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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003, Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 5, Cumulated No. 87, May 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1105

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

Anti-inflammatory effect and phenolic isolates of Alhagi graecorum Boiss (Family Fabaceae)

 

Magda T. Ibrahim

 

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

magda.tohamy_1963@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Phytochemical investigation of 80 % methanol extract of the aerial part of Alhagi graecorum Boiss (Family Fabaceae (resulted in the isolation of five phenolic compounds were identified as one hydrolysable tannin 6-O-galloyl-(α/β)-D-glucopyranose (1), and four flavonol glycosides kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-(6"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside,(3) Myricetin-4`-O-α-L-1C4 rhamnopyranoside (4) as well as Myricetin aglycone (5) All known metabolites have been identified in this genus for the first time. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (UV, ESI/MS, UV, 1H- and 13C NMR). In vivo, the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous ethanol extract (AGEE) was evaluated using two animal models: the carrageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellets induced granuloma formation at dose -dependent manner. These bioactivities compared favorably with diclofenac sodium, which was used as positive control, and confirms the traditional usefulness of this plant for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and arthritis.

[Magda T. Ibrahim. Anti-inflammatory effect and phenolic isolates of Alhagi graecorum Boiss (Family Fabaceae). J Am Sci 2015;11(5):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.01

 

Keywords: Alhagi graecorum, 6-O-galloyl-(α/β)-D-glucopyranose, flavonol glycosides, anti-inflammatory

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The Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Compost Fertilizer Levels on Yield and Water Productivity of Wheat Crop Grown on Newly Reclaimed Loamy Sand Soil

 

1Azza. R. Ahmed, 2Amira. A. Saleam, 2Kh. A. Shaban

 

1Dept. Improvement and soil conservation

2Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center 9 Cairo Univ. Street, Giza, Egypt

Email: dr_azza_rashad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Efficiency of irrigation method and application of organic amendments are concepts should be practiced in Egypt for saving part of irrigation water due to the limited water resources. A field experiment was conducted on a newly reclaimed loamy sand soil at the Experimental Farm of Ismailia Agriculture Research Station, Egypt during winter season 2013/ 2014, to study the effect of irrigation scheduling under sprinkler irrigation method with levels Ir1 (125% application of water from traditional amount), Ir2 (100% application of water at traditional amount) and Ir3 (75% application of water from traditional amount) with application of compost fertilizer at different levels Zero (L0), 5 tonfed-1 (fed is a local units is 4200m2) (L1), 10 tonfed-1(L2) and 15 ton fed-1(L3) on weight of 1000 grain (g), straw yield ton fed-1, grain yield ton fed-1, biological yield ton fed-1, harvest index, N%, N-uptake kg fed-1, and water productivity L.E/m3 of water under cultivation of wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) Giza 168 cultivar. Also, to assess and compare farm profitability of all tested variables. The obtained results revealed that compost application at the three levels increased significantly each straw yield tonfed-1, grain yield tonfed-1, weight of 1000 grain (g), biological yield tonfed-1, harvest index %, N%, N-uptake kg fed-1 and water productivity L.Em3 of water over the control treatment. The highest mean values for the studied parameters were recorded for compost application at level L3. On the other hand, the data indicated that the highest means values for 1000 grain weight, straw yield and grain yield were achieved with application of Ir2. At the same time, the difference of mean values for all parameters above mentioned between the amounts of irrigation water applied Ir1, Ir2 and Ir3 were insignificant. On the other site, the beneficial effect of all tested treatments was due to interaction between treatments L1*Ir2 or L1*Ir3 on weight of 1000 grain, straw yield tonfed-1, grain yield tonfed-1, (g), biological yield tonfed-1 and harvest index, N%, N-uptake tonfed-1 and water productivity L.Em3 of water. Therefore, data revealed that with application of treatments Ir3 about 25% irrigation water amount could be saved under applying compost at level 5tonfed-1 (L1) in loamy sand soil. These results were incorporated with the highest crop yield, water productivity and net income. Whereas, the data indicated that each one m3 of irrigation water consumed to irrigation wheat crop grown on loamy sand soil by interaction treatments Ir3 (saved 25% irrigation water from traditional water amount) *L1(5tonfed-1) was approximately profitably by 2.3LE pound for farmer. So, it can be concluded that the interaction between the treatments Ir3*L1 leads to rationalize as well as represents a solving for the problem of limited water resources and poor fertility in new reclaimed loamy sand soil in Egypt.

[Azza. R. Ahmed, Amira. A. Saleam, and Kh. A. Shaban. The Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Compost Fertilizer Levels on Yield and Water Productivity of Wheat Crop Grown on Newly Reclaimed Loamy Sand Soil. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):8-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.02

 

Keywords: Irrigation; Scheduling; Fertilizer; Yield; Water; Wheat Crop

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Study of thyroid gland dysfunction in hepatitis C patients and Early effect of interferon therapy on thyriod state in chornic hepatitic C patients

 

Elsayed Abdelaal1, Hassan Elzohry1, Elhoseeny M2, Abd Elhady H2, Khamis S2, Gazareen S2, Abo Raya G3

 

1Hepatology department-National Liver Institute-Menoufiya University, Egypt

2Department of internal medicine-Faculty of medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt

3Clinical Pathology- department-National Liver Institute-Menoufiya University, Egypt

eabdelaal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: HCV is both a hepatotropic as well as a lymphotropic virus and chronic infection is known to be responsible for both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases which treated currently by pegylated IFN and ribavirin. Despite their efficacy, both standard IFN-α and PEG-IFN have a well kdnown side effects profile including thyroid dysfunction (TD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gonadal dysfunction. Objectives: Study the effect of HCV on the thyroid state and highlights the risk factors of these disorders And Study the early effect of interferon therapy on the thyroid gland function in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus. Methods: Fifty patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH HCV) genotype 4 were enrolled in this study and equally divided into two groups. The 1st group treated patients with INF and ribavirin (peginterferon alfa- 2a (Pegasys, Hoffmann-La Roche, Nutely, NJ) at fixed dose of 180 mg/week given subcutaneously together with ribavirin 1000 mg to 1200 mg daily, (1000 mg for those who weight less than 75 kg) and (1200 mg for those who weight more75kg). This group was studied before therapy and 3, 6 months after starting therapy. The 2nd group is untreated CH HCV. And 25 healthy persons as a control group, All groups were studied for thyroid function tests (FT3, FT4, and TSH, anti TG, anti TPO). Results: There was an increase in thyroid dysfunction and the prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in the first group (40%=10/25) versus (16%= 4/25) in the second group and (0%) in control group. Hypothyroidism was more common thyroid dysfunction in the first and second groups. There was significant association between female and occurrence of thyroid disorder. But there was no significant association between age of patients, the viral load and thyroid disorder. Conclusion: The frequency of thyroid disorders and anti-thyroid antibodies in hepatitis C infected patients was higher in female and than in healthy persons. Hypothyroidism was significantly more common than hyperthyroidism in thyroid disorders occurring during treatment with interferon.

