in pregnancy is not associated with a large risk for offspring. Therefore this study is warranted to confirm these findings. Sixty albino rats of pregnant mothers and off spring. The animals were designed into two main groups: the control group divided into two subgroups (Ia, Ib). The experimental group divided into two subgroups (IIa, IIb ).Each group consisted of 15 rats. Groups (Ia & Ib) served as control, while rats in groups (IIa & IIb), group (IIa) treated mother rat received oral daily single dose of 0.15 mg/kg b.w of loratadine for 3 weeks while group (IIb) are the offspring of the group (IIa). Histological examination showed fragmented glomerulus with focal necrosis. However proximal convoluted tubules showed atrophy, necrosis, cytoplasmic degeneration with brush border damage and cellular infiltration. Group (IIb) showed shrinkage of the glomerular tufts with thickening and wrinkling of basement membrane, tubular atrophy and necrosis. In addition, TEM showed irregular basement membrane with atrophy and effacement of podocytes with interspersed subendothelial deposits. The results of the present study suggest that use of Loratadine (0.15 mg/kg) could affect the renal cortex in both mother and offspring rats.

[Manal H. EL kafrawy and Amina M Tolba. Effect of Loratadine on the Renal Cortex of Mother and Offspring of Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10 (9):81-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.11


Keywords: Loratadine, Renal Cortex, Albino Rats.

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Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater around Quesna industrial city, Egypt


Seleem E. Gaber


Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM)



Abstract: Groundwater contamination has major implications for health and the environment in urban areas. The purpose of this work is to investigate the contamination process and to describe the hydrochemical processes that are taking place in the groundwater in the urban area of one of the Nile delta villages (Kfour Eraml) near Quesna industrial zone at El-Menoufia governorate. The saturation indices of some minerals in the groundwater were studied using the Visual Minteq geochemical model. The results show that minerals which exhibited oversaturation were; Kaolinite, Dolomite, Malachite, Calcite. Undersaturated mineral phases included the following; Anhydrite, Gypsum, Siderite, Rhodochrosite, Melanterite, Halite, and the vast species of the analyzed elements, These included carbonates, sulfates as well as chlorides. The waters were unsaturated or less supersaturated with respect to most of the minerals, reasons largely differences in physicochemical conditions. Groundwater chemical composition in the study area is mainly controlled by El Khadraweya agricultural drain which receives mixed sewage, industrial and domestic wastes.

[Seleem E. Gaber. Hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater around Quesna industrial city, Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):90-97]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.12


Keywords: Groundwater, Hydrochemistry, Pollution, Saturation indices

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Women’s Preferences for Cancer Related Information: Evidence from a National Survey


1Areej Othman RN, PhD, 2Laila M. Akhu-Zaheya, 3Mamoun Ahram, 4Madi T Jagbir MD Ms Dr.Sc


1Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Maternal and Child Health Nursing/ Faculty of NursingThe University of Jordan, a.othman@ju.edu.jo

2Associate Professor, Adult Health Nursing Department/ Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology, lailanurse@just.edu.jo

3Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry/ Faculty of Medicine, The University of Jordanm.ahram@ju.edu.jo

4Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine/Faculty of Medicine, The University of Jordan


Abstract Background: Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women; it is also the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Health information seeking is a health promoting behavior that empowers individuals; besides evidence suggests a link to preventive health behavior. The purpose of this paper was to investigate Jordanian women behavior, specifically seeking of cancer –related information, sources preferences, and looking at the determinant of seeking cancer related information. Materials and Methods: a cross sectional survey on a national representative sample of 1549 women. Face to face interviews were conducted in interviewees’ household using a structured comprehensive questionnaire. Results: only 339 women (21.9%) had looked for cancer -related information; Internet was the most retrieved source (n=160; 32%). With regard to preferred sources for cancer related information health care providers were ranked first (93.5%), followed by TV (91.0%). Younger educated women who weren’t with routine health care were more likely to actively seek cancer related information. Discussion: Internet is a potential channel for communicating cancer-related information; culturally appropriate Internet resources are mandated. Health care providers are powerful motivators in enhancing cancer related information seeking across the population, ultimately enhancing women engagement in preventive health behaviors such as cancer screening.

[Areej Othman RN, Laila M. Akhu-Zaheya, Mamoun Ahram, Madi T Jagbir. Women’s Preferences for Cancer Related Information: Evidence from a National Survey. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):98-104]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.13


Key words: Information Seeking, Women’s Health, Health Behavior, Caner, Survey

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Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Technologies Applied at Delta-Egypt (Case Study kafr Elshaikh Governorate)


Ashmawy, M.A1; Khalil. K.H2; Aly, O.H2 and Metwally, M.F2


1Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering – Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo

2 High Institute of Engineering, El-Shorouk Academy.



Abstract: Egypt is currently facing a huge problem in the wastewater treatment industry due to the rapid population growth, the extensive increase in waste water production and the great financial program requested to complete the full coverage of the country by waste water treatment plants. Optimization of the application of wastewater treatment techniques in their different categories primary, secondary and tertiary is highly recommended for the strategic planning of the country, future feasibility studies, design purposes and implementation. The main objective of this research is to assess the performance of five different waste water treatment processes applied in Kafr El-sheikh Governorate, Delta, Egypt. Conventional systems such as oxidation ditch, activated sludge, trickling filter and aerated lagoons were investigated under different hydraulic loading and influent quality. The activated sludge proved excellent removal efficiencies with high economic value for the treatment of capacities higher than40000m3/day while oxidation ditches were highly recommended for treatment of discharges less than 12000 m3/day. The application of lagoons in either aerated or natural performance did not prove sustainable removal efficiencies after three years of continuous operation despite the disadvantage of the large area requirement in such a very high value of agricultural land in the Egyptian Delta.

[Ashmawy, M.A; Khalil. K.H; Aly, O.H and Metwally, M.F. Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Technologies Applied at Delta-Egypt (Case Study kafr Elshaikh Governorate). J Am Sci 2014;10(9):105-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.14


Keywords: Wastewater Activated Sludge, Treatment, Nile Delta, Egypt

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 High-Sensitivity C-reactive protein and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 as markers of cardiovascular risk in Egyptian obese adolescents


Mohamed Kamal Abdel-Baky1, Moussa Antar Hussein1, Mohamed MohamedHashem1 and Wael Refaat Hablas2


1 Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University Egypt.



