Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003, Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 4, Cumulated No. 86, April 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1104


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Titles / Authors





Biochemical and immunogenicity studies on Hemagglutinin protein rescued from H5N1 avian influenza virus like particles


El said T. Awad 1, Eman Gouda1, Mohamed H. El-Husseiny2, Mona M. Aly2, Peter Pushko3, Irina Tretyakova3 and Abdel Sattar M. Arafa2


1Department of Biochemistry faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt 12211

2National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt.

3Medigen, Inc., Frederick 21701, MD, USA



Abstract: H5N1 subtype of avian influenza (AI) viruses have attracted the current global attention due to its adverse effect on public health, as well as the high economic losses in poultry industry. In Egypt, AI was reported in 2006 and confirmed to be Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) of subtype H5N1. Egypt was declared endemic country for H5N1 HPAI in July 2008. The weaknesses in the current immunization program in poultry in Egypt require finding a new approach to limit the spread of infection in poultry and increase the maintenance of public health safety. Current study aim was to prepare and characterize HA protein within Virus-like Particles (VLP) and evaluate its expression in the VLP and the ability to stimulate the immune system of the chickens. The preparation of VLP was carried out by optimization of the codon bias of the selected strain and expression of the hemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (N) and Matrix (M1) proteins using Baculovirus expression system. VLPs were characterized using hemagglutination assay, SDS-PAGE, western blot and Immunofluorescense assay. Immunization of the specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens using the prepared H5N1 VLP demonstrated seroconversion using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test as a tool for evaluation of the humoral immunity. Thus, VLP has the potential to be developed into an alternative vaccine candidate for the prevention of influenza virus infection in the poultry.

[El said T. Awad, Eman Gouda, Mohamed H. El-Husseiny, Mona M. Aly, Peter Pushko, Irina Tretyakova and Abdel Sattar M. Arafa. Biochemical and molecular studies on Hemagglutinin protein rescued from H5N1 avian influenza virus like particles rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):1-8]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1



Keyword: Avian influenza,Hemagglutinin, virus like particles

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Expression of Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule PECAM -1 in Gingival Tissue of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis


Ghada Bassiouny


Department of periodontology and oral medicine, college of Dentistry, Qassim University ,KSA and faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Periodontitis is a response of highly vascularized tissues to the adjacent microflora of dental plaque. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule PECAM-1(CD31) is a key regulator of blood vessel endothelium. Tissue levels of this angiogenesis marker are not well known in human gingival tissue, and its role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is not yet fully investigated. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate PECAM-1 expression in healthy versus periodontally diseased patients and in moderate versus severe chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects were participated in this study. They were divided equally into three groups: group I none periodontally affected subjects (healthy control) (CAL = 0); group II patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (CAL = 3 to 4 mm); and group III patients with severe chronic periodontitis (CAL =<5 mm). All participants were evaluated clinically and histologically by the use of monoclonal antibodies (anti-PECAM -1) for immunohistochemical expression of this marker in gingival tissues. Results: Histologically, both experimental groups (group II and group III) expressed increased level of PECAM -1 when compared to control. Moreover, the expression of PECAM -1 was higher in group III than in group II. However, this increase was not statistically significant. Conclusion: PECAM -1 overexpression in patients with periodontitis highlighted the role of this marker in pathogenesis of periodontal disease which may be useful in the early diagnosis of periodontal diseases.

[Ghada Bassiouny. Expression of Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule PECAM -1 in Gingival Tissue of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):9-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2



Key Words: platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule; PECAM-1; CD31; angiogenesis; chronic periodontitis.

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Selected Immunohistochemical Prognostic Factors In Endometrial Hyperplasia versus Carcinoma


Amina A. Zidan, Amal A. Hassan, Shaimaa Sh. Abu Seadah, Eman H. Ibrahim andSamah M. Attiah


Department of pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo,Egypt



Abstract: Background and Objective: Endometrial hyperplasia develops in a setting of estrogen excess. Detection of high levels of steroid receptors denotes a good response to hormonal therapy namely progesterone in simple and complex hyperplasia. Decrease in receptor activity which is found in atypical hyperplasia results in low sensitivity to progesterone therapy. If a higher level is found in some rare incidence of atypical hyperplasia, they have a good chance of response to hormonal therapy and a radical surgery can be avoided. Higher positivity in malignant lesion usually correlates with better differentiation and better survival rates.ER and PR may be useful markers predicting therapy response in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Aim of Work: In this study, we aimed to assess the relationships between Ki-67, P53 expression and estrogen (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) in endometrial hyperplasia versus endometrial carcinoma. We also evaluated the relationship between Ki-67, P53, ER, PR expression and tumor grade in endometrial carcinoma. Material and Methods: Specimens included16 cases endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, 6 cases atypical endometrial hyperplasia and 18 endometrial carcinoma specimens. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67, P53, ER and PR was performed using Ultraview DAB detection kit on Ventana Bench Mark staining systems (Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, Arizona, USA) on formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue samples. Ki-67, P53, ER and PR expression was represented as the staining score. Results: mmunohistochemistry showed that Ki-67, P53, ER and PR were positive for nuclei of cells. The percentage of ER, PR were decreased significantly in atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma as compared to simple or complex hyperplasia (p= 0.050 and p=0.041 respectively). The P53score in atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma was significantly higher than those for hyperplasia without atypia (p= 0.020). The Ki-67 score in endometrial carcinoma was insignificantly higher than those for hyperplasia (p= 0.508). In endometrial carcinoma, Ki-67, P53overexpression was found to be related to poor differentiation (high-grade tumors). Conclusions: The study showed that estrogen and progesteronepositive receptors correlate significantly with hyperplasia without atypia and well differentiated tumors. The overexpression of p53 and Ki-67 seems to indicate a more malignant phenotype. The results suggest that decreased levels of ER and PR with an increasing risk of invasive cancer plays an important role in the occurrence and development of endometrial carcinoma.

