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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003, Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 83, January 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1101

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

A Study of Vitamin D Status and Cathelicidine Plasma Levels in Pediatric Population with Sepsis

 

Ahmed M. Ismail1, Sherief H. Abdelrahman1, Ahmad H. Elsayed1, Gamal A. Alkheshen2 and Mohamed A. EL Sadaney1

 

Pediatrics1 and clinical pathology2, Al-azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric population, despite progresses encountered in the last decades. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to have an important role in the first line of mucosal immunity. Two main families of antimicrobial peptides, the defensins and the cathelicidine (LL-37), are expressed in immune cells and at epithelial surfaces. Deficiency in these peptides results in increased susceptibility to infection. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may enhance the innate immune response by induction of cathelicidin (LL-37). Thus, the relationship between vitamin D status and cathelicidine ( LL-37) production may be of importance for host immunity, but little data is available on this subject, especially in the setting of neonatal sepsis syndrome and other critical illness.  Objective: The aim of the study is to assess and correlate vitamin D status and cathelicidine serum levels in infants and children with sepsis and compare it to levels in healthy controls. Subjects/Methods: This prospective case control study was conducted on 30 full term neonates (20 of them  with proved late onset sepsis and 10 apparently healthy neonates of matched gender and age  as control)  and 30 children ( 20 with sepsis and 10 apparently healthy children as control). Blood culture, complete blood count, CRP quantitative assay, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was carried out for patients. VIT D and Cathelicidine serum level by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was done for both patients and control group. Results: Results showed statistically significant differences between patients and controls regarding plasma Vit D, and cathelicidine in both groups of study.  Mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations, and mean plasma LL-37 levels were significantly lower in patients with sepsis compared to healthy controls .In  group of neonates  mean Vit D was (26.92211.27 in patients and 50.060 15.463 in control with p<0.001*0), while mean cathelicidine  was  (24.2858.832 in patients and 35.80014.639 in control with p0.012*). In the group of children  mean vit D level was (24.5256.561 in patients and 54.328 24.738 in control P<0.001*) , while mean cathelicidine value was( 29.85015.851 in patients and 32.7908.020 in control with p 0.587). There was a significant positive association between circulating 25(OH)D and LL-37 levels. Conclusion: This study demonstrates an association between critical illness(sepsis) and lower 25(OH)D ,and plasma LL-37 in critically ill patients as compared to healthy controls. It also establishes a positive association between vitamin D status and plasma LL-37, which suggests that systemic LL-37 levels may be regulated by vitamin D status.  

[Ahmed M. Ismail, Sherief H. Abdelrahman, Ahmad H. Elsayed, Gamal A. Alkheshen and Mohamed A. EL Sadaney. A Study of Vitamin D Status and Cathelicidine Plasma Levels in Pediatric Population with Sepsis. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.01

 

Keywords: Vitamin D, Cathelicidine, Pediatric, Plasma.

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Endoscopic versus microscopic approach for management of pituitary tumors

 

Mahmoud Farid, B. A.

 

Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

faridneuro@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Pituitary tumors are most commonly approached through the transsphenoidal approach, and tumor resection is most often performed using the operating microscope. More recently the endoscope has been introduced for use either as an adjunct to or in lieu of the microscope. Both the microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches to pituitary tumors allow safe and effective tumor resection. This study showed the advantages and disadvantages of the pure transsphenoidal endoscopic approach compared with the standard microscopic approach. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of forty patients presented with pituitary macroadenoma including both sexes, with ranging age from 20-50 years. These patients presented to the neurosurgery department of Al-Azhar university hospitals during the period from October 2010 to October 2013. The Patients were divided into two groups: The 1stgroup; included 20 patients, who subjected to endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The 2nd group; included 20 patients, were subjected to classic microscopic sublabial transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.  Results: This comparative study was including two groups; the first group representing twenty patients with pituitary tumors who operated using endoscopic transsphenoidal technique; and the second group showed twenty patients with pituitary tumors were operated using the microscopic sublabial transsphenoidal technique. The patients in the first group included 5 males (25%) and 15 females (75%) and in the second group included 8 males (40%) and 12 females (60%) with age ranging from (20-50) years (median: 35 years). They are presented by one or more symptoms. The commonest symptoms were headache (92.5%), followed by endocrinal symptoms (80%), then visual symptoms (75%). In the first group total removal of the lesion was achieved in 10 cases (50%), while subtotal removal was achieved in 8 cases(40%), and partial  removal was achieved in 2cases (10%). While in the second group total removal was achieved in 5 cases (25%), subtotal removal was achieved in 7 cases (35%) and partial removal was achieved in 8 cases (40%). Conclusion: The pure endoscopic approach is a safe, effective approach to sellar region tumors that offers several advantages over the microscopic approach. It provides an excellent wide-angle and magnified view of the operative anatomy, and although it requires more anatomical exposure it remains within the group of minimally invasive approaches to the sella. High disease control rates and low rates of complications are some of the most important points related to the technique. Some of the factors related to the success of endoscopic surgery are lesion size, suprasellar/ parasellar extension, and the degree of sella floor erosion.

[Mahmoud Farid. Endoscopic versus microscopic approach for management of pituitary tumors. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):7-14]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.02

 

Key Words: Transsphenoidal - Pituitary surgery - Endoscopic - Microscopic.