Abstract: Obese aldolescent are suffering of adverse health consequences of obesity that include insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure which are components of metabolic syndrome. The inflammotry protein hs CRP and PAI-1are reported to be increased in obese subject and these are reflected on cardiovascular atherosclerotic changes. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are useful predictive markers of cardiovascular events in obese adolescents. The study was performed to evaluate high sensitivity C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 as markers of cardiovascular risk in obese adolescents. The study was carried out on eighty eight (88) Egyptian adolescents. All of them were collected from Al Hussein hospital, Al Azhar University, between December 2012 and June 2013. These were classified into two groups: Group A- Normal non obese adolescents (28) (16 females-12 males). Group B- (60) obese adolescents (32 females- 28 males). All of the adolescents aged 16-18 years old (17±1). In normal adolescent group ; (BMI) was less than 25kg/ m2 (22.1±0.7). But In obese adolescents, (BMI) exceed 30 kg/ m2 (32±0.6) with exclusion of secondary obesity. All subjects were submitted to Clinical assessment for exclusion Congenital or acquired illness, and secondary obesity. Anthropometric measures :( height, weight, BMI, W/C and waist/hip ratio were done). Blood pressure in the studied subjects was measured. Family history of diabetes and or hypertension was considered. Measurements of FBS, PPBS, HbA1C., lipid profile (HDL dl, triglyceride)., fasting serum insulin levels to assess insulin resistance by HOMA test, high sensitivity c reactive protein (hs CRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels (PAI-1) were done. Obese groups had significantly higher hs CRP and PAI-1 levels than non obese group (p<0.01). 40% of 60 obese adolescents showed 3 or more criteria of metabolic syndrome and considered to be obese with metabolic syndrome according to IDF definition of metabolic syndrome. Hs CRP and PAI-1 among adolescents were more significant in group 4 (obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome with glucose intolerance) than group 3 (obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome without glucose intolerance) than group 2 (obese adolescents without metabolic syndrome or glucose intolerance) (P<0.001). Significant high BMI, WC, FBS,HbA1c, F.insulin, HomatestIR,blood pressure, LDL, triglyceride and lower HDL in obese groups than the non obese group (P<0.001). Hs CRP and PAI-1 showed a significant positive correlation with BMI (p< 0.001), WC (P<0.001), blood pressure (p<0.001), and TG (p<0.001), FBS (P<0.001), HbA1c(<0.001), Homatest: Ir(p 0.001). We conclude that hs CRP and PAI-1 are significantly higher in obese adolescents especially those with metabolic syndrome and glucose intolerance and these markers can be used as predictive factors for future cardiovascular events.

[Mohamed Kamal Abdel-Baky, Moussa Antar Hussein, Mohamed Mohamed Hashem and Wael Refaat Hablas. High-Sensitivity C-reactive protein and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 as markers of cardiovascular risk in Egyptian obese adolescents. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):112-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.15


Keywords: High-Sensitivity; C-reactive protein; Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor; marker; cardiovascular; Egyptian; obese adolescent

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Multimodal Biometrics Cryptosystem using Elliptic Curve


Ghada Abdelhady1, Mohammed Ismail2, Hussam Elbehiery3


1. Department of Computer networks, Faculty of Computer Science, Ahram Canadian University, Egypt

2.Department of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Egypt

3. Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Technology, MUST University, Egypt



Abstract: Banks use encryption methods all around the world to process financial transactions and to protect their customers ID numbers at bank automated teller machines (ATM). Banks, all over the world, use symmetric ciphering algorithms like TDES to process financial transactions. These involve transfer of huge amount of money from one bank to another. Recently, Biometric ATM's are the latest inventions to help us avoid fraud and duplication. If somebody steals our card and knows our PIN, they can easily withdraw cash from our account. In case of biometric ATM's they cannot. Usually the PIN for bio ATM's is the finger print of the cardholder or his eye retina scan etc. These cannot be duplicated and hence they are very safe and secure. This paper will present a multimodal system for encryption and decryption data, any types of data received via a network in Banks. So by the end of this paper we get a biometric ATM prototype including different levels of security using biometric encryption. Besides that, our module presents a new symmetric system that will bring the simplest symmetric algorithm (DES, Data Encryption Standard) to the life. This system is called DES-EC as it is modified DES using the elliptic Curve (EC).

[Ghada Abdelhady, Mohammed Ismail, Hussam Elbehiery. Multimodal Biometrics Cryptosystem using Elliptic Curve. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):120-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.16


Keywords: ATM, Biometrics, DES, DES-EC,TDES,Elliptic Curves,Symmetric encryption.

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Revascularization Versus Revascularization and Repair in moderate Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation


Ahmed L. Dokhan1, Mohamed A. Khalil2, Mostafa M. Mansy3, Mostafa F. Abu ollo1 and Mohamed T. Abdulmonem3


1Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt.

2Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, CairoUniversity, Egypt.

3National Heart Institute, Egypt.



Abstract: Objectives: The goal of this study is to determine whether the surgical management of moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation is to revascularize only or to revascularize and adding mitral valve repair. Background: Ischaemic mitral regurgitation is a frequent complication of left ventricular global or regional pathological remodeling due to chronic coronary artery disease. There are numerous possible treatment modalities, but the management of patients with moderate chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation remains uncertain. Methods: Forty patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation and an ejection fraction more than 30%, were randomized to receive coronary revascularization plus mitral valve repair (20 patients) or revascularization only (20 patients). Survivors were clinically and echocardiographically assessed at early post-operative and 3 months follow-up. Results: There was no significant difference between both groups as regards the preoperative and demographic data. The operative time, ventilation time and ICU stay were significantly higher in repair group. Use of cardiac supports, complications, in hospital mortality and ward stay were not statistically significant different. Postoperative and follow up echocardiographic data showed no statistical significant difference in left atrial dimension, left ventriculardimensions and function between both groups. Although, the grade of mitral regurgitation showed improvement in both groups, there was highly significant improvement in repair group more than revascularization only group. Conclusion: Adding mitral repair to coronary revascularization in patients with moderate ischemic MR may improve functional capacity, left ventricular reverse remodeling andmitral regurgitation severity without adding additional risk.