[Amina A. Zidan, Amal A. Hassan, Shaimaa Sh. Abu Seadah, Eman H. Ibrahim and Samah M. Attiah. Selected Immunohistochemical Prognostic Factors In Endometrial Hyperplasia versus Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):14-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3



Keywords: Endometrial hyperplasia, Endometrial carcinoma, Immunohistochemistry, Prognostic factors.

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Pharmacokinetics, Urinary Excretion and Milk Penetration of Marbofloxacin in Lactating Buffaloes


Rabab, R, Elzoghby and Mohamed Aboubakr


Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, Toukh, Qaliobiya 13736, Egypt. drrabab22220@hotmail.com


Abstract:The pharmacokinetics aspects of marbofloxacin were studied in healthy lactating buffaloes after single intravenous (IV) and single intramuscular (IM) injections at a dose of 2 mg/kgb.wt. Drug concentration in blood, milk and urine were determined by microbiological assay. After IV injection, marbofloxacin serum concentration–time curves were characteristic of a two-compartment open model. The distribution and elimination half-lives (T0.5α, T0.5β) were 0.31 and 4.74 h respectively. Following IM injection, peak serum concentration (Cmax) of 1.49 g ml-1 was attained at 1.36 h. The absorption and elimination half-lives (T0.5ab, T0.5el) were 0.43 and 3.27 h respectively. The systemic bioavailability of the IM administration (F %) was 99.39%. Following IV and IM administration, the drug penetration into the milk was rapid and extensive with marbofloxacin concentration exceeding those of serum. It was eliminated from the milk by slower rate than that of the serum and the drug was not detected in milk 24h after treatment. Marbofloxacin was detected in the urine in a high concentration than that of serum and reach high level in urine 1 h after administration then decline until 24 h. So marbofloxacinis suitable and effective for injection to buffaloes by a dose of 2 mg/kg every 12 h for treatment of mastitis and urinary tract infection caused by sensitive organism.

[Rabab, R, Elzoghby and Mohamed Aboubakr. Pharmacokinetics, Urinary Excretion and Milk Penetration of Marbofloxacin in Lactating Buffaloes. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):23-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4



Key words: marbofloxacin, buffaloes, urine, milk, pharmacokinetics

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The Effectiveness of a Program of Musical Activities Using the Story with Music and Song to Reduce the Negative Environmental Behavior among Kindergartners


Neveen Hassan Arnuos


Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Kindergarten, University of Port Said



Absract: Kindergarten is a crucial forming period of human life, where the first pillars of personality are formed, which are developed and reflected in the future of an individual's life. At this stage, a kindergartner has energy and desire for knowledge and discovery, acquisition of values and attitudes that are formed through their interaction with various activities presented to him, including musical activities. It is the fastest development period, especially in the mental and cognitive aspects, making its effect lasting over the years. So we must know well the potential and capabilities of kindergartner to be employed and developed in line with the environment where they live, as the environment is the context in which human lives and from which human derives their most important life components. As far as the child knows how to deal with their environment, they can conserve and care for it. So the child must have environmental education through which they understand the foundations of the right interaction with the surrounding environment, the patterns of positive behavior towards it, and the importance of its conservation. Here, kindergartners need a program to adjust negative behavior patterns toward the environment where they live, to raise them, to invest their potential, to become citizens enough aware of behavioral patterns necessary for this stage, to build ongoing social relationships with others. Perhaps one of the most important activities having important attraction with kindergartner, is musical activities, as they have a positive effect on the child. This has been demonstrated in the Arabic and foreign studies conducted in this area. The musical activities are the most enjoyable ones practiced and being interested in by a kindergartner. They are an effective means to develop the different aspects of child's personality. They also help to develop the mental aspects through the ability to observe, pay attention, memorize, organize, and also to acquire different skills needed in this important stage in a child's life. Musical activities also aim to develop the child's perception, particularly the auditory perception. They also develop the perception of the human voice's different elements. In addition, they also develop the ability to listen with a particular goal and respond rhythmically. They also develop the ability to sing, and use percussion instruments. The musical activity inside the kindergarten also have two roles: The first is essential, and the second is assistant or supportive. The first is done in the classroom, aiming to educate, develop and deepen the child's understanding of music, and develop their responses to it. The second is supportive to other activities that take place in the open air or in the classroom. Active, attractive music organizes playing and free manual work in the classroom, such as play with blocks, drawing, building houses or artistic works. This aims at creating joy and vitality as a feeling for the child. Music can also be exploited to confirm a specific event or to raise a child's imagination during telling stories for children or while playing with dolls. The researcher believes that the practice of musical activities in the kindergarten curriculum of activities must be given attention because of its positive effect on the child's development. In this study, the importance of musical activities lie in how to use them to change children's behaviors and attitudes in a positive way. For that this study has used the following tools: (1) A Proposed Program of Musical Activities to reduce the kindergartner's negative environmental behavior prepared by the researcher. It includes a set of songs and stories with music for kindergartners, designed for this purpose. (2) Observation Card of Kindergartners' Negative Environmental Behavior Patterns to Surrounding Environment prepared by Enas El-Bassal. An Electronic Pictorial Scale of Kindergartner's Negative Environmental Behavior Aspects prepared by the researcher. (3) Goodenough–Harris Draw-a-Person test as an IQ. The study has recommended paying attention to provide appropriate environment to carry out musical activities of various kinds in an effective way for child, and design different music programs to achieve the goals of kindergarten.