[Elsayed Abdelaal, Hassan Elzohry, Elhoseeny M, Abd Elhady H, Khamis S, Gazareen S, Abo Raya G. Study of thyroid gland dysfunction in hepatitis C patients before and after interferon therapy. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.03

 

Keywords: Chronic Hepatitis C (HCV), Thyroid dysfunction, Hypothyroidism, pegylated interferon alfa-2a. FT3 (Free Triiodothyronin), FT4 (Free Tetraiodothyronin), TSH (Thyriod Stimulating Hormone), Anti TPO (Anti thyroidal peroxidase), Anti TG (Anti thyroglobuline)

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Interleukin 28B genotype in chronic HCV patients in relation to response to treatment by pegylated interferon and ribavirin

 

Ahmed Shaban Mohamed1, Elsayed Mohamed Abdelaal1, Hassan Ahmed Elzohry1, Imam Abdel Latif Waked1 and Hala Hany El Said2

 

1Hepatology Department-National Liver Institute-Menoufiya University, Egypt

2Biochimestry Department-National Liver Institute-Menoufiya University, Egypt

eabdelaal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Genome wide association studies have recently revealed that several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin (IL) 28B genes can predict the sustained virological response (SVR) to pegylated interferon α2a/b plus ribavirin in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 patients. However, data for patients infected with HCV genotype 4 (HCV G4) are limited. Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the effect of interleukin-28B genotype as a predictor of response of HCV patients to treatment by pegylated interferon and ribavirin & Compare IL-28B polymorphism as a predictor of response to other possible predicting factors. Patients and methods: We performed our study in the form of retrospective studies on one hundred patients treated with Reiferon Retard (pegylated interferon α 2a given at a dose 160 µg /week) and ribavirin on weight based dosing from National Liver Institute HCV outpatient clinics Menoufiya University. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to response to treatment (responders, non responders and relapsers). IL28B SNPs (rs12979860) was identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. SVR was statistically correlated with various clinical, histopathological and genetic parameters. Results: IL28B Genotype showing that 19 patients (19 %) were of genotype C/C, 57 of patients (57%) were of genotype C/T and 24 patients (24%) were of genotype T/T. Also we noted that (14/19) 73.5% of cases having CC genotype, (16/57) 28% of those having CT genotype and only (5/24) 20% of those having TT genotype achieved SVR. Dyslipidemia showed no statistically difference in achieving SVR between those who have Dyslipidemia and those who do not have. Advanced fibrosis, positive PCR of HCV RNA at twelve week, high BMI, diabetes mellitus, older age and male gender were associated with non response to treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Conclusions: IL28 B is the strongest predictor of treatment in Egyptian population but alone should not be considered to predict treatment outcomes as there are many cofactors affecting treatment response and Analysis of IL28B genotype might be used to guide treatment for these patients.

[Ahmed Shaban Mohamed, Elsayed Mohamed Abdelaal, Hassan Ahmed Elzohry, Imam Abdel Latif Waked and Hala Hany El Said. Interleukin 28B genotype in HCV patients in relation to response to treatment by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):23-33]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.04

 

Key words: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), PCR of HCV RNA, pegylated interferon α 2a, IL 28 B genotype (C/C, C/T&T/T) ribavirin, Body mass index (BMI)

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CD4+CD25+high FoxP3 regulatory T-Cells in typical and atypical Philadelphia +veCML as regard response to Imatinib therapy

 

Hany A Labib1 and Rasha Haggag2

 

1Clinical Pathology Department, Zagazig Univerisity, Sharkia, Egypt

2Medical Oncology Department, Zagazig Univerisity, Sharkia, Egypt*

*Email:dr_rmmh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Regulatory T cells CD4+CD25+high FoxP3 (Tregs) play an important role in the control of tumor immunity as well as autoimmunity. So we investigated the percentage level of Tregs in newly diagnosed CML patients and correlate it with the patients’ clinical, laboratory, cytogenetic variance and response to Imatinib (TKI) therapy. Methods: Tregs percentage were quantified by flowcytometry and iFISH (extra signal dual-color probe) was used to detect both typical and atypical BCR/ABL gene rearrangements in 120 newly diagnosed CML patients. The response to Imatinib therapy was evaluated after 12months.Results: Tregs% at diagnosis was significantly higher in patients with advanced Sokal score and accelerated phase and positively correlated with BM blast cells %and BCR-ABL/G6PDH% but no significant difference as regards cytogenetic variants and response to Imatinib in each group. There was significant decrease in Tregs % after therapy compare to the baseline in the responder groups while in non-responder groups it was significantly decrease only in patients had atypical Philadelphia. During follow up those patients had disease progression showed increase in the Tregs% compared to its level during remission but these increase was significantly only in those had typical Philadelphia. Conclusion: inhibition of Tregs is an immune mechanism important in the control of CML in patients with typical Philadelphia only but not in patients with atypical Philadelphia. Recommendation: to incorporate detection of such atypical Philadelphia into the routine evaluation of all CML cases and consider deletion status when weighing the risks associated with different treatment modalities.

[Hany A Labiband Rasha Haggag. CD4+CD25+high FoxP3 regulatory T-Cells in typical and atypical Philadelphia +ve CML as regard response to Imatinib therapy. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):34-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.05

 

Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, tregs, TKI.

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Characterization of Neuraminidase gene of Avian Influenza virus (H5N1) In Egypt from 2006-2009

 

El Said T Awad2, Eman M Gouda2, Mona M Aly1, Mohammed H El-Hussieny1*

 

1 National laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

olivera_2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) caused by the influenza A H5N1 virus, posses a significant threat to the poultry industry and human worldwide. Since 2006, the disease has become enzootic in poultry throughout Egypt and still circulates in the poultry population. The limitness of treatment options of avian influenza infection and the criticality of the antiviral drugs susceptibility highlighted the importance of the neuraminidase enzyme (NA) as a target for this study. The present study aimed to monitor genetic changes in the NA gene, specially the highly conserved active site to detect emerging possible strains of H5N1 that have antiviral resistant nature. Viral RNAs were isolated from thirty eight clinical samples, collected from infected different species of poultry at different governorates in Egypt during the period of 2006-2009. Real time RT-PCR was performed using specific primers for the matrix (M), Hemagglutinin (H5) and neuraminidase (N1) genes to confirm the viral subtype (H5N1). Sequencing analysis was used to monitor and detect the NA sequences in the isolated samples. Fifteen strains in the present study have mutations at the target of primers and probe without effect on the binding of the primer and probe in PCR reaction. The following mutations were recorded: Asp151His (NA active site mutation), Leu223Met (located between catalytic amino acid and framework one), Ser228Asp (located away from active site) and twenty amino acids deletion in the stalk motif of neuraminidase enzyme.

[El Said T Awad, Eman M Gouda, Mona M Aly, Mohammed H El-Hussieny.. Characterization of Neuraminidase gene of Avian Influenza virus (H5N1) In Egypt from 2006-2009. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):42-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.06

 

Key Words: Avian Influenza, Neuraminidase, Mutations.

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Assessment of heavy metal residues in retail meat and offals

 

Khalafalla F.A1, Abdel-Atty N. S.1, Mariam A. Abd-El-Wahab2, Omima, I.Ali3 and Rofaida B. Abo-Elsoud3

 

1Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University.

2 Food Hygiene Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, El-Nenia University.

3Beni – Suef Provincial Lab. Animal Health Research institute Dokki, Giza.

rofaidabahaa83@yahoo.com, reembahaa201483@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the residual levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) in meat, liver and kidney of cattle, camel, sheep and buffalo collected from butcher“s shop in Beni-Suef, Egypt by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer UNICAM 969. The means residue levels of lead in muscle of cattle, camel, sheep and buffalo were (3.135±0.35, 1.402±0.52, 0.94±0.81 and1.13±0.31ppm. While that of cadmium residual level in muscles were 0.2±0.01, 0.2±0.03, 0.7±0.03 and 0.91±0.02 ppm, respectively. As for copper the mean residual level were 0.79±0.18, 1.29±0.14, 1.9±0.19, 1.16±0.75 ppm, while that of zinc were 53.23±1.37, 57.64±1.46, 43.84±1.35 and 53.3±2.1 ppm, respectively. The level of heavy metals residues in liver of (cattle, camel, sheep and buffalo) were (3.99±0.1, 3.4±0.31, 1.8±0.85 and 0.174±0.07 ppm for lead; 0.25±0.043, 0.46±0.09, 0.35±0.02 and 0.00±0.00 ppm for cadmium; 56.09±10.55, 71.56±8.48, 109.81±13.5 and 26.12±3.82 ppm for copper; while these values were 36.74±1.16, 51.71±2.46, 38.06±1.56 and 22.12±1.25 ppm for zinc. More ever the means of heavy metal residues in kidney were 1.76±0.30, 1.41±0.23, 2.94±0.18 and 3.47±0.14 ppm for lead; 0.11±0.019, 0.85±0.26, 0. 21±0.1 and0.2±0.2 ppm for cadmium; 4.2±2.02, 1.77±0.9, 7.92±5.19 and 1.02±0.11 ppm for copper; 16.41±0.79, 17.49±0.6, 22.9±0.99 and 14.11±0.96 ppm for zinc for cattle, camel, sheep and buffalo, respectively. The residual level of all the metals in different tissues(muscle, liver and kidney) of cattle, camel, sheep and buffalo were found to be significantly differencep≤0.05.