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The effects of various stabilizers on physiochemical properties of camel milk yoghurt

 

Alaa H. Ibrahim1* and Salah A. Khalifa2

 

1. Animal and Poultry Breeding Dept., Desert Res. Cent., cairo, Egypt

2. Food Sci. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt

alaa.drc@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The effect of stabilizers addition on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of yoghurt made from camel milk was studied. Three stabilizers were used, A (gelatin E441, mono & diglyceride of fatty acids E471), B (guar gum E412, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose E466 and mono & diglyceride of fatty acids E471) and C (modified starch E1422 and mono and diglyceride of fatty acids E471). The addition rate of stabilizers to camel milk was 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, w/w. The products were stored at 52C for 21 days. Addition of stabilizers significantly decreased the syneresis, and increased viscosity and water holding capacity of camel milk yoghurt (p ≤ 0.05), also enhanced their sensory acceptability. Significant effects of stabilizers type and addition rate on acidity, moisture content and total solids of camel milk yoghurt were observed. The water holding capacity and susceptibility to syneresis of camel milk yoghurt were significantly affected by type and quantity of stabilizer used. The optimum results were recorded using stabilizers A, B and C in order. Increasing the amount of the stabilizer added, resulted in water holding capacity and lower susceptibility to syneresis values. Acidity and pH values of camel milk yoghurt were significantly affected by type of stabilizer. Addition of stabilizers caused the highest acidity and the lowest pH of camel milk yoghurt compared to control. The stabilizers treated camel milk yoghurt had higher total solid, protein and fat than the control. Camel milk yoghurt containing stabilizer had higher viscosity than the control samples. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the stabilizers occupied the void space within casein particle network. Treated camel milk yoghurts had more systematically and smoothly distributed proteins with a bit coarse structure as well as less porosity in protein network. As well as the addition of stabilizers to camel milk yoghurt to the merger of casein micelles with each other, which increases the cohesion flat casein compared with a control sample. The treatment B which retained the highest rate of water holding capacity had colloidal or ropiness texture, while cohesion textures increased in both treatments A and B. Adding stabilizer A (gelatin E441, mono & digilycerid of fatty acids E471) at a level up to 1.5%, to camel milk yoghurt is recommended to stabilize the texture without affecting the overall acceptability of the product.

[Alaa H. Ibrahim and Salah A. Khalifa. The effects of various stabilizers on physiochemical properties of camel milk yoghurt. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):15-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.03

 

Keywords: Physico-chemical, organoleptic properties, camel milk yoghurt, microstructure and stabilizers.

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Gastric plication for morbid obesity

 

Ibrahim Aboulfotoh Mohamed

 

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo; Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: The field of bariatric surgery is continually evolving. Since the introduction of surgical procedures to induce weight loss, many different operations have been tried and discarded owing to the poor long-term weight loss and/or metabolic or mechanical complications. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is a surgical technique that involves resection of a significant portion of the stomach. This surgery is sometimes associated with gastric leaks, which can be difficult to treat. The present study reports findings from laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), which is an alternative bariatric procedure similar to VSG but without the need for gastric resection. Methods: A prospective study was carried out from January 2010 to October 2013 , following GCP in 30 morbidly obese patients (12 males/18 females) with a mean age of 33.5 years (23 to 60) and mean BMI of 41kg/m (35 to 46). Through a five-port approach, the stomach was reduced by dissecting the greater omentum and short gastric vessels, as in VSG, and the greater curvature was then invigilated using multiple rows of non-absorbable suture performed over a 32-Fr bougie to ensure a patent lumen. Results: All procedures were completed by open and laparoscopic surgery. Mean operative time was 50 min (40 to 100 min) and mean hospital stay was 2days (2 to 5). Patients returned to their regular activities at an average of 7 days (4 to 13) following surgery. No intra-operative complications occurred. All patients experienced excess weight loss (EWL) of at least 20% after 1 month. Mean EWL was 62% (45% to 77%) in nine patients after 18 months. There has been no record. Conclusions: GCP is feasible, safe, and effective for at least 2 years when performed on morbidly obese patients. Longer follow-up and prospective comparative trials are needed.

[Ibrahim Aboulfotoh Mohamed. Gastric plication for morbid obesity. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):25-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.04

 

Keywords: Morbid obesity.  Bariatric surgery, Greater curvature  placation, Restrictive procedure.

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Vaginal Fluid Creatinine versus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Diagnosis of Premature Rupture of Membranes.

 

Reham S. Mohamed1, Rashed M. Rashed2, Rabee A. Hassanein3, Abdel-Raouf Oun4, Sahar M. Abdel-Maksoud5.

 