[Neveen Hassan Arnuos The Effectiveness of a Program of Musical Activities Using the Story with Music and Song to Reduce the Negative Environmental Behavior among Kindergartners. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):29-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5



Keywords: Musical activities, pre-school child, environmental behavior, program, song, story with music, music game

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Effect of the Contrast Training on Some Biological Variables and Special Physical Abilities of Basket Ball Players


1Asaad Ali El Kiki and 2Mohamed Masoud Ibrahim


1Deptartment of Training, Faculty of Physical Education, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Deptartment of Biological Science and Sport Health, Faculty of Physical Education, Alexandria University, Egypt



Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of the contrast training on some biological variables and special physical abilities of basket ball players of Saint Marc College Club. The researchers used the experimental method of a pre-post measurements of one group composed of 15 basket ball players. The execution of the proposed training program of the contrast training and its effect on some biological variables was through the period of 15/8/2014 to 15/10/2014, it included 24 training units, 3 training units weekly for 8 weeks. The proposed training program revealed an improvement in post measurements of all biological variables and special physical abilities of the basket ball players of Saint Marc Club. The researchers recommend the following: Taking the results of the biological variables and special physical abilities into account in rationing the loads and training programs and take benefits of the biological results of the basket ball players in training the players on rational scientific basis and to be directed to the contrast training.

[Asaad Ali El Kiki and Mohamed Masoud Ibrahim. Effect of the Contrast Training on Some Biological Variables and Special Physical Abilities of Basket Ball Players. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):45-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6



Keywords: contrast training – biological variable – special physical ability – Basketball players

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Evaluation of Hypernatremia as a Predictor of Multiple Organ Dysfunctions Compared to Clinical Scores in Medical Critically Ill Patients


Mohamed Saad Fatahy1, Ahmed Fathy El Keraie2 and Atef Abd Elaziz Mahrous1


1Critical Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University Egypt

2Internal Medicine and Nephrology Department, Faculty of Medicine Alexandria University Egypt



Abstract: Hypernatremia is common in intensive care units. It has detrimental effects on various physiologic functions and was shown to be an independent risk factor for increased mortality in critically ill patients. Mechanisms of hypernatremia include sodium gain and/or loss of free water and can be discriminated by clinical assessment and urine electrolyte analysis. Because many critically ill patients have impaired levels of consciousness, their water balance can no longer be regulated by thirst and water uptake but is managed by the physician. Therefore, the intensivists should be very careful to provide the adequate sodium and water balance for them. Hypernatremia is treated by the administration of free water and/or diuretics, which promote renal excretion of sodium. The rate of correction is critical and must be adjusted to the rapidity of the development of hypernatremia. Aim of the Work: To evaluate the acquired hypernatremia as a predictor of multiple organ dysfunction in sever critical illness and to assess the prognostic value of acquired hypernatremia in medical critically ill patients. Methods: This study include 300 critically ill patients admitted to critical care department in the Alexandria Main University Hospital, and the Intensive Care Unit in Alexandria Armed Force Hospital due to medical cause and exclude all patients with hypernatremia on admission, Patients received hyperosmotic agents like (sodium bicarbonate - mannitol), chronic kidney disease patients,Patients on renal replacement therapy and regular hemodylasis, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score(SOFA) score on admission and daily, APACHE II score on admission and NA level on admission and daily done for all patients. Monitoring of outcome: Development of multiple organ systemic failure, Development of septic shock, ICU length of stay, Duration of mechanical ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients. Results: There was positive significant correlation between the mean SOFA and the mean serum sodium level in the MOD and NOMD patients (p=0.003,p=o.ooo) respectively. As regard to patients outcome in the MOD group 18(16.4%) out of the patients had increase duration of mechanical ventilation, 27(24.5%) out of the patients had increase duration of stay in ICU, 35(31.8%) out of the patients had increase mortality through As regard to patients outcome in the NMOD group 26(26.7%) out of the patients had increase duration of mechanical ventilation, 26(26.7%) out of the patients had increase duration of stay in ICU, 15(16.7%) out of the patients had increase mortality through 28 day and 27(30%) out of the patients had developing of septic shock.28 day and 30(27.3%) out of the patients had developing of septic shock. Conclusion: Hypernatremia can affect the morbidity and mortality markedly among ICU patients this is proved from our study as the level of Hypernatremia was high the SOFA score also was increased indicating multiple organ failure., Hypernatremia is a common finding upon ICU patients. Hypernatremia is caused by both a positive solute balance due to intake of sodium rich infusion therapy and loss of free water. We should daily measure the sodium levels for all ICU admitted patients to give the chance for very early discovered of any Hypernatremia. Rapid correction of any Hypernatremia should be adopted to prevent its hazardous side effects.

[Mohamed Saad Fatahy, Ahmed Fathy El Keraie and Atef Abd Elaziz Mahrous. Evaluation of Hypernatremia as a Predictor of Multiple Organ Dysfunctions Compared to Clinical Scores in Medical Critically Ill Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):53-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7



Keyword: Hypernatremia, multiple organ failure (MOF), non multiple organ failure (NMOF), mortality, length of stay in ICU, duration of mechanical ventilation, developing of septic shock

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Bactericidal efficiency of Silver nanoparticle against water contaminants isolated from fish farms water with special reference of some physicochemical parameter of water