[Khalafalla F.A, Abdel-Atty N. S., Mariam A. Abd-El-Wahab, Omima I. Ali and Rofaida B. Abo-Elsoud. Assessment of heavy metal residues in retail meat and offals. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):50-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.07

 

Keywords: Heavy Metals Residues Meat Lead Cadmium Copper Zinc

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Immune-detection of Entamoeba histolytica in symptomatic and asymptomatic infection

 

Fayez Muhammad Shaldoum1, NahlaMezeid2 and Adnan I. Al-Hindi3

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Islamic University, Gaza, Palestine

fshaldoum@gmail.com

 

Abstract: High prevalence of intestinal amoebiasis is commonly reported by microscopy in Gaza.To determine the misdiagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis associated with microscopic examination of faces, two tests were applied: 1-a non-specific antigen Entamoeba (ELISA) to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar complex from other non-pathogenic intestinal amoebae. 2- An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibody against E. histolytica, 53 stool and serum samples were used in this study: 32 (60.38%) samples were symptomatic (diarrheal) patients and 21 (39.62%) were asymptomatic. Data from these two immunological diagnostic tests were compared with those obtained by microscopic examination. A routine microscopic examination detected 7(13.25) prevalence of Giardia lamblia, 21(39.6%) prevalence of Entamoeba spp. 13(40.6%; X2=0.578; P-value= 0.749) in symptomatic stool samples and 8(38.1%) in asymptomatic stool samples. ELISA antigen detected only 2(6.2%; X2=1.364; P-value= 0.243) prevalence of E. histolytica/ dispar complex in symptomatic samples and none in asymptomatic samples. The two positive symptomatic samples by ELISA/Ag were also positive by microscopy, and no negative subject by microscopy was positive by ELISA. ELISA antibody detected 4 (7.5%; X2=0.195; P-value= 0.659) prevalence of E. histolytica in all subjects: 2(6.2%) in symptomatic samples which were positive by both microscopy and ELISA antigen and 2(9.5%) in asymptomatic samples, that were negative by both microscopy and ELISA antigen. The ratio of E. histolytica/ dispar was very low (3.7%) suggesting that the vast majority of Entamoeba infections in this area were nonpathogenic. The microscopic examination is less sensitive than both ELISA/Ag and ELISA/IgG tests.

[Fayez Muhammad Shaldoum, Nahla Mezeid and Adnan I. Al-Hindi Immune-detection of Entamoeba histolytica in symptomatic and asymptomatic infection. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):55-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.08

 

Keywords: intestinal amoebiasis; microscopy; Gaza; Entamoeba; ELISA; patient

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Assessment of nurse managers' knowledge of staff nurse burnout

 

Faten Abd El-Monem El-Sebaey and Naglaa Abd El-Aziz El-Seesy

 

Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt.

dr.felsebaey@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess nurse managers' knowledge of staff nurse burnout. A descriptive correlation research design was utilized. The setting was all private hospital affiliated to nongovernmental profit sector in Alexandria governorate. Sample of all head nurses (N=64) who were available during the period of data collection assigned to the previously selected hospital a survey for nurse managers developed by stewart (2009) utilized by the researchers to measure nurse managers' knowledge about staff nurse burnout (93 items) classified as: The nurse managers' knowledge of causes of burnout (8 items), causes of staff nurse burnout related to work environment (22 items), the knowledge of burnout prevention measures was assessed by the nurse managers (42 items), knowledge of burnout treatment measures was assessed by the nurse managers (21 items), in addition to socio-demographic characteristics of study subject. Results: the majority of nurse managers' knowledge about method to treat and prevent staff nurse burnout with mean percent 94.1 and 93.4 prospectively. There was significant moderate positive correlation between personnel causes and work environment causes, methods to prevent burnout by nurses, methods to prevent burnout by head nurses, methods used by nurses to treat their own burnout, methods used by managers to treat burnout (r=0.525, 0.644, 0.379, 0.332, 0.365) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between work environment causes and methods used to prevent burnout by nurses (r=0.340). Also, there were significant moderate positive correlation between methods to prevent burnout by nurses and methods to prevent burnout by nurse managers, methods used by staff nurse to treat her own burnout and methods used by nurse managers to treat burnout (r=0.449, 0.408, 0.436) respectively. There were significant positive correlation between methods to prevent burnout by head nurses and methods used by nurse to treat her own burnout and methods used by nurse managers to treat burnout (r=0.578, 0.814) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between methods used by nurse to treat her own burnout and methods used to treat burnout (r=0.496). The necessary data for socio-demographic variables was: a significant relation between experience in the unit as a nurse managers and knowledge about work environment causes of burnout (p=0.05). A significant relation between experience in the hospital and nurses' knowledge of methods prevent burnout (p=0.005). Marital status had significant relation regarding nurses and managers' knowledge about how to treat their own burnout and nurse managers' knowledge about methods used by them to treat burnout (p=0.035, 0.007) respectively. Education had a significant relation regarding manager's knowledge about methods used by managers to treat burnout (p=0.025). The study recommended to regular assessment of nurse managers' and staff nurses' perception of the knowledge about burnout to identify weakness in this knowledge. Strengthen nursing staff orientation, training of the knowledge of nurses' burnout. Regular meeting between nurse manager and her nursing team to discuss their work problems.

[Faten Abd El-Monem El-Sebaey and Naglaa Abd El-Aziz El-Seesy. Assessment of nurse managers' knowledge of staff nurse burnout. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):62-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.09

 

Key words: manager; knowledge; staff; nurse; burnout

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Oral Health Knowledge and Attitude of Caregivers and Oral Health Status of Children with Hearing Impairment

 

Mariam A H Khalaf1; Kamal E M El-Motayam2; Randa Y Abd El-Gawad3 and Abir A Omara4

 

1Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

2PediatricDentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

3PediatricDentistry and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

4Fellow of Audiology, Hearing and Speech Institute.

khalaf.mariam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of oral health problems and treatment needs of children with hearing loss, and to assess the parents’ and/or caregivers’ attitude and knowledge towards oral health care. Subjects and Methods: This study was performed on a hundred children and their parents, attending the Hearing and Speech Institute, Imbaba, Giza, for audiological examination. The age of the children ranged between 3-12 years old. Data was collected through a questionnaire-based survey; the children were examined for dental caries experience, unmet treatment needs, oral hygiene level, dental occlusion, oral habits and teeth abnormalities. The history of dental visits and frequency of tooth brushing were recorded. The dmf, def and DMF indices were used for caries assessment and the OHI-S was used for oral hygiene assessment. The oral health attitudes and behavior of parents were recorded using the HU-DBI questionnaire.

[Mariam A H Khalaf; Kamal E M El-Motayam; Randa Y Abd El-Gawad and Abir A Omara. Oral Health Knowledge and Attitude of Caregivers and Oral Health Status of Children with Hearing Impairment. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):73-80]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.10

 

Keywords: hearing loss, oral health, attitude, behavior

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Changes of protein patterns of the whitefly adults, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), induced by lambda-cyhalothrin

 

Amin, A., I.1, H. M. Abou yosef3, K. H. E. Haggag 4, B. Y. Riad 2, Raghda and M. Hassan3

 

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of science, Cairo University

2Organic Department, Faculty of science, Cairo University

3Bioassay Department, Central Agriculture of Pesticide Laboratory, Doki, Giza

4Pest rearing Department, Central Agriculture of Pesticide Laboratory, Doki, Giza

 

Abstract: Changes in protein patterns (Profiles) of parent strain (PS) of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), resulting from susceptible strain (SS) selected with lambda-cyhalothrin under laboratory conditions were studied using SDS-PAGE method. The SDS – PAGE analysis revealed large numbers of peptides ranging between 9-173 KDa. They were arranged in 33 peptide groups in descending ranges of 5 KDa. The peptides of a slow mobility (89 -173 KDa) were 17 peptides, the peptides of a moderate mobility (29 -88 KDa) were 12 peptide groups and the peptides of a fast mobility (9 -28 KDa) were 4 peptide groups.The protein profiles of generations of parent strain (GPS) of whitefly showed the specific separated peptides, compared with the separated peptides in protein profiles of SS and parent strain (PS) of insect. The dendogram placed the detected peptides of SS, PS and GPS of tested B. tabaci adults treated with lambda-cyhalothrin in different clusters – that differed in their similarity. The dendogram showed that the detected peptides in protein profiles of GPS of G2, G4, G5, G11, G16 and G18 formed categories of one cluster with similarity between them. The high similarity level of 0.73 was recorded between the generations of G16 and G18. The obtained results indicated that the differences of separated protein peptides of tested B. tabaci evidence the genotype variation of whitefly.

