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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003

Volume 11, Special Issue 1 (Supplement Issue 1), March 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1101s

 

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CONTENTS

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1

Comparison between neurological assessment of inexperienced and experienced intensive care nurses using GCS and FOUR.

 

Intessar Mohamed Ahmed

 

Critical Care & Emergency Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt.

drmohamed.intessarmohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Neurological assessment of those comatose patients and their outcome prediction are complex due to the difficulty of capture indistinct details of the clinical examination. The complexity of such assessment can also be explained by the difficulty of finding usable terminology permitting to describe the neurological status of a single patient. In recognition of these problems, scales have been constructed in an attempt to bring uniformity to the neurological examination and to standardize communication about the level of consciousness. The most commonly used scale is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and FOUR. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare between neurological assessment of inexperienced and experienced intensive care nurses using GCS and FOUR. Materials and Methods: This study involved 100 nurses, it has a quazi experimental design and it was carried out at Unit I, Unit III and emergency room at the main university hospital, Alexandria University. In addition, a convenience sample of 50 patients with disturbed level of consciousness was chosen to be examined in this study. A highly qualified nurse with at least 2 years of experience in ICU and at least 1 year of current neuroscience nursing was used as comparison subject. A neurological assessment sheet was developed by the researcher and used to collect data by every inexperienced nurse. It included Patients characteristics, Glasgow coma scale and FOUR scales. In addition an observational checklist was developed by researcher to be used by experienced nurse. Before data collection all inexperienced nurse received instruction in the use of the GCS and FOUs. Then, every patient was examined by 2 inexperienced nurses and the experienced nurse at the same time. GCS and FOUS were measured every 6 hours for 3 times /day and repeated for 2 days by the same nurses. The experienced nurse observed all procedures and made written notes on any departures from protocol as they occurred in checklist. Then when 2 nurses had dispersed, she made her own GCS and FOUS observations. Results: It was found that scores of GCS and FOUR which was obtained by inexperienced nurse was less than mean score of GCS and FOUR which was obtained by experienced nurse during 2 days with significant difference at second day and total scores of the two days. Mean of GCS rating scores increased with mean of FOUR rating scores with both of inexperienced and experienced nurse. GCS and FOUR rating scores of inexperienced nurse was significantly correlated with GCS and FOUR rating score of experienced nurse. The median of GCS rating scores differences between experienced nurse recording scores and those were recorded by inexperienced nurse was more than 3 points with spinal cord injured patients, patients with hepatic encephalopathy and poisoned patients Moreover, the median of FOUR rating scores differences between experienced nurse recording scores and those were recorded by inexperienced nurse was more than 4 points with spinal cord injured patients and patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion: The finding of the present study showed that inexperienced nurses made neurological assessment using GCS and FOUR accurately. The GCS is an important tool in the assessment of patients. But, there is no doubt that the FOUR provides an adequate initial assessment of patients with disturbed level of consciousness ant it can be easily used by inexperienced nurse. Errors occurred in the assessment of spinal cord injured patients and an understanding of how these can occur will be important if the quality of nursing care is to be improved.

[Intessar Mohamed Ahmed. Comparison between neurological assessment of inexperienced and experienced intensive care nurses using GCS and FOUR. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.01

 

Key words: Comparison, neurological assessment, inexperienced, experienced, nurses, GCS, FOUR.

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Nutritional problems of elderly population of Arar City KSA

 

Nagah Mohamed Aboel-Fetoh1, Mohamed Mousa Abd El-Mawgod2, SAIMA EJAZ3, Abdelrahman Abukanna4, Ahmed Hamad4

 

1- Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

2- Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.

3- Department of physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, KSA.

4- Department of medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University, KSA.

E Mail: mossa20072006@yahoo.com; Mobile: 0966501171525

 

Abstract: Introduction: Demographic data show an increased life expectancy of the world population. Malnutrition is common in elderly persons living in the community. In many cases, this problem arises from interacting physiologic, economic, and psychosocial causes. Aim of the study: The aim of this community based study is to estimate the prevalence of some nutritional problems among the elderly population of Arar city, KSA. Subjects and methods: This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Arar city, the capital of Northern Borders Governorate. Personal interviews with the 100 sampled elderly and filling the questionnaire, which guided us to the socio-demographic data, nutritional problems due to physiological changes, digestive and dental health problems which affect feeding, consumption of drugs for treatment of chronic diseases and daily consumption of water and other drinks. Results: characteristics of the sample showed that 42% of studied group were suffering from problems in food swallowing and salivation, impaired taste and smell was found in 20%. Appetite to food was normal in 38%, intermediate in 36%, weak in 20%. 22% feed themselves without difficulty or help from others. 58% needed help and 20% eat with difficulty, adding salt to food was found in 46% of the sample, 26% had regular times for eating, 26% mostly, 36%sometimes and 12.0% rarely eat in regular times. Ability to shopping was high in 24% but low in 68% of the sample. Feasibility of shopping was enough in 26% only, 38% of the sample sharing food with their families and 32% eat alone. Hyperacidity, distention, constipation and gases affect 72%, 66%, 54% and 68% of the studied population respectively. Dental caries was found in 72.0% and 22.0% had total loss of their teeth and were using dentures. 72% of the studied elderly populations consume daily drugs for treatment of chronic diseases. Who consume 1-3 cups of water and other drinks were 62.0% and 64.0% respectively and who consume 3-5 cups were 26.0% and 30.0%.

