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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 2, Cumulated No. 84, February 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1102, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

Evaluation of the Effect of Enteral Versus Combined Entero-Parenteral Nutrition on Critically Ill Geriatric Patients

 

Ahmed SI1, El-Sayed NA2, El-Reweny EM3, Doha MM1

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Department of Nutrition, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

3Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

dr_ehab_elreweny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. Introduction: Malnutrition is a wide term that embraces nutrient and energy imbalance including both over-nutrition and under-nutrition. In elderly malnutrition is prevalent, even in the developed countries. The nutritional status of elderly individuals is difficult to estimate. Several studies have shown that mortality and morbidity rates decreased with improvement of the nutritional status. Thus nutritional therapy is an integral part of critically ill patients’ therapy, aiming at restoring and/or preserving body protein mass and providing adequate amount of energy. Methods: This study was conducted on 50 geriatric critically ill patients of both sexes admitted to Critical Care Medicine department in Alexandria Main hospital and they were classified randomly into two groups: Group I: including 25 patients will receive enteral feeding. Group II: including 25 patients will receive combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.The patients were followed up till their discharge from the ICU. All patients included in the study was subjected to the following, complete history taking, complete physical examination, routine laboratory investigations and pre-albumin were taken on admission and on discharge. NRS score and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) were done on admission, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was also done on admission and on discharge, The caloric intake will be calculated according to the ideal body weight, age and gender. The kilocalories will be supplied as 25k.cal/kg/day. In both groups EN will be initiated on the day of admission provided that there are no contraindications and it will be supplied as lactose free diet and contain 1Kcal/ml, this is the standard formula which will be modified according to the medical condition of the patients. In group II PN was started on the next day and was calculated as the difference between the calculated calories and the delivered calories of the previous day. It was in the form of 50% carbohydrates, 30% fat and 20% proteins. When the EN covered 80% of the caloric need, PN was stopped and whenever the caloric intake falls below 50% PN was restarted. Results: This study showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the both groups regarding NRS score. There was statistically significant difference between the both groups regarding the GNRI and the risk of malnutrition on discharge as in group II patients the GNRI value increased with significant decrease in the risk of malnutrition on discharge, while in group I patients the GNRI value was not significantly increased with no significant decrease in the risk of malnutrition (<0.001).There was statistically significant difference between the both groups as regard the incidence of complications occurring during feeding as they were higher among group I than group II (p = 0.008) particularly aspiration (p <0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups as regard other complication. There was no statistically significant difference between the both groups as regard the per-albumin on admission. As regard the mean Pre-albumin level on discharge there was statistically significant difference between the both groups as regard the pre-albumin level which increased significantly on discharge in group II patients while no significant increase in group I patients (p <0.001). There was statistical difference between the two studied groups as regard the plasma protein levels as group II shows significant increase in the plasma protein levels on discharge when compared with group II also there was statistically significant difference between the two groups as regard the total caloric intake. Conclusions: Anthropometric measurements are good indicators for elderly nutritional status. Pre-albumin level is well correlated with the nutritional status of elderly patient. Pre-albumin level can be used as a marker for early detection of malnutrition and acute changes in the nutritional status while albumin level, if used, should be used for chronic malnutrition. Pre-albumin and albumin levels are well correlated to GNRI. There is no correlation between APACHE II score and pre-albumin level. Nutrition supplied through the combined entero-parenteral route improved the nutritional status of critically ill elderly patient more than enteral route alone.

[Ahmedsi, El-Sayedna, El-Rewenyem, Dohamm. Evaluation of The Effect of Enteral Versus Combined Entero-Parenteral Nutrition on Critically Ill Geriatric Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):1-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.01

 

Key words: Malnutrition, nutritional therapy, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition.

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Impact of Cyanobacteria Inoculation on Rice (Orize sativa) Yield Cultivated in Saline Soil

 

H. H. Abbas 1, M. E. Ali 1, F. M. Ghazal 2 and N. M. El-Gaml 2

 

1- Soil Sci. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture Benha University

2- Agric. Microbial. Dept., Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt

fekryghazal@ymail.com

 

Abstract: A Field experiment was conducted in the clayey soil of the farm at Sahl El-Hossynia Agric. Res. Station in EL-Sharkia - Governorate, Egypt. The institute farm is located at 31o 8' 12.461" N latitude and 31o 52' 15.496" E longitude. Rice crop (Oryzae sativa) was planted during the summer season of 2009 to study the effect of cyanobacterial inoculation (Cyano.) under different levels of mineral nitrogen fertilization under saline soil condition on rice yield components and some soil biological activity. Results indicated that, in general, applying cyanobacteria inoculation to rice plant enhanced the growth of rice plant resulting in significant increases in rice straw and grains yields compared to uninoculated treatments. The treatment of 75% N + Cyano recorded significantly the highest rice straw and grains yields compared to the other tested treatments (50, 75 and 100% N and 50% N + Cyano). Also the treatment of 75% N + Cyno. increased significantly the total contents of N, P & K in rice plants. On the contrary, inoculation with cyanobacteria decreased significantly Na+ content of rice plants. Inoculation with cyanobacteria increased total proline content of rice plants compared to the other examined treatments. Inoculation with cyanobacteria had positively affected the soil fertility through enhancing rice rhizosphere soil biological activity in terms of total count bacteria, carbon dioxide evolution, dehydrogenase activity and nitrogenase activity. Generally, the inoculation with cyanobacteria along with reduced mineral nitrogen amount can help in growing rice under saline soil condition.