[Amin, A., I., H.M. Abou yosef, K.H.E.Haggag, B. Y. Riad, Raghda and M. Hassan. Changes of protein patterns of the whitefly adults, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), induced by lambda-cyhalothrin. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):81-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.11

 

Keywords: Bemisia tabaci, Electrophoresis, Lambda-cyhalothrin, protein profile, SDS-PAGE, whitefly.

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Effects of Feed Intake Level on Digestion and Energy Utilization in Desert Sheep and Goats

 

A. R. Askar

 

Animal and Poultry Nutrition Department, Desert Research Center, P. O. Box 11753, El-Matareya, Cairo, Egypt

Email: ahmed_askar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Twenty four adult local desert non-pregnant and non-lactating females, 12 Barki desert sheep and 12 Balady desert goats, were used to evaluate effects of long-term nutrient restriction on digestion and energy utilization. Animals were individually housed for a 3-month period and then moved to metabolic cages in two sets of 12 animals, three per treatment and species for each set. Six animals of each species were fed a concentrate mixture and alfalfa hay diet (50:50% as DM basis) at a level adequate for the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of maintenance (MEm, control). The other six animals were fed 50% of this amount relative to actual BW (restricted). Total Energy expenditure (EE) was estimated by heart rate (HR) monitor for 48-h period after its individual calibration by oxygen consumption with a face mask open-circuit respiratory system. Similar digestible energy was observed between animal species with control level (63.7 vs. 63.2%, SEM = 1.53), while a greater (P<0.01) digestibility was reported for sheep vs. goats with restricted feed intake level (60.8 vs. 50.9%, SEM = 1.53, respectively). Energy expenditure was greater (P<0.001) for control vs. restricted intake level (420 vs. 338 kJ/kg BW0.75/day, SEM = 10.2, respectively) and tended to be higher (P<0.10) for sheep vs. goats (394 vs. 364 kJ/kg BW0.75/day, SEM = 10.2, respectively). As a result, the energy balance was greater for control vs. restricted intake level (9.3 vs. -139.8 kJ/kg BW0.75/day, SEM = 8.27, respectively) and similar between both animal species (-62.4 vs. -68.0 kJ/kg BW0.75/day, SEM = 8.27, for sheep and goats, respectively). In conclusion, both desert Barki sheep and Balady goats are able to reduce their EE in order to improve their EB as a mechanism of adaptation when their ME intake is restricted below MEm requirements.

[A. R. Askar. Effects of Feed Intake Level on Digestion and Energy Utilization in Desert Sheep and Goats. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):88-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.12

 

Keywords: Sheep, Goats, feed intake level, digestion, energy utilization

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The structural factor of the body components of male high level basketball players as a selection limitans

 

Asaad Ali El Kiki 1 and Mohamed Masoud Ibrahim2

 

1 Ass. Prof. Dept. of Training, Fac. of PE, Abou Keir, Alex. University

2, *Ass. Prof. Dept. of Biological Sc. and Sport Health. Fac. of PE Alex. University

asaadelkiki2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The studies and scientific researches have getting account to specify the special characteristics of every sport activities and the conditions needed of the players to suit the physical activities as the selection based on scientific principle share in physical performance. Basketball is a sport that is influenced by the body components as it is a good biological marker for the player physical abilities in different positions of play, because every position has a special body components needed for the position. The present distribution of the body component is a marker of the physical and biological state of the player by which rationing the training intensities occur. The aim of the study is to detect the structural factor of the body components of male basketball players.

[Asaad Ali El Kiki and Mohamed Masoud Ibrahim. The structural factor of the body components of male high level basketball players as a selection limitans. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):97-104]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.13

 

Keywords: Basketball players, body composition analysis, selection, structural factor.

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Marginal Discrepancy of Cobalt Chromium Metal Copings Fabricated with Three Different Techniques

 

Ammar A. Al- sa̓ady, Eanas Ittihad J., and Amer S. AI-obaidy

 

Operative Department, College of Dentistry, University of Al- Mustanseriah, Iraq- Baghdad

dr.amal_raouf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: production of metal ceramic restoration with accurate marginal fit has been challenged with development of CAD-CAM technique. This study compared the marginal discrepancy of Co. Cr. Metal copings fabricated with three techniques: A-Conventional casting, B- Castable CAD-CAM wax and C- Direct CAD-CAM milling techniques. And see the effect of ceramic firing on the last group. Method: A master Brass die model was milled to represent preparation for porcelain fused to metal crowns of upper central incisor with a deep chamfer finish line design. For each group, 20 copings were made, the standardization procedure of the wax patterns of the group A were done through using split mold, for groups (B and C), the standardization of wax was done through the software of the CAD-CAM, followed by casting procedure of group A and B using Cobalt Chromium metal, while group C had been milled directly using Ceramill Sintron blank. The marginal discrepancy was evaluated using travelling light microscope from four aspects Buccal, Mesial, Lingual and Distal. The ceramic addition was accomplished for the Direct CAD-CAM milling group, and the discrepancies were measured again. Result: The mean vertical marginal discrepancy for groups A, B, and C was 25.250μm, 25.090μm, and 10.262μm respectively. Difference of vertical marginal discrepancy between group C and other two groups was highly significant (p<0.001) whereas it was non-significant between group A and B (p>0.05). Conclusion: Minimum marginal discrepancy can be produced using Direct CAD-CAM metal milling.

[Ammar A. Al- sa̓ady, Eanas Ittihad J., and Amer S. AI-obaidy. Marginal Discrepancy of Cobalt Chromium Metal Copings Fabricated with Three Different Techniques. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):105-110]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.14

 

Key Words: CAD-CAM, Vertical Marginal discrepancy, Cobalt Chromium, Direct metal milling technique

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Advanced and classical diagnosis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt

 

Fayez M. Shaldoum, Alaa A. Muhammad, Adham G. Sadek, Mohamed K. Yassin, Ali O. Elmadawy and Ibraheem M. Gobaara

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Madinat Annasr, Cairo, Egypt.

Fshaldoum@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of Fasciola spp isolated from different hosts in Egypt. Methods: Total number of 112 Adult flukes was collected; 13 from Cow, 71 from sheep and 28 from Buffalo at Al- Basateen slaughter house (Cairo, Egypt), in time period ranged from November 2013 until May 2014. Morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured by assessed Lineal biometric characters and Ratios. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and polymerase chain reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1 from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. A fragment approximately 680 bp in all of the Fasciola samples were amplified and then digested with the Rsa1 restriction endonuclease. Result: From the total of 112 isolates;68 (60.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica; Body length (BL)= 43.14 ± 6.54 mm, Body width(BW)= 8.77 ± 1.58 mm, Ratio between body length and body width (BL/BW)= 4.94 ± 0.18 mm and Distance between ventral sucker and posterior end (VS-P)=40.13 ± 6.2 mm, while 44 (39.3%)isolates were identified as Fasciola hepatica; BL= 20.53 ± 4.75mm, BW =10.78±2.49 mm, BL/BW =1.905 ± 0.06 mm and 17.71 ± 4.2 mm, depending on morphometric characteristics. Two types of patterns were found by genotyping using Rsa1; the first pattern composed of three bands of 360, 100 and 60 bp in size, whereas the second was 360, 170, and 60 bp in size for F. hepatica and F. gigantic respectively. The PCR products were followed by Internal transcribed spacer -1Ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic acid (ITS-1 rDNA) selective sequencing provided an accurate identification of Fasciola spp. Alignment of the sequences of ITS1 showed six DNA variable sites in which nucleotides base in one type at the position of 48, 175, 265, 359, 437, and 457 were substituted by another type resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different groups (genotypes); F. gigantica and F. hepatica. Conclusion: This study has shown that simple, traditional microscopic measurements may be sufficient for the morphometric characterization of fasciolids but the new PCR-RFLP assay using Rsa1restriction enzyme provides a simple, practical, fast and more accurate method for identification and differentiation of Fasciola isolates.

