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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 6, Cumulated No. 88, June 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1106

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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Investigation on faba beans, Vicia faba L. 36. Heterosis, inbreeding effects, GCA and SCA of diallel crosses of ssp Paucijuga and Eu-faba

 

M. M, F. Abdalla1, M.M. Shafik1., M.I. Abd El-Mohsen2, S.R.E. Abo-Hegazy1 and Heba A.M.A.Saleh2

 

1- Agronomy Dept. Fac. Agric. Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2- Field Crops Res. Int. ARC, Egypt

hebakhater2013@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out during 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons. A diallel cross-excluding reciprocals among six parents of faba bean was utilized to broaden genetic base, to study heterotic and inbreeding effects, in addition to general, specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) and correlations among characters. Parents belonged to ssp Paucijuga and minor, equina and major types of ssp eu-faba. Results showed significant differences between parents, F1's and F2's for all studied traits indicating genetic diversity of parents. Significant heterosis relative to better parent (plus or minus values) occurred in 10 hybrids (out of 15) in days to 50 % flowering, 6 hybrids in plant height, 14 hybrids in branches per plant, 9 hybrids in pods per plant, 9 hybrids in seeds per plant, 12 hybrids in seed yield per plant and 11 hybrids in seed index. Heterosis relative to mid parents was significant in different hybrids in all traits. Inbreeding effects in F2 (depression or gain) was significant in 3 cases for days to 50 % flowering, 2 for plant height, 15 for branches per plant, 9 for pods per plant, one for seeds per plant, 3 for seed yield per plant and one for seed index. The seed yield components showed F2 to be higher than F1 due to remaining heterosis and transgressive segregants. This indicates that F1 and F2 may be grown commercially to reduce cost of hybrid seed production. Selection may be effectively practiced in F2 segregants from hybrids only between eu-faba types. Investigated parents showed variable GCA effects in direction and magnitude that varied between traits. SCA effects varied in different cross combinations for the studied characters. Both additive and non additive gene action are involved in inheritance of different characters. Correlation coefficients indicated that selection for pods, seeds per plant and seed weight would result in high yielding ability.

[M. M, F. Abdalla, M.M. Shafik, M.I. Abd El-Mohsen, S.R.E. Abo-Hegazy and Heba A.M. A. Saleh. Investigation on faba beans, Vicia faba L. 36. Heterosis, inbreeding effects, GCA and SCA of diallel crosses of ssp Paucijuga and Eu-faba. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.01

 

Key words: Faba bean, Diallel analysis, combining ability, Heterosis, Inbreeding effects, Correlation coefficients, ssp puacijuga and eufaba

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Taking advantage of Tracking systems to design Tracking devices to face children Kidnapping Phenomenon (GSM –GPRS -GPS)

 

Dr. Ayman Mohamed Afifi

 

Department of industrial design, Higher Institute of Applied Arts Six October City, Egypt

ymnafifi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The research is concerned with finding out a suitable means to protect the children against this phenomenon of Children abduction using tracking systems like GSM, GPRS, GPS. Egypt witnesses a new strange phenomenon within the Egyptian community At the last time, this phenomenon is coming out from abroad to add one of the most disturbing and worrying results over the parents beside the results of the security disorder. This phenomenon is the phenomenon of children kidnapping for gaining money and it becomes one of the crimes that are committed by new gangs formed from time to time. Thus, the peoples become insecure in terms of themselves, their children, their money and their possessions. So, the research is concerned with the crime of kidnapping children as a problem arouses and worries the parents as result of not performing the necessary precautions and not using the means to follow up their children outside the home. The research aims to design of the tracking devices that are used the tracking system for following up the children in order to face this phenomenon to fir huge number of children with different contexts, traditions and financial possibilities. The new method helps in following up the kidnapped child for long time as the used system is connected with the parents via sending messages to their mobile phones when the child changes the defined location as it defines the location more accurately. the researcher designed an attractive shoes connected to a belt containing the GPS tracking system that can be installed in all kinds of shoes that can be used by the child when he want to change or replace this shoes with another one. The researcher conducts a questionnaire of the idea of securing the children by using the GPS tracking systems accompanied the children especially the proposed design, he notes that: 1. The research concern with the idea especially as many of them have no experience concerning the systems connected to the child requirements (shoes, wristwatch, school bags…etc). 2. The parents show their feeling of security by approximately 80% when using the following up systems connected to the tools of the children and their supplies.

[Ayman Mohamed Afifi. Taking advantage of Tracking systems to design Tracking devices to face children Kidnapping Phenomenon (GSM –GPRS -GPS). J Am Sci 2015;11(6):8-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.02

 

Keywords: children kidnapping, GPS, GPRS, GSM, tracking devices, tracking systems

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Floristic composition of Nile islands in Middle Egypt, with special reference to the species migration route

 

Wafaa Amer¹, Ashraf Soliman1 and Walaa Hassan2

 

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

2 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

azmeyw@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The floristic composition of fifteen, out of 46 Nile islands, at Beni-Suef Governorate (latitude 28° 36ʹ to 29° 26ʹ N and longitude 30° 36ʹ to 31° 21ʹ E), Egypt, were subjected to field and herbarium study. These islands were geo-morphologically classified into 7 inhabited, permanent cultivated islands, 7 uninhabited submerged cultivated islands and an uninhabited submerged and uncultivated one. This work was carried out to identify the floristic composition in these islands, demonstrate the chorological affinities of the collected species with special reference to the migration routes of some indicator species traced in the Nile islands in Beni-Suef region in comparison with the northern and southern Nile islands in the Egyptian territories. The floristic study of the selected islands indicated the presence of 151 species belonging to 116 genera in 48 families of the vascular plants. The four major families based on the number of species were Poacaea, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Brassicaceae; comprised 44.4% of the total identified species. The floristic composition of the studied seven inhabited cultivated islands showed the higher number of species than the uninhabited. The dominant life form in the flora of the studied area was therophytes represented by 86 species followed by the hydrophytes (17.8%). The chorological affinities of the recorded species in Beni-Suef Nile islands showed that cosmopolitan taxa had the highest contribution (26.5%), followed by bioregional (21.8%) and paleotropical (15.2%). Cosmopolitan taxa compared to the earlier northern and southern studied islands decreased southward (from 28% in Cairo to 18.7 % in Aswan). The chorological affinities of the traced species compared to its migration routes were outlined and discussed through in this work.

[Wafaa Amer, Ashraf Soliman and Walaa Hassan. Floristic composition of Nile islands in Middle Egypt, with special reference to the species migration route. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):14-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.03

 

Key words: Floristic composition, agro ecosystem, Egyptian flora, Nile islands, Species migration route.

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Histological Study on the Effect of protein malnutrition on liver and Jejunal mucosa of young rat and role of Soymilk Administration

 

Azza Abd El Moneim Attia, Nevine Bahaa, Abeer A. Abd El Samad

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

nbahaasoliman@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Protein malnutrition is one of the most common causes of death and illness among children under five years in developing countries. The gastrointestinal tract is the first part of the body to be affected in such condition. Substitution of animal protein intake by vegetarian protein as soymilk could be a life saving solution. Aim of the work: This study aimed to monitor the effect of protein malnutrition on the jejunal mucosa and liver of young rats, and to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of soymilk rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: Forty young albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Group I served as a control group. Group II rats were subjected to protein malnutrition for two weeks. In group III, rats were subjected to protein malnutrition for two weeks followed by rehabilitation by soymilk intake for four weeks. The weight of animals was monitored in each group. Jejunal and liver specimens were taken, processed either for light microscopic, scanning or transmission electron microscopic examination. Morphometric and statistical studies were also done. Results and conclusion: Protein malnutrition resulted in major degenerative changes in the jejunal mucosa and liver structure. Rehabilitation by soymilk successfully attenuated this degenerative condition.

[Azza Abd El Moneim Attia, Nevine Bahaa, Abeer A. Abd El Samad. Histological Study on the Effect of protein malnutrition on liver and Jejunal mucosa of young rat and role of Soymilk Administration. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):24-38]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.04

 

Keywords: Malnutrition, soymilk, young rat, jejunum, liver.