[Ahmed L. Dokhan, Mohamed A. Khalil, Mostafa M. Mansy, Mostafa F. Abu ollo and Mohamed T. Abdulmonem. Revascularization Versus Revascularization and Repair in moderate Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):125-132]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.17


Keywords: CABG, Ischemic mitral regurgitation, Moderate, Repair.

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Phylogenetic analysis of Egyptian foot and mouth disease virus endemic strains


Nader M. Sobhy, 1* Sunil K. Mor,2 Mohammed E.M. Mohammed,1 Iman M. Bastawecy, 3 Hiam M. Fakhry,4 Christiana R.B. Youssef,5 and Sagar M. Goyal2


1*Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia 44511, Egypt.

2Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA

3Department of Virology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki 12618, Giza, Egypt

4Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, East of Cairo 131, Egypt

5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia 44519, Egypt.

nadermaher@zu.edu.eg, yaaco003@umn.edu


Abstract: Egypt as a developing country has high rate of meat and live animal importation thereby increasing the chances of human and animal disease importation. One such disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is already endemic in the country. Because of high mutation rates of FMDV, molecular epidemiological approaches are used to construct evolutionary relationships among virus strains over time and space. We detected and characterized recent FMDV strains from Egypt using primers from 3D and1D genes and found the presence of three serotypes e.g., SAT-2, A and O. The SAT-2 serotype showed the highest level of homology (99–100%) with Palestinian-Gaza virus in the 3D and 1D regions while serotype O shared lineage with some Asian O strains from Yemen, Iran and Turkey. Serotype A was also closely related to Asian strains especially those from Iraq and Bahrain. Our results indicate that serotypes A and O are still prevalent although a bivalent A and O vaccine is obligatory in Egypt.

[Sobhy NM, Mor SK, Mohammed MEM, Bastawecy IM, Fakhry HM, Youssef CRB, Goyal SM. Phylogenetic analysis of Egyptian foot and mouth disease virus endemic strains. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):133-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.18


Keywords: Foot-and-mouth disease; molecular epidemiology; phylogenetic analysis; Egypt.

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Synthesis of high surface area γ-alumina by microwave irradiation process.


S. Faramawy 1, M.S. El-Shall 2, M.G. Abd El Wahed 3, T. Zaki 4*, H. Abd El Salam 1


1Analysis & Evaluation Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

2Chemistry Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA23284-2006.

3 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

4 Catalysis Department, Petroleum Refining Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: The preparation of crystalline nano-sized γ-Alumina with high surface area (375 m2/g) using sol gel simple method , aluminum hydroxide as starting material and CTAB as template molar ratio (1:1) via microwave irradiation process at different times and watts. The prepared samples were characterize by DSC/TG, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, and HRTEM techniques.

[S. Faramawy, M.S. El-Shall, M.G. Abd El Wahed, T. Zaki , H. Abd El Salam. Synthesis of high surface area γ-alumina by microwave irradiation process. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):139-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.19


Keywords: γ-aluminaand microwave irradiation.

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Yogurt and physico-chemical parameters of water


Zeinab Z. K. Khater


Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

E-mail: z_sci.egy@zu.edu.eg.


Abstract: Besides other environmental factors, water is of major importance both to human society and to biological diversity, currently in retrogression. The alarm signal is due not so much to the physical exhaustion of water as to its pollution. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of yogurt as probiotic on water purification. water samples (from the tape water) were collected, half of the samples were used as control(pre-injection) and the other half of the samples (post-injection) injected by 0.01 ppt yogurt for six days. The physicochemical parameters of water samples were measured. Also, water is exposed to bacteriological examinations. The yogurt injection caused an increase in pH-value and alkalinity, a decrease in salinity, chlorinity and total dissolved solids, and no changes in temperature, taste and odor. In addition, it was observed that the trace element concentrations in water decreased. The bacteriological examinations revealed that water before and after yogurt injection is suitable for usage by human. The study shows that the yogurt plays a major role in finding successful solutions for a lot of environmental problems as well as water pollution treatment.

[Zeinab Z. K. Khater. Yogurt and physico-chemical parameters of water. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):146-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.20


Key words: Yogurt, probiotic, physicochemical parameters, water pollution treatment, biological purification.

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Assessment of the chemo-preventive effects of various plant constituents against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats


Hanan A.E. Soliman1; Rasha R. Ahmed2 and Asmaa T. Ali3


1Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

2 Cytology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni- Suef, Egypt

3Faculty of Pharmacy, Biochemistry Department, Nahda University, Beni-suef, Egypt



Abstract: Doxorubicin (DXR) is a very potent drug with broad spectrum of biological activity, used to treat a wide variety of human malignancies and many solid tumors. The Clinical efficacy of drug in a wide range of malignant disorders is hampered by its dose limiting side effects such as cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and skin toxicity. Due to its great importance in chemotherapy for the treatment of many types of cancer, researchers have expended great efforts trying to prevent or attenuate the side effects of doxorubicin administration. The most immediate approach has been the combination of the drug delivery together with an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress. The effect of doxorubicinintraperitoneal injection at dose level of (cumulative dose, 12 mg/kg body weight) without or with oral administration of wheat germ oil at dose level 1.5 ml / kg.bw /day (~1400 mg/kg.bw/day)and phtic acid at dose level of (20 mg/k gb. w./day) for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase, and Alkaline Phosphatase activities as well as total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, and creatinine levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants of liver, kidney, and spleen likeglutathione content and glutathione transferase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assessed. In doxorubicin - administered rats, there was an increase in serum ALT, AST, and ALP activities and total bilirubin concentration reflecting liver dysfunction. On the other hand,theserum total protein, albumin and globulin levels were decreased. While serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased reflecting kidney injury. With regards oxidative stress, glutathione content and glutathione-S-transferase, peroxidase, SOD and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation was increased in liver, kidney, and spleen. Co-administration of wheat germ oil and phytic acid successfully improved the adverse changes in liver, kidney, and spleen functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary wheat germ oil and phytic acid supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DXR toxicity without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

[Hanan A.E. Soliman; Rasha R. Ahmed and Asmaa T. Ali. Assessment of the chemo-preventive effects of various plant constituents against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):153-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.21


Key words: Doxorubicin; wheat germ oil;phytic acid; toxicity;antioxidants; oxidative stress.