[Fayez Muhammad Shaldoum, AlaaAbd El-Aziz Muhammad, Adham Gamal Sadek, Mohamed Koraim Yassin, Ali Osman Elmadawy and Ibraheem Mostafa Gobaara. Advanced and classical diagnosis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):111-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.15

 

Keywords: DNA; ITS1; PCR–RFLP; Egyptian Fasciola; Diagnosis

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Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of some imported cigarette samples locally used in Saudi Arabia by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

 

Shadiah S. Baz

 

Physics Department, Girls Faculty of Science, Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

SBAZ@KAU.edu.Sa

 

Abstract: Seventeen samples of imported cigarette locally used in Saudi Arabia were investigated for qualitative and quantitative constituents. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were done using Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Qualitative analysis shows that the major elements presented in the samples are Carbon and Oxygen, followed by Potassium, Calcium, Chlorine, Magnesium, Silicon, Aluminum, Sulfur and Phosphorus. Samples (S10), (S17) present a significant amount of Carbon and low amount of Oxygen. Magnesium ranged from 0.44 (S12) to 1.28 (S10). Aluminum ranged from 0.06 (S9) to 0.11 (S12). Silicon ranged from 0.10 (S3) to 0.90 (S10, S14). Phosphor ranged from 0.09 (S1) to 0.28 (S14). Sulfur ranged from 0.11 (S1) to 0.65 (S14). Chlorine ranged from 0.37(S16) to 5.25 (S8) and calcium ranged from 1.19 (S12) to 6.07 (S10). It is clear that sample S10 high in Si, K, Ca with respect to other brands of cigarettes. While, sample S14 high in Si, P, S with respect to other brands of cigarettes. The indicative ratio O/C for Black Carbon (BC) ranged from 0.1 for sample S10 and S17 to 0.81for sample S11.

[Shadiah S. Baz. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of some imported cigarette samples locally used in Saudi Arabia by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):121-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.16

 

Keywords: Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS). Cigarettes Tobacco, qualitative and quantitative analysis,elemental analysis

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Evaluation of Serum Cystatin C in Type 1 Diabetic Children and Adolescents as an Early Indicator of Diabetic Nephropathy

 

Mona M. Farid Konsouh1, Abeer A. Al ashmawy2, Hadeer Abdel Ghaffar1; Ashraf Sayed kamel 1 and Ahmed S. Abd El-Aziz Ahmed1

 

1Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

2Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

ashraf5kam@yahoo.com, ask00@fayoum.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young adults with type 1 diabetes. Clinical management and therapeutic intervention from early stage of DN is of major importance to prevent progression to end stage renal disease. The aim of this study: is to evaluate serum cystatin c and albuminuria in Type 1 Diabetic Children and Adolescents. Methods: In the present case control study, we evaluated the level of serum cystatin c in 85 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism clinic in pediatric hospital Cairo university, patients categorized into two groups (normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric) according to A/C ratio. Results: Our study revealed increased level of serum cystatin c in microalbuminuric diabetic patients. Serum cystatin c negatively correlated with GFR. Also, it was found that serum cystatin c increased in parallel with the severity of renal disease, poor glycemic control and duration of diabetes. Conclusion: Serum cystatin c measurement might become a useful and accurate noninvasive tool for early detection of diabetic nephropathy.

[Mona M. Farid Konsouh, Abeer A. Al ashmawy, Hadeer Abdel Ghaffar, Ashraf Sayed kamel and Ahmed S. Abd El-Aziz Ahmed. Evaluation of Serum Cystatin C in Type 1 Diabetic Children and Adolescents as an Early Indicator of Diabetic Nephropathy. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):129-136]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.17

 

Key words: Type 1 diabetes mellitus - Diabetic nephropathy - Microalbuminuria – Serum cystatin c- Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

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Towards an Effective Role of Students Activities to Face the Phenomenon of Violence in Egyptian Universities after the Revolutions of 25 January and 30 June: A Case Study

 

Hanim Khalid Mohammed Mohammed

 

Lecturer of Education Foundations Faculty of Specific Education, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Email: dr.hanimkhalid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed at recognizing the reality and factors of the phenomenon of students violence in Zagazig University after the Revolutions of 25th January and 30th June and recognizing the most important factors which have led to the two revolutions. The study also recognizing the reality of practicing students activities and the most important factors which hinder this practice and reaching some mechanisms and procedures through which students activities role can be optimized to restrict the phenomenon of students violence in Zagazig University after the Revolutions of 25th January and 30th June. The present study used the descriptive methodology and used the case study as one of its methods to deeply recognize the factors correlated to the variables of the study. The study concluded (1) the percent of practicing students activities after 25th January Revolution as a whole has reduced to 18.9%˒ viz. 0.8% in scout activities, 1.7% in cultural activities, 2.1% artistic activities; these percent emphasized the negligence of scout, cultural and artistic activities because of the dominance of the Brotherhood members over students’ unions and being the agents of the committees students and students’ groups/families. (2) Most of Egyptian Universities were overthrown by students demonstrations and severe violence waves expressing their unacceptance of the 30th June Revolution; a matter which has led to reluctance of most students to participate in activities. In addition˒ it has led to not implement most of students activities plans in universities. The percents of the activities have been further reduced to become 11.8%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 1.5% respectively as a result of postponing study at most universities˒ hindering the course of educational and instructional process˒ and the continuous threaten of the Brotherhood students for the universities staff˒ students and employees. The study suggested stipulating new untraditional mechanisms and alternatives through which students can be stimulated to practice activities with their different types on the condition that it should be included in the academic assessment of the university student.

[Hanim Khalid Mohammed Mohammed. Towards an Effective Role of Students Activities to Face the Phenomenon of Violence in Egyptian Universities after the Revolutions of 25 January and 30 June: A Case Study. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):137-158]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.18

 

Key Words: Students Activities˒ Violence in Universities˒ 25th January Revolution˒ and 30th June Revolution

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Impact of Artemisia Annua L. Supplementation On Growth Performance And Control Of Coccidiosis In Rabbits

 

M. S. Abousekken1; M.F. Azazy3; A. O. El-Khtam 2and Walaa K.S. Zaglool3

 

1Env. Sustainable Dev. Dep., Envi. Studies and Res. Inst., Univ. of Sadat City, Egypt