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An investigation of Factors affect Ends-down Rate in Embroidery Machine

 

Sherien N. El-Kateb

 

Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Egypt

k_sherien@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In textile and garment industry, much research has been done on quality control systems to improve the output quality and fabric defects. However, little studies have been applied to embroidery technology especially analysis of parameters influence product quality. Although embroidery increases the luxury of clothes and sometimes it is a must to get smart textiles, there are some troubleshooting problems affect the product appearance and quality as end breaks during the process. This problem affects the productivity, quality and the manufacture place at market share. So, this research work introduces an analysis of most of factors have effects on down time. Samples were set according to half factorial design from five factors. The selected factors are needle size, embroidery thread type, stitch length, type and weight of fabric. Results of counted number of ends down and effect of each factor were analyzed by Regression analysis. Three estimated models were applied and the best one chosen based on least error. In conclusion, parameters have the greatest effect on ends down rate are embroidery thread and interaction between needle gauge and fabric type. Optimum levels of parameters can be selected to get least ends down rate.

[Sherien N. El-Kateb. An investigation of Factors affect Ends-down Rate in Embroidery Machine. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):39-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.05

 

Key Words: Embroidery- ends down rate- half factorial design-market share-optimization.

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Review of Evaluation of the Accuracy of Rapid Prototyped Stents in Maxillary Le Fort I Osteotomy Procedures

 

Youssef A. Elmansi 1, Ahmed A. Barkat 2, Adel H. Abou Elfotouh 2 and Mona S. Elhadidy 2

 

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Specialist, Military Hospital, Egypt.

2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Elmansi76@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of the computer-generated stents in producing the virtually simulated surgical movements in Le Fort I osteotomies. Material and methods: A literature survey in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed and covered the periods to June 2014, June 2014, Jan 2014 and March 2014 respectively. The inclusion criteria were controlled or prospective studies where patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomies using virtual computer assisted technique and CAD-CAM fabricated stents. Three reviewers selected and extracted the data independently. The quality of the retrieved articles was evaluated by four reviewers. Results: The search strategy resulted in 718 articles, in which 5 met the inclusion criteria. All articles supported the use of computer planning and the CAD/CAM fabricated stent. Conclusion: The CAD/CAM stents can provide accurate production and transfer of the virtual surgical plan to operating room, but more controlled studies are needed to compare results obtained from the computer guided planning and the CAD/CAM stents to that obtained from the conventional method.

[Youssef A. Elmansi, Ahmed A. Barkat, Adel H. Abou Elfotouh and Mona S. Elhadidy. Review of Evaluation of the Accuracy of Rapid Prototyped Stents in Maxillary Le Fort I Osteotomy Procedures. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):43-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.06

 

Keywords: Le Fort I ostoetomy, Maxillary orthognathic surgery, Computer assisted, CAD-CAM splint.

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Virulence and Diversity of Wheat Stripe Rust Pathogen in Egypt

 

ShahinA.A1; A.A. Abu Aly1 and S. I. Shahin2

 

1Wheat Dis. Res. Dept., Sakha Agric. Res. Stn., Institute of Plant Pathology, Agriculture Research Centre (ARC), Sakha, Kafrelsheikh, 33717, Egypt

2Environmental Studies & Research Institute, University of Sadat city, Sadat city, Egypt

Sa_shaheen71@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is a major disease on wheat in Egypt and worldwide. Virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates, collected, were identified on seedlings of the wheat differential genotypes in the greenhouse condition.  Thirteen and seven physiological races were identified in 2012/2013 and 2013/14 respectively. The Path types were identified during two successive seasons. In 2012/13 they were i.e.  0E0, 6E0, 2E0, 2E16, 4E0, 4E4, 6E5, 6E20, 18E16, 34E16, 34E20, 38E20, 70E4 and in 2013/2014 i.e 0E0, 2E0, 2E8, 4E0, 6E116, 70E20 and 128E28 were identified during growing seasons. Race 0E0 was the most frequent one followed by 2E0, 4E0 and 6E4. The obtained results showed that  Yr's: 1, 5, and SP were the most effective during growing seasons since no virulence were recorded on either one.  On the other hand, Yr's 7, 6 and 6 were attacked by a high number of races. Regarding evaluation of certain stripe rust wheat monogenic lines and Egyptian wheat varieties under the stress of both greenhouse and field conditions, the obtained results indicated that Yr1, 5,10,15, 17, 32 and SP were resistant at seedling and adult stages. Genes such as YrA and Yr18 were resistant only at adult plant resistance (APR), were testing the released wheat cultivars under natural conditions, Sakha 93 and Sids 12 were found infected. These results would serve as a fruitful tool in the wheat breeding program directed for disease resistance.

[Shahin A. A; A.A. Abu Aly and S. I. Shahin.  Virulence and Diversity of Wheat Stripe Rust Pathogen in Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):47-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.07

 

Keyword: Wheat, yellow rust, physiological races, and virulence/a virulence formula

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Glycated albumin and glycated albumin/ glycated haemoglobin ratio decrease with increasing BMI compared to Glycated haemoglobin in Type 2 diabetes patients

 

Iman El –Sherif1, Mohamed I. Shoeir1, Mohamed M. Mohey El Din Awad1, Amal Fathy2, Seham Ahmed1

 

1 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine-Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine –Suez Canal, Ismailia, Egypt

Imanelsherif149@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Obese T2DM patients are more prone to develop accelerated complications which burdens the global health systems with undue expenditure. Glycated haemoglobin (A1c) had been settled as a gold standard glycemic indicator though it’s levels must be prudently interpreted in some patients. Glycatedalbumin (GA) as an alternative, intermediate glycemic indicator is gaining much attention. Aim: assessing the correlation of each of glycated albumin and glycated haemoglobin to body mass index (BMI) in T2DM patients Hypothesis: negative correlation existsbetween BMI & glycated albumin. Subjects and methods: Cross sectional study into which 62 participants- aged 25-60 years - who are T2DM on insulin were recruited at Suez Canal University hospital.None of them was smoker or known to be CLD or DKD patient, none was on regular statins, aspirin or metformin. All had normal CBC and albumin indices, they underwent thorough history taking & examination. anthropometric measurements namely body mass index (BMI) were taken.They were grouped into a non-obese group with BMI <25 Kg/m2 & obese group whose BMI ≥25 Kg/m2, each with a sample size of 31 participants. FPG,PPPG, HbA1c, CBC, serum albumin, serum insulin and GA were analyzed.insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR. Results: GA was insignificantly lower in obese T2DM compared to non-obese (579.3 µmol/L vs 600.0 µmol/L,p- value = 0.631), while GA/HbA1c ratio was significantly low among obese compared to non-obese. (61.1 vs 66.8, p-value= 0.040). Also GA was insignificantly lower in obese with insulin resistance (615.0 ±177.5 µmol/L) than obese with no insulin resistance (550.0±148.2 µmol/L) and also lower than non-obese with insulin resistance (637.4±153.0 µmol/L).Similarly GA/HbA1c ratio was lower in obese with &without insulin resistance (mean 57.6 ±SD 12.8 & mean 64.1 ±SD 9.0 respectively) compared to GA/HbA1c ratio in non-obese with & without insulin resistance (mean 66.9 ±SD 11.0 & mean 66.7 ±SD 9.1 respectively). Conclusion: This study showed that care to be paid while interpreting GA levels in obese T2DM as GA and GA/HbA1c ratio are lower in this population.