[H. H. Abbas, M. E. Ali 1, F. M. Ghazal and N. M. El-Gaml. Impact of Cyanobacteria Inoculation on Rice (Orize sativa) Yield Cultivated in Saline Soil. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):13-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.02

 

Keyword: Saline Soil – rice crop – cyanobacteria inoculation.

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Comparison of the corrosion inhibition by drugs for the corrosion of Nickel in hydrochloric acid

 

A. Y. El-Etre 1*, S. Abd El Wanees 2, Z. Abdel Hamid 3, M. Fareed 1

 

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

3 Central Metallurgical Research & Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Egypt

hpfarid88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of inhibitor concentration on the corrosion process has been investigated of nickel and nickel copper alloy in 0.05 M Hcl at 251C using electrochemical (Tafel polarization method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements) in presence of different drugs. Inhibition efficiency of the investigated compounds was found to depend on the concentration and the nature of the inhibitors. It was found that the results of these drugs on the metal surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The results indicated that the inhibitors could adsorb on the metal surface firmly through the heteroatoms, with excellent corrosion inhibition performance. The data obtained from electrochemical techniques are in a good agreement.

[A. Y. El-Etre, S. Abd El Wanees, Z. Abdel Hamid and M. Fareed. Comparison of the corrosion inhibition by drugs for the corrosion of Nickel in hydrochloric acid. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):20-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.03

 

Keywords: Corrosion, Nickel, Nickel copper alloy, HCl, drugs

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Studying Of HCV and Its Specific Antibody in Oral Fluid

 

1Khaled M. Gouda; 1Osama AM. Mansor; 2Mohammed S. Elshurbagi; 1Mostafa M. Elshafei and 1Gamil M. Abdullah

 

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University – Cairo, Egypt

2Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Boys), Al-Azhar University – Cairo, Egypt

K_Goudaph@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background & Aims The possibility of the non-parenteral Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) transmission is supported by the demonstration that the actual virus is present in several body fluids, including oral fluid. From a review of the literature, many investigators have found the presence of HCV-RNA in oral fluid; however, widely contrasting results emerge, with detection rates ranging from 0-100%. This study aimed to evaluate oral fluid as a possible alternative to serum for the detection of HCV-Ab, and to determine the correlation between detection of antibodies against HCV in oral fluid and HCV-RNA positivity in the same fluid. Reported here also is the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies against it in oral fluid by testing paired serum/oral fluid samples. Methods: Paired OF and serum samples were collected from 100 patients attending the outpatient clinics in the National Institute of Liver and endemic diseases at Cairo, Egypt. For the 100 serum samples found positive for HCV-RNA, using the Real-time RT-PCR technique (ANALYTIC JENA HCV 2.0 ASSAY), 20 of the corresponding oral fluid samples tested positive for HCV-Ab using the AXIOM Anti – HCV ELISA – Version 4 (SAV). Results Our findings indicate that the HCV-Ab in oral fluid occur in about one fourth of HCV infected patients, and blood leakage into the oral cavity may possibly the main source of the oral HCV-RNA as we rejected any oral fluid sample contaminated with blood. Our findings also suggest a weak positive correlation between HCV-RNA serum Level and HCV-Ab Titer in Oral Fluid (r = 0.15). On the other hand, results showed a perfect positive correlation between HCV-Ab serum Level and HCV-Ab Titer in Oral Fluid (r = 1). In the current study, the patients were subdivided into two groups "positive & Negative" based on presence or absence of HCV-Ab in oral fluid. There was a statistically significant difference between both groups as regards ALT and Albumin by using Welch's t-test (P< 0.05). In addition, there was a highly statistically significant difference between both groups as regards AST also by using Welch's t-test (P<0.01), while insignificant difference between both groups as regards ALP and Bilirubin (P> 0.05). Conclusion It could be concluded that HCV-Ab may present in oral fluid, which may be an effective alternative to serum antibody testing for surveillance of hepatitis C infection. Presence of HCV-RNA in oral fluid could not be demonstrated.

[Khaled M. Gouda; Osama AM. Mansor; Mohammed S. Elshurbagi; Mostafa M. Elshafei and Gamil M. Abdullah. Studying Of HCV and Its Specific Antibody in Oral Fluid. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):28-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.04

 

Keywords: HCV-RNA - HCV-Ab - Oral Fluid - Serum

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Factor Analysis as a Tool to Identify Water Quality Index Parameters along the Nile River, Egypt

 

Mohsen M. Yousry1 and H.A.A El Gammal2

 

1Nile Research Institute (NRI), National Water Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2 National Water Research Center (NWRC), Cairo, Egypt

elgammalhussein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Water quality is of great importance in managing water as it is directly affects humans health. The Nile River and its two branches are the main sources of water in Egypt. They play a major role in assimilation or transportation of the municipal and industrial wastewater discharge as well as the occasional or seasonal pollution sources. In this research, the factor analysis technique is applied to surface water quality data sets collected from the Nile River to determine the sources of pollution during two different hydrological periods (low and high flow conditions) as well as to identify water quality index parameters. Data were collected for two years from 2010 to 2012 for both flow conditions and were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results showed that all water quality parameters have mean values within the allowable limits except the chemical oxygen demand (COD) comparing to the national standards. Factor analysis revealed that water quality of the River was strongly affected by agricultural uses. On the other hand, the main pollution source changed from agricultural uses to agricultural uses mixed with organic contamination discharging from domestic wastewater in high-flow periods. The bacterial contamination represents second and the third factor during August and February; respectively. In addition, the organic contamination represents the last factor during the low flow period. This technique is very useful to decision makers in identifying priorities to improve water quality that has deteriorated due to the wastewater discharge.