[Nagah Mohamed Aboel-Fetoh, Mohamed Mousa Abd El-Mawgod, SAIMA EJAZ, Abdelrahman Abukanna, Ahmed Hamad. Nutritional problems of elderly population of Arar City KSA. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):8-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.02

 

Key wards: nutritional problems, elderly, physiologic, social, economic, and psychosocial causes.

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3

Revival of Traditional Architecture in Old Cities - Aleppo, the oldest inhabited city in the world as an example

 

Dr. Ayman Al Suliman 1, Lena Suliman2

 

1. Al Zaytoonah University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Architecture -11733 Amman – Jordan

2. Architect - an independent researcher – Dubai-U.A.E.

* a.suliman57@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The term “Sustainability” is undoubtedly not innovative or new; it is an idea that has been implemented and expressed in the traditional architecture of several regions in the world through the harmony between buildings, the surrounding environment and the good utilization of natural recourses, which has evolved throughout the years through trial and error. At a certain point, city centers such as Aleppo turned into active places for tourism, trade and economics, and a lot of people relocated to modern housing at the west side of the city, hence there was a need to develop traditional houses and their facilities in a way that corresponds to modern life style. This paper examines a case study of a traditional house that goes back to the eighteenth century, which was converted into a well-appointed hotel that allows its guests to relive the past in a modern context. It also studies the traditional housing’s social and psychological perspective, as well as its architecture and functionality that had been influenced by the customs and traditions of the city. Additionally, this paper aims to enrich the universal practice of restoring heritage and traditions as a form of sustainability in traditional architecture, and illustrates the compound correlation between man and environment as a result of the modern evolution of societies, hence portraying sustainability in its various forms.

[Ayman Al Suliman, Lena Suliman. Revival of Traditional Architecture in Old Cities - Aleppo, the oldest inhabited city in the world as an example. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):14-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.03

 

Keywords: Sustainability, Traditional housing, Environment, Heritage, Societies.

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4

Offering a Mathematical Model for reducing Road Traffic in the Highways and solving it by Genetic Algorithm

 

Seyed Majidreza Ahmadi

 

Master of Highway and Transportation Engineering, University Putra Malaysia

 

Abstract: Traffic systems and specially rail transportation systems have a sophisticated nature and the current and future situations of these systems are considerably dependent upon many factors that influence each other. Usually these effective factors include physical and human factors. So, it is difficult to present a proper model for all effective mechanisms on a transportation system. To release from this sophistication, a particular relation may be extended by different analyses. By offering a mathematical model and solving it by a genetic algorithm, this paper is aimed at distributing the traffic load in the urban transportation network properly. This model is a non-linear ideal programming that is among optimal traffic allocation matters. This model controls limitations specified in the decision making space and it modifies generation members which will improve rapid problem solving and evolutionary process. Solving the proposed model by the genetic algorithm showed that the time of solving the model by genetic algorithm with a population size 30 and generation number 300 is less than discrete algorithms. Increasing the number of generations and size of population for solving the model is a more efficient solution.

[Seyed Majidreza Ahmadi. Offering a Mathematical Model for reducing Road Traffic in the Highways and solving it by Genetic Algorithm. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):20-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.04

 

Key words: network traffic allocation model, mathematical model, traffic modeling, genetic algorithm

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5

Investigation of the Inhibitive Properties of Alchornea laxiflora leaves on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Study

 

Olasehinde, E.F 1, Ogunjobi, J. K.1, Akinlosotu, O. M.2, Omogbehin, S. A.3

 

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

3 Department of Science Laboratory and Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin kebbi, Nigeria.

feolasehinde@futa.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The use of naturally occurring compounds as corrosion inhibitors is of potential interest because of their cost effectiveness, abundant availability and environmental acceptability. Therefore, the study investigates the inhibition efficacy of acid extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaves on mild steel in acidic medium using gravimetric method. Experiments were performed by varying the immersion time, concentration of extract and the temperature. The results showed that acid extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaves is a potential inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium. The corrosion rate of mild steel in 1M HCl decreases with increase in the concentration of the extract. The inhibition efficiency increases progressively as the concentration of the extract increases but decreases with rise in temperature and the exposure time. The highest inhibition efficiency observed in the presence of the extract was 96 %. Activation energy was found to be 21.81 kJ mol-1 for the blank and increases to 82.57 kJ mol-1 in the presence of the extract. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibb’s free energy were evaluated. Kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the extracts revealed that it follows a first order reaction and the half-lives increase as the concentration of the extract increases. Adsorption studies revealed that Langmuir adsorption isotherm is the best adsorption model applicable to the adsorption of the extract on mild steel surface. Preliminary investigation of the phytochemical constituents showed that the extract contains tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid and some other compounds in trace constituents.