Reem Dosoky, Saber Kotb and Mohamed Farghali


Animal hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt



Abstract: The bactericidal efficiency of AgNP was evaluated against Total bacterial Counts (TBC), Total Coliform Counts (TCC) and Feacal Streptococcal Counts (TFS) of water samples collected from fish farms water. Our finding showed that the highest concentration of Ag nanoparticle exhibited highest bactericidal efficiency against where after 2 hours contact time, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 mg/L Ag nanoparticle was sufficient to inhibit (85.33 %, 71.93 % and 62.19 %) of TBC in fish farms water. Moreover, the results showed that the lowest mean of TCC was at 0.1 ppm of AgNP after 2 hrs. contact time (144.21 99.94). As well as the highest concentration caused the highest antibacterial activity reached to 92.48 % and their percentage of TCC inhibition was higher than the other 2 concentrations at the same times (58.34 % for 0.05 ppm and 31.01 % for 0.01 ppm at 2 hrs.). Furthermore, the results showed that the lowest mean of TFS was the mean of 0.1 ppm of AgNP after 2 hrs contact time (155.50 60.86) followed by 0.1 ppm after 1hr. contact time (212.46 97.46). Moreover, the highest concentration (0.1 ppm) produced highest antibacterial activity against TFS and its efficiency reached to 90.48 % followed by 0.05 ppm, which resulted in 87.82 % inhibition of TFS after 2hrs.The mean value of 0.1 ppm at 1hr. nearly equal in their inhibition to 0.05 at 2hrs., while the inhibition of 0.1 at 5 min was higher than 0.01 at 2 hrs. contact time. Also, our results revealed that there were significant positive correlations between water pH, hardness, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TBC, TCC, TFS count this means that when water pH, hardness, COD increased there were increases in the bacterial count (decreased AgNP efficiency), while there were significant negative correlations between water temperature and TBC, TCC, TFS, this means that when the water temperature increased there was decrease in the bacterial count (increased AgNP efficiency) and vice versa. Silver nanoparticles proved good efficiency against faecal bacterial indicators and TBC of water, so we recommend using the silver nanoparticles in the field of water treatment. To obtain a good efficiency of silver nanoparticles, the fish farm water must be treated to remove water hardness and organic matter before the applications of AgNP.

[Reem Dosoky, Saber Kotb and Mohamed Farghali. Bactericidal efficiency of Silver nanoparticle against water contaminants isolated from fish farms water with special reference of some physicochemical parameter of water. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):68-76]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8



Keywords: Bactericidal- Fish- Microbial- Physicochemical - Silver nanoparticles-water.


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Gamma Radiation Polymerization Induced Grafting For Application In Drug Release Systems.


Nabila Ahmed Maziad1, Sabrnal El-Hamouly2, Ebrhem zied3 and Nada Rabie Nasef 4


1Dpartment of Polymer Chemistry National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.

2Chemistry Department, Faculty Of Science, Manoufia University, Egypt.

3Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Manoufia University, Egypt.

4 Chemistry Department, Faculty Of Science, Manoufia University, Egypt.



Abstract: Radiation grafting of monomers onto low density polyethylene is a useful tool for tailoring new polymers for special purpose. This study aims to prepare low density polyethylene films grafted with acrylic and methacrylic acid. Different factors affecting the reaction conditions on the grafting yield, such as the irradiation dose and monomer concentration, type of inhibitors, and inhibitor concentrations has been studied. The prepared grafted membranes were characterized to determine the structural changes with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological structure using X–ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been studied. The swelling properties of the prepared copolymers have been studied at different time and different pH. It was found that the swelling percent increases as the time increase and found that (LDPE-g- PMAAc) increases more than (LDPE-g- PAAc). From Study of different pH it was found that the high pH for (LDPE-g- PAAc) and (LDPE-g- PMAAc) at the same pH7. Study of drug loading and drug controlled release versus the degree of grafting, drug concentration and different time intervals. It is found that as the degree of graft increases the loading percent increase. Also, the controlled release of drug increased as time increases and the maximum release occurred after 24 h.

[Nabila Ahmed Maziad, Sabrnal El-Hamouly, Ebrhem zied and Nada Rabie Nasef. Gamma Radiation Polymerization Induced Grafting For Application In Drug Release Systems. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):77-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9



Key words: Gamma radiation, Grafting, LDPE film, Drug Release.

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A Study of Morbidity Pattern among Geriatric Population in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt


Safaa Khamis Hassan


Public Health and Community Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt



Abstract: Background: The risk of having chronic diseases rises as the proportion of elderly people increases. Chronic diseases cause medical, social and psychological problems that limit the activities of elderly people in the community. Yet there is little or no baseline information on the prevalence of chronic disease in this population. The objective of this study: is to identify the morbidity pattern among the elderly people in a rural area in Fayoum governorate. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all consenting elderly peoples (aged 60 years and above) agreed to join the study in AL Robiat Village in Fayoum governorate, during period 9month March to November, 2014 Results: The total number of elderly ≥ 60 years were 358. The most prevalent morbidities were; Osteoarthritis (42.2%), obesity (38.7), hypertension (37.4), diabetes mellitus (DM) (17.6%), and cataract (10.6%), the prevalence of morbidities was more among males than females and among non smokers. Conclusion: The study revealed that elderly were suffering from many chronic disorders. Such common co-morbidities need preventive, curative and rehabilitative services.

[Safaa Khamis Hassan. A Study of Morbidity Pattern among Geriatric Population in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):90-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10



Keywords: Elderly population, morbidity, Geriatrics

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Effect of a Physical Training Program on the Functional Health Status among Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis


Dr Amna Y. Saad, Dr Abeer M. El-shatby and Dr Samah M. Sofar


Medical-surgical Nursing department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt.



Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a physical training program on the functional health status among patients with knee osteoarthritis. A quasi experimental design was used. This study was carried out in the Outpatient Clinic at El-Hadara Orthopedic and Traumatology University Hospital, Alexandria. A convenient sample of 20 adult patients with mild or moderate knee osteoarthritis was assigned. Three tools were developed and used; namely tool (I): Osteoarthritis Patient's Assessment was developed, tool (II) Knee Osteoarthritis Assessment Checklist and Tool (III): the Algofunctional for Knee Osteoarthritis Index (AKOI). The exercise training program consisted of stretching, strengthening and range of motion exercises. The studied sample performed a physical training program every day for 6 weeks. The results of the study revealed that there was a statistically significant improvement in the functional health status among patients with knee osteoarthritis following the exercise training program. The study concluded that muscle strengths, pain, range of motion and ability to perform activities of daily living were improved after implementation of the physical training program. The study recommended that nurses should incorporate physical training program into their routine general practice activity.