[Iman El -Sherif, Mohamed I. Shoeir, Mohamed M. Mohey El Din Awad, Amal Fathy and Seham Ahmed. Glycated albumin and glycated albumin/ glycated haemoglobin ratio decrease with increasing BMI compared to Glycated haemoglobin in Type 2 diabetes patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):53-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.08

 

Keywords: GA, GA/HbA1c ratio, HOMA-IR, BMI, obese T2DM

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The Significance of Leaf Morphological Characters in the Identification of Some Species of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae

 

Dalia G. Gabr1, Azza A. F. Khafagi1, Amaal H. Mohamed1 and Fatema S. Mohamed2

 

1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), AL- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Flora and Phytotaxonomy Research Department, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center.

fatmafouadsami@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The relationships among seven species of Apocynaceae and seven species of Asclepiadaceae have been concentrated on the basis of information derived from macro- and micro-morphological characters of leaves. The macro-morphological characters of the leaves recorded important feature in the leaf arrangement, blade outline, blade apex and blade texture. Also the present study recorded one species leafless and one sessile. The outline of the petiole demonstrates that the studied species of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae can be distinguished into four patterns (Half circle, half circle with 2 ridges, terete, terete with two wings). Also the vascular structure of petiole revealed four main types: A. One main bundle only without subsidiary bundles recorded in five species, B. One main bundle accompanied by one subsidiary bundle in one species, C. One main bundle accompanied by two (1+1) subsidiary bundles in five species, D. One main bundle accompanied by six (3+3) subsidiary bundles in one species. The study of leaf surface of studied species of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae by using light microscope presented 15 different types of trichomes. Some species were free from glandular trichomes and others were free from non-glandular trichome beside the taxa which have the two types of the trichomes. The data recorded from the morphological and anatomical characters are used in numerical analysis and showed that species were grouped into two major clusters, the first one (I) consisted of one species; while the second cluster (II) comprises the remainder. The second cluster divided into two groups: group “G1” incorporated one species; and group “G2” divided into two sub group: sub group “Sb.G1” included seven species; while sub group “Sb.G2” have five species. This study support consider the two family as large family: Apocynaceae. The diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters of leaf appeared to be significant in differentiation between the species of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae. A dichotomous indented key to the species is constructed.

[Dalia G. Gabr, Azza A. F. Khafagi, Amaal H. Mohamed and Fatema S. Mohamed. The Significance of Leaf Morphological Characters in the Identification of Some Species of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):61-70]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.09

 

Key words: Leaf morphology, Anatomy, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae.

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Effect of Different Bleaching Methods and Storage Periods on Nanoleakage

 

Abo El Naga A.I  and Yousef MK.

 

Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

myousf@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the performance of two bonding agents when subjected to different bleaching mechanisms and stored for three storage periods in preventing nanoleakage of class V restorations. Methods: BOND 1 SF (B1) [solvent-free self-etching adhesive system, Pentron Clinical] and Xeno V (XV) [self-etching adhesive system, Dentsply] used with ESTHET.X HD resin composite (visible light-cured composite material, Dentsply). Class V cavities were prepared (4mm length x2mm width x2mm depth) on buccal surfaces of 120 sound human upper centrals. Cavities divided into two groups (n=60) according to the adhesive used. Each group subdivided into two subgroups (n=30) according to the used bleaching systems; Crest 3D White Whitestrips Advanced Vivid (bleaching strips) and Colgate Visible White 9% Mint (home bleaching gel). Each subgroup was stored in artificial saliva for three different periods (n=10; 1) stored for 24hours, 2) stored for 3months and 3) stored for 6months. Teeth then coated with nail polish up to 1mm from the interface, immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution for 24h and tested for nanoleakage using Quanta Environmental SEM and EDAX. Data statistically-analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (P≤0.05). Results: XV showed significantly higher mean percentages of silver penetration (3.75) than B1 (2.89). Colgate gel (3.72) showed significantly higher percentages of silver penetration than crest strips (2.74). Whereas, there was a statistically significant increase in mean percentages of silver penetration by time. Conclusions: under the test conditions, BOND 1 SF provided better sealing ability. Meanwhile, the tested home bleaching gel increased nanoleakage for both tested adhesives.

[Abo El Naga A.I and Yousef MK. Effect of Different Bleaching Methods and Storage Periods on Nanoleakage). J Am Sci 2015;11(6):71-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.10

 

Key words: bleaching, nanoleakage, whitestrips

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Correlation of HOMA-IR to Glycated albumin in centrally obese T2DM

 

Iman El –Sherif1, Mohamed I. Shoeir1, Mohamed M. Mohey El Din Awad1, Amal Fathy2, Seham Ahmed1

 

1 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine-Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine –Suez Canal, Ismailia, Egypt

Imanelsherif149@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Insulin resistance as measured by Homeostasis Model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is the core pathophysiology of T2DM.It‘s correlation to intermediate glycemic index, glycated albumin (GA) can be linked to clinical parameters of the patients namely waist circumference which better expresses central obesity Aim: assessing the correlation of HOMA-IR to glycated albumin in centrally obese T2DM patients. Hypothesis: positive correlation exists between HOMA-IR & glycated albumin. Subjects and methods: Cross sectional study into which 62 participants- aged 25-60 years - who are T2DM on insulin were recruited at Suez Canal University hospital. None of them was smoker or known to be CLD or DKD patient, none was on regular statins, aspirin or metformin. All had normal CBC and albumin indices, they underwent thorough history taking & clinical examination, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) were measured.They were grouped into a group with insulin resistance (29 patients) and group without insulin resistance (33 patients). FPG, PPPG, HbA1c, CBC, serum albumin, serum GA were analyzed.insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR.Results: GA was higher in centrally obese individuals with insulin resistance (622.1±166.6 µmol/L) than in centrally obese individuals without insulin resistance (568.3 ±169.2 µmol/L), GA former value was lower than GA in centrally non-obese with insulin resistance (686.2± 109.2 µmol/L), GA was higher in females with insulin resistance (632.1 ±173.9 µmol/L) compared to females without insulin resistance (543.1 ±146.0 µmol/L).Conclusion: This study showed that GA increase withHOMA-IR levels and female gender and decrease with increased waist circumference

[Iman El -Sherif, Mohamed I. Shoeir, Mohamed M. Mohey El Din Awad, Amal Fathy and Seham Ahmed. Correlation of HOMA-IR to Glycated albumin in centrally obese T2DM. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):78-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.11

 

Keywords: HOMA-IR, GA, GA/HbA1c ratio, Waist circumference, central obesity T2DM

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Psychosocial Problem and Growth Indices Related to Serum Zinc in Egyptian Children

 

Naglaa Abdel Moneam1; Taghreed El Shafie2 and Amal Wafa3

 

Pediatrics1, Psychiatric2, Departments, Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al Azhar University, Clinical and Chemical pathology3 National Institute of Neuro / Motor System

Alnour2508@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Zinc play important roles in children’s physical and behavioral health; however, there is a relative lack of attention given to the effects of specific micronutrient (e.g., zinc) deficiency on behavior problems, including internalizing (i.e., anxiety, depression, withdrawal, somatic complaints), and externalizing disorders (i.e., antisocial, aggressive, and hyperactive behavior). Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to determine growth indices (body weight, height, body mass index) and determine the type of psychosocial problems in relation to serum Zinc level in a random sample of preschool children attending the pediatric clinic at AlZhara University Hospital at the time of the study. Subjects and methods: All studied children subjected to full history taking, clinical examination including anthropometric measurement (weight, height, head circumference, and their percentile, BMI) plotted against growth chart, child Psychosocial problems behavior problems using the latest standardized Persian version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results: In this study Out of 150 children, 72 (48.0%) were males and 78(52.0%) were females. Age rang (3-6 years) with the main age 4.70±1.05.The mean serum zinc level in 3-6 years old children was 0.82±0.20 µg/ml. There is highly significant decrease of serum Zinc level and decrease (body weight, height, head circumference, body mass index) height centil, weight centil, head circumference centil (p value=0.000) and BMI (p value=0.001). The most common Psychosocial problems among preschool children is social problems(47.3%), rule breaking behavior(28.7%), anxious/depressed(25.3%), aggressive behavior (16.7%), somatic complaints (6.7%), attention problems(4.0%) then thought problems(1.3%), low zinc concentration is positively correlated with total behavior problems, anxious/depressed behavior(P value= 0.000), social problems, aggressive behavior and rule breaking behavior. Conclusion: We conclude that there is high correlation between low serum zinc level and growth retardation, presence of Psychosocial problems in preschool children, the most common is social problems.