1Ass. Consultant Department of Ob/Gyn (Al-Zahraa University Hospital), 2 Ass. Professor Department of Ob/Gyn (Damietta Faculty of Medicine),3 Ass. Consultant Department of Ob/Gyn (Al-Hussein University Hospital), 4Ass. Professor Department of Ob/Gyn (Assiut Faculty of Medicine), 5Ass. Consultant Department of Clinical Pathology (Al-Zahraa University Hospital), Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: This prospective case-control study was done to compare the reliability of vaginal fluid creatinine and quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin for diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. Patients and Methods: The study included 150 pregnant women between 25-34 weeks of gestation attending Al-Azhar University Hospitals. They were divided into three groups: Group (I) consisted of 50 patients with positive history of vaginal leakage and positive fluid leakage observed using sterile Cusco speculum. Group (II) consisted of 50 patients with positive history of vaginal leakage and negative fluid leakage observed using sterile Cusco speculum. Group (III) consisted of 50 pregnant women without any complaint or complication. All patients underwent full history, general examination, abdominal examination and sterile Cusco speculum examination. The vagina was washed by injection with a syringe filled with 3ml of saline solution, and 3ml the washing fluid was collected from the posterior vaginal fornix. The collected fluid was sent immediately to the laboratory for measuring of vaginal fluid creatinine & quantitative HCG. Results: The study showed that there was no significant statistical difference between confirmed, suspected and control groups as regard maternal age, parity and gestational age. There was significant statistical difference between confirmed, suspected and control groups as regard amniotic fluid index. The number of patients with AFI≤ 9 cm was 32 patients in confirmed group, 17 patients in suspected group and 4 patients in the control group. On the other hand the patients with the AFI >9 cm was 18 patients in confirmed group, 33 patients in suspected group and 46 patients in the control group. Analysis of results using Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the best cutoff point for vaginal fluid creatinine among the studied groups in our study was 0.7 mg/dl with sensitivity, specificity, +ve predictive value, -ve predictive value and accuracy were all 100%. The number of patients who exceeded the cutoff point for vaginal fluid creatinine was 50 patients in confirmed group, 22 patients in suspected group and no patients in the control group. Analysis of results using ROC curve showed that the best cutoff point for vaginal fluid HCG among the studied groups in our study was 47.0 mIU/mL with sensitivity 94%, specificity 86%, +ve predictive value 93.1%, -ve predictive value 87.8% and accuracy 91.3%. The number of patients who exceeded the cutoff point for vaginal fluid HCG was 50 patients in confirmed group, 27 patients in suspected group and 8 patients in the control group. From the results of our study we could show that both vaginal fluid creatinine and HCG concentrations are good predictors of PROM but measurement of vaginal fluid creatinine is more reliable and less expensive than measurement of vaginal fluid HCG in diagnosing PROM.

[Reham S. Mohamed, Rashed M. Rashed, Rabee A. Hassanein, Abdel-Raouf Oun, Sahar M. Abdel-Maksoud. Vaginal Fluid Creatinine versus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Diagnosis of Premature Rupture of Membranes. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):33-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.05

 

Key words: Vaginal Fluid Creatinine- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin- Premature Rupture of Membranes.

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Hepatitis C Virus Infection and its Vertical Transmission in a Sample of Egyptian Pregnant Women.

 

Rashed Mohamed1, Reham Saeed2,Abdel-RaoufOun3,Khattab Abdel-Halim4, Mohamed Abdel-Aal5, Sahar Abdel-Maksoud6.

 

1Ass. Professor Department of Ob/Gyn (Damietta Faculty of Medicine), 2Ass. Consultant  Department of Ob/Gyn (Al-Zahraa University Hospital), 3Ass. Professor Department of Ob/Gyn (Assiut Faculty of Medicine), 4Professor and Head of Ob/Gyn Department (Damietta Faculty of Medicine), 5Ass. Professor Department of Pediatrics (Damietta Faculty of Medicine), 6Ass. Consultant Department of Clinical Pathology (Al-Zahraa University Hospital), Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The present study is a cross sectional study performed at Al-Azhar University hospitals (New Damietta and Al-Zahraa) to assess the sero-prevalence rate of HCV among the pregnant females and their neonates. Methods: A total number of 300 pregnant women in the third trimester attending at Al-Azhar University Hospitals for labor were randomly selected. All patients were subjected to full history taking and complete general and obstetrical examinations. A venous blood samples were collected from each woman of 3-4 ml blood. Cord blood samples were obtained immediately after birth from babies of the included mothers. The collected venous blood samples were centrifuged, serum was analyzed for hepatitis-C antibody by ACCURATE Cards, and the result was taken in the form of positive versus Negative. Results: The results of the present work showed that the prevalence of HCV-Abs in the studied samples of the pregnant females were 8.3%. All the neonates born to HCV-Ab's positive mothers were negative for HCV-Abs at birth. Certain risk factors positively correlated with increased risk of HCV-infection, as history of blood transfusion, previous operation, unsafe injections using non-disposable syringes and high risk occupations.

[Rashed Mohamed, Reham Saeed, Abdel-Raouf Oun, Khattab Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Abdel-Aal, Sahar Abdel-Maksoud. Hepatitis C Virus Infection and its Vertical Transmission in a Sample of Egyptian Pregnant Women. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):40-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.06

 

Key Words: Hepatitis C Virus- Pregnancy- Vertical Transmission

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Assessment of third and final year clinical medicine course at a Saudi university college of medicine: Analyzing medical students perspectives

 

Dr. Khalid W Al Quliti, MD

 

Chairman, Department of Medicine, Assistant professor and consultant of Neurology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Consultant Neurology, National guard hospital-Madinah, Mobile: +966582425777

Madinah Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email: kh_alquliti@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background/Objective: Measuring students’ evaluation and satisfaction of their medical education may identify areas of strength and weakness.  Since the introduction in 2005 of the The National Commission for Assessment and Academic Accreditation (NCAAA) in Saudi Arabia, no published literature can be found on students’ evaluation of their Medicine courses. This study sought to obtain medical students' perception of these clinical courses and to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses using the NCAAA questionnaire. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on third (3rd y.) and fifth year (5th y.) medical students at Taibah University in Madina, Saudi Arabia, at the end of the course during the second semester of the 2010/11 academic year. Data were collected through a self-administered, structured questionnaire developed by NCAAA for the purpose of academic accreditation. Evaluation standards addressed course content, learning methods, learning resources, examinations, assignments, teaching staff, and overall satisfaction, and provided a total score. Results: Out of 237 students, 207 (95 3rd y. and 112 5th y.) responded to the questionnaire (87.3%). Total scores were 3.3 for 3rd y. students and 3.0 for 5th y.; satisfaction scores totaled 3.4 for 3rd y. and 3.0 for 5th y. students.  All standards scored "good", except for course content and faculty members, which scored "very good" by 3rd y. students. The lowest scores (<3) were given to learning resources (2.9 for the 3rd y. and 2.8 for the 5th y.) and examinations and assignments (2.9 for the 3rd y. and for the 5th y.). In almost all tested standards, 3rd y. students scored higher than 5th y.; satisfaction scores were the highest at 51.81% vs. 37.14%. Conclusion: Medicine courses for 3rd y. and 5th y. medical students were equally received as “good” with small differences. Further research is required to identify how to improve course education and satisfaction.