[Amna Y. Saad, Abeer M. El-shatby and Samah M. Sofar. Effect of a Physical Training Program on the Functional Health Status among Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):96-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11



Key words: Physical training program, knee osteoarthritis, Functional Health Status.

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The Effect of Cocoa Powder, White Chocolate and Dark Chocolate on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile on Hypercholesterolemic Rats


FadlAlla, Eman Aly Sadeek1, Saffa Moustapha Abd El Fatah Faid2


1Department of Biochemistry & NutritionWomen's College, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

2 Home Economics Dept. Faculty of specific Education, Ain Shams University, Egypt.



Abstract: Aim of the work: Assessing the effect of cocoa powder, white chocolate and dark chocolate on oxidative stress and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats Methods: 48 male albino rats were divided into two separate experimental designs, the first experiment consists of 4 groups of 8 rats each including group 1: control group fed basal diet (BD), group 2: high fat high cholesterol group (HFC), group 3 and 4 : HFC +5% and 10% cocoa powder respectively for 4 weeks. The second experiment consists of 4 groups of 8 rats each including group 1: control group fed basal diet (BD), group 2: high fat high cholesterol group (HFC), group 3 and 4: HFC +2% white and dark chocolate respectively for 4 weeks. Results: (HFC) fed diet rats showed a significant increase in serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-C, MDA and atherogenic index, compared to (BD) group. On the other hand, (HFC) fed diet rats showed a significant decrease in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL), total protein, erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to healthy control rats. Consumption of cocoa powder or dark chocolate by hypercholesterolemic rats resulted in a significantly decrement in lipid parameters and improvement in antioxidant status as compared to hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that cocoa powder or dark chocolate had Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect, which may be attributable to flavonoids contained in cocoa and dark chocolate.

[FadlAlla, Eman Aly Sadeek, Saffa Moustapha Abd El Fatah Faid. The Effect of Cocoa Powder, White Chocolate and Dark Chocolate on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile on Hypercholesterolemic Rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):110-122]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12



Keywords: Cocoa Powder - White Chocolate - Dark Chocolate – Hypercholesterolemia-Flavonoids.

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Natural Radioactivity, Major and Trance Elements Measurements of Surface soil from Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah, Saudi Arabia.


Afaf A. Fakeha*, Safiah Q. Hamidalddin*, Nuha Abdul-Hameed Al-Turkestany*, and Nagdya M. Ibraheim*,


*Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz university, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



Abstract: Nine surface soil samples were collected from several localities around Al-Madinah Al-Monawarh and one from the city itself. Samples were analyzed for Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe) and Calcium (Ca) concentrations in percent as major elements constituents. Lead (Pb) and Arsenic (As) in ppm as trace elements. The concentrations range for Al from (4.48 - 7.65 %), Fe from (3.08 - 4.92 5 %), Ca from (1.66 - 10.60 %), Pb from (14 -27 ppm) and As from (10.5 -30.7 ppm). Major, minor and trace minerals were analyzed, they found to be in the order Quartz, Albeit and Calcite as major minerals. Gamma-ray spectrometer based on HPGe crystal was applied for the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight,238 U which ranges between LDL and 12.3, 226Ra from QUOTE  7.01 and 15.55 Bq/kg., 228Ra ranges from 5.23 to 21.8 Bq/kg and 40K concentrations range from 64.6 to 754.2 Bq/kg. The man-made 137Cs was detected in the nine samples and LDL in Al- Madinah Al- Monawarah sample. The radium equivalent Bq/kg and the absorbed dose rate nGy/h were calculated for each sample. It was found that the values of the absorbed dose are in the accepted range recorded by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).

[Afaf A. Fakeha, Safiah Q. Hamidalddin, Nuha Abdul-Hameed Al-Turkestany, and Nagdya M. Ibraheim. Natural Natural Radioactivity and Major and Trance Elements Measurements of Surface soil from Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):123-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13



Key words: Natural radioactivity, dose, soil

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Study of Toll-like Receptors 4 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without nephropathy


Waleed M. Fathy1, Mohamed A. Soliman1 and Ahmed Ragheb2


1 Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

2 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

drmasmf@yahoo.com, mohamedabdelrehim@hotmail.com


Abstract: Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes and is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). There are growing evidences indicating that chronic low-grade inflammatory response is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of development and progression of diabetic renal injury. Objective: The aim of this work is to study the relation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: A total of 50 type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients were divided into three groups according to urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. In addition, 10 apparently healthy subjects were included as a control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood urea and serum creatinine were measured in all population. Urinary albumin excretion was measured by morning spot sample and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated. Quantification of CD14 and TLR4 expression on monocytes subsets was done by flowcytometry. Results: Levels of CD14 were found to be significantly increased in patients with macroalbuminurea while TLR4 levels were increased in T2DM patients with further elevation in patients with macroalbuminurea. Both markers showed significant positive correlations with the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, serum creatinine and UACR and significant negative correlations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that CD14 and TLR4 are independent predictors for the occurrence microalbuminurea in T2DM patients. Conclusion: TLR4 levels were higher in T2DM patients compared to normal subjects. These observations significantly add to the emerging role of TLRs in T2DM development. TLR4 were also found to correlate well with the severity of albuminuria in T2DM and to be good predictors of microalbuminurea suggesting their possible role in pathogenesis and progression of DN.