[Naglaa Abdel Moneam; Taghreed El Shafie and Amal Wafa. Psychosocial Problem and Growth Indices Related to Serum Zinc in Egyptian Children. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):91-97]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.12

 

Keywords: psychosocial problems, children, pediatric clinic, pediatric behavioural problems

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[J Am Sci 2015;11(6):98-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

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The Importance of Artist-Conservator in Conservation-Restoration Process

 

Hatem Tawfik Ahmed

 

Dept. of Sculpture, Architecture Formation and Monument Conservation, Faculty of Applied Arts, Hellwan University, Egypt. egypt5000bc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This presents work study on restoration object were carried out by restore of historical relief, the architectural ornaments and re-form of the missing parts of early Middle Ages church from the 13th century in the Jawor - Poland. The article provides a survey of the historical development of restoration practice Historical Monuments, with reference to both techniques and philosophy. The aim of this article is to indicate the relation between artist - restorer emotional– and conservation principles code within a work of art – conservation-restoration of three-dimensional artwork and artifact which involves historical and artistic value. The paper introduces the problem of retaining the idea throughout the proper restoration of the historical object while taking considerable care of its authenticity and complying with the rules of ethical restoration code according to the philosophy of 20thand 21th century in which conservation may specified as rather distant from traditional restoration disciplines of artworks. Restoring historical artifact and work of art which undergoes physical damage has a direct influence on its character, reading and meaning. connected with the retention of the idea behind and the material. as well as its role in exhibit purposes for visual and historian.

[Hatem Tawfik Ahmed. The Importance of Artist-Conservator in Conservation-Restoration Process. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):115-126]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.14

 

Keywords: Art - conservation, Restoration, Cultural Heritage, Archaeology, Artwork, Artifact, Poland, Jawor, Monument.

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Chitin extration, Composition of Different Six Insect Species and Their Comparable Characteristics with That of the Shrimp

 

Rawda M. Badawy1 and Hadeer I. Mohamed2

 

1Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Biophysics group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, and Cairo, Egypt.

rbadawi90@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Chitin and chitosan attracting great interest due to their beneficial biological properties, their potential applications in various industrial fields and their notable bioactivity in biomedical fields. Traditionally, chitin is prepared mainly from crab and shrimp shells; recently, the production of chitin and chitosan from insect sources has drawn increased attention but until now, only limited numbers of insect species have been documented to be sources of chitin without an effective comparison studies; so in this work chitin was isolated from six different common insect species & compared with natural chitin of shrimp by means of FTIR infrared spectroscopy (IR), CHN elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD), their degree of acetylation was calculated. Chitins exhibited similar chemical structures, physiological properties and were suitable for chitosan production. The serial higher chitin yields were reported to all examined specimens. It was found that characters of chitin are more specific to each species, can be used as a diagnostic taxonomic character and to appear the relationships between species especially if it will be used to all species as possible and be added to data base bank.

[Rawda M. Badawy and Hadeer I. Mohamed. Chitin extration, Composition of Different Six Insect Species and Their Comparable Characteristics with That of the Shrimp. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):127-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.15

 

Key words: Chitin, chitosan, extraction, spectroscopy (IR), CHN elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), grass hoppers, cockroaches, green bugs, vespid wasps & scarab beetles

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Effect of Different CAD/CAM Fabrication Techniques on the Vertical Marginal Gap

 

Mai Salah Mostafa Soliman1, Cherif Adel Mohsen2, Omaima El-Mahallawi3, Manal Rafei Hassan Abu-Eittah4

 

1.Post graduate student, Crown & Bridge Department, Faculty of Dentistry Minia University, B.D.S, M.Sc., Cairo University

2. Professor & Chairman, Crown & Bridge Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University.

3. Professor, Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

4. Associate Professor, Crown and Bridge Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University.

msm_cs2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different CAD/CAM fixed partial denture fabrication techniques (Full anatomic technique and Framework then veneering by press on technique) on the vertical marginal gap before and after veneering and glazing. Material and Methods: Thirty zirconia 3-unit fixed dental prostheses were constructed on the specially fabricated stainless-steel dies simulating prepared mandibular second premolar tooth and mandibular second molar tooth to ensure the standardization of specimen shape and dimensions. The samples were classified into 2 equal groups, 15 each (n=15), according to the fabrication technique used. The vertical marginal fit was evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope at 150X magnification before and after veneering and glazing. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed with three way ANOVA test followed by pair-wise Tukey’s post-hoc tests. P values ≤0.05 are considered to be statistically significant in all tests. Results: The results showed that the fabrication technique had a statistically significant effect on the mean marginal fit of zirconia FPDs. Conclusions: Better marginal fit values were exhibited by the full anatomical fabrication technique.

[Mai Salah Mostafa Soliman, Cherif Adel Mohsen, Omaima El-Mahallawi, Manal Rafei Hassan Abu-Eittah. Effect of Different CAD/CAM Fabrication Techniques on the Vertical Marginal Gap. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):135-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.16

 

Key Words: zirconia, fabrication, press-on, marginal fit.

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Effect of Different Cement Spaces on the Vertical Marginal Gap of Full Anatomical Zirconia Bridges

  

Mai Salah Mostafa Soliman1, Cherif Adel Mohsen2, Omaima El-Mahallawi3, Manal Rafei Hassan Abu-Eittah4

 

1. Post graduate student, Minia University, B.D.S, M.Sc., Cairo University

2. Professor & Chairman, Crown & Bridge Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University.

3. Professor, Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

4. Associate Professor, Crown and Bridge Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University.

msm_cs2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different cement spaces (20 µm, 30 µm and 50 µm) on the vertical marginal gap of full anatomical zirconia FPDs before and after glazing. Material and Methods: Thirty zirconia 3-unit fixed dental prostheses were constructed on the specially fabricated stainless-steel dies simulating prepared mandibular second premolar tooth and mandibular second molar tooth to ensure the standardization of specimen shape and dimensions. The samples were classified into 3 equal groups, 10 each (n=10), according to the cement space used. The vertical marginal fit was evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope at 150X magnification before and after glazing. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed with three way ANOVA test followed by pair-wise Tukey’s post-hoc tests. P values ≤0.05 are considered to be statistically significant in all tests. Results: The results showed that the cement space had a statistically significant effect on the mean marginal fit of zirconia FPDs. Conclusions: Better marginal fit values were exhibited by 50 µm cement space.

[Mai Salah Mostafa Soliman, Cherif Adel Mohsen, Omaima El-Mahallawi, Manal Rafei Hassan Abu-Eittah. Effect of Different Cement Spaces on the Vertical Marginal Gap of Full Anatomical Zirconia Bridges. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):145-152]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.17

 

Key Words: zirconia, full anatomical , cement space, marginal fit

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Performance, Immune Response and Carcass Quality of Broilers Fed Low Protein Diets contained either Moringa Oleifera Leaves meal or its Extract

 

M.S.M AbouSekken*

 

* Department of Environmental Sustainable Development and its projects Management, Environmental Studies & Researches Institute (ESRI), University of Sadat City, Egypt.

m.abousekken@esri.usc.edu.eg, m_abousekken@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of adding graded levels of Moringa olifera leaves meal (MLM) or its extract (MLEx) on the productive performance, mortality, antioxidative potentials, the physico -chemical characteristics of meat and plasma biochemical parameters of broilers fed low protein diets. A total number of 270 day old averaging (41.00 ± 1.00 g) chicks were wing banded individually, weighed and randomly distributed into 6 treatments each in three replicates of 15 birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were T1 – positive control fed commercial diet with CP recommended requirements. (23; 21 and 19% CP); T2 negative control fed diets contained lower CP (21, 19 and 17% CP); T3: fed negative control + 5% MLM powder; T4: fed negative control + 10% MLM powder; T5: fed negative control + 50 ml MLEx extract / liter drinking water and T6: fed negative control + 100 ml MLEx / liter drinking water. Results showed that Moringa leaves contained appreciable amounts of crude protein 29.62%); carbohydrate (39.49%); crude fiber (10.23%), ash (14.25%), crude fat (8.40%) and metabolizable energy (2034.82 kcal/kg); Calcium, (2.65%) and Phosphorus, (0.48%). Birds of T6 (fed negative control +100 ml MLEx) recorded significantly (P < 0.05) the best values of body weight gain (2.63kg); feed conversion ratio (1.26); growth rate (1.94); performance index (226.66%) and European efficiency ratio (529.68) followed by birds of T5 (fed negative control +50 ml MLEx) (2.35kg; 1.17; 1.93; 208.99% and 488.39, respectively). Moringa oleifera leaves Extract groups (T5 and T6) were significantly (P > 0.05) higher in antioxidant capacity (0.86 mmol/l) meanwhile, the positive control group (T1) was the worst one. Also, Moringa oleifera extract groups (T5 and T6) achieved significantly (P > 0.05) the best values of total lipids (442.2 and 410.99 mg/dl); total cholesterol (167.95 and 159.87 mg/dl); HDL cholesterol (111.9 and 125.58 mg/dl) and LDL cholesterol (86.13 and 73.4 mg/dl) compared with control or powder groups. The extent of lipid oxidation (TBA number) in thigh meat after 7 d of refrigerated storage did not differ among all treatments. However, malonaldehyde concentration was different after 90 d of freez storage of birds fed diets supplemented with (50 and 100ml/l) of moringa extract significantly (p<0.05). The lowest TBA number of freez storage obtained at 42 and 90 days, while birds fed control group showed the highest TBA number. Moringa oleifera leaves extract groups (T5 and T6) appeared a good feed additive for color, odour, taste and overall acceptance (Table 9). Generally, the best values of overall acceptance being (8.49) had been significantly (P≤0.05) recorded by birds fed (negative control+100 ml MLEx) (T6). The best values of net revenue, economical efficiency and relative economical efficiency values due to feeding broiler low protein diet and supplemented 50 ml MLEx / liter drinking water (T5) compared with control and other experimental groups, Meanwhile, the lowest value of economic efficiency was obtained by broilers fed 5% MLM (T3). It can be concluded that, Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract given via drinking water (T5 and T6) appeared to be a good feed additive in order to obtain the best growth and feed utilization as well as the overall better health of broiler.