[Mohsen M. Yousry and H.A.A El Gammal. Factor Analysis as a Tool to Identify Water Quality Index Parameters along the Nile River, Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):36-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.05

 

Key words: Nile River, factor analysis, water quality, agricultural and bacterial contaminations

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The Effectiveness of an Educational Training Program for Autistic Children's Mothers in the Development of Some of the Daily-Life Skills in their Children

 

Mohammad Ibrahim Abdel Hameed

 

Professor Assistant of Kindergarten Curricula Kindergarten Faculty- Port Said University. Educational Sciences Department.

ibrahem18@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: International statistics show a significant increase in the proportion of the existence of autistic children attaining about 3% of the number of children with special needs. This percentage is high compared to other child-related statistics. However, they researched various problems arising from the following question: How effective is a training educational program to a sample of autistic children’s mothers in developing some daily-life skills in autistic children. Therefore, this study presents a discussion and an attempt to interpret the results of the study. This include the verification of hypotheses in the existence of the differences between pre and post tests in the average grade life skills of children with autism for both the control and the experimental groups after the application of the program.

[Mohammad Ibrahim Abdel Hameed. The Effectiveness of an Educational Training Program for Autistic Children's Mothers in the Development of Some of the Daily-Life Skills in their Children. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):45-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.06

 

Keywords: Autistic, Life Skills, Educational Training

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Does Polyhydramnios in Singleton Pregnancies Has Effect on Perinatal Outcome in Absence of Congenital Fetal Anomalies

 

Tarek Ramadan Abbas1, Mohammed Ezzat Mohammed2 and Emadeldin R. Matar3

 

1Obstetric Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Email: tariqramadan1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To determine if polyhydramnios in singleton pregnancies has effect on perinatal outcome in absence of congenital fetal anomalies. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective study on pregnant women attending outpatient clinics in Bab Alshaaria university hospital by reviewing their medical files from December 2009 to December 2013 to assess the perinatal outcome in singleton pregnancies with polyhydramnios in absence of congenital fetal anomalies. Finally, 90 cases were included as unexplained polyhydramnios, and 152 cases were included as controls. Preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestational age at birth), low birth weight (<2500 g), very low birth weight (<1500 g), macrosomia (>4000 g), 1- and 5-minAPGAR scores <7, small for gestational age (SGA)[defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age ], large for gestational age (LGA) [defined as birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age] fetuses, C-section rates, incidence of fetal distress, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after delivery and neonatal death within the first 7 days were selected as perinatal outcome variables. Results: Higher incidence of low birth weight (<2500 g), macrosomia (>4000 g), small for gestational age fetuses, large for gestational age fetuses, high C-section rates, fetal distress, admission to neonatal intensive care unit after delivery and neonatal death within the first 7 days in the unexplained polyhydramnios group compared with the control group. Significantly higher incidence preterm labors and low 1- and 5-min APGAR scores were noted in the unexplained polyhydramnios group compared with the control group. Conclusion: Polyhydramnios is significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, such as low APGAR scores, preterm labour despite exclusion of congenital anomalies from the study population. Detailed antepartum fetal well-being surveillance, intensive intrapartum monitoring and further attention in the postpartum period is warranted in patients with this condition.

[Tarek Ramadan Abbas, Mohammed Ezzat Mohammed and Emadeldin R. Matar. Does Polyhydramnios in Singleton Pregnancies Has Effect on Perinatal Outcome in Absence of Congenital Fetal Anomalies. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):62-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.07

 

Keywords: polyhydramnios, perinatal outcome, congenital fetal anomalies

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Relationships among Physical, Chemical and Industrial Characteristics of Different Dromedary Camel's Hair Types

 

Helal, A.

 

Animal & Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Egypt.

ahelal_drc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three hundred kg of raw camel-hair fibers (Magrabi camels) were collected during shearing season from Camel Research Station located in Matroh Governorate. The amount of camel-hair was subjectively classified into four categories control (C1, has no classification), coarse brown fibers (C2), coarser with white fibers liken to wool kemp fiber (C3) and fine fibers (C4). Results indicate that fine camel hair contains higher amount of B, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and S compared with coarse fibers, while coarse fibers had higher Mo, Pb and Zn than fine fibers. Coarse fibers had the highest values of amino acids (THR, SER, GLU, GLY, ALA, VAL, MET, ILE, LEU, TYR, PHE, HIS, LYS, ARG and PRO). Sulfur content of camel hair takes an opposite trend of both MET and CYS with FD, SDFD, B-force, CV of B-force, CV of tenacity, yarn metric count, Twists/meter, twist multipliers and abrasion. Copper, which involved in forming pigments found to be higher in brown coarse categories C1 and C2. Hair bundle elongation reached the maximum in C4 (34.4%), while the lowest percentage found in C3 (4.6%). Category (4) had higher twist multipliers 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 times those of C3, C2 and C1, respectively. Fine fibers selecting subjectively from the camel-hair fleeces had a good quality as raw material and yarn. More correlations among physical, chemical and industrial characteristics were also discussed.