[Waleed M. Fathy, Mohamed A. Soliman and Ahmed Ragheb. Study of Toll-like Receptors 4 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without nephropathy. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):128-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14



Key words: Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, CD14, TLR4

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Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) after different routes of administration


Mohamed Aboubakr* and Abdelazem Mohamed Abdelazem


Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, 13736, Moshtohor, Toukh, Qalioubeya, Egypt.



Abstract: In this study the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of marbofloxacin in Japanese quails after single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) administrations of 5 mg/kg BW were investigated. Following IV injection, elimination half-life (t1/2β), mean value of distribution at steady state (Vdss), total body clearance (Cltot) and mean residence time (MRT) of marbofloxacin were 4.03 h, 1.24 l/kg, 0.19 l/h/kg and 5.89 h, respectively. Following IM and PO administration of marbofloxacin at the same dose, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were 3.86 and 3.59 μg/ml, respectively, which was obtained at 1.58 and 1.60 h, the time to peak concentration (tmax) for both routes. Elimination half-lives (t1/2el) were 6.70 and 6.19 h, respectively, and mean absorption time (MAT) was 1.79 and 1.19 h, respectively. The systemic bioavailability following IM and PO administration were 98.72 and 87.94%, respectively. In vitro protein binding percent was 26.38%. Analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in this study reveals that a dosage of 5 mg/kg BW given by IM or PO routes every 24 h in Japanese quails might be recommended for a successful clinical effect in quails.

[Mohamed Aboubakr and Abdelazem Mohamed Abdelazem. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) after different routes of administration. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):136-142]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15



Key words: Marbofloxacin, Pharmacokinetics, Quails.

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Mandibular peripheral osteoma, a study of seven cases


Altaib A. Mohammed


Master degree, doctor degree and Egyptian board of oral and maxillofacial surgery

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, South Valley University, EGYPT, kena, University street. E mail: kena20052006@yahoo.com

Mobile: +2001223046874; fax +2 0966849791


Abstract: Peripheral osteoma is a rare benign neoplasm affecting maxillofacial region, there is no age predilection for its occurence. Surgical excision of osteoma may be adopted when it interferes with the mandibular movements or causes facial asymmetry, also preheral osteoma in very rare cases may be associated with Gardener syndrome that is complicated by malignant gastro-intestinal polyposis. Here, 7 cases of osteomas affecting the mandible are presented.

[Mohammed. A Mandibular peripheral osteoma, a study of seven cases. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):143-146]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16



Key-words: osteoma, mandible neoplasm,Gardener syndrome

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Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Cell Subsets and Their Association with Lung Functions in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


Mona Fattouh1, Asmaa Nasr El-din1 and Ola Alkady 2


Departments of 1Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2 Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt. monarahman2002@yahoo.co.uk


Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a treatable and preventable disease state, characterized by progressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In the present study; 101 COPD patients and 52 age-matched healthy nonsmokers (HNS) control subjects were recruited and their pulmonary functions were assessed. The frequencies of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, NK, NKT-like cells and CD16+ were determined using flowcytometry. The potential association of lymphocyte cell subsets with disease severity was further analyzed. Statistically highly significant reduction in the frequencies of CD4+ T cells, and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, but increased frequencies of B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD16, CD3CD56+ NK and CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells were observed in COPD patients compared to controls. There were significant positive correlations between the frequencies of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells and pulmonary functions. A significant positive correlation between CD4+/CD8+ ratio and FEV1/FVC was observed. While significant negative correlations between the frequency of B cells and pulmonary functions; and between the frequency of CD16 and FVC% were denoted. There were no significant correlations between the frequencies of all other cell types tested and pulmonary functions. Our data indicated that COPD patients have immune dysfunction which may play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. These findings suggest that modulating immune cells activation may be a new target for the treatment of COPD.

[Mona Fattouh, Asmaa Nasr El-din and Ola Alkady. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Cell Subsets and Their Association with Lung Functions in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):147-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17



Keywords: COPD; flowcytometry; immune cells; pulmonary function.

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Atrioventricular Canal Anatomy and Differences from Normal Hearts, a Systemic Review of Literatures


Walid AE Hammad*1, M-Wael Badawi1, Ahmet Arnaz2, Ahmed Allam3, Mohamed Elghanam3, Ahmed Mostafa3, Mohamed Elawady4 and Yasser Abdelgelil5


1Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Cardiovascular Surgery Department, Acibadem Bakirkoy Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

3Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

4Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Elkaliobya, Egypt

5Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Objectives: This study was designed for Sound understanding of the pathological anatomy of artioventricular septal defects (AVSD), emphysizing its surgical importance, connecting it to the surgical techniques have developed for proper surgical repair. Methods: In a systematic review of the literatures had described the surgical anatomy, techniques of the surgical repair, early or late postoperative complications, and long term outcomes of AVC surgeries, there are 1108 articles published in the time period between 1960 and 2013 directly discussing these varieties. The total of 10 separated important structural differences between AVC anatomy and normal hearts were reported and demonstrated their direct or indirect effects on the surgical techniques and outcomes. Results: Along with variations in the degrees of incomplete development of the three basic elements characterizing AVSD, there are other seven important anomalies involving the level of the attachments of the AV valves to the crest of the inter-ventricular septum, abnormal dimension of the inlet and outlet septum to ventricular apex, different contribution of attachments of valve leaflets to common A-V valve annular circumference, variable position of the common A-V valve in relation to the plane of the ventricular septum, different position and pathway of the conductive tissue, and unwedged position of the aortic valve away from AV valves with absent or hypoplastic aortomitral Curtin. Conclusion: Pathological anatomy of AVSDs are not only the septal and AV valve malformations to be considered during surgery, they include other many associated structural anomalies that affect the techniques and results of surgical repair.

[Walid AE Hammad, M-Wael Badawi, Ahmed Allam, Mohamed Elghanam, Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Elawady and Yasser Abdelgelil. Atrioventricular Canal Anatomy and Differences from Normal Hearts, A Systemic Review of Literatures. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):157-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18



Key words: atrioventicular canal, atrio-ventricular septal defects, anatomical variants, atrioventricular valves.