[M.S.M AbouSekken. Performance, Immune Response and Carcass Quality of Broilers Fed Low Protein Diets contained either Moringa Oleifera Leaves meal or its Extract. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):153-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.18

 

Key words: low-protein diets, Moringa oleifera extract, Meat quality, broiler performance, economical efficiency

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Circulatinglevelsof inflammation-associatedmiR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 in patients with end-stage renal disease on regular haemodialysis

 

Abd Elhamid Elhamshary, Rabab Fawzy Salem Bayoumy and Mohammed Elsayed Abd Elnaby Nawaya

 

Departments of Pediatric and Biochemistry Faculty of Medicine –Benha University

mohamed.nawaia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the circulating levels of inflammation-associated miR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 to determine their regulation in children with ESRD, expecting to be able to provide new insights into the development of ESRD. Subjects & Methods:In this study we investigated 50 cases which were divided into two groups as Patients group: include 30 ESRD children who are receiving maintenance hemodialysis and Control group: include 20 healthy children without any evidence of CKD or inflammatory disorders. Results: the expression of miR-155 and miR-126 were significantly reduced in ESRD patients. Also, but did not significantly differ between pre-HD and post-HD with slight increase in pre-HD (where miRNA126 level quantity mean ± SD pre-HD12.68 ± 0.58 and in post-HD 11.67 ± 1.86 compared to 15.33 ± 0.51 in control group, while miRNA155 level quantity mean ± SD in pre-HD13.77 ± 0.90 and in post-HD 13.19 ± 0.60 compared to 16.44 ± 0.02in control group). Nevertheless, further studies are required for the validation and extension of these results. miRNA126 correlated significantly and positively with sex (being higher in males), while no correlation between miRNA155 and sex. Circulating miR-155 and miR-126 levels correlated positively with eGFR, hemoglobin and CRP, while they correlated negatively with creatinine. Circulating miRNA155 correlated significantly and negatively with calcium, while circulating miRNA155 correlated significantly and negatively with phosphate. Conclusion: The expression of miR-155 and miR-126 were significantly reduced in ESRD patients, but did not significantly differ between pre-HD and post-HD. Our data suggested that miR-126 and miR-155 might be useful predictive tools in ESRD. The reduction of circulating miR-126 and miR-155 might be accompanied by a series of clinical symptoms.

[Abd Elhamid Elhamshary, Rabab Fawzy Salem Bayoumy and Mohammed Elsayed Abd Elnaby Nawaya. Circulatinglevelsof inflammation-associatedmiR-155 and endothelial-enriched miR-126 in patients with end-stage renal disease on regular haemodialysis. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):165-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.19

 

Keywords: microRNA - miR126 - miR155 – renal – kidney - haemodialysis

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Cerebro-Placental Doppler Indices Ratio and Perinatal Outcome among High Risk Pregnancy

 

Allam, Nahed E and Maarouf Taiseer M

 

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Alzahraa University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

nahedallam16@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Fetal growth restriction remains the second leading cause of perinatal mortality and, morbidity. Most of studies published investigated the individual Doppler indices as predictor for adverse perinatal outcomes, few have concerned about the ratios of indices although it seems more accurate. Aim: to assess the value of cerebro-placental Doppler Indices ratio (C/U PI-RI) for prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in high risk pregnancy. Methods: Prospective cohort observational study was carried out at Al-Zhraa University Hospital, a cohort of 201 pregnant women within a period of 11month with singleton pregnancy, at the gestational age ranging from 31-40 weeks gestation. Good history taking including current or past illness, full clinical general and abdominal examination, Ultrasound and Doppler studies were carried out to determine composite ultrasound gestational age, estimated fetal weight, as well as umbilical and middle cerebral Doppler indices.1ry outcomes: Fetal birth weight, 2ry outcomes: NICU admission and its cause, Apgar score determined at five minutes after delivery & neonatal death. Results: Mean age of all study groups /y were 27.925± 5.170, mean gestational age at delivery /ws 38.9± 1.188, fetal wt., /gm at delivery range 1800- 4600 (Mean 3016.05± 4.7). A majority of high-risk cases were of iron deficiency anemia which constituted 31 % of total cases; this was followed by 13 % cases with PIH, 8% with gestational diabetes & 9.5% with history of IUGR and those having bad obstetric history. Perinatal outcome parameters were as follows: 7% had birth weight less than 10thpercentile, 17% had low 5 minutes Apgar score, 14.5% NICU admission and 1% of early neonatal death. Association of abnormal C/U RI ratio with cases with PIH & those having IUGR fetuses was statistically significant (P value <0.05). Also association of an abnormal C/U PI ratio with caesarean section due to fetal distress, IUGR, low birth wt., PIH, DM was statistically significant (p value < 0.05). There is association of an abnormal C/U RI & abnormal CI/U PI with low 5min Apgar score (P value <0.05), also shows high statistical difference of an abnormal C/U PI ratio with low birth weight and NICU admission cases (P value <0.05). Conclusion: C/ U PI & RI ratios more sensitive and more specific than its two components UA (PI) and MCA (PI) in prediction of adverse perinatal outcomes.

[Allam, Nahed E and Maarouf Taiseer M. Cerebro-Placental Doppler Indices Ratio and Perinatal Outcome among High Risk Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):170-174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.20

 

Key words: Cerebro-placental pulsatility & resistant index ratios(C/U PI-RI  ratio)-Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

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Participatory Approach in Domestic Water Demand Management

 

Arwa Hamaideh1, Emad K. Al-Karablieh2 and Amer Salman3, Faten O. Al–Najjar4

 

1 Assistant Researcher, Water, Energy and Environment Research and Study Center (WEEC), University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan. Tel: +962 6 5355 000, ext: 23912, Email: Hamaideh.arwa@ju.edu.jo

2³3 Professor, Agricultural Economics & Agribusiness Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan. Email: karablie@ju.edu.jo

4Researcher Assistant, Water and Environment Research and Study Center (WEEC), University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan. Tel: +962 6 5355 000, ext: 22500; Fax:+962 6 5355 577. Email: faten_najjar2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Water is an important resource for all people, but it is a scarce resource. For this reason, the people should come together with the government to manage this resource. With public participation, perception can be changed and this can lead to a change in attitude. Public participation is also important in that policymakers can get valuable feedback that they can use to make more informed decisions and to promote public acceptance. This study focuses on assessing the level of the consumers' participation in water demand management and to estimate their willingness to participate in water demand management. The study also focuses on determining the different socioeconomic factors associated with their willingness to participate in water demand management. A standard questionnaire is formulated in a structured manner and filled by a representative stratified sample of 600 households in the Greater Amman area. The willingness to participate in water demand management was analyzed using the Probit model and Chi2 test was used to tests the statistical significance of the cross tabulations. The results show that the majority of the interviewed consumers were willing to participate in demand management and prefer more direct forms of participation. The results also show that the willingness of the interviewed consumers was dependant mainly on their age and average income. The respondants are more responsive to penalties rather than rewards when it comes to taking measures aimed at reducing water consumption. When making policies, the policymakers should take into consideration the measures the consumers are more responsive to. More studies on consumer’s responses and preferences should be conducted.