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Neonatal Apgar score and placental histological morphometry: Is there any relationship?


Samia A. Eleiwe1; Mohammed Hussein Assi2; Shatha A.K. Al-Mashadany3; Mohammed E. Ghanem4


1Department of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology, Faculty of College of Medicine, Al- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.*

2Department of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology, Faculty of College of Medicine, Al- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Al-yarmook Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq.

4Al- Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.



Abstract: Background: Birth is a vital process resulted from the communicated employment of three biological factors; the uterus, placenta and newborn, hence, an attempt to find any correlation of some of the placental findings represented by (histological morphometric data) with the newborn's wellbeing was tried here, to found any pure placental based factors affecting level of Apgar score, which might be originated from neither maternal nor fetal causes, so that to pay attention for any possible similar problem in the future pregnancies. Material and methods: Placentas of selected one hundred newborns of low Apgar score at 1st minute of life (group I) and another one hundred newborns of high Apgar score also at 1st minute of life with their placentas (group II). Newborns of both groups were delivered by normal second vaginal delivery. The research was carried out over the period from 2nd of January of 2013 till end of 30th of May 2014. Placentas of these newborn were studied histo-metrically via MOTIC IMAGE PLUS 2 program used in photomicrograph study of five randomly selected fields (at ×400 magnification), then the following data (as mean±SD) were compared statistically between the two groups: Number of chorionic terminal villi, number of syncytiotrophoblast cells (nuclei), number of syncytial knots and number of cross-sectional blood vessels. Also for three randomly selected terminal villi of different sizes (large, medium and small) the following parameters were obtained: surface area and perimeter of the villous sections. Results: Morphometric histological data in Table 1 showed that;placentas of Group I; had higher number of chorionic terminal villi setting asidesmall surrounding intervillous spaces. Also Group I had more crowded syncytiotrophoblast cells (nuclei) forming almost a continuous layer. The number of syncytiotrophoblast knots, and number of blood vessels within villous core were as well higher in placentas of Group I. What's more; cross-sectional surface area and perimeter of these terminal villi, in placentasof Group I were larger too. Discussion: This study was carried out to observe some morphometric microscopic changes in the placenta in case of low Apgar score without a known antenatal maternal or fetal contributing factors, hence, a pure placental cause was suspected here. According to the literature available, the placental grounds inducing low Apgar score had not been studied in human before, although Veronesi et al. (2005) had studied placental relation to Apgar score level in thoroughbred horses. Histological morphometric data might be explained as the followings: Larger number of villi in Group I could be present as a compensatory mechanism to placental insufficiency. Higher number of syncytiotrophoblast cells (nuclei) in placentas of Group I could be also as a compensatory means to balance the functional demand. Terminal villi were larger in Group I;might be due to additionalcontent of connective tissue fibers and cells in the villous core, which could be caused by reduction in villous perfusion stimulating the process of proliferation and activation of fibroblasts there. The increase in number of the syncytial knots in Group I might be as anindicator to the presence of oxidative stress due to poor perfusion. Increased number of blood vessels within villous core in placentas of Group I could be a compensatory reaction to chronic hypoxia to improve perfusion. Terminal villi had larger cross-sectional surface area and perimeter in Group I which could be a signof either a delay in maturation of placental tissue, or a compensatory mechanism to augment the function of placenta. Conclusions: Low Apgar score in newborns of apparently normal mothers might be caused by pure placental factor which could be documented by histological examination of placenta.

[Samia A. Eleiwe; Mohammed Hussein Assi;Shatha A.K. Al-Mashadany and Mohammed E. Ghanem Neonatal Apgar score and placental histological morphometry: Is there any relationship? J Am Sci 2014;10(9):165-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.22


Keywords: Placental histology, Syncytial knots, Trophoblastic villi, Apgar score.

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Silymarin and Vitamin E modulate 950MHz Electromagnetic Field-induced Oxidative Stress and Hormonal Changes in Male Albino Rats.


Abd El Rahman NA1, Abd El Hady AM2, Eltahawy NA2


1Radiation Biology Dept. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), P.O. Box 29, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

 2 Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST).



Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E, silymarin and their co-administration on oxidative stress and hormonal changes in rats whole body exposed to 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) for 2months (2hrs/day, 3times/week). Vitamin E (1.35mg/Kg BW) and/or silymarin (18mg/Kg BW) were orally administered to rats for 2months before EMF exposure. Exposure to EMF provokes oxidative stress identified by significant increases in serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and protein carbonyl (CO) levels associated to significant decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and glutathione (GSH) content. Oxidative stress was accompanied by significant decreases of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total and free testosterone levels. Vitamin E as well as silymarin has significantly reduced oxidative stress and ameliorated hormone levels. It is concluded that the co-administration of vitamin E with silymarin would provide a better protection against EMF-induced biological hazards.

[Abd El Rahman NA, Abd El Hady AM, Eltahawy NA. Silymarin and Vitamin E modulate 950MHz Electromagnetic Field-induced Oxidative Stress and Hormonal Changes in Male Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):170-176]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.23


Key words: electromagnetic field, vitamin E, silymarin, oxidative stress, hormones, rats

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A Comparative Study of Sperm Morphology and Morphometrics of Wild and Domestic Male Rabbits in Saudi Arabia


AbdulRahman A. I. AL-Yahya


Assistant professor at College of Science and Arts at Shaqra, Shaqra University- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Email; alya7ya@su.edu.sa,


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate spermatozoa morphometrics in two strains of male rabbits (Sylvilagus species and Oryctolausspecies) in Saudi Arabia.Semen samples were collected from the caudal epididymis of the adult male rabbits by conventional methods and smeared on the slides then stain, examine under the microscope and photographed. Spermatozoa morphology in both strains was assessed from a total count of 100 spermatozoa. The parameters assessed werehead length,head width,midpiece length and tail length. Abnormalities in spermatozoa such as tail coiled around head, around mid piece, tail coiled below stumpy tail, bent tail and decapitated or detached head were also detected. Results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in tail length and midpiece length of spermatozoa between the two strains. There was significant difference between the two strainswith regard to abnormal head,tail coiledaround head, tail coiled around mid piece, detached head and condensed acrosomes.The study revealed a negative influence of spermatozoa abnormalities on its quality and fertilization.