2Dep. of Parasitology, Fac. Vet. Med. Sadat City University, Egypt

3Natural Reso. Servay Dep., Envi. Studies and Res. Inst., Univ. of Sadat City, Egypt

m_abousekken@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, growth performance and anticoccidial protective effects of Artemisia annua l. powder or extract as dietary supplement were studied. Ninety growing new Zealand White rabbits (932 ±32.0g) were randomly distributed in nine experimental groups which established: (T1) control negative; (T2) control positive; (T3) infected and fed 0.5ml of Artemisia annua extract;(T4) infected and fed 1.0 ml extract; (T5) Infected and supplemented 5 g Artemisia annua powder /kg diet;(T6) infected and supplemented 10g powder/kg diet;(T7) infected and treated with (Salphaqenioxaline Sodium 30%;(T8) infected and fed 2.5 ml extract and (T9) infected and fed 5 ml extract. Artemisinin analysis was performed using HPLC–MS system (Dionex Ultimate 3000 Bremen, Germany). The effects of A. annua infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst shedding, lesion score, body weight gain, feed conversion (FCR), relative growth rate (RGR) and Performance Index (PI %). Caecal content pH, volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and total bacterial counts (TBC) were determined. Artemisia annua l. extract has a good anticoccidial effect and improved the bacterial count showed the lowest value. Rabbits treated with A. annua significantly reduced fecal oocytes (90.76%). The best values of FCR; RGR and PI % of rabbits as affected by Artemisia annua l powder or extract doses were significantly (p<0.05) achieved by T8; T9 groups (3.51; 86.28; 85.54 and 3.77; 61.87; 65.93%, respectively). Also, the best values of caecal TVFA and TBC were significantly (p<0.05) recorded by group fed 5ml of Artemisia annua extract (T9) (4.85 meq/100ml juice and 4.73 log cfu/g) compared with other tested groups. The use of Artemisia annua extract in 0.5; 1.0 and 2.5 ml (T3; T4 and T8) was better in controlling coccidiosis of rabbits than other experimental groups. Conclusively, that Artemisinin is a promising natural drug for prevention and control of coccidiosis in rabbits. Artemisia annua powder at 5g/kg diet achieved a good growth performance and coccidiosis prevention, Meanwhile, Artemisia annua extract at 2.5ml oral /3days per week recorded the best results of performance and prevention of coccidiosis in growing rabbits, but further studies must be done with adjusted infective doses.

[M.S. Abousekken; M.F. Azazy; A.O.El-Khtam and Walaa K.S. Zaglool. Impact of Artemisia Annua L. Supplementation On Growth Performance And Control Of Coccidiosis In Rabbits. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):159-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.19

 

Key words: Artemisia annua extract, Rabbit coccidiosis, Growth performance, lesion score, Anticoccidial effect.

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Numerical Modelling of TBM Segmental Lining at Accidental Cases

 

Prof. Dr. Mostafa Zaki 1, Dr. Ahmed Hassan1, Eng. Mostafa Asaad 2

 

1. Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111, Egypt

2. Technical Department (TD), National Authority for Tunnels (NAT), Cairo, Egypt

Mostafa_asaad08@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thanks to the high safety degree and the high speed rate of work, mechanized tunneling have speedily spread worldwide for tunnels excavation. These factors make mechanized tunneling preferable for decision makers all over the world. In some cases when the safety limits for one or more of the parameters which control the stability of lining is exceeded, the excavation work may collapse. If an accidental case happened during construction, the consequences for time, cost and sometimes human losses is so high that make tunnelling engineers do their best to avoid such accidental cases. To achieve the previous aim, the interaction between lining components with grout and surrounding soil in addition to the appropriate value for face support should be comprehensively understood. The aim of this research is to study the behaviour of segmental lining at accidental cases. To achieve this goal, first a short study will be performed for making appropriate model for simulating segmental lining components. Consequently better understanding will be possible for the interaction between different segmental lining components and the annular grout. Then a comprehensive study will be introduced for the effect of parameters which may lead to excavation failure. Hence, safety limits could be set for these parameters. Consequently it will be possible to avoid accidental cases which may happened due to the exceeding of the limits of these parameters.

[Zaki M, Hassan Ahmed, Asaad M. Numerical Modelling of TBM Segmental Lining at Accidental Cases. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):170-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.20

 

Keywords: Tunnels excavation; lining components; safety limits; accidental cases

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Biological fixation of Distal Tibial Fractures by locking compression plate

 

Galal Hegazy; Rashid Emam Rashed; Eahab Abd Elfatah Al-shal and Mohamed Abd-Elaziz Hassan

 

Orthopedic Department, Faculty of Medicine, AL-Azhar, University , Egypt, Cairo, new Cairo, Egypt

Email address: glalhegazy@live.com

 

Abstract: A series of 30 patients of distal tibial fractures treated with minimally invasiveosteosynthesis techniquewith locking compression plate have been reviewed after surgery. The technique involves open reduction and internal fixation of the associated fibular fracture when present, followed by percutaneousplatting of the distal tibial fracture. The mean age was 37.3 years (range: 20 –65 years). Fractures were classified according to the Classification of Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) system. The mean time to full weight-bearing was 12 weeks (range: 8–20 weeks) and to union was 23 weeks (range: 18–29 weeks), without need for further surgery. There was one malunion, no deep infections and no failures of fixation. Out of 30 patients, 18 had excellent results,8 had good results and 4patients had a fair result. This minimally invasive technique for treatment of distal tibial fractures proves to be a feasible and worthwhile method of stabilization while avoiding the severe complications associated with the more standard methods of internal or external fixation of those fractures.

[Galal Hegazy; Rashid Emam Rashed; Eahab Abd Elfatah Al-shal and Mohamed Abd-Elaziz Hassan. Biological fixation of Distal Tibial Fractures by locking compression plate. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):179-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.21

 

Keywords: Biological fixation, distal tibial fractures, tibial fractures and locking plating

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The impact of Moringa Oleifera extract and vitamin E against zinc oxide nanoparticles induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats

 

Abd El-Aziz A. Diab 1, Mansour H. Zahra1, Sameh I.AL-dohim2 and Nora J. Hassan1

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt

2 Pharmacognosy And Medicinal Plants Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt.

ge.mekky@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aims to Evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of moringa extract and vitamin E alone or their combination against zinc oxide nanoparticles- induced liver injury in male Albino rats. 90 Male Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups (n = 10). The 1st (normal control group) received distilled water. The 2nd (control group) in which rats received twin 80 orally using metallic stomach tube. The 3rd (moringa extract treated group) rats were treated orally with aqueous suspension of moringa extract in a dose of (150mg\kg. b.wt) daily for successive (30 days) using metallic stomach tube, the 4th (vitamin E treated group), rats were treated orally with vitamin E at a dose of (100mg\kg. b.wt). The 5th (ZnO Nps treated group), rats were orally administered with aqueous suspension of ZnO Nps in a dose of (7.5mg\kg. b.wt) daily for successive 15 day. The 6th ((ZnO Nps plus moringa extract treated group), Rats were orally administered with aqueous suspension ZnO Nps in a dose of (7.5mg\kg. b.wt) daily for successive 15 days then administered with aqueous moringa extract in a does of (150mg\kg. b.wt) daily for successive 30 days using metallic stomach tube. The 7th (ZnO Nps + vitamin E treated group), Rats were orally administered with aqueous suspension ZnO Nps in a dose of (7.5mg\kg. b.wt) daily for successive 15 days then administered with vitamin E in adoes of (100mg\kg. b.wt) daily for successive 30 days. The 8th (ZnO Nps + moringa extract & vitamin E treated group), Rats were orally Administered with ZnO Nps for 15 days then treated with aqueous suspension of moringa extract and vitamin E daily for successive 30 days and the 9th (ZnO Nps + Silymarin treated group) Rats were orally administered for ZnO Nps in adose of (7.5mg\kg. b.wt) for 15 days then treated with silymarin for 30 days. After 45 days, blood and specimens were collected. Lipid profile picture, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, Total Protein, Albumin total bilirubin and direct bilirubin and some antioxidants assay (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH) were investigated In addition MDA. The results showed that administration of ZnO Nps caused an undesirable effect on most of studied biochemical parameters. The moringa and vitamin E administration for 30 days subsequent to ZnO Nps exposure afforded significant ameliorative effects on nearly all studied parameters and such effect were found compatible with the effect caused by silymarin as hepatoprotective drug.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Mansour H. Zahra, Sameh I. AL-dohim and Nora J. Hassan. The impact of Moringa Oleifera extract and vitamin E against zinc oxide nanoparticles induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):185-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.22

 

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Oxidative stress, zinc oxide, vitamin E, Hepatotoxicity

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Towards conservation and Urban Rehabilitation: A Framework for the case of Kherfan Street- Amman, Jordan

 

Jawdat Goussous1, *Lina Yasin2

 

1. Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, the University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan, Assistant Professor: jawdatgoussous@hotmail.com

2. Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, the University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan, Researcher *Corresponding Author: linaryasin@gmail.com

 

Abstract: As a result of the earthquake that hit the area of Palestine and Jordan in 1927 and which resulted in the destruction of many residential buildings in the downtown area (the area that was populated due to the presence torrent (AL-Sail)). Mayor of Amman announced the allocation of a new area to live in the mountain call it the new Jabal Amman, which still holds the name in the Greater Amman Municipality (GAM) until now, so the wealthy people went to live in this area who are the traders and the seniors in the country, Which resulted a mixture of nationalities and architectural style, so can we see the presence of the Circassian style, Lebanese, Palestinian, and others. So I allocated the study area to one of the streets of Jabal Amman named Kherfan street, and has been chosen for its historical, cultural, And what holds possession of valuable features and architectural importance, such as Shukair house, Kherfan house, AL-Madani and AL-Tabba’house and this street was characterized by its interests in trades, handicrafts, carpentry, and shoe industry. This study was to revive the street as it was previously, crafts, architecturally and culturally, through rehabilitate and restored it in new functions to attract local community and tourists.