[Arwa Hamaideh, Emad K. Al-Karablieh and Amer Salman Faten O. Al–Najjar. Participatory Approach in Domestic Water Demand Management. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):175-187]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.21

 

Key words: Domestic water management, public participation, Consumer

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Impact of Health Education Program for Elderly Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Shock waves Lithotripsy on Clearance of Urolithiasis

 

Rokaia F. Mohammed1, Zienab A. Mohammed2, Al-Ayman H. Fathi3 and Jehan A. Mohamed4

 

1Geriatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing- Minia University.

2Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Assuit University.

3 Faculty of Medicine -Minia University.

4Geriatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing- Minia University

rokaia.fathi@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Urolithiasis is the third most common urological disease affecting elders with high recurrences rates. Extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (ESWL) became the treatment of choice for upper urinary tract stones in older adults without surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of health teaching program for elderly patients undergoing ESWL on clearance of urolithiasis. Quazi experimental research design was utilized in the present study. The study was carried out in Minia Al-Watany hospital. The sample was included 112 elderly patients undergoing ESWL procedure divided randomly into two groups, study and control group (56 patients for each one). Data was collected in a period of 6 months starting from January to the end of June 2013. A structured interview questionnaire sheet consists of three parts was utilized in this study. First part; included personal characteristics, second part; included past and present history and follow up, and third part; was to assess knowledge of elderly patients regarding disease and ESWL procedure. Post test for patient knowledge conducted after ESWL procedure and follow up for ESWL outcomes within 6 months. Main findings of the study were; statistical significant improvements in knowledge of the study group post teaching program, and there was statistical significant difference between stone clearance rate after ESWL and total knowledge score. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the education program had a significant impact on both knowledge of patients and clearance of stones after ESWL. A continuous educational program should be planned and offered on regular basis for patients undergoing ESWL procedure, and replications of the current study on larger probability sample were recommended.

[Rokaia F. Mohammed, Zienab A. Mohammed, Al-Ayman H. Fathi and Jehan A. Mohamed. Impact of Health Education Program for Elderly Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Shock waves Lithotripsy on Clearance of Urolithiasis. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):188-200]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.22

 

Key words: Urolithiasis- Education program- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy-Stone clearance.

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Pulsatile Tinnitus as a Presenting Symptom for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Diagnosis and Management

 

Mohamed F. Shindy

 

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

dr_ShindyM@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: This pilot selective study aimed to explore relationship between intracranial hypertension (IIH) and development of pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and the impact of its treatment on severity of PT. Patients & Methods: All patients presenting to ENT clinic with PT were evaluated and only patients fulfilling Modified Dandy's Criteria for the diagnosis of IIH were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent full otorhinolaryngological exmaination and tinnitus was graded using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Severity of headache was assessed using the 11-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. All patients underwent lumber puncture (LP) and opening pressure was measured, then patients were maintained on acetazolamide 1–2 g/day. If patients did not show improvement or if the condition recurred after initial improvement, patients underwent insertion of lumbo-peritoneal shunt (LPS) for permanent drainage. Results: Six PT patients had IIH; 5 females and one male with mean age of 31.5±6.2 years and mean BMI of 35.1±3.5 kg/m2. All patients had PT that completely disappeared on jugular compression with mean THI score of 22±13.3. At time of discharge, all patients showed improved headache, tinnitus completely disappeared in five patients, while the 6th patient had THI grade 1 with a mean total THI score of 8±6.9 with significant difference versus at admission score. Throughout mean follow-up period of 15.5±3.9 months; one patient showed recurrence of headache and tinnitus and underwent LPS insertion for permanent CSF drainage and patient reported complete relief of her symptoms and tinnitus disappeared completely.  Conclusion: There is close association between IIH and PT. IIH-directed therapy provided nearly complete relief of tinnitus with resolution of other manifestations. Presence of PT must arouse suspicious for being secondary to increased ICP and could be used as prognostic sign for assessing treatment efficacy and follow-up for the possibility of recurrence.

[Mohamed F. Shindy. Pulsatile Tinnitus as a Presenting Symptom for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Diagnosis and Management. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):201-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.23

 

Keywords: Pulsatile tinnitus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Lumber puncture, Lumbo-peritoneal shunt

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Effect of Drama and Video Clips on Women's Life

 

Eman M.K. Sanad, and Sherine H. Abdel Rahman and ShaimaaAbdd El-Hamed

 

Dermatology &Andrology Department, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha, Egypt

shaimashaima84@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of nowadays drama and video clips with sexual insinuation on female sexual life in general and to assess its effect on female sexual desire, orgasm and vaginal lubrication. Subjects and Methods: Two-hundred married women had to answer a self-filling questionnaire translated into Arabic designed by the authors. Results: Watching this type of drama was more common in younger women, living in urban areas, employer and less educated. Coital frequency, sexual desire and vaginal lubrication increased after watching this type of drama while reaching orgasm didn’t increase. Sexual satisfaction decreased after watching this type of drama and it showed negative correlation when participants' husbands watched this type of drama. Conclusion: Health care facilities should provide effective educational and counseling services about sexual life to women. A study on a larger scale of participants with different ages and education to get more representative results is recommended.

[Eman M.K. Sanad, and Sherine H. Abdel Rahman and ShaimaaAbdd El-Hamed. Effect of Drama and Video Clips on Women's Life. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):209-217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.24

 

KeywordsSexual insinuation.Sexualsatisfacation.

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Premarital Genetic Counselling among Female Adolescents Students

 

Hanan Abd Elfattah1, Saher M. Soliman1 and Fatma M.Amin2

 

1. Maternal and neonatal Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Cairo, Egypt

h.mahgoub@mu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Premarital genetic screening is one of the most important strategies for prevention of genetic disorders and congenital anomalies among adolescents. Genetic counseling has become a prominent feature in prevention and treatment of genetic diseases. Nurse play an integral role in providing genetic services that include assess genetic risk, provide information, discuss available testing options and provide appropriate supportive counseling. Aim: To evaluate the effect of premarital genetic counseling on the knowledge and attitudes among female adolescents' students as a quasi-experimental study design. Setting: Technical nursing students at Ain shams university Purposive sample of 100 unmarried female adolescents’ students will recruited from grades I of Technical nursing students at Ain shams university.Four types of tools will be used for data collection which are structured interviewing questionnaire, likert scale for students’ attitude towards premarital genetic screening, Counseling sessions and opinionnaire sheet. Results revealed that the majority of students had lack of knowledge and negative attitudes regarding premarital genetic counseling. Significant improvement was found regarding most items of knowledge and attitudes after implementation of counseling sessions. Conclusion: Significant improvement in students' knowledge and attitudes after implementation of counseling sessions. Recommendation: Involvement of community leaders and non-governmental organizations in counseling programs to youth toward premarital genetic counseling and marriage between genetically incompatible partners.