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Assessment of Upper limb musculoskeletal complications of diabetes mellitus by Ultrasonography and nerve conduction study: Correlation with duration and severity of diabetes mellitus


Saad M. Alzokm1, Abdullah Hussein2 and Sherief M. Al Shazely 3


Department of Rheumatology1, Department of Diagnostic Radiology2, Department of Neurology3, University of Al-Azhar, Faculty of Medicine, Damietta, Egypt



Abstract: Introduction& purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease of high morbidity and mortality. It is associated with musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders of the hand and shoulder that can be very incapacitating and significantly compromise their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the upper limb MSK abnormalities found in diabetic patients and correlation of these abnormalities with duration and severity of DM. Methods: The study comprised 60 diabetic patients and another 20 non diabetic subject act as control group. All subjects evaluated by history taking & MSK examination, fasting, post prandial blood sugar and HbA1c. High resolution Ultrasonography (shoulder & wrist) and nerve conduction studies were done. Results: among our patients 45 (75%) had upper limb MSK manifestation, 32 (53.3%) had trigger finger, 27 (45%) had frozen shoulder, 26 (43.3%) had carpal tunnel syndrome, 7 (11.7%) had Dupuytren contracture, one (1.7%) had diabetic cheiroarthropathy, and one (1.7%) patient had shoulder hand syndrome. These differences between patients and control were significant (p<0.05).Patients who had upper limb MSK manifestations had significantly longer DM duration than those without DM (6.5 4.2 years versus 3.5 1.2 years respectively (p=0.007). Also patients who had upper limb musculoskeletal manifestations had significantly higher HBA1c than those normal (7.3 1.6 versus 4.9 0.4 respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions: there are significant associations of hand and shoulder abnormalities in diabetic patients. We found a strong relationship between duration and degree of hyperglycemia of DM with upper limp MSK complications.

[Saad M. Alzokm, Abdullah Hussein and Sherief M. Al Shazely. Assessment of Upper limb musculoskeletal complications of diabetes mellitus by Ultrasonography and nerve conduction study: Correlation with duration and severity of diabetes mellitus. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):165-175]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19



Keywords: Upper limb, Musculoskeletal complications, Diabetes mellitus, Ultrasonography, Nerve conduction study

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Occurrence and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environment of Ismailia Canal, Egypt


Hossam S. Jahin1, Al-Shimaa E. Nassar1, Mohammed M. Yehya1 and Ashraf F. Wasfi2


1Central Laboratory for Quality Monitoring, National Water Research Center, Egypt

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt



Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic effects. In this study, water samples were collected in four seasons during 2011–2012 from nine catchment areas that represent the aquatic environment of Ismailia canal in Egypt. The distribution of 16 PAHs included in the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) priority pollutant list was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Total PAH concentrations ranged from 1822 to 13170 ng/L in summer samples, for autumn the concentrations were in the range 866 to 5217 ng/L, for spring the concentrations were in the range 697 to 5960 ng/L, and for winter concentrations ranged from 926 to 5217 ng/L. The PAH profiles were dominated by low molecular weight PAHs (two- and three-ring components) in all collected water samples. The origin of PAHs in all water samples in this study areas may be from oil or other industrial contamination.

[Hossam S. Jahin, Al-Shimaa E. Nassar, Mohammed M. Yehya and Ashraf F. Wasfi. Occurrence and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environment of Ismailia Canal, Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):176-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20



Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), GC/FID, Ismailia canal, Egypt

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Concealed defects


Ashgan Khales Hammo El-Zuhiry


Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Thebes, Medina, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Much Maigdm rights to buy their needs from the market and clear after placing order and return them to the house and there is a hidden defect does not appear, but may use it for any possible thing that appears in the time or at a later time of use. This Mathare nosy in the writing of this research to clarify the meaning of hidden defect and is Almsol guarantor of these defects and when human underwriter of the defect, if it turns out a long period of use, and what warranties and conditions were Pvt through research addressed to the reader aware of the die if signed Find in his hands. It reached through our study that the seller of the ICON has implemented its commitment to the buyer, but Btzlimih Sales and be valid for the purpose of the buyer It is not enough to ensure the seller to the buyer quiet possession, but must be the acquisition of useless useless that is why the law imposes on the seller's obligation to ensure that hidden defects, because these defects shift between the buyer and the achievement of its purpose of the contract.

[Ashgan Khales Hammo El-Zuhiry. Concealed defects. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):183-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21



Keywords: Maigdm right; Mathare nosy; seller; buyer

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Prevalence of Dental Caries and its Impact on the Academic performance of Sudanese Basic school children, AL-Sahafa Residential Area    (2013-2014)


Miska H. El-Sayed1, Khadiga H. Osman2 and AL Bashir I. El Nour3


1Dental surgeon: The Academy Charity dental Hospital - University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

2University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Dentistry Khartoum, Sudan [Corresponding author]

3University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Dentistry Khartoum – Sudan

miska.hassan@hotmail.com  khad_osman@hotmail.com drelnur2@yahoo.com 


Abstract: Background: Early childhood caries is a chronic disease, if not prevented or treated at its early stages can lead to serious complications amongst which is a negative impact on the academic performance of the child. Objectives: To determine the relationship between children’s dental caries experience and school attendance and performance. Methods: A Descriptive Cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 school children of different basic levels in Al-Sahafa residential area in Khartoum. Questionnaires were sent to parents and the dmft/DMFT of the children was examined using the WHO criteria 1997. Variables assessed included school absences and performance. Results: Dental caries was significantly related to poor academic performance, both dmft and DMFT were significant in relation to academic performance, p-value= 0.008 and 0.023 respectively. Majority of the population had low dmft (51.6%) and DMFT (66.1%) yet strong association was found. Conclusion: Children with poor dental health status were more likely to experience pain, miss school and perform poorly in school. These findings suggest that improving the caries index for the children can be a way to improve their educational level.