[Khalid W Al Quliti. Assessment of third and final year clinical medicine course at a Saudi university college of medicine: Analyzing medical students perspectives. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):47-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.07

 

Key Words: Course of Medicine, NCAAA, Medical education, Saudi Arabia.

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A study for comparison between immune status of dairy Egyptain buffaloes and the crosses of Egyptain-Italian buffaloes under the Egyptian environment

 

Hanaa A. Allam1, Manal, B. Mahmoud2 and Fathi, A. 2

 

1Dept. of Res. for diseases of udder and Neonates, ARRI, ARC.

2Unit of Immunity, ARRI, and ARC.

drhanaaallam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A total of 70 milk samples (35 milk samples from Egyptian buffaloes and 35 milk samples from Egyptain-Italian buffaloes) collected from dairy buffalo farm in Egypt through the period from January to December 2014 used for the evaluation. Sample was examined for California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). Also measure of milk constituent by using infra milk analyzer 150, from Bentley. Studies were included total milk yield (TMY), lactation period (L), percent of protein and fats in milk also calculated the present of lysozymes and nitric oxide to measure the immune status. In this study we recorded age of first calving was 32 months in Egyptain buffaloes while in Egyptain- Italian buffaloes 28 month. The lactation period was 257 days in Egyptain buffaloes while in Egyptain- Italian buffaloes 281 days. Also, the average milk/day was 7-8liters/day for Egyptain buffaloes but in Egyptain- Italian buffaloes recorded 12-14 liters/day. The mastitic cases in the season were highest rates in Egyptain buffaloes about 10 (14.29%) while in Egyptain- Italian buffaloes 2 (2.86%). In this study, protein contents were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Egyptain-Italian buffaloes (4.16 0.22%) compared with Egyptain buffaloes (3.690.14%). The fat percent in Egyptain buffaloes was 5.480.31gm while in Egyptian-Italian buffaloes were 9.230.40 gm. In this study lactose percent was 5.13 0.28 mg% in Egyptain buffaloes while recorded 5. 7 0.27mg% in Egyptian-Italian buffaloes. Also the percent of SNF was 9.250.4mg% in Egyptain buffaloes while recorded 10. 75-0.51 mg% in Egyptian-Italian buffaloes. Salt value recorded 70 – 75 IU in Egyptain buffaloes while recorded 8 – 9.5 IU in Egyptian-Italian buffaloes. SCC was 130 x 103 to 170 x 103/ml in Egyptain buffalo milk but 100 x 103 to 120 x 103/ ml in Egyptain-Italian buffalo milk. The immune status recorded 262.4 81. 8 for production of lysozyme in Egyptain buffaloes while recorded 188. 8 67.5 in Egyptain-Italian buffaloes. The measurement of nitric oxide production was 182.21 41.5 in Egyptain buffaloes while in Egyptian-Italian buffaloes 198 30.2. It can be concluded that paying more attention to the genetic improvement of the Egyptian buffalo is quite likely to improve its productive performance using Italian buffalo for improving the national milk production from buffalo. More studies are needed for the productive, reproductive and genetic diversity of crossbred populations before the enhancement of crossbreeding activities on national level.

[Hanaa A. Allam, Manal, B. Mahmoud and Fathi, A. A study for comparison between immune status of dairy Egyptian buffaloes and the crosses of Egyptian-Italian buffaloes under the Egyptian environment. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):53-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.08

 

Keywords: comparison; immune; dairy; Egyptain; buffaloes; environment

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A retrospective study of the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Ahmed MA Jan1; Mohammed Alsehaimy1; Maisa Al-Sebaei1; Fatima M Jadu2

 

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry. King Abdulaziz University

amjan@kau.edu.sa, mmelsehimy@kau.edu.sa, MOALSEBAEI@kau.edu.sa

2Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Diagnostic Sciences Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University

fjadu@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Introduction: Maxillofacial injuries are a worldwide public health problem. The epidemiology of these injuries differs from one region to another depending on many factors. This study was undertaken to elucidate the nature of maxillofacial fractures in the Jeddah of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: After ethical approval, data was retrospectively collected from the record and images of trauma patients who had sustained maxillofacial fractures. A total sample size of 853 patients was included in the study. Results: Maxillofacial fractures were common among males and females in the third decade of life. However, males were much more frequently affected than females at a ration of 6:1. Mandibular fractures were more common than maxillary ones. The most frequent cause of maxillofacial fractures was by motor vehicle accidents. Conclusion: Maxillofacial fractures are frequently seen in young males as a result of motor vehicle accidents. More strict traffic regulations should be put in place and implemented to prevent these devastating injuries.