[Abdul Rahman A. I. AL-Yahya. A Comparative Study of Sperm Morphology and Morphometrics of Wild and Domestic Male Rabbits in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):177-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.24


Key words:Spermmorphology,spermatozoa, morphometrics and male rabbits

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Effect of High Altitude on Endurance Exercise Performance in Normal Healthy Subjects


Nevein MM Gharib, Marwa M Eid and Manal H Kora


Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of applied medical sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of high altitude on endurance exercise performance in normal healthy subjects. Subjects and Methods: One hundred normal healthy female students from Taif University incorporated in this study; their ages ranged from 18 to 25 years old. All subjects had assessed for some parameters of physical fitness and endurance including pulmonary function tests (PFT) using Spirolab III in two steps; the first step measurements tested before starting specific endurance exercise program on a treadmill for continuous 25 minutes. Endurance exercises were provided five times per week for continuous four weeks. The second step measurements were performed at the end of the endurance exercise program (after four weeks). Results: There was a statistical significant increase in the measured spirometric parameters at post intervention as compared to pre intervention (p>0.05). The measured parameters were: vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) Conclusion: Endurance exercise can improve physical fitness in normally healthy females living at high altitude in terms of improvement in PFT .

[Nevein MM Gharib, Marwa M Eid and Manal H Kora. Effect of High Altitude on Endurance Exercise Performance in Normal Healthy Subjects. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):183-187]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.25


Keywords: High altitude; Endurance; Exercise performance; Pulmonary function tests.

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Influence of Ultrasound Cavitation and Electrolipolysis on Obesity Management


Mohammed Yahya Abd El-Hamed1, Mohammed Hussein El-Gendy1 and EzzatMoustafa M. Abd El Rahman2


1Basic Sciences Department, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Aesthetic physical therapy has recently gotten more attention. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the role of the UC and electrolipolysis for management of obese persons. Material and methods: Subjects: 60 healthy participants’ females ranging between 20 to 35 years of age participated in this study. They were randomly assigned into three a quasi equivalent experimental design groups, each contains 20 participants. Group (I) received UC (1 treatment/week), (40 Khz., 2.5 watt/cm2; 40 min); Group (II) received needle electrolipolysis (2 times weekly; rectangular waveform,30 Hz., not exceeding 900 micro amps.;50 min.) Group (III) received UC and electrolipolysis (1 treatment/week). All groups had received low calorie diet and auricular acupuncture, the treatment period was for 4 weeks. Methods: Wt., BMI, skin fold thickness and waist circumference (WC) were measured before treatment, one week after the 1st treatment and one week after the 4th treatment. Lipid profile were measured before treatment and one week after the 4ththe treatment. Results: No statistical significant differences of Wt. and BMI between the three groups post treatment,no significant difference of WC and skin fold pre treatment and after 1 week of treatment for group B. There was a significant difference of WC, skin fold and lipid profile for after 1 week of the 4th the treatmentbetween three groups in favor to group C. Conclusion: Combination of UC and electrolipolysisin addition to low calorie diet and auricular acupuncture was more effective than each method alone in improving the anthropometric and metabolic parameters.

[Mohammed Yahya Abd El-Hamed, Mohammed Hussein El-Gendy and Ezzat Moustafa M. Abd El Rahman. Influence of Ultrasound Cavitation and Electrolipolysis on Obesity Management. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):188-196]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.26


Keywords: Cavitation, Electrolipolysis, Obesity, Ultrasound

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Study to Avoid the Negative Effects of the Use of Arabic Coffee on the Health Status of Saudi Society


1,2 Hala A. Abd El-Rahman and 1,3Safaa M. Faid


1 Nutrition and Food Sci. Dept., Faculty of Designs and Home Economics, Taif University, Kingdome of Saudi Arabia.

2 *Food Technol. Res. Ins., Agric. Res. Center, Cairo –Egypt.

3 **Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo - Egypt.



Abstract: This investigation was carried out to try finding healthy coffee as alternative unhealthy Arabic coffee to be used in Kingdome of Saudi Arabia. Arabic and green coffees powder was prepared using some additives as cardamom, cloves, ginger and qassim mixture (caramel, saffron, glucose, milk protein and plum) to give six mixtures. The first mixture was made from cardamom to green coffee, the second mixture was prepared by adding mixture from cardamom, cloves and ginger, respectively and the third mixture was consisted of green coffee and qassim mixture. The three Arabic coffee mixtures were prepared the same prepared green coffee mixture. The coffee mixtures with additives and without additives were prepared by boiling 30 g of coffee powder in one liter of water for 20 min and the sensory evaluation was determined. The chemical composition, vitamins and minerals content were determined in green and Arabic coffees mixture powder and their boiling. The results from chemical analysis showed that the powder of green and Arabic coffee mixtures with qasium mixture were the highest content in protein, fat and crude fiber. Moreover, the resultant reported that the sample No., 3 and 3/ was prepared by adding from cardamom, cloves and ginger to green and Arabic coffee powder had the highest in antioxidant activity. The resultant from fat, protein, ash, total carbohydrate, antioxidants and pH values in green and Arabic coffee and their different mixtures after boiling were paralleled for green and Arabic coffee powder and their different mixtures. The results from vitamins content showed that the coffee sample No., 3 and 3/ consists of green and Arabic coffee had the highest in nicotinic, thiamin, pyridoxine, folic acid, B12 and riboflavin (88.05, 55.8, 0.41, 0.41 0.423 and 2.23 mg/100g in green coffee mixture) (sample No., 3). Whereas, in Arabic coffee mixture (sample No., 3/) the same vitamins were 83.84, 51.6, 0.37, 0.41, 0.37 and 2.08 mg/100g respectively, followed by samples No., 4, 4/, 2 and 2/, respectively. The results from minerals content as iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), zinc (Zn) and sodium (Na) for powder green and Arabic coffee and their different mixtures after boiling were paralleled the obviously results of vitamins content. It may be recommended that the mixture No., 3 and 3/ were the best mixture in coffee followed by the coffee mixture samples 4 and 4/ and also samples 2 and 2/ respectively. Moreover, the green and Arabic coffee free additions were the lowest amounted in all parameters. Therefore, the replacement of Arabic coffee and using green coffee is low harmful, safety, nutrition, beneficial health and sensory acceptable, with some additives such as cardamom, cloves, ginger, which works to improve the taste.