[Helal A. Relationships among Physical, Chemical and Industrial Characteristics of Different Dromedary Camel's Hair Types. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):67-75]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.08

 

Keywords: Camel-hair, yarn characteristics, amino acids, minerals, Sulfur

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Immunoexpression of PAX-8 as a Useful Marker in Distinguishing Gynecological Malignancy from Colorectal Carcinomas: a Tissue Microarray-Based Approach

 

Jaudah Al-Maghrabi1,2,4, Abdelbaset Buhmeida,4, Mohammad Al-Qahtani4 and Mahmoud Al-Ahwal1,3

 

1Scientific Chair for Colorectal Cancer, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Departments of Pathology, 3Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 jalmaghrabi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: PAX 8 is a transcription factor that belongs to PAX gene family. The data on the diagnostic applications of PAX-8 is limited. In this study, the expression of PAX-8 in colorectal, endometrial and ovarian carcinomas is evaluated. Material and methods: Tissue microarrays were prepared from archival of colorectal carcinomas (n: 133), endometrial carcinomas (n: 79) and ovarian carcinomas (75) obtained from the Department of Pathology at King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Tissue sections were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies to PAX-8. The immunohistochemical stains were scored semiquantitatively from 0 to 4+. Results: PAX-8 immunoexpression was detected in 132/ 154 (83%) of the Mullerian carcinomas (93 and 43% for non-mucinous and mucinous carcinomas, respectively). PAX-8 expression was found in all serous carcinomas from ovarian and endometrial origin. PAX-8 was not detected in any of the colorectal carcinoma. Conclusion: PAX-8 is a sensitive marker for non-mucinous carcinomas of Mullerian origin and it is a useful marker in differentiating endometrial and ovarian carcinomas from colorectal carcinomas.

[Jaudah Al-Maghrabi, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Mohammad Al-Qahtani and Mahmou Al-Ahwal. Immunoexpression of PAX-8 as a Useful Marker in Distinguishing Gynecological Malignancy from Colorectal Carcinomas: a Tissue Microarray-Based Approach. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):76-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.09

 

Key words: PAX-8, immunoexpression, colorectal, endometrial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, metastasis

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Effect of Phosphate Level on the Outcome of Critically Ill Patients in the Intensive Care Unit

 

Ahmed Sakhawey1, Samir Alawady1 and Assem Abdel Razek2

 

1. Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

2. Department of Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

drsakhawey@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Electrolyte disorders frequently develop in critically ill patients during course of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered electrolyte disorder, for which many causative factors are present in critically ill patients. Therefore, routine detection and correction of hypophosphatemia in the intensive care unit is commonplace. Hypophosphatemia has been associated with a multitude of clinical effects and there are many associations between correction of hypophosphatemia and improvement in outcome. However, there is no evidence at present to support the rapid correction of hypophosphatemia in critically ill patients. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prognostic effect of the serum phosphorus level on the outcome in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation, need for inotropes, length of ICU stay, other morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients during their stay in the intensive care unit. Methods: This study was conducted on critically ill adult patients admitted to the Critical Care Medicine Department in the Alexandria Main University Hospital, to the Intensive Care Unit in Alexandria Armed Force Hospital and to the Intensive Care Unit in Karmuz Health Insurance Hospital in Alexandria for six months from June 2014 till November 2014, divided into two stages: Stage I: All included patients admitted from June 2014 till August 2014 were categorized into two groups according to serum phosphate level: patients with normal serum phosphate level (2.5 – 4.5 mg/dL) and patients with low serum phosphate level (<2.5 mg/dL) then were followed and compared regarding the primary outcome (discharge from ICU or death) and the secondary outcome (duration of mechanical ventilation, need for inotropes and length of ICU stay). Stage II: All included patients admitted from September 2014 till November 2014 having low serum phosphate level (<2.5 mg/dL) were included and subjected to phosphate regimen then were followed and compared with the previous groups of hypophosphatemia and normophosphatemia according to the primary outcome (discharge from ICU or death) and the secondary outcome (duration of mechanical ventilation, need for inotropes and length of ICU stay). Results: we found the worst parameters among the hypophosphatemia group of stage I as following: A mean length ICU stay was 8.675 days in hypophosphatemia group compared to 5.811 days in normophosphatemia group and to 6.551 days in hypophosphatemia after regimen group.Need for inotropes was 51.9% in hypophosphatemia group compared to 26.1% in normophosphatemia group and to 30.5% in hypophosphatemia after regimen group. Use of mechanical ventilation was 56.2% in hypophosphatemia group compared to 46.8% in normophosphatemia group and to 50.8% in hypophosphatemia after regimen group. A mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.401 days in hypophosphatemia group compared to 2.550 days in normophosphatemia group and to 3.814 days in hypophosphatemia after regimen group. Mortality rate was 44.9% in hypophosphatemia group compared to 23.5% in normophosphatemia group and to 33.1% in hypophosphatemia after regimen group. Conclusion: Hypophosphatemia is considered a common co-morbidity in critically ill patients in I.C.U. Maintain of normal serum phosphate level is considered an important parameter in measuring the outcome of critically ill patients in I.C.U. Hypophosphatemia can be asymptomatic and passes unnoticed but may be accompanied by fatal complications. Hypophosphatemia can affect the outcome by showing increased mortality, need for inotropes, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of ICU stay. If Hypophosphatemia is developed, it should be diagnosed early and corrected as rapid as possible to prevent all its harmful effects.