[Ahmed MA Jan, Mohammed Alsehaimy, Maisa Al-Sebaei and Fatima M Jadu. A retrospective study of the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):57-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.09

 

Keywords: Maxillofacial injuries, Jaw fractures, Mandibular injuries

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Genetic components and heterotic effect of growth traits in 3x3 diallel crossing experiment in chickens

 

Emad. M. Amin

 

Desert Rese. Center, Ministry of Agric., Egypt. h_h562000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three genotypes of chickens [one local strain named Mandarah (MM) and two exotic parental commercial meat type strains] [Saso (SS) and Italian (II)] were crossed in a 3 x 3 diallel mating (nine combinations) throughout two successive years to estimate their crossbreeding effect for body weight (BW) at 0, 4, 8 and 12 wks of age, body weight gain (BWG) at different intervals (0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 0-12wks) for males and females and combined body weight gain (CBWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC) and viability percentage (V%) at interval 0-12wks. Combining ability, general (GCA) and specific (SCA), heterotic effect (H%), reciprocal effect) RE (maternal effect) ME (and, direct additive effect) DA (were estimated for purebred parental and their crosses, moreover, using GCA and SCA to prediction of hybrid performance, breeding (BV) and genetic values (GV) for purebred parental and their crosses. All chicks tested in this experiment originated from parents divided into 3 groups included 756 hens from three genotypes (252 hens each) and 108 cocks from the genotype used in sire position (1 male: 7 females). Approximately 2160 unsexed day old chicks were used. At 28 days of age, chicks were sexed phenotypically via external characteristics. The SS strain had the highest significant values of all traits studied except FC and V % compared to the other strains, followed by II strain. The males of the crossbreed IS were the heaviest at hatch, and 8 and 12 wks of age, followed by the SI cross at 8 and 12 wks of age. No significant differences between SI and IS crosses for female BW at hatch and 12 wks of age, while the SI crossbred was significantly higher than that of IS cross at 4 wks and at 8 wks of age. Moreover, males and females at the interval 4-8 wks (1326.3 and 1162.9g, respectively) followed by IS. The SS strain had the highest males and females BW gains the interval 0-12 wks followed by SI and IS crossbreds. The strains (SS, II) and reciprocal crossbreds (IM and MI) had the best FC followed by MS but, the MM strain had the lowest FC. The purebreds (MM and II) showed better viability than the strain (SS). Diallel crossing of II and MM with SS strain achieved an increase in viability. Both SS and II strains had positive and highly significant of GCA for BW and BWG in males, and combined sexes at all ages studied. The best of SCA is the combination (SI) for BW and BWG and FI for males and females, followed by IxS. In contrast, the worst SCA were combinations of (IM) and (MI) of the previous traits. Both of SI crossbred and its reciprocal IS had the highest percentage of heterotic effect (H %) at the interval 0-12 wks. The SI crossbred had positive significant effects of H% for male and female BW at 0,4, 8 and 12 weeks of ages and BWG (except interval 4-8wks) at all intervals studied, moreover, CBWG, FI,FC and V% at the interval 0-12 wks. The same trend was found for the reciprocal crossbred IS (except BW in male at 8 wk of age and BWG at the interval 4-8 wks). The reciprocal effect (RE) was significant for males and females BW at 4, 8 and 12 wks of ages and BWGat the intervals 4-8, 8-12 and 0 -12 wks for both of S I and SM crosses. But IM cross had significant RE for males and females BW at 12 weeks of ages, males BWG at intervals 0-4, 4-8, 8-12 and 0 -12 wks. Maternal effect) ME  (of BW and BWG in male and female were positive and significant at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of ages and all intervals for MM strain. Direct additive effect (DE) had a reverse trend about maternal effects, the SS strain had highly positive significant values for male and female BW and BWG, CBWG, FI and V% at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age and different intervals. The values of ME and DE showed superiority of SS and II as sires which suggest that using of those strains as a terminal sire breed in cross breeding programs, including MM dams would be beneficial for improving the BW and BWG in males and females, CBWG, FI and V% traits. The differences for in the actual and expected means and in relation to actual % for all hybrid genotypes were approximately equal zero. The SS had the highest BV for BW and BWG in male at all ages and intervals compared to the other genotypes followed by II strain. Moreover, it had highest BV for female BW and BWG at 12 wks of age and CBWG. The SI cross had the highest positive values for BW and BWG in male and female, CBWG and FI traits at all ages and intervals studied. The reciprocal crosses (SI and IS) had the highest positive values of GV for all trait studied [except V% for (SI) and FC for (IS) were lowest negative values]. The SI cross surpassed its reciprocal cross (IS) for all trait studied (except BWG in male, and female at 8-12 wks and V %).

[Emad. M. Amin. Genetic components and heterotic effect of growth traits in 3x3 diallel crossing experiment in chickens. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):62-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.10

 

Keywords: Body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion, combining ability, heterotic, reciprocal effect, maternal and, direct additive, prediction of hybrid performance, breeding and genetic values.