[Hala A. Abd El-Rahman and Safaa M. Faid. Study to Avoid the Negative Effects of the Use of Arabic Coffee on the Health Status of Saudi Society. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):197-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.27


Keywords: arabic Coffee, green coffees, cardamom, cloves, ginger and qassim mixture.

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Prenatal and Postnatal Effects of Hypothyroidism and Thyroxin Replacement on the Development of Rat Testis


Abd El-Wanees A. Al-Awdan, Saleh E. Idrees, Saadia A. Shalaby, Essam M. Mehlab, Samia M. Mannawy


Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the impact of hypothyroidism during pregnancy on newborn rats and their testicular development till age of maturity and role of postnatal thyroxin (T4) replacement therapy in regeneration of normal testicular architecture and maturation. Material & Methods: The study included 60 offspring of pregnant rats, divided into 3 equal groups: Control group received neither 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) nor T4 replacement therapy (Group I), PTU-treated group received PTU (Group II) and T4-treated group (Group III) included rats that were pretreated with PTU and received T4 every second day from 21st to 60th day post-partum (dpp). Blood samples were collected on the 20th dpp for estimation of plasma levels of T3, T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Both body weight (BW) and testicular weight (TW) were determined at the 20th and 60th dpp and testicular weight/body weight ratio was calculated. Histological studies of testis included Hx & E and Masson’s trichrome stain and electron microscopy (EM). Results: At 20 dpp, all studied rats showed significantly lower plasma total T4 and T3 and significantly higher plasma TSH. Mean BW and TW were significantly lower in group II compared to group I. At 60 dpp, both BW and TW of group III animals were non-significantly lower compared to group I and non-significantly higher compared to group II. At 60 dpp, Hx & E stained group II sections showed semineferous tubules of smaller diameter than group I with no sperms, disruption of spermatogonia and the tubules were filled with degenerated cells and shrunken primary spermatocytes. Group III testis showed semineferous tubules of normal sizes, outline and lumen filled with sperms, spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, primary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms. At 60 dpp, Masson's Trichrome stained sections showed some semineferous tubule containing disrupted spermatogonic cells and the tubules were filled with degenerated cells with markedly thickened basal lamina in group II, while group III showed semineferous tubules containing spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, primary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms with normal thickness basal lamina. EM examination of testicular sections of group II showed ovoid-shaped semineferous tubules with heterochromatic patches and elongated mitochondria and degenerated cells in the cytoplasm. Group III showed the irregular nucleus of Sertoli cells with large nucleoli, spermatogonia resting on the basement membrane and rounded mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs deleteriously affects the constitutional and testicular growth with concomitant changes of testicular architecture and these effects could be reversed by postnatal administration of thyroxin.

[Abd El-Wanees A. Al-Awdan, Saleh E. Idrees, Saadia A. Shalaby, Essam M. Mehlab, Samia M. Mannawy. Prenatal and Postnatal Effects of Hypothyroidism and Thyroxin Replacement on the Development of Rat Testis. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):208-217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.28


Keywords: Antithyroid drugs, Prenatal exposure, Toxic effects, Thyroxin replacement therapy

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Expression of Cox 2 in Gastric Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Carcinoma and Its Correlation with the Disease Progression


Mohamed Negm Salem1 Mohamed Esmat Abd Elghany2 Hisham El-sayed Lashin3 Mahmoud El-sayed M.Morsi4 and Olfat Hammam5


Departments of 1Tropical Medicine, 2Oncosurgery and 3Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar.

4Internal medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar Domiatt. 5Pathological Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute.



Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. It exists as two main histological types, diffuse and intestinal, and is thought to result from a combination of environmental factors and accumulation of specific genetic alterations, and consequently mainly affects older patients Esophagogastro- duodenoscopy (EGD) is the diagnostic imaging procedure of choice in the work-up of gastric carcinoma. The two isoforms COX-1 and COX-2 regulate a key step in prostanoid (i.e. thromboxanes and PGs) synthesis. PGs regulate various pathophysiological processes such as inflammatory reaction, gastro-intestinal cytoprotection and ulceration, hemostasis and thrombosis, as well as renal haemodynamics. The present study was conducted on eighty (80) patients attending the out-patient clinics of El-Hussein and El- Sayed Galal University Hospitals during the period (from November 2010 to July 2013). According to the histopathological diagnosis, these cases were subdivided into 6 groups after doing the following (1-Medical history 2-Clinical evaluation 3-Laboratory investigations including (C.B.C, Liver function test, gastric biopsy, histological examination and immunohistochemical examination. The study revelaed COX2 was not detected in normal cases and mean of cox2 compared with different gastric lesions showed that gradually increased from more pathological stage gastritis→metapalsia→dyplasia→adenoma→ and gastric carcinoma.There was a highly significant value of malignant group when compared to control group, gastritis group, metaplasia group and dysplasia group at p<0.01. Conclusion: The study revealed that up-regulation of cox2 from normal gastric mucosa to different gastric lesion suggests that cox2 expression correlated with disease progression.

[Mohamed Negm Salem, Mohamed Esmat Abd Elghany, Hisham El-sayed Lashin, Mahmoud El-sayed M. Morsi, and Olfat Hammam. Expression of Cox 2 in Gastric Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Carcinoma and Its Correlation with the Disease Progression. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):218-224]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.29


Keywords: Expression; Cox 2; Gastric Mucosa; Patient; Disease; Progression

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Use of Information and Communication Technology tools among fishermen in Malaysia


Barkatullah Qureshi1 Mubina Pathan1 Muhammad Ali Pasha2 Farman Ali Chandio1 Ayaz Keerio 2 Abdul Razaque Chhachhar3


1 Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan

2 University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

3 Department of Communication Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400, Selangor, Malaysia


Abstract: The role of information and communication technology towards the society cannot be denied. ICT has played a vital role in the development of different sector of the society such as agriculture, education, health, economic and fisheries. The fishing industry is playing an important role in the economic development of Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to analyse the level of usage of ICT tools among fishermen in Malaysia. The quantitative approach using of survey questionnaire has been adopted to generate the primary data of the study. A total of 200 respondents, comprising of male and female fishermen from the Perak and Kedah states of Malaysia have been selected as the main respondents of the study. The results revealed that the usage level of mobile phone among respondents was moderate with the mean value of M= 2.89 SD= 0.372. The GPS was second most ICT used tool by the respondents during their fishing actives at the sea (M = 1.22 SD= 613). It was revealed that most of the fishermen level of use of ICT tools was moderate.