[Ahmed Sakhawey, Samir Alawady and Assem Abdel Razek. Effect of Phosphate Level on the Outcome of Critically Ill Patients in the Intensive Care Unit. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):82-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.10

 

Keywords: hypophosphatemia, length of ICU stay, need for inotropes, duration of mechanical ventilation, morbidity, mortality.

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Variability of Prion Protein (PrP) Gene and its Association with Productive Performance in Barki Lambs

 

A. H. M. Ibrahim

 

Department of Animal Breeding, Desert Research Center, 1 Mathaf AlMatariya St., Cairo, Egypt

adelhosseiny2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aims of the present study were to detect the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms in a coding region of the ovine prion protein (PrP) gene and to test their association with productive performance of Barki lambs. Fifty four male lambs of Barki sheep were genotyped for the PrP gene using the polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) tool. The associations of the PrP genotype, the presence/ absence of each allele in animal genotype and the number of allele copies present in animal genotype with growth traits, body measurements, conformation indices and carcass characteristics were evaluated using general linear mixed models (GLMMs). The RFLP analysis detected two alleles R and C with frequencies of 0.843 and 0.157, respectively, and three genotypes RR, RC and CC with frequencies of 0.741, 0.204 and 0.055, respectively. The PrP genotype showed significant (P ˂ 0.05) associations with slaughtering weight, thigh circumference and hot carcass weight; and high significant (P ˂ 0.01) associations with weaning weight, pre-weaning daily gain and skeletal muscle index. The presence of allele R in the genotype significantly (P ˂ 0.05) affected hot carcass weight and dressing percentage; and high significantly (P ˂ 0.01) affected weaning weight, pre-weaning daily gain, slaughtering weight, thigh circumference and skeletal muscle index. The presence of one or two copies of allele R in animal genotype was significantly associated with heavier weaning, slaughtering and hot carcass weights; and also with higher pre-weaning daily gain, thigh circumference and skeletal muscle index. In view of our results, the variation in PrP gene affects a wide range of growth and carcass characteristics in Barki sheep and applying the marker assisted selection using the PrP gene is warranted to increase these traits will be of considerable economic value to sheep producers.

[A. H. M. Ibrahim. Variability of Prion Protein (PrP) Gene and its Association with Productive Performance in Barki Lambs. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):89-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.11

 

Key words: Prion protein, growth, body conformation, carcass characteristics, PCR-RFLP, Barki sheep

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The Design of a Small Scale Wind Turbine Generator

 

Dr. Achara N 1 and Dr. Nyitamen D S2

 

1. Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

2. Electrical Engineering Department, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria

ekoamuzu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The energy harvested by the wind is a function of both the blade design and the wind resource which is site dependent. The extracted energy may be used to drive mechanical devices or stored for future use. There are many types of energy storage facilities but for a small scale wind turbine, battery storage is adequate. Electricity generation works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Electricity can be generated using the synchronous or induction machine. For simplicity, the field winding may be replaced by permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field flux. Permanent magnet wind turbine generator has been designed and the design has adopted minimum air gap to enhance magnetic flux generation and cost reduction. Preliminary bench test has been carried out and the results obtained on a single phase arrangement are quite satisfactory.

[Achara N and Nyitamen D S. The Design of a Small Scale Wind Turbine Generator. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):97-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.12

 

Keywords: neodymium, induction, squirrel cage, synchronous, magnetomotive force, electromagnetic

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Ovine herpesvirus 2 can cause skin lesions in susceptible animals

 

Iman, M. Bastawecy1; Hend, M. El-Damaty2; Elsahima, F.2 and El-Said, H3.

 

1. Dept. of virology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza

2. Dept. of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Vet. Med. Zagazig university

3. Dept. of Int. Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of vet. Med. Cairo University

iman_baz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Skin lesions of Holestein cattle, native breeds of sheep and dromedary camels suspected to be caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) was investigated by isolation, identification and confirmation. Isolation was performed in Madden Derby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell culture and chrioallantoic membrane (CAM) of specific pathogen free-embroynated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE). Identification was carried out by negative and positive staining electron microscopy (EM) with agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) as herpesvirus. Confirmation was achieved using virus neutralization test (VNT) after isolation in the MDBK cell cultures. Our results denoted that the tested animals were infected with OvHV-2. On conclusion, the current study illustrated that OvHV-2 can cause skin lesions only or skin lesions with other symptoms in susceptible animals. EM is recommended as front line to give " open view" along with AGPT for identification and confirmation with VNT when different viral causes were suspected. Epidemiological studies to know factors control form or symptoms of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible animals are also recommended with further researches for the possibility of OvHV-2 to infect humans because there is strong suspicion for infection of contact persons (specially children) to infected animals, material or samples.