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Efficacy Of Drug Eluting Stents Versus Cobalat Chomium Stents In Small Coronary Artery Stenosis In Non Diabetic Patients

 

Yasser Elsayed Mohammed, Ahmed Roza, Saad Elzogby, Abdelrahman Aly and Mostafa Mokarab

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

Yasserelsayed@Yahoo.Com

 

Abstract: At present, coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the developed world. According to the American Heart Association CAD was responsible for approximately 445,687 deaths in the United States in 2005, representing 20% of all deaths that year. Over the past two decades, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with bare-metal stent (BMS) placement has been utilised as a minimally invasive treatment for obstructive CAD. Treatment with a BMS will generally result in extremely favourable initial clinical results. However, at follow-up (6–12 months), re-narrowing of the treated artery is commonly observed in 20–30% of patients. This re-narrowing of the treated artery is due to in-stent restenosis (ISR). In recent years, DESs have been developed to address the problem of ISR. A DES typically consists of a BMS platform which has been coated in a formulation of drugs and carrier materials. Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in small coronaryarteries represent up to 35% of all catheter-based procedures in the daily practice. In particular, the rates of stent restenosis in the small vessel scenario are markedly higher when compared with stent restenosis rates in large vessels. We studied 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease subjected for elective PCI as all patients had single vessel disease and according to type of stent used in intervention, the patients were classified into 50 patients with drug eluting stents to treat de novo coronary lesions and 50 patients with cobalt chromium stents to treat de novo coronary lesions. The results of this study showed that, the use of drug eluting stent versus cobalt chromium stent was associated with a significant reduction in target vessel revascularization in small artery stenosis through 1-year follow-up with no difference in death, nonfatal myocardial infarction. The conclusion from our results suggested that the no difference in death, nonfatal myocardial infarction between drug eluting stent versus cobalt chromium stent and TVR was reduced.

[Yasser Elsayed Mohammed, Ahmed Roza, Saad Elzogby, Abdel rahman Aly and Mostafa Mokarab. Efficacy Of Drug Eluting Stents Versus Cobalat Chomium Stents In Small Coronary Artery Stenosis In Non Diabetic Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):78-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.11

 

Keywords: Drug; Stents; Cobalat Chomium; Coronary Artery Stenosis; Diabetic Patient

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Tunnelling effect on the adjacent pile footings

 

Mona M.Eid1, Ali A. A. Ahmed1, Ashraf M. Hefny2 and Ahmed N.EL-Attar3

 

1Professor of Geotechnical Engineering, Structure Engineering Department, Ain Shams University

2Associate Professor of Geotechnical Engineering, Structure Engineering Department, Ain Shams University/UAE.U

3Assistant Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, Higher Technology institute.

Ahmed_civil_hti@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tunnelling activates in urban areas are always associated with surface and subsurface ground subsidence, which may affect the stability of nearby structures and utilities. In cases, where these structures founded utilizing deep foundation systems, the ground subsidence associated with tunnelling must be cautiously considered because in most cases of shallow tunnelling conditions, the deep foundations may be located in the zones of influence of tunnelling activities. Also, the characteristics of ground-pile interaction play an important role in the stability of these structures. The main objective of the present study is to numerically evaluate the nature of interaction between the employed tunnelling technology and the nearby structures founded on deep foundation systems using 3D finite element idealization. Two case studies of tunnelling projects are employed in the analysis to evaluate the interaction between tunnelling process, confining ground, and the deep foundations arrangement. The first case considers of the stability of El-Attabe Garage building due to the execution of the Greater Cairo Metro Line 3-Phase 1, while the second case considers the stability of an existing motorway constructed of contiguous pile walls due to the construction Metro project crosses below the underpass. In this study, 3D finite element modelling is used to evaluate the tunnelling-ground-pile interaction behaviour due to the different tunnelling activities. The details of the tunnelling process; such as face pressure, rate of shield advancement, lining erection, tail grouting, and the grout hardening are idealized in numerical modelling. Also, the encountered ground stratigraphy with respect to its strength parameters and engineering properties of the deep foundation systems are introduced in the details of numerical modelling. Soil convergence around the tunnel excavation is modelled using a non-associated Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Results of the verification of the case histories show a fairly good agreement between measured and the computed data which validate the finite element model.

[Mona M. Eid, Ali A. A. Ahmed, Ashraf M. Hefnyand Ahmed N. EL-Attar. Tunnelling effect on the adjacent pile footings. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):88-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.12

 

Keywords: Tunnelling, lining, piles, three-dimensional modelling, finite element, grouting.

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Effect of an Educational Program on Caregivers, Knowledge about Diabetic Foot Care at Elderly Home in Damanhur - Egypt

 

Samia Khattab Abd El-Rahman1 and Abeer Abd El Fattah Abo Shousha2

 

1 Gerontological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt.

2 Education department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt.

samia_khattab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetic foot care of elderly people constitutes a growing and costly public health concern in developed nations. Educating caregivers about diabetic foot and increasing their knowledge will give significant impact on reducing the rate of amputation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on caregiver's knowledge about diabetic foot care at elderly home in Damanhur governorate. Method: An experimental research design was adopted. A convenience sample of 32 caregivers was recruited. An educational program was implemented with pre-post test and after four months. Tools included: socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge regarding diabetic foot care was assessed using the validated Diabetes Care Program of NOVA SCOTIA, DCPNS. Results: The mean SD of age was 34.8 5.9 and 53.1% were females. There were statistical significant differences in the general knowledge of the diabetic foot problems of the "numbness, picking pain, sharp pain at foot, for the favor of immediately after the program, with p=0.019" and the " tightness, heaviness, aching or cramps in the feet or legs pose a problem, with p =0.039". The knowledge of the caregivers was improved immediately after the educational intervention for foot hygiene items, type of shoes, socks and foot safety management, without significant differences of some studied items. The majority of the participants preferred posters and needed health education for diabetic foot care. Conclusion: The program has increased the knowledge of caregiver's, but the statistically significant impact will need long-term educational interventions. Caregiver's education can help in prevention and control of foot complications and lower-extremity amputations. This study recommended that: increasing the knowledge of caregivers in elderly homes about diabetic foot care through posters and repetitive short- term practical training interventions.