[Barkatullah Qureshi Mubina Pathan Muhammad Ali Pasha Farman Ali Chandio Ayaz Keerio Abdul Razaque Chhachhar . Use of Information and Communication Technology tools among fishermen in Malaysia. J Am Sci 2014;10(09):225-231]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.30


Keywords: use of ICT fishermen and fishing industries development

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Citizenship Education as an Approach to Preventive Education in the Institutions of Kindergarten


Zeinab Mousa El-Samahy


Child Rearing Department, Faculty of Kindergarten, University of Port Said, Egypt



Abstract. The current study aims at identifying the reality of citizenship education as an approach to preventive education in kindergartens in Egypt, from the point of view of those who officially in charge of the kindergarten. The study is also concerned with monitoring the children's behavior to identify the extent of enhancing citizenship education in actual reality and the obstacles hindering that. The current study is of descriptive studies, which focused on describing and analyzing all society changes, which called for paying attention to citizenship education as an approach to preventive education, and to identifying the reasons that would stand as an obstacle against achieving the citizenship education in kindergarten. To achieve the objectives of the study, a questionnaire has been used and applied to a sample of 100 kindergarten female teachers from governmental kindergartens (Official, Experimental) in Port Said Governorate. The sample has been randomly selected from different educational departments in Port Said Governorate. Besides, a note card to monitor the behaviors related to citizenship has also been applied to 300 children, representing different kindergarten children in Port Said Governorate. The study has concluded a group of factors that impedes citizenship education in kindergarten, including: deficiencies in spreading citizenship culture in kindergarten programs. The document of national standards for kindergarten in Egypt has dealt with citizenship as a mere concept without deep illustration in the midst of social concepts. Those who are in charge of child do not pay due attention to children citizenship education. Paying particular attention to provide information with regard to citizenship without emphasizing on practices associated with it, which affects the child's ability to take his/her responsibilities and carry out his/her future duties that is a prerequisite for preventive education. The study has concluded that there are several obstacles preventing the citizenship education from being achieved. In light of the concluded results, the researcher has suggested some proposals and recommendations to overcome these obstacles in order to activate citizenship education.

[Zeinab Mousa El-Samahy. Citizenship Education as an Approach to Preventive Education in the Institutions of Kindergarten. J Am Sci 2014;10(09):232-241]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.31


Keywords: citizenship education • kindergarten • preventive education

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Rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in vegetables and fruits in Egyptian Farms


Nahed Abdel Ghaffar A. Ibrahim1,3, Mohamed Yossef1and Mohamed Nabil A.Omar2,3


1Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt

2Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt




Abstract: Escherichia coli 0157 H:7, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes are risky members of food-poisoning pathogens. In the present work, PCR assays were validated in artificially contaminated samples that covering nine types of products. Soil, compost, irrigation water, wash water, fresh cut lettuce, carrots, Herbs, ready-to-eat salads and strawberry. Samples of food products were stomached in stomacher, followed by 18 hour enrichment in LB media at 37°C. DNA templates were prepared by boiling of 100 ul from the enrichment cultures. The obtained results by PCR were confirmed by that obtained by colony identification (microbiological methods). The data showed that plate count, streaking on selective media and confirmation tests take from 5-7 days. On the other hand, the PCR technique tacks few hours to give very accurate and sensitive detection. Moreover, PCR could detect down to ≤ 10 cfu/g-1 while plate streaking could not.

[Nahed Abdel Ghaffar A. Ibrahim, Mohamed Yossef and Mohamed Nabil A.Omar. Rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in vegetables and fruits in Egyptian Farms. J Am Sci 2014;10(09):242-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.32


Key wards: Escherichia coli 0157 H:7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, food-poisoning pathogens, PCR

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Comparison the Antipyretic Effect of Paracetamol, Metamizole Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium in Breaking down Fever in Children


1Naglaa A. Elmaghraby, 2,3Ahmed Khames, 4Mohamed H. Meabed, 4Mohamed A. Elmaraghy


1Department of Clinical Pharmacy,2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy,Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Technology, Taif University, Taif, KSA, 4Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.



Abstract: The objective is to study the antipyretic effect of three different drugs used to treat fever in children paracetamol (Cetal® syrup), metamizole sodium (Novalgin®syrup) and diclofenac potassium (Catafly® syrup). Fever is a common symptom, the most frequent causes of fever are infections. Although it is necessary to treat the cause of fever, fever management is also important, we wanted to study the patients' discomfort accompanying fever and the beneficial effects of the fever management. The fever discomfort can be an important reason for the antipyretic treatment. Three antipyretics were tested in three groups of patients, The study included 60 patients with axillary temperature at least 37.60C, patients were divided into three equal groups each group of 20 patients, group A received paracetamol at dose of 15mg\kg\4hrs, group B received metamizole sodium at dose of 15mg\kg\6hrs, and group C received diclofenac potassium at dose of 1mg\kg\8hrs, we asked the first 30 study subjects to fill in a questionnaire concerning their opinions about fever, fever-associated discomfort, and relief upon antipyretic therapy. All study medications had a significant antipyretic effect. Diclofenac potassium at the dose 1 mg\kg was considered as the most effective as that of metamizole sodium which is more effective than paracetamol. All tested antipyretics significantly improved comfort in fevered children.

[Naglaa A. Elmaghraby; Mohamed H. Meabed; Mohamed A. Elmaraghy and Ahmed Khamis. Comparison the Antipyretic Effect of Paracetamol, Metamizole Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium in Breaking down Fever in Children. J Am Sci 2014;10(09):253-257]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.33


Keywords: Paracetamol, Metamizole Sodium, Diclofenac Potassium, Fever.