[Iman, M. Bastawecy; Hend, M. El-Damaty Elsahima, F. and El-Said, H. Ovine herpesvirus 2 can cause skin lesions in susceptible animals. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):102-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.13

 

Keywords: Ovine herpesvirus 2, skin lesions, isolation, identification

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A CT-based 3D-Finite element analysis of using zirconia prosthetic material as a full-arch hybrid fixed detachable mandibular prosthesis

 

Dr. Lamis Ahmed Hussein

 

Department of Dental Biomaterial, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA

dr.lamis.hussein@qudent.org

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to identify the stresses occurring on implants, abutments, and the surrounding bone using three-dimensional (3D) FEA. A CT-based 3D finite element model of the mandibular arch of an edentulous patient was created. In addition, four endosseous implants and their abutments were modeled using CAD designing followed by designing a prosthesis created from the studied type of zirconia material. The results showed maximum stress and maximum deformation values were presented in the Zirconia prosthetic material. Therefore, within the limitations of this study, for designing the implant-supported prosthesis, use of prosthetic material of high elastic modulus and high flexural strength like Zirconia optimized the stress distribution. Zirconia received the highest stresses and showed the highest deformation values among other components. Thus, Zirconia transmitted little stresses to the underlying components. All of stresses transmitted to the cortical and trabecular bone were less than the physiologic limit of the bony tissues.

[Hussein LA. A CT-based 3D-Finite element analysis of using zirconia prosthetic material as a full-arch hybrid fixed detachable mandibular prosthesis. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):108-118]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.14

 

Keywords: finite-element analysis; full arch implant; Zirconia; occlusal materials

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Investigating Earnings Quality and its Relationship with Future Profitability of Accepted Companies in Tehran Securities Exchange

 

Mahmoud Nozarpour 1.*, Fereydun Hassanpour1. 2, Faramarz Ebrahimi 1.3

 

1.Department of accounting Persian Gulf International Branch- Islamic Azad University- Khorramshahr-Iran

Mahmoud_nozarpour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this article the relationship between earnings quality with earnings stability index and future profitability has been investigated. Accordingly, three hypotheses were formulated. The first hypothesis investigated the relationship between profit stability and future profitability, the second hypothesis investigated the relationship between accruals and future profitability, and the third one investigated the relationship between operational cash flow and future profitability. To do this, 84 companies among the accepted companies in Tehran securities exchange were investigated during 2007 to 2014. To evaluate the earnings quality pooled data method was used, and then the hypotheses testing was implemented using multi-variable regression model. The results of this study show that there is a significant positive relationship between earnings quality and future profitability, and earnings stability is an appropriate tool to measure earnings quality and durable and stable earnings can be used to predict the future earnings.

[Mahmoud Nozarpour, Fereydun Hassanpour, Faramarz Ebrahimi. Investigating Earnings Quality and its Relationship with Future Profitability of Accepted Companies in Tehran Securities Exchange. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):119-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.15

 

Keywords: earnings quality, profit stability, accruals

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The Role of Color Doppler Ultrasound in Evaluation of Deep Veins Thrombosis of Lower Extremities

 

Moawia Gameraddin1, 2*, Suzan Abdelmaboud2, Sultan Alshoabi 1, Fathelrahman Alagab1, Mohamed Yousif 3, Tahani Gibreel 2

 

1Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Medical Applied Sciences, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Saudi Arabia. Fax: 00966 8475790 P.O: 30001 KSA. E-mail: m.bushra@yahoo.com (corresponding Author)

2Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, Alzaiem Alazhari University, P.O. Box 1432. Khartoum Bahri, 13311-Sudan.

3College of Medical Radiologic Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology. P.O. Box 1908, Khartoum, e-mail: mohnajwan@gmail.com. Sudan

 

Abstract: Deep vein thrombosis is one of the main serious vascular diseases which may lead to death and serious complication if left undiagnosed and untreated. Color Doppler is one of the accurate and safe imaging modality which plays a great role in diagnosis and management. Objective: to evaluate Sudanese patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities using color Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: the study population composed of 150 patients (different ages and gender) with suspected deep venous thrombosis at the lower extremities. They had been investigated with color Doppler using high frequency linear transducer. The protocol begins with the patient in supine position from upper thigh till foot with longitudinal and transverse scanning to examine the veins from the common iliac veins down to calf veins. Extent of thrombus was determined by locating the proximal end of thrombus and documenting it with longitudinal and transverse scans. Results: patients with symptoms and signs of DVT at lower limbs had been referred to ultrasound department to be examined with Color Doppler imaging. The results being as follows; DVT involved males higher than females (59.33 % vs. 40.67%). The age group of 35-39 years old is the most affected group (25.33%). Patients who have had an occupation were more affected ones than patients without an occupation (61.33 vs. 38.67%). Surgery is the most common risk factors (34%) & trauma is the second (20.67%). Swelling and pain were the most common symptoms of DVT (96% & 94%) respectively. The left popliteal vein was the most commonly involved vessel with DVT (30%) and left common femoral vein is the second affected vein (18%). Extension of DVT was observed in 20% of the cases. Conclusion: Color Doppler ultrasonography is very sensitive, accurate and safe to assess deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. It could determine location, extension and size of thrombi.