[Samia Khattab Abd El-Rahman and Abeer Abd El Fattah Abo Shousha. Effect of an Educational Program on Caregivers, Knowledge about Diabetic Foot Care at Elderly Home in Damanhur – Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):99-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.13

 

Keywords: diabetic foot care, awareness, caregivers, elderly people.

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Effect of mulch on soil properties under organic farming conditions in center of Saudi Arabia

 

Abdulaziz Alharbi

 

*Plant Production and Protection Department, of Agriculture College, Qassim University, P. O. Box 6622, Buraydah, 51452, KSA

aabanialharby@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The mulch application on top of soil surface may effect on soil physical conditions by reducing evaporation losses, soil moisture and soil temperature which in turn affect the distribution of soil elements through soil profile. This work presents a study of the effects of mulch on movement and distribution of soil properties including pH, soil salinity and major nutrition plant available N, P and K in organic palm farming by use different irrigation rates. The decreasing in soil pH more pronounced in surface layer compared to subsurface layers. Soil salinity of surface layers were lower than sub surface layers in mulched treatments for both tow time samples, under organic farming system, Soil moisture and mulch were shown to have a strong indirect influence on the amount of available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The highest value of total nitrogen in the soil was recorded in the presence of mulch with the availability of 100 % of the recommended irrigation, where the conditions are very suitable for the mineralization N process. With respect of available phosphorus and potassium, it has given highest values in the presence of mulch with the availability of moisture up to 70% and 85% of recommended irrigation, respectively.

[Abdulaziz Alharbi. Effect of mulch on soil properties under organic farming conditions in center of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):108-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.14

 

Key Words: organic farming, palm, mulching, movement major nutrition nutrient

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Opportunistic behavior in buyer-seller relationships: Theoretical foundation; antecedents and consequences

 

Yousra Eid Mohamed Abd El Rahman

 

Demonstrator at Faculty of Commerce-Business Department-Alexandria University, Egypt.

youyou.you29@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Opportunism a behavior can be found in any relational exchange in many forms. In this respect, opportunistic behavior has been recognized one of the historical factors that have tremendous effects on the relationship development between buyer and seller. A conceptual framework of the research’s main variables is presented, the antecedents which are dependence, formalization, relational norms and uncertainty; followed by the consequences of opportunism which are performance and satisfaction. The aim of this research is to explain the theoretical background of each antecedent and consequence of opportunism as a concept and how these variables are related to such behavior.

[Yousra Eid Mohamed Abd El Rahman. Opportunistic behavior in buyer-seller relationships: Theoretical foundation; antecedents and consequences. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):116-129]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.15

 

Keywords: Opportunistic behavior; buyer-seller; relationships; Theoretical foundation; antecedent

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Role of Statin Therapy as Anti-inflammatory in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients

 

Abdelwahab H 1, *Ahmed Khames 2, 3, Salah R 4, Aboseif M 5

 

Clinical Pharmacy Department 1, Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Department 2, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt, Taif University 3, Taif, KSA, Chest Department 4, Internal Medicine Department 5 Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Dr_akhames@yahoo.com, Hassanwahab83@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Statins have a role in reducing the chronic progressive inflammatory status of COPD. One of the inflammatory markers which are evaluated in COPD patients is BAL neutrophils count. The aim of this study is to evaluate evidence the role of statin in treatment of COPD. Patients & Method: 23 adult male patients aged >40 years, with COPD, FEV1 30-70% predicted FEV1/FVC< 70% (with no exacerbation attacks in the last two months prior to the study, Smoker or ex-smoker with smoking index > 400 were studied by Spirometry, smoking index, fiber optic bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage. Total cell count & neutrophils levels in broncho-alveolar lavage were measured in these patients pre- and post- statin therapy using 40 mg simvastatin once daily for 8 weeks. Results: Statins reduced the inflammatory state by decreasing Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), total cell count (TCC) & neutrophils levels in all stages of COPD. As regards total cell count (TCC), there was statistically significant difference between pre- and post- statin therapy in moderate, severe and very severe COPD. As regards BAL absolute neutrophils count, there was statistically significant difference between pre- and post- statin therapy in moderate and severe COPD while no statistically significant difference in very severe COPD. As regards BAL relative neutrophils count, there was statistically significant difference between pre- and post- statin therapy in severe COPD while no statistically significant difference in moderate and very severe COPD. Conclusion: Treatment with statins for 8 weeks in COPD patients decreases inflammatory mediators (broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), total cell count (TCC) & neutrophils levels in all stages of COPD).

[Abdelwahab H, Ahmed Khames, Salah R and Aboseif M. Role of Statin Therapy as Anti-inflammatory in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):130-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.16

 

Key words: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Broncho-alveolar lavage, Neutrophils, Simvastatin.

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Effect of balance training, plus black seeds capsules on Knee joint injuries, balance and performance

 

Hussein Abaza

 

Prof. Dep. of Health Sc. and Dean of Fac. of Physical Educ, Banha Univ., Banha, Egypt

hussein.abaza@fped.bu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effects of balance training, plus black seeds capsules on knee joint injuries, balance and performance. Materials and Methods: Thirty students from Banha Univ. volunteered to participate in the study, they were affected with knee joint injuries (strain, sprain), aged (19-22y). They were divided to three groups each of 10 students, balance training group, balance training with black seeds capsules (200mg/daily), control group. The training course run for one hour a day, four days weekly and lasted 3 months. Control group did not participate to the training. Tests were performed at baseline and after 3 months: vertical jump, isometric lower limb extension 5 huttle run, balance test, knee joint range motion. The results suggest neuromuscular adaptation and activation of proprioceptors leading to improved balance, range of motion and performance in case of balance training group plus black seeds capsules compared to balance training alone or control group.