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Congenital Heart Disease in Pediatric with Down's Syndrome


Jawaher Khalid Almaimani; Maryam Faisal Zafir; Hanan Yousif Abbas and Ibrahim A Awad


Diagnostic Radiology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, King Abdulaziz University



Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the type and distribution of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in pediatric patients affected by Down syndrome (DS), and compared with previously published studies. Retrospective study of (2108) pediatric patients referred from cardiac clinics to echocardiography department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, KSA. Data was collected from January 2011 to October 2013. This study was done after obtaining ethical approval from committee of Biomedical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. The results indicated that a total of (2108) patients reviewed, 1668 (79%) had abnormal cardiac findings [1546 (93%) Non DS patients (854 (55%) had CHDs and 692 (45%) had other cardiac disease), 122 (7%) patients known case of DS (88 (72%) had CHDs and 34 (28%) had other cardiac disease)] and 440(21%) were had a normal findings. Among the 88DS patients who had CHDs, 42 (48%) had single cardiac abnormalities and 46 (52%) had multiple cardiac abnormalities. The most frequent congenital heart disease was ASD found in 52 (42.6%) patients, followed by PDA in 47(38.5%), VSD in 39(32%), and only 17 patients (13.9%) had AVSD. The concluded that DS is strongly related with CHDs by (72%) and this result is slightly higher to the result published in previous studies. The atrial septal defect (ASD) was the most common congenital cardiac lesion seen in DS patients.

[Jawaher Khalid Almaimani; Maryam Faisal Zafir; Hanan Yousif Abbas and Ibrahim A Awad. Congenital Heart Disease in Pediatric with Down's Syndrome. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):258-263]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.34


Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Down's syndrome, pediatric patients

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Cinnamomum zeylanicum Aqueous Extract is Superior to Bark Powder in Ameliorating Fasting Glycaemia in Cornstarch and Fructose Fed Rats


Mousa Numan Ahmad1, Ghada A. Yaghi1, Kholoud Gh. Ajarma2


1Department of Nutrition and Food Technology/ Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Jordan, Amman11942, Jordan

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Alia Medical Hospital, Jordan Royal Medical Services, Amman, Jordan

mosnuman@ju.edu.jo; mousanuman@gmail.com


Abstract: Cinnamon zeylanicum or the true cinnamon has antidiabetic activity, but its form and effectiveness still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of bark aqueous extract and bark powder of cinnamon zeylanicum on serum glucose, body weight and intakes of food and fluid. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned into cornstarch-fed (control) or fructose-fed (insulin resistant) group. Cinnamon powder and extract were incorporated into diet or drinking water (1g.kgweight-1.day-1) and given ad libitum to the rats for 7 weeks. Fasting serum glucose was then quantified and other biological parameters were assessed. Compared to cornstarch, fructose induced significant (p< 0.05) hyperglycaemia, increased fluid intake and decreased food intake and weight gain, whereas food efficiency ratio was unchanged. In cornstarch-fed group, cinnamon bark extract and powder equally reduced (p< 0.05) food intake and weight gain without influencing fluid intake and food efficiency ratio, whereas in fructose-fed group, none of these parameters were affected. Cinnamon significantly (p< 0.05) lowered serum glucose concentration in cornstarch-fed and fructose-fed groups. In the former, the serum glucose- lowering effect of cinnamon extract (15.6%) was comparable with that of bark powder (19.4%), whereas in the latter, cinnamon extract exhibited significantly higher (p< 0.05) serum glucose- lowering effect (47.8%) than bark powder (38.3%). In fructose-fed group, concordant results for fluid intake were obtained, with cinnamon extract showing significantly higher (p< 0.05) fluid intake- lowering effect (28.8%) than bark powder (14.4%). In conclusion, cinnamon aqueous extract is more effective than bark powder in ameliorating fructose- induced hyperglycaemia and accompanied increased fluid intake in rats.

[Ahmad MN, Yaghi GA, Ajarma kGh. Cinnamomum zeylanicum Aqueous Extract is Superior to Bark Powder in Ameliorating Fasting Glycaemia in Cornstarch and Fructose Fed Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(09):264-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.35


Keywords: Cinnamon zeylanicum, bark, aqueous extract, fructose, glycaemia, insulin resistance, rats

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New Aspect in Cartilage Growth ”The Invasive Interstitial Type”


Soha A. Soliman


Department of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt



Abstract: Growth of hyaline cartilage is achieved either by chondrocyte division “interstitial type of growth” or by perichondrial cell differentiation of mesenchymal cells to differentiated chondrocytes which deposit successive circumferential layers of cartilage matrix “appositional growth”. The current study was carried out to illustrate a third type of cartilage growth during development of the air breathing dendritic organ of catfish. To perform this study, samples of the air breathing dendritic organ were collected from catfish (Clarias garie-pinus). Paraffin sections of formalin fixed specimens were examined by light microscopy. During development of the air breathing organ of catfish, the nidus of cartilage formation was represented by a condensation of mesenchymal cells. Some cells differentiate to chondrocytes to form multiple cartilage islets surrounded by mesenchymal tissue which was enclosed by perichondrium. The surrounding mesenchymal cells further on differentiate to chondrocytes to complete the developing elastic cartilaginous unit. Additional mesenchymal cells with chondrocyte potential invade the cartilage at multiple sites to grow the cartilaginous mass interstitially. Moreover, interstitial mesenchymal differentiation occurred at the sites of the vacated lacunae which resulted from the death of chondrocytes. Interstitial mesenchymal invasion occurred in the hyaline cartilage to be replaced by elastic type. The invasive interstitial differentiation of the mesenchymal cells contributed in cartilage growth, renewal, and replacement. Studying the molecular regulation of the invasive differentiation of the mesenchymal cells may be a useful guide in researches to resolve cartilage disorders problems.

[Soha A. Soliman. New Aspect in Cartilage Growth ”The Invasive Interstitial Type”. J Am Sci 2014;10(9):272-277]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36. doi:10.7537/marsjas100914.36


Keywords: cartilage, interstitial, growth, mesenchymal, invasion, catfish.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 13, 2014. 

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