[Moawia G, Suzan A, Sultan A, Fathelrehman A, Tahani G, Mohamed, Y. The Role of Color Doppler Ultrasound in Evaluation of Deep Veins Thrombosis of Lower Extremities. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):124-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.16

 

Key words: Color, Doppler, Evaluation, Deep, Venous, Thrombosis.

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Hepcidin Level and Iron Status in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients

 

Tarek El Baz1, Fawzy Hamed1, Amr Mohab3, Abdallah Mahmoud, Magdy El-Said1, Osama Khamis1, Amgad Awad1, Haytham Sabry1 and Ashraf Abd Al-Monem2.

 

Departments Of 1Internal Medicine, 2Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams university, Egypt

drfawzyahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepcidin regulates the levels of iron in the body by preventing the body from absorbing more iron than is needed from food or supplements, and blocks the export of iron from cells. The aim of this work to assess the hepcidin level and its relation to, inflammatory status, hemoglobin level, and iron status in patients with ESRD. Seventy eight persons were included in this study. They were matched for age, sex & were divided into: 58 patients with ESRD maintained on regular hemodialysis (HDx), 4 hrs. three times weekly, 20 healthy subjects as a control group. All subjects of the study were subjected to the full history taking, including history of iron and EPO intake, complete clinical examination and laboratory investigation. Patients on regular hemodialysis Receiving intravenous iron have no significant difference in hepcidin level than those in control group. There was an inverse correlation between serum hepcidin and, Hb, AST, and S. iron. Also, there was a positive correlation between hepcidin and S.Cr., urea, calcium, phosphorous, PTH, TIBC, and serum ferritin. We concluded that the difference between level of hepcidin in the studied anemic sample has no significant difference when compared to the normal controls.

[Tarek El Baz, Fawzy Hamed, Amr Mohab, Abdallah Mahmoud, Osama Khamis, Amgad Awad, Haytham Sabry and Ashraf Abd Al-Monem. Hepcidin Level and Iron Status in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):129-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.17

 

Keywords: Hepcidin; Iron; Status; End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD); Patient

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Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Helwan Limestone: For Conservation Treatment of Ancient Egyptian Limestone Monuments

 

Hatem Tawfik Ahmed

 

Dept. of Sculpture, Architecture Formation and Monument Conservation, Faculty of Applied Arts, Hellwan University, Egypt. egypt5000bc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper describes the evaluation result carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of consolidation treatments applied on fresh specimens of Helwan protected Quarry, which extensively used in Ancient Egyptian monuments. The experimental were carried out using non-destructive methods for assessing the performance of Helwan limestone before and after treatments with four synthetic polymers which have been extensively used in stone conservation to preserve monuments from further deterioration. Physical and Mechanical properties of fresh limestone samples were determined in order to provide reliable data and significant guideline for the selection of suitable consolidant for conservation and maintenance process could be applied on Ancient Egyptian limestone monuments, statues, carved facades, decorative elements and historical structures. The selected stone substrates and, before treatment with the polymers, they were demonstrated formation of qualitative level-marking parameter according to the system of qualification. Selection of different non-destructive methods are applied and compared to understanding of material structure and physico-mechanical behavior, such as real and apparent density, bulk density (Kg/m3) of the fresh and treated samples. Measuring of US Time (s) and calculation of US velocities (Km/s) under laboratory conditions before and after the conserving trials. Duroscope rebound values before and after the conserving material, water absorption by capillary-rise and total immersion.The absorption rate of stone consolidant was also recorded. The textural properties of limestone samples were described by using petrographic microscope andX-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

[Hatem Tawfik Ahmed. Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Helwan Limestone: For Conservation Treatment of Ancient Egyptian Limestone Monuments. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):136-149]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.18

 

Key Word: Conservation; consolidation; Helwan limestone. Egypt. Monument. Aliphatic uretan resin (Z.K.F). silica acid ester Wacker-OH (PMMA: Polymethyl methacrylate) (B-72). Acrylate resin (ACR). non-destructive methods. Physical and Mechanical properties. Density. Duroscope rebound values. water absorption. Water capillary.

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Isolation and molecular characterization of heat and salt tolerance Rhizobia isolated from Saudi Arabia

 

Abo-Aba, S.E.M1,2; Mutwakil, M. Z1; AL-Ahmadi, T. M1.

 

Dept. Biological Science, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz Univ., P.O. Box 80141, 21589 Jeddah, KSA.