[Miska H. El-Sayed, Khadiga H. Osman and AL Bashir I. E. Prevalence of Dental Caries and its Impact on the Academic performance of Sudanese Basic school children, AL-Sahafa Residential Area (2013-2014). J Am Sci 2015;11(4):195-203]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22



Keywords: dental caries, school children, academic performance

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Chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Apium leptophyllum essential oils


Iman E. Helal, Amal A. Galala, Hassan-Elrady A. Saad, Ahmed F. Halim


Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt



Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from different parts of Apium leptophyllum. The essential oils of the fruits and roots were investigated for the first time by GC-MS analysis. The data were compared with those of the green aerial parts (GAP). A total of 17, 13, 30 and 36 compounds were identified in the GAP, root, unripe and ripe fruit oils, respectively. All the oils are rich in thymohydroquinone dimethyl ether, isothymol methyl ether, thymol methyl ether, p-cymene and γ-terpinene. However, unlike the GAP oil, the other oils contain several aldehydic constituents collectively 8, 4 and 2 in ripe fruit, unripe fruit and root oils, respectively. Cuminaldehyde and γ-terpinene-7-al are common constituents in the three oil samples. The α-amylase inhibitory activity of the fruit oil was stronger than that of the GAP and both were significantly high as compared to that of acarbose; a drug currently used for controlling glucose levels in diabetic patients. Thus both oils need further evaluation for their antidiabetic potential.

[Helal IE, Galala AA, Saad HA, Halim AF. Chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Apium leptophyllum essential oils. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):204-209]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23



Keywords: Apium leptophyllum; essential oils; fruits, roots; aldehydes; α-amylase inhibitory activity

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Role of vascular endothelial growth factor and natural killer cells in histological changes of human placenta in pre-eclampsia


Nehad A. Sadek, Mohammed S. Elgendy, Lamiaa I. Abd-elfattah and Samiha A. Mortada


Departments of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University and Cairo University

Nas04@fayoum.edu.eg, nehadsadek@ymail.com


Abstract: Background: Placenta provides the means for physiological exchange of blood gases, nutrients and wastes between the fetal and the maternal circulation. Normal fetal growth and survival depend on the proper placental development and function. Preeclampsia is a condition characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20th week of gestation. Aim of the work: This study was designed to investigate the role of VEGF and NK cells in histological changes in pre-eclamptic placentae. Subjects and methods: A total of 60 placental specimens were collected from 3rd trimester deliveries. Placental tissues were divided into two study groups, 20 specimens from normal pregnancies and 40 specimens from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Paraffin sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and immunohistochemically for VEGF-A and CD56. Quantitative morphometeric studies followed by statistical analysis of the data were done. Results: Light microscopic examination showed that syncytial nuclei were aggregated into knots with the presence of sprouts and strands. Villous connective tissue core was condensed with apparently decreased fetal capillaries. Immunohistochemically, VEGF-Aimmunoexpression and CD56 +ve NK cells were significantly higher in placental biopsies from pre-eclamptic patients when compared to that of the control.

[Nehad A. Sadek, Mohammed S. Elgendy, Lamiaa I. Abd-elfattah and Samiha A. Mortada. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor and natural killer cells in histological changes of human placenta in pre-eclampsia. J Am Sci 2015;11(4):210-217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24



Keywords: Pre-eclampsia, Placenta, VEGF, NK cells and CD56

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Endoscopic third Ventriculostomy (ETV) in infants. Is it contraindicated?


Hamdy Behairy, Islam Alaghory, Mohammed Hassan, Adel Ragab, Mohammed Barania, Mohammed Ellabbad


Department of Neurosurgery, Al-azhar University Hospitals, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a recent surgical option for hydrocephalus which if succeeded, avoids shunt insertion which possesses multiple not uncommon complications. There are multiple different opinions ranging from indication to contraindication depending on different results of managing hydrocephalus in infants through ETV. We are therefore presenting the results of ETV in 50 infants in a trial to delineate more favorable opinion. Materials and Methods: A prospective study which included 50 infants suffering from obstructive hydrocephalus (40 infants with congenital hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis and 10 infants with post meningitic hydrocephalus). All infants were planned for undergoing ETV in Alazhar University hospitals along the last 3 years followed by an average follow up period of 18 months. Results: There was 56% (28 cases) clinical success rate in our study. Infection, persistent cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) leak and bleeding occurred in 4 (8%) cases, while blockage of stoma was observed in 8 (16%) patients. ETV stoma closure (4 out of total 8) occurred following infection (2) or bleeding during surgery (2). Overall failure rate in our study was 44% (8 stoma blocks and 1 procedure abandoned). Low birth weight pre mature infants had higher failure rate (4 out of 4 infants100%). Success rates were significantly different in patients with aqueductal stenosis and those post meningitic hydrocephalus. Conclusion: ETV can be the definitive treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus in infants less than one year of age. Many different etiologies of hydrocephalus may be treated; however, congenital aqueductal stenosis carries the best prognosis for success. Success rate of ETV depends not only on the age but mainly on the cause of hydrocephalus, maturity of the infant, preoperative MRI findings and surgeon endoscopic experience.

[Hamdy Behairy, Islam Alaghory, Mohammed Hassan, Adel Ragab, Mohammed Barania, Mohammed Ellabbad. Endoscopic third Ventriculostomy(ETV)in infants.Is it contraindicated? J Am Sci 2015;11(4):218-222]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25



Keywords: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy - infants - hydrocephalus

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 10, 2015. 

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