[Hanan Abd Elfattah, Saher M. Soliman and Fatma M. Amin. Premarital Genetic Counselling among Female Adolescents Students. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):218-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.25

 

Key words: Premarital, genetic, screening, counselling, Adolescents

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Histological Evaluation of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Therapy on Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Albino Rats’ Knee Joint

 

Samir Mahmoud Nada, Nagla Mohamed Salama, Mary Atia Morcos and Amal Elham Fares

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

amalfares@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Aim of work: This work aims to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular injection of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in treatment of mono-iodoacetate (MIA) induced osteoarthritis in rat knee joint monitored by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Material and methods: this study was carried out on 45 adult male albino rats. They were classified into 4 groups: group I (control group), group II (osteoarthritic group) in which rats received 1 mg of MIA and sacrificed after 2 weeks and after 4 weeks, group III (stem cell treated group) in which rats received MSCs 2 weeks after MIA injection or 4 weeks after MIA and sacrificed 2 weeks later and group IV (untreated group) in which rats received PBS 2 weeks after MIA injection or 4 weeks after MIA and sacrificed 2 weeks later. Sections were taken from rats' knee joints and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, toluidine blue, immunohistochemichal stains for collagen type II. Sections were examined by light microscopy. The mean articular cartilage (AC) thickness, optical density of cartilage matrix proteoglycan and area percent of collagen type II immunoreactivity were measured using image analyzer and statistically analyzed. Results: Sections of group II showed features of osteoarthritis in the form of disorientation & degeneration of chondrocytes, Exfoliation of the superficial part of AC with many osteoblasts and osteoclasts were noticed with significant reduction in cartilage thickness, optical density of AC matrix and area % of collagen type II immunostaining compared to control. Sections of AC in the MSCs treated group showed apparent improvement of the osteoarthritic features in the form of increase in the AC thickness with normal zonation and proliferation of chondrocyte with significant increase in optical density of AC matrix and collagen type II immunoreactivity. Sections of the AC in group IV (untreated group) showed deterioration of the OA features with complete loss of zonation and many degenerated chondrocytes. Conclusion: Treatment with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could significantly treat the osteoarthritic changes induced by MIA in rat knee joint.

[Samir Mahmoud Nada, Nagla Mohamed Salama, Mary Atia Morcos and Amal Elham Fares. Histological Evaluation of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cell Therapy on Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Albino Rats’ Knee Joint. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):226-236]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.26

 

Key words: Knee joint- AC- osteoarthritis- MIA- MSCs.

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Structural Efficiency of Prestressing for Concrete Bridges in Ultimate Stage

 

Maged A. Hashad, Fathy A. Saad and Khaled H. Riad

 

Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Email: Maged.Hashad@dargroup.com

 

Abstract: The codes describe the behavior of the prestressed beams in the ultimate stage as the prestressed concrete beam starts to behave like a reinforced concrete beam when the value of the flexural moment is well beyond the cracking moment and the total service load moment. The ultimate theory in flexure and the principles and concepts underlying it are thus equally applicable to prestressed concrete. The same fundamental format of equations, modified to reflect the characteristics of the different reinforcing materials and the geometry peculiar to prestressed concrete. The code equations aims to calculate the ultimate moment capacity (ultimate moment of resistance) while neglecting the beneficial effect of prestressing normal force and the induced prestressing moment on the ultimate moment then The capacity is compared with the demand at ultimate load considering the corresponding factor of safety. This study presents the beneficial effect of prestressing normal force and the induced moment on the ultimate moment for twenty five internally bonded prestressed beams.

[Maged A. Hashad, Fathy A. Saad and Khaled H. Riad. Structural Efficiency of Prestressing for Concrete Bridges in Ultimate Stage. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):237-241]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.27

 

Keywords: Prestressed; Bonded tendons; Ultimate stage Behavior; Strain Compatibility

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Cisplatin and Vincristine in High Grade Glioma before Radiotherapy: A Phase II Trial

 

Alaa Fayed 1, Mostafa M. Toom 1, Khaled A. Mansor 1 and Mahmoud M. Taha2

 

Departments of 1 Clinical Oncology, 2 Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

Fayed_alaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this phase II study is to evaluate response rate, time to progression, and toxicity of preirradiation chemotherapy with cisplatin / vincristine followed by radiotherapy in patients with high grade gliomas. Material and methods: All patients must have a histologic confirmation of high grade gliomas according to the World Health Organization (WHO), no prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy for their brain tumor. A total of four to eight weakly cycles of cisplatin (25mg/m2) and vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 were given. Radiation therapy was given after that to a total dose of 60 Gy in 2 Gy/fraction over 6 weeks. Results: Thirty five patients were enrolled in this study. No complete response was obtained. PR was seen in 10/34 patients. Stabilization of disease was obtained in 20/34 patients. Median time to progression after radiotherapy was 6.9 months for stable and responding patients. 7/34 of patients were considered as long-term survivors (>18 months; range: 19-36 months). Mean survival duration was 14.1 months for the whole group. Median survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 85% and 38%, respectively. Toxicity was not high and mainly hematological due to the chemotherapy given. Conclusion: Preirradiation chemotherapy may offer some theoretical advantages, especially with regard to discovering more active agents, but its real value and possible advantages still have to be determined.

[Alaa Fayed , Mostafa M. Toom, Khaled A. Mansor   and Mahmoud M. Taha. Cisplatin and Vincristine in High Grade Glioma before Radiotherapy: A Phase II Trial. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):242-248]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.28

 

Key words: Cisplatin, Vincristine, Before Radiotherapy, Glioma

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Optical and Surface Properties of Different Bulk-Fill Resin Composites after Storage in Different Media

 

Dr. Reem Ali Ajaj

 

Department of Operative Dentistry. Section of Biomaterials. King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD). Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

raajaj@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Aim: to evaluate and compare surface properties (wettability, surface roughness and color) of paste bulk fill resin composite materials on baseline and after incubation in RedBull or Black coffee storage media and to find out if there is any change in these surface properties after 1 week and 1 month incubation. Materials and Methods: Three bulk-fill resin composites (Filtek bulk fill- 3M, X-trafil- Voco, and SonicFill bulk-fill- Kerr) were used. For the contact angle and surface roughness testing, standardized disc-shaped resin composite samples (6 mm X 4 mm) were prepared. For the color testing, standardized Teflon molds (7 mm X 4 mm) with predetermined color as a standard background were used. Five samples were prepared from each material for each test and were light cured following the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were tested at baseline, after 1 week and 1 month incubation in RedBull for contact angle and surface roughness tests and in black coffee for the color test. One-way ANOVA test statistics was done to compare between the mean values for the 3 materials with p value less than 0.05. Least significance test was followed to compare between each two materials in case there were statistical significant results. Paired t test was used to compare between baseline Vs 1 week and baseline Vs one month in each group. Results: there was a statistically significant decrease in the contact angle measurement for all 3 materials at 1 week and 1 monthand no statistical significance between the 3 materials at baseline and 1 month. There was no significant difference in the Ra (surface roughness) values between all the 3 materials at each incubation times. Each material had no significant difference in the Ra (surface roughness) values between baseline, 1 week and 1 month incubation in RedBull. There was a just noticeable color difference between baseline and 1 week for 3M and SonicFill. There was also a noticeable color difference between baseline and 1 month for all the 3 materials. Conclusion: Sports drink (RedBull) increased the wettability of the materials surface, which was directly proportional to the incubation time but did not have a direct effect on surface roughness of the materials. The use of black coffee as a storage media showed noticeable significant staining of the materials. Testing in a more oral simulation environment is needed to reach clinically relevant conclusion.

[Reem Ali Ajaj. Optical and Surface Properties of Different Bulk-Fill Resin Composites after Storage in Different Media. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):249-254]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.29

 

Key Words: Bulk-fill, optical properties, surface properties, contact angle, surface roughness, and resin composite.

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Early and Midterm Result of Mitral Valve Repair in Children

 

El-Husseiny El-Husseiny Gamil - Mohamed Abd El-Aziz Shaarawy – Ali Hassan Taher1- Saleh Raslan Hussein- Mohamed Sharaa- Medhat Ahmed Refaie- Mostafa Al-sawasany

 

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, National Hart Institute-1 Cairo, Egypt

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

 

Abstract: Background: Mitral valve repair is a better therapeutic alternative than valve replacement in children. Repair procedures are especially well suited to developing countries where heart prostheses and life-long anti-coagulation therapy are largely unaffordable. This study aimed to evaluate the early outcome and midterm results of mitral valve repair in children. Patients and Methods: From March 2010 to November 2013, 40 children with mitral valve disease underwent mitral valve repair. The mean age of patient at operation was 7.55 years. 82.5% of patients were rheumatic mitral regurgitation, 10% were degenerative mitral regurgitation, 5% were congenital mitral stenosis and one patient was congenital mitral regurgitation.  Mitral valve repair was done by different methods, the most common one using rigid Carpentier ring to 35 patients. Results: Regarding NYHA class and degree of mitral regurge, there were a significant difference between pre-operative and post-operative (early and late). Comparison between pre- and post-operative echo data of the studied patients, there was a significant decrease in left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left atrial diameter (LAD) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in early and late postopetive. There was no significant difference between pre-operative and early post-operative regarding left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and ejection fraction (EF) while there was a significant difference between pre-operative and 6 month post-operative regarding ESD and EF. Conclusion: Mitral valve repair was successful in stabilizing myocardial function and remodeling the left ventricle. Outcome is dependent on careful patient selection and evaluation of lesions. Middle-term outcome is encouraging.