Microbial Genetics Dept., Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Div., National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Salah_aboaba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rhizobia form a very interesting symbiotic relationship with leguminous plants, so that; successful symbiosis between the bacteria and the legumes are not sustained unless the effect of environmental stresses such as salinity and heat are modulated in arid and semiarid regions.  Selection of effective, efficient and adapted stress tolerant rhizobial strains could help in ecological studies and increases soil fertility thereby improving the growth of associated plants of these regions. In the present study three indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii isolates were isolated from roots of Trifolium alexandrinum plant from Hada El-sham region Saudi Arabia. Isolates were phenotypically and biochemically characterized followed by studying their nodulation efficiency. Screening their tolerance to salt raged from (0.5 to 4% NaCl) and heat with the occurrence of different temperature from (30oC to 60oC) was evaluated. The isolated strains will be characterized genetically i.e., plasmid profile and DNA fingerprinting by RAPD-PCR also done.

[Abo-Aba, S.E.M; Zainy, M. M; AL-Ahmadi, T. M. Isolation and molecular characterization of heat and salt tolerance Rhizobia isolated from Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):150-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.19

 

Key words: Rhizobium, Heat tolerance, Salt tolerance, Plasmids, RAPD-PCR

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Assessment Of Land Use Cover Change Detection Using Supervised Maximum Likelihood Decision Rule And Its Post-Classification Technique In Puer-Simao Counties, China

 

Diallo Yacouba 1, Xu Yuanjin 2, BAH Amadou Apho1, Bokhari Abdulah. A.2 Hu Guangdao2, Wen Xingping 3,

 

1.Department of Science and agricultural technique at Rural Polytechnic Institute of Katibougou, B.P. 06 Koulikoro, MALI

2.Institute for mathematics geosciences and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei, P.R. CHINA

3.Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650093, Yunnan, P.R. CHINA

yacdial2005@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: From the Post classification technique, the forest or shrub land decreased marginally to about 66% and 53% in 2002 and 2005 respectively of the total area, while the built up land increased and occupied 20 and 41 % respectively. The agricultural land slightly increased in 1999-2002. The areas covered with forest or shrub land and unused land were receding at an average rate of 06 and 05% per annum respectively, while the built up, water and agricultural land cover types were expanding at rates of 11, 08 and 05% per annum respectively over the years period. Furthermore, the from- to change matrix showed that the most significant changes in the area were in the period 1999-2005, from Forest or shrub land into built-up land (20012 ha), from Forest or shrub land into Unused land (18032ha). In the period from 1999 to 2002 the most important changes were from vegetation into built-up (17223 ha) and from Forest or shrub land into unused land (15600 ha). In the period from 2002 to 2005 the most noticeable change was from Forest or shrub land into built-up (9800 ha).

[Diallo Y, Xu Y, Bah AA, Bokhari AA, Hu G, Wen X. Assessment Of Land Use Cover Change Detection Using Supervised Maximum Likelihood Decision Rule And Its Post-Classification Technique In Puer-Simao Counties, China. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):157-163]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.20

 

Key words: change detection, land use cover change (LULCC), Maximum likelihood, Post-classification

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Effect of Ginger Roots Meal as Feed Additives in Laying Japanese Quail Diets

 

Abd El-Galil,K. and Henda A. Mahmoud

 

Animal and Poultry Nutrition Dept., Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

Email: abdelgalil.k@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted with 210 Japanese quail (140 females and 70 males) at 4 weeks of age were used in an experiment lasted 22 weeks. The present study was designed to investigate the utilization of Ginger roots meal (Zingiber officinale L) as medicinal plant feed additive in laying Japanese quail diets and its effect on productive and reproductive performance. Experimental Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided randomly into four equal experimental treatments (35 females in each treatment). The first treatment was fed a basal diet as control, while the other three treatments were fed the basal diet additives with the Ginger roots meal (GRM), at levels of 0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 g/kg diet, respectively. The experimental diets were isocaloric (2900 kcal ME/kg), isonitrogenous (20% CP) and isofibrous. The final live body weight and body weight change increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing GRM levels. The highest final live body weight and body weight change were recorded by using 0.75 followed by 0.50 g/kg, while those fed control diet recorded the lowest ones. Feed intake (g/day) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing CFM levels, however 0.75 g/kg GRM recorded the highest ones, while the control diet recorded the lowest ones. The level of 0.50 g/kg GRM recorded the best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (g feed /g egg mass), while the control diet recorded the worst ones. The non-significant (P>0.05) effect of dietary CFM levels on age at sexual maturity and first egg weight, while egg weight, egg number, egg mass, hatchability and fertility percentage recorded a significant difference (P<0.05) as compared to the control treatment. Egg yolk and shell thickness percentage showed a non-significant (P>0.05) albumen and yolk index percentage were decreased (P<0.05) by increasing GRM. Eggshell and egg shape were increased (P<0.05) by increasing GRM as compared to the control treatment. Level of 0.50 g/kg GRM recorded the best net return as well as the highest value of economical efficiency and relative economical efficiency compared with the other treatments. In conclusions, It could be concluded that using dietary medicinal plant such as Ginger roots meal (Zingiber officinale L) at 0.50 g/kg of the diet could improve productive, reproductive performance and economical efficiency of laying Japanese quail.

[Abd El-Galil,K.; Henda A. Mahmoud and A.A. Abd El-Dayem. Effect of Ginger Roots Meal as Feed Additives in Laying Japanese Quail Diets. J Am Sci 2015;11(2):164-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas110215.21

 

Keywords: Quail, Ginger roots meal (GRM), productive performance, egg quality, digestibility, economical efficiency

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 27, 2015

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