[Jawdat Goussous, Lina Yasin. Towards conservation and Urban Rehabilitation: A Framework for the case of Kherfan Street- Amman, Jordan. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):198-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.23

 

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Historic value, cultural heritage, architectural style.

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Osteopontin Expression in a Rat Model of Cardiovascular Calcification and the Possible Protective Role of Atorvastatin Versus Vitamin K1. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

 

Ghada Galal Hamam and Mohamed Ahmed Abdou Hegazy

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

ghada.hamam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Pathological calcification in soft tissues (i.e. ectopic calcification) has severe consequences especially when it occurs in tissues as cardiovascular system. Aim of the work: to study the role osteopontin in cardiovascular calcification and to compare between the possible protective role of atorvastatin and vitamin K1 in male albino rats. Materials and methods: thirty four young male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group), group II (calcification group): they concomitantly received subcutaneous injection of vitamin D3 and oral warfarin daily for three days. Group III received oral atorvastatin daily for ten days beginning four days before induction of calcification as in group II, during induction (three days) and continued for three days after induction. Group IV received vitamin K1 orally for ten days as in group III. At the end of the experiment, abdominal aorta and heart were collected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical techniques and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: combined administration of vitamin D3 and warfarin induced histopathological changes in cardiac muscle fibers and aorta. Areas of hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration were noticed in-between cardiac muscle fibers. Significant increase in mean area percentage of calcium deposition and osteopontin expression were noticed in cardiac muscle of calcification group. An apparent increase in collagen fiber deposition was also seen in-between cardiac muscle fibers. Sections of the abdominal aorta showed areas of disorganized widely separated elastic lamellae. Irregularity of endothelial lining of the aorta, vacuolation and apoptosis of medial smooth muscle fibers were also recorded. A significant increase in mean area percentage of calcium deposition and osteopontin expression were noticed in the aorta. Atorvastatin and vitamin K1 significantly attenuated calcium deposition and osteopontin expression, but in vitamin K1 treated group, few smooth muscle cells in the aortic media were still seen vacuolated. Conclusions: either atorvastatin or vitamin K1 can be used to suppress calcifications in cardiac muscle, while atorvastatin is superior to vitamin K1 in suppressing calcifications in the aorta.

[Ghada Galal Hamam and Mohamed Ahmed Abdou Hegazy. Osteopontin expression in a rat model of cardiovascular calcification and the possible protective role of atorvastatin versus vitamin K1. Histological and immunohhistochemical study. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):207-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.24

 

Key wards: vitamin D, warfarin, vitamin K, atorvastatin, aorta, heart, osteopontin

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Effect of Simvastatin on Hypervitaminosis D3-Induced Changes in Lung and Trachea in Adult Male Albino Rats. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

 

Mohamed A. Abdou Hegazy and Ghada G. Hamam

 

Histology Department, Faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University. Cairo, Egypt

ghada.hamam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use or unnecessary prescription of vitamin D preparations. It can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. Statins are drugs widely administered to lower cholesterol & triglycerides serum levels. Aim of the work: to examine the effect of high dose vitamin D3 on the structure of lung and trachea of adult male albino rats and to examine the effect of simvastatin on these changes.  Materials and methods: twenty six adult male albino rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into three groups; control group, group II received vitamin D3 by subcutaneous injection for three days. Group III: received simvastatin orally for ten days (four days before administration of vitamin D3, during administration of vitamin D3 as in group II (three days) and continued for further three days). At the end of the experiment, lungs and trachea were collected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical techniques.  Results: administration of high dose vitamin D3 resulted in deposition of calcium, extravasations of blood and mononuclear cellular infiltration in lung interstitium with significant increase in CD68 positive macrophages. Thickening of inter-alveolar septa with obliteration of some air spaces and dilatation of other alveoli were observed. Hypertrophy of bronchial epithelium and hyperplasia of goblet cells were also noticed. Tracheal epithelium showed intraepithelial lymphocytes. Lamina propria and submucosa showed cellular infiltration, extravasations of blood and hypertrophied submucosal glands. Hyaline cartilage showed deposition of calcium and fused empty chondrocytes lacuna. Pretreatment with simvastatin led to improvement of histological structure. Conclusions: administration of high dose vitamin D3 produced metastatic calcification, mononuclear cellular infiltration, extravasations of blood and hyperplasia of mucous secreting cells in both trachea and lung with thickening of interalveolar septa. Pretreatment with simvastatin, ameliorated these changes.

[Mohamed Ahmed Abdou Hegazy and Ghada Galal Hamam. Effect of Simvastatin on Hypervitaminosis D3-Induced Changes in Lung and Trachea in Adult Male Albino Rats. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):217-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.25

 

Key wards: hypervitaminosis D, statin, lung, trachea, osteopontin, CD68, rats

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Implementation of Lean Logistics in Apparel Manufacturing

 

Sherien N. El-Kateb

 

Faculty of Engineering, Department of Textile Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt

k_sherien@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Is Lean methodology able to reduce waste in textile industry? In fact apparel manufacturing is one of textile industries that has the most waste at all processes. This is due to have highest manpower at this industry rather than spinning, weaving, knitting...etc. Producing waste has negative effects on the output products as it affects the outcome quality, cost, and then profit of products. Therefore, the company role in the competitive market is badly affected. Thus, waste removal is an essential step in this industry. Lean thinking identifies waste types into eight classes as an acronym “TIMWOODS” which means; transportation, inventory, motion, waiting, over processing, over production, defect and Labor skills. So, this research work interested in reducing each type of these wastes to reduce the overall waste produced. This study applied lean principles at sewing and packing sections on T-shirt line production. Improvement evaluation was calculated by comparing the waste percentage before and after applying lean tools. In conclusion, overproduction waste was highly reduced and inventory waste was the least one reduced. Accordingly, the output quality level improved and then the expected profit increased.

[Sherien N. El-Kateb. Implementation of Lean Logistics in Apparel Manufacturing. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):226-231]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.26

 

Key words: Lean tools- TIMWOODS- apparel production

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Correlations between P53 mutations and response to Paclitaxel/Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

 

Alaa Fayed1, Sherin A. Shazly2 and Amal F. Gharib3

 

Departments of 1 Clinical Oncology & Nuclear medicine, 2 Gynecology & Obstetrics, 3 Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

Fayed_alaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: The p53 gene plays an important role in cellular response to DNA damage and has been implicated in the response to platinum compounds in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Because taxanes could induce p53-independent apoptosis, we studied the relevance of p53 gene status to response in ovarian carcinoma patients receiving paclitaxel and platinum-containing chemotherapy. Patients And Methods: Thirty-three previously untreated patients with advanced disease received standard paclitaxel/platinum-based chemotherapy. In tumor specimens collected at the time of initial surgery, before therapy, p53 gene status and expression were examined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) sequence analysis. Results: Twenty three (70%) of the 33 patients had a clinical response. p53 mutations were detected in 20 (60%) of 33 tumors. Among the patients with mutant p53 tumors, 17 patients (85%) responded to chemotherapy. Six (46%) of 13 patients with wild-type p53 tumors responded to the same treatment. The overall response rate and the complete remission rate were significantly higher among patients with mutant p53 tumors than among patients with wild-type p53 tumors (P = 0.008). Conclusion: Treatment with paclitaxel in combination with standard platinum doses is more effective in patients with mutant p53 ovarian tumors. Determining p53 mutational status can be useful in predicting therapeutic response to drugs effective in ovarian carcinoma.