[Hussein Abaza. Effect of balance training, plus black seeds capsules on Knee joint injuries, balance and performance. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):136-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.17

 

Key words: Balance training, Black seeds capsules, performance tests, knee joint injuries

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18

Genetic components and heterotic effect in 3x3 diallel crossing experiment on egg production and hatching traits in chickens

 

Emad. M. Amin

 

Desert Rese. Center, Ministry of Agric., Egypt

h_h562000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three genotypes of chickens [one local strain named Mandarah (MM) and two exotic parental commercial meat type strains [Saso (SS) and Italian (II)] were crossed in a 3 x 3 diallel mating (nine combinations) throughout two successive years to evaluate crossbreeding effects, combining ability, general (GCA) and specific (SCA), percentage of heterotic effect (H%), reciprocal effect) RE (maternal effect) ME (and, direct additive effect) DA (for egg production and hatching traits in purebred parental and their crosses. Moreover, using GCA and SCA to predict the hybrid performance, breeding (BV) and genetic (GVFM) values for purebred parental and their crosses. There were highly significant differences among the different genotypes for body weight (BWSM) and age (ASM) at 50 % egg production, egg number per hen-housed at the first 90 days (EN1), the first 180 days (EN2) of production, egg weight at the mentioned periods (EW1and EW2, respectively), egg production rate (ER%) and egg mass (g / hen /180 days) (EM), feed intake (g / hen / day) (FI1), feed intake (g / egg) (FI2),feed efficiency (g feed / egg) (FC), in addition to hatch traits [fertility percentage (F%), hatchability percentage of fertile eggs (HFE%), hatchability percentage of total eggs (HTE%), embryonic mortality (EM%), egg pip (EP%) and total egg loss (TEL%)]. The pure strain MM had the highest significant values of EN1 (65eggs), EN2 (120 eggs), ER% (67eggs), F% (91.7%), HFE% (89.1%) and THE% (81.7%), moreover, the best values for FC and M% compared to the other pure strains, followed by Italian II strain. No significant difference between S x I cross and it's reciprocal. I x S were found for BWSM, ASM, EN2, ER, EW1, EW2, FI1, M%, F% and EP% traits. Moreover, the reciprocal crosses(I x M and M x I) had statistically the highest values for ER%, EM, FC, HFE%, HTE% and EM% compared to the other genotypes, while no significant difference were found between the two crosses for the rest studied traits. Fortunately, MM strain and both of its reciprocal crosses with II strain (I x M and M x I) had the highest values for EN1, EN2, ER, EM, FC,M%, HFE%, HTE% and EP% traits compared to the other genotypes. The MM strain had positive significant values of GCA for BWSM, EN1 and ER traits. The II strain had positive significant GCA estimates of BWSM and EM. Both of the reciprocal crosses (Ix M and M x I) had the highest positive significant estimates of SCA for EN1, FI2 and M% traits, while, M x S and M x I had significantly the highest positive estimates for EN1, EW1, EW2 and EM traits compared to the other genotypes. Reciprocal crosses (S x I and I x S) had significantly the highest values of SCA for BWSM, While, I x S hens had significantly positive values for EN2, ER, F%, HFE% and THE% traits followed by M x S cross for the former traits. Heterotic percentages (H %) of both of the reciprocal crosses S x I and I x S had positive and significant values of H% for BWSM, EN2 and EM traits were found. Cross S x M had significant and positive estimates for EN2, ER, EW1, EW2 and EM traits were observed. Moreover, I x M cross and it's reciprocal M x I had positive significant values for BWSM, EN1, EN2, ER %, EW1, EW2, EM and M%. On the other hand, the three crosses (S x I, S x M and M x I) and their reciprocal crosses had positive significant values of H% for F% and hatchability traits (except M x I for F %). Both of S M and I M crosses had positive significant values of reciprocal effect RE (for BWSM and EM. The MM strain had positive significant values of maternal effect (ME) for BWSM and negative significant estimates for EM. The SS strain had positive significant estimates of ME for EN1, EN2, ER, EM FI2, and F% and hatchability traits. Positive significant estimates of ME were found for MM strain concerning PE% and TEL% traits. The MM strain had positive significant values of (DA) for EN1, EN2, ER, EM traits. Both of the SS and II strains had positive significant values of DA for BWSM, ASM and EW2, On the other hand, II strain had positive values for EN2,ER%, EW1, EW2 and EM traits. Both of MM strain and Ix M cross had the highest expected breeding values for EN1, EN2, ER, EM, HFE%, and HTE %traits. Both of SS strain and I x S cross had the highest breeding values for BWSM, ASM, EW1, EW2, FI1, FI2, FC, M %,EM %, PE % and TEL% traits. Moreover, SI cross had the highest estimates of GVFM for BWSM, ASM, FI1, FI2,FC, PE % and TEL% traits, while, MI cross had the highest values of GVFM for EN1, EN2, ER, EM, and hatchability traits.

[Emad. M. Amin. Genetic components and heterotic effect in 3x3 diallel crossing experiment on egg production and hatching traits in chickens. J Am Sci 2015;11(1):140-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas110115.18

  

Keywords: Egg production, hatching traits, combining ability, heterotic, reciprocal effect, maternal and, direct additive, prediction of hybrid performance, breeding and genetic values.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 26, 2014. 

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