[Olasehinde EF, Ogunjobi JK, Akinlosotu OM, Omogbehin SA. Investigation of the Inhibitive Properties of Alchornea laxiflora leaves on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Study. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):32-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.05

 

Keywords: Inhibition; Alchornea laxiflora; corrosion; isotherm; kinetics; thermodynamics

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6

Does Cloud Computing pose a serious security threat or not?

 

Fahad Zahrani

 

Computer department in technical institute -Jeddah, Saudi Arabia - email:

Fahad-zahrani@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The goal of this research paper is to uncover the risks of usage of remote services. General concepts and tasks of cloud computing systems are described. In the main part the threats of cloud computing are revealed along with methods and practical recommendations for avoiding potential pitfalls. Based on the analyzed data, a conclusion is made, stating that ignoring some of the recommendations may present serious security issues in the process of remote systems’ usage.

[Fahad Zahrani. Does Cloud Computing pose a serious security threat or not? J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):40-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.06

 

Keywords: cloud, computing, technologies, security, models, service, resource, analysis.

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7

Improving Fruit Quality and Storability of Strawberry Fruits by Using Pre and Postharvest Treatments

 

Hassan, A. H.1 and Emam, M. S.2

 

1 Vegetable Dept. Fac. of Agric., Cairo. Univ., Egypt

2 Vegetable Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Inst. Agric, Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

drhassannali5@yahoo.com, Hassanali5@agr.cu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The objective of the present research was to study the pre and post-harvest changes in quality tributes of strawberry fruit during cold storage. This experiment was carried out on strawberry fruits during the two successive seasons of 2011- 2012 and 2012- 2013 to study the effect of using bio-fertilizers, i.e., effective microorganisms (EM), biofertile at the rate of 20 L / feddan in growing season and some post harvest treatments i.e., chitosan at 1.5%, and modified atmosphere packaging MAP (16%O2 +20%CO2) as well as their interaction to improve the keeping quality of strawberry fruits cv. Sweet Charlie during storage at 0C and 95% relative humidity. The results indicated that the effect of bio- fertilizers applied to strawberry plants with effective microorganisms (EM) and biofertile reflected higher values in general appearance, total soluble solid percentage, ascorbic acid, firmness, color, texture, titratable acidity, total sugars content and lower values in weight loss, decay percentage and anthocyanins content compared to other treatments. Moreover, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) gave better results (total soluble solid percentage, titratable acidity percentage, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, color, total sugar content and firmness) than other treatments. On the other hand, using effective microorganisms (EM) on the plants combined with (MAP) caused a significant increase in storability concerning general appearance, total soluble solid percentage, ascorbic acid, firmness, color, titratable acidity, total sugar content and anthocyanins content. Therefore, the effective microorganisms (EM) can be recommended for strawberry to improve productively, fruits quality and storability.

[Hassan, A. H. and Emam, M. S. Improving Fruit Quality and Storability of Strawberry Fruits by Using Pre and Postharvest Treatments. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):44-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.07

 

Key Words: Strawberry Fruits, Effective Microorganisms (EM), Biofertile, Chitosan, Modified Atmosphere Packaging MAP, Cold Storage, Weight Loss, Decay Percentage, Firmness, Color.

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Genetic improvement for yield and its components in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) via cycles of selection program

 

Rashwan1 A.M.A and A. A. Helaly2

 

1 Dept. of Hort. (Vegetable crops), Fac. Of Agric., South Valley Univ., Qena, Egypt

2 Dept. of Hort. (Vegetable crops), Fac. Of Agric., Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Selection is working to increase the genetic repetition in the desirable traits, as well as the improvement and development of new varieties of plant. The aims of this study were to determine genetic gain to flowering after three cycles of phenotypic selection in F2 population (Dokki 331 IT81D-1137). Significant differences among F3 Families, F4 Families and F5 Families for days to flowering were found. Direct response to selection for early flowering date was – 6.76 – 5.68 and – 7.68 days and dry seed yield/ plant 4.92, 8.73 and 8.27 gram in the three cycles of selection, respectively. The genetic gains for early flowering date were 9.04% in the first cycle, 8.14% in the second cycle and 11.43% in the third cycle of selection and dry seed yield/ plant 8.69%, 14.69% and 12.8%, respectively.). Correlated response to selection was significant and positive for all studied traits in three cycles. Moderate – high broad-sense heritability (0.24 – 0.96%) indicated the presence of additive gene effects. Positive correlation was found between days to flowering and other character in three cycles. This result has been indicated before from the highest to indirect response before dry seed yield in three cycles. Generally, the observed response was greater than predicted response had indicated the presence of dominance gene action controlling the flowering date. The results indicated that the selection was effective in improving the traits of dry seed yield plant.

[Rashwan A.M.A and A. A. Helaly. Genetic improvement for yield and its components in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) via cycles of selection program. J Am Sci 2015;11(1s):51-58]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.08

 

Key words: Cowpea, earliness, yield, selection, flowering.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 2, 2015. 

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doi:

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.01

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.02

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.03

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.04

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.05

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.06

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.07

doi:10.7537/marsjas1101s15.08

 

 

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