[Alaa Fayed, Sherin A. Shazly and Amal F. Gharib. Correlations between P53 mutations and response to Paclitaxel/Cisplatin Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):232-238]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.27

 

Key words: P53, Ovarian Carcinoma, chemotherapy

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Impacts of Residual Renal Function on Cardiac Morphology and Function in Haemodialysis Patients

 

Khaled N. El Fayoumy1, Osama Mohamad Ahmad1, Ahmed Salama AL-Adl1, Khaled Ib. Naguib 2, El-Sayed El-Megawry El-Sayed1

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Medicine, New Damietta, Egypt

2 Cardiology Department, Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Medicine, New Damietta, Egypt

salama139@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this work was to clarify the beneficial effect of residual renal function on cardiovascular morphology and function in hemodialysis patients. This study was conducted on sixty (60) patients with chronic renal failure on regular HD selected from Nephrology Units of Al-Azhar University Hospital New Damietta, Kafr-Saad Hospital and Alzarka General Hospital and were divided into two groups according to presence of residual renal function (RRF) in to thirty patients with residual renal function (group1) and thirty patients without RRF (group 2). For all patients, full medical history, thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations were done including: ECHO-Cardiography and ECG. Results: There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 as regard to LVEDD, ESD, however values of both groups were within normal ranges, and in spite of that, there were better contraction and good capacity of left ventricle in group1.PWT and SWT were higher in group 2 than group 1, and this indicate left ventricular hypertrophy in group2. But there was no difference in ejection fraction (EF) of both groups. The study revealed significant decrease of CRP in group 1 in comparison to group 2 (2.56±1.16 vs. 6.99±4.11 respectively), and significant decrease of cholesterol in group 1 in comparison to group 2. Conclusion: there were beneficial effect of RRF on cardiac morphology and function.

[Khaled N. El Fayoumy, Osama Mohamad Ahmad, Ahmed Salama AL-Adl, Khaled Ib. Naguib, El-Sayed El-Megawry El-Sayed. Impacts of Residual Renal Function on Cardiac Morphology and Function in Haemodialysis Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):239-245]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.28

 

Key words: RRF Residual renal function, HD: haemodialysis.

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Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum and insights into the mechanism of production

 

M. Z. El-Fouly1; Z. El-Awamry2; Azza A.M. Shahin1; Heba A. El-Bialy1; E. Naeem2and Daighan Ghadir E.2

 

1 National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Radiation Microbiology Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. 2Faculty of Science, Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. elbialyheba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Using microorganisms to reduce the particle size of metal particles and increase their surface area has opened up an exciting approach toward the development of natural "nano-factories". Thus, the main aim of the present study is selecting local resources for silver nanoparticles producers and studying the mechanism applied in the production process. Three different soil samples were treated with increasing concentrations of silver nitrate to isolate silver-tolerated fungi. Two fungal isolates out of six silver-tolerated fungi showed a high ability for silver nanoparticles synthesis, they are identified as Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The resulted silver nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrophotometer (FTIR) in comparison with silver nanoparticles formed by chemical methods using trisodium citrate. All characterization studies showed the superiority of silver nanoparticles synthesized by biological methods (either A. niger or P. chrysogenum) over chemically formed ones. The present study proved the participation of electron shuttle as well as enzyme system in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by selected fungi. The antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activities of produced silver nanoparticles against multi-drug resistant pathogenic microbes and cancer cell line (Hela); respectively were confirmed the superiority of silver nanoparticles synthesized by biological system over chemically formed ones. The most interesting finding is the neutral effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized by A. niger and P. chrysogenum on colon-9 normal cells. An experiment was designed to investigate the synergistic effect between different commercial antibiotics and silver nanoparticles. The promising results of this experiment opens up new horizons to the problem of antibiotics resistance.

[M. Z. El-Fouly; Z. El-Awamry; Azza A.M. Shahin; Heba A. El-Bialy; E. Naeem and Daighan Ghadir E. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum and insights into the mechanism of production. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):246-259]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.29

 

Key words: silver nanopaticles, A. niger, P. chrysogenum, TEM, SDL, FTIR, multi-drugs resistant microorganisms, Hela cells, Colon-9 normal cells, gel electrophoresis, reducing agents and enzymes

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Effects of Season and Dietary Cotton Seed Oil Supplementation on the Reproductive Performance of Males And Females Bauscat Rabbits

 

Abd El-Monem, U.M.1, and Hamza, S. S.2

 

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig, University, Zagazig, Egypt

2 Regional Center for food & Feed, RCFF Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture

ormamohamed_2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A 2× 4 factorial design experiment was performed to study the effect of two seasons (Winter and Summer) and four levels of dietary cotton seed oil (0, 30, 60 and 90 g cotton seed diet oil / kg diet) on the performance of males and females of adult Bauscat rabbits. Forty eight of Bauscat does of 6 months of age and twenty four bucks of the same breed (at 7 months of age were used in the present study and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups (6 does and 3 bucks in each group in each season). Results obtained could be summarized as follows: Does performance: The results showed that doe rabbits fed diets contained 90 g cotton seed diet oil / kg diet had significantly (P< 0.01) the lower values of feed and water intake than the other groups. Does fed diets contained 90 g cotton seed diet oil / kg diet had significantly (P ≤0.05 and 0.01) higher litter size at weaning, heavier litter weight at 21 days and at weaning and pre-weaning mortality (as number) than the other groups. There were no significant differences in punny weight at different ages and pups gain among the groups studied. Milk yield during the period from birth to 21 days steadily increased with increasing dietary energy level from 0 to 90 g cotton seed oil / kg diet. There were no significant effects due to dietary energy levels on all of blood components studied except for urea which was significantly (P <0.05) lower in the group fed diets contained 90 g cotton seed oil / kg diet than the other groups. There were significant (P ≤0.05 and 0.01) differences due to season and dietary oil level interaction effect in litter size at weaning, litter weight at 21 days and at weaning, pre-weaning mortality (as number), feed and water intake and milk yield from birth to 21 days of age. Bucks performance: There are significant (P ≤0.05 and 0.01) differences in all of semen traits, physiological traits and blood components between seasons (winter and summer). Feed and water intake for bucks were significantly (P <0.05) decreased when bucks fed diets contained 90 g cotton seed oil / kg diet than the other groups.

[Abd El-Monem, U.M., and Hamza, S. S. Effects of Season and Dietary Cotton Seed Oil Supplementation on The Reproductive Performance of Males And Females Bauscat Rabbits. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):260-266]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.30

 

Key words: Season, Reproductive Performance, Bauscat Rabbits

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Effect of ambient temperature & relative humidity on respiration rate, body temperature and blood pH of newborn lambs during cold conditions

 

Kishk, W. H.

 

Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt

wailed.hussein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Three different breeds of newborn lambs (Osimi, Rahmani and Sufolk) were used in this experiment. The effects of breed, sex and ambient temperature & relative humidity on body temperature, respiration rate and blood pH of newborn lambs were studied. Obtained results showed that there were significant differences due to differences in ambient temperature and relative humidity in studied parameters. While, breed factor affect significantly only respiration rate as for newborn lambs.

[Kishk, W. H. Effect of ambient temperature & relative humidity on respiration rate, body temperature and blood pH of newborn lambs during cold conditions. J Am Sci 2015;11(5):267-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas110515.31

 

Key words: lambs, sheep, temperature, humidity, respiration rate, body temperature, blood pH

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 4, 2015.

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