[El-Husseiny El-Husseiny Gamil,Mohamed Abd El-Aziz Shaarawy, Ali Hassan Taher, Saleh Raslan Hussein- Mohamed Sharaa- Medhat Ahmed Refaie, Mostafa Al-sawasany. Early and Midterm Result of Mitral Valve Repair in Children. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):255-262]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.30

 

Keywords: Mitral regurgitation, Mitral valve repair, NYHA functional classification

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31

Study on some factors affecting Ground-Pile-Tunnelling interaction

 

Mona M. Eid, Ali A. A. Ahmed, Ashraf M. Hefny, and Ahmed N. EL-Attar

 

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Ahmed_civil_hti@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tunnelling in urban area may inevitably affect the stability of overlying or nearby piling systems. Many interrelated factors are arising in analysing such complicated problems related to the employed tunnelling technology, the boundary conditions of the ground formations, and the configuration of the tunnel route to the pilling system. In the present study, a parametric study is conducted using a 3D finite element code to investigate some factors affecting the tunnelling-soil-piles interaction. The soil convergence around the tunnel opening is modelled using a non-associated Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The configuration of piles tip relative to tunnel centreline and the offset distance of pile caps to tunnel centreline are evaluated. In addition, the ground continuum boundary conditions and its strength characteristics, the grouting strength behaviour from soft to hard conditions, and the shield and lining elastic parameters are idealized in the details of global ground-tunnelling-piling interaction idealization. The induced forces and deformations in the employed pilling system due tunnelling are evaluated in association to the tunnel configuration. The displacement and induced force fields around the tunnel opening are used to specify both zones of high displacements and distressing zones around the tunnel opening.

[Mona M. Eid, Ali A. A. Ahmed, Ashraf M. Hefny, and Ahmed N. EL-Attar. Study on some factors affecting Ground-Pile-Tunnelling interaction. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):263-274]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.31

 

Keywords: Tunnelling, excavation, nearby piles, 3-D finite element, foundation

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Production of high nutritive value and physical and sensory characteristic wheat biscuits fortified with chick pea flour

 

Hanan M.K.E. Youssef

 

Home Economic Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

hanankamaly@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chick pea is reckoned as a valuable nutritional healthful functional food. The present investigation was performed to assess nutritional status of wheat biscuits and chick pea flour fortified wheat biscuits. Study included determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, minerals (Mn, Ca, Fe, Cu, P, Na and K), vitamins (C, Folic acid, A, and E), and amino acid composition of wheat biscuits and 15%, 25% chick pea flour fortified wheat biscuits. Likewise, physical and sensory characteristics of studied biscuits were assessed. The data revealed that 25% chick pea flour fortified wheat biscuits proved to be nutritious functional healthful food. It improved both physical, sensory characteristics and increased protein and ash contents, but decreased fat, carbohydrates and caloric value. While, it recorded an increment in the all seven studied minerals as well as increased all the studied four vitamins, and the amino acids isoleucine, leucine, lysine, threonine, and valine contents resulting in an improvement of the nutritive value of 25% chick pea flour fortified wheat biscuits. Therefore it could be recommended for caloric reduced diets for diabetic, obese, and overweight persons, as well as for school students diets. Beside, it should be used as an ingredient in the bakery industry, i.e. in biscuits, bread, snack foods, breakfast foods, and cakes.

[Hanan M.K.E. Youssef. Production of high nutritive value and physical and sensory characteristic wheat biscuits fortified with chick pea flour. Life Sci J 2015;12(6):193-199]. (ISSN:1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.32

 

Keywords: Wheat biscuits, 15%, 25% chick pea fortified biscuits, gross chemical composition, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, caloric value, physical, sensory characteristics.

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Sea Water Intrusion in Nile Delta in Perspective of New Configuration of the Aquifer Heterogeneity Using the Recent Stratigraphy Data

 

Nofal E. R. 1, Amer M. A.2, El-Didy S. M.3 and Akram M. Fekry4

 

1, 4 Research Institute for Groundwater, National Water Research Center (El-Kanater El-Khairiya- Egypt).

2, 3 Irrigation and Hydraulics Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo Univ. (Giza, Egypt).

emanragab29@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Egypt is considered an arid country. The main and almost exclusive source of water is the River Nile. The second source of water is groundwater whereas a variety of aquifer systems exist. Nile Delta aquifer is a large freshwater reservoir which is mainly replenished from irrigation activities. A proper management and development of such aquifers should be directed to satisfy water requirements. Groundwater development in the northern region is restricted due to the risks of inland movement of saline water/ fresh water interface to properly manage groundwater in this region. To achieve the proper management of groundwater resource in this region, it is important to understand the patterns of seawater movement and mixing between fresh and saline groundwater. In order to understand the salinity distribution and seawater movement, the actual heterogeneity and stratigraphy of the Nile Delta aquifer should be determined. The conventional modeling concept of the Nile Delta aquifer had assumed the aquifer as a homogenous media of graded sand and gravel with a clay cap at the top. In this study, assessment of recent stratigraphy of the Nile Delta aquifer is carried out using litho-logical data from the new drilled groups of multi depths wells. These wells has been designed and implemented especially to investigate the actual litho-stratigraphy and heterogeneity of the aquifer in the northern and middle region of the Nile Delta as a part of National Groundwater Quality Monitoring program, by Research Institute for Groundwater (RIGW). In this study, new configuration of the Nile Delta aquifer system has been obtained by assessing the Hydro-geological stratification of Nile Delta aquifer using RockWorks software. The study concluded that the northern part the aquifer is devolved into multi-layered aquifer system while in the southern part; the aquifer constitutes sand and gravel facies. Furthermore, this study assessed the Hydrochemistry status of the groundwater in the Nile Delta aquifer by using the results of chemical analysis of multi depths points (25- 650 m) of the National Groundwater Quality Monitoring network. This assessment confirmed that there is a multi wedge system for the sea water intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer. The shape and direction of the wedges differs between the different layers of the aquifer according to the salinity and density of the groundwater present in each layer. This new multi system wedge can be used to model and simulate the new conceptual and configuration of the Nile Delta aquifer to fulfill proper groundwater development and management.

[Nofal E. R., Amer M. A., El-Didy S. M. and Akram M. Fekry. Sea Water Intrusion in Nile Delta in Perspective of New Configuration of the Aquifer Heterogeneity Using the Recent Stratigraphy Data. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):281-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.33

 

Key words: Nile Delta aquifer, Aquifer Heterogeneity, Multi-layered aquifer system, Multi sea water intrusion wedge, Sea water intrusion, Groundwater quality.

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34

Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Pattern in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria

 

Ado U. Adamu1 and Taysir R. Hafiz2

 

Chief Laboratory Scientist, TB Reference Lab. Amino Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.1

Microbiology &Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine AL Azhar University 2

dr.taysiralassuty@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Tuberculosis is one of the world’s major causes of illness and death, mostly in low-income countries. Nigeria ranks 4th among the 22-high burden TB countries in the world and 2nd highest in Africa. Tuberculosis is both preventable and curable as long as its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is susceptible to antibiotics. Recently, an alarming spread of mono-and multi-drug resistant strains of the bacterium are seen, a situation poses a growing global health problem. This study aimed at determining the drug resistance tuberculosis pattern in Kano, Nigeria. The study comprised 339 sputum specimens collected from patients attending the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS) of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital and Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Detection of multi-drug-resistant strains of MTB was done using the GenoType® MTBDRplus. Sputum specimens were divided into 2 groups: group I comprised 298 specimens collected from newly diagnosed TB before starting treatment and group II comprised 41 specimens collected from patients who were on anti-tuberculous treatment. Result showed that among group I, 9 specimens (3%) were multi-drug resistant, one/was 1NH mono-resistant and one (0.29%) was RIF mono-resistant. Among group II, 27 specimens (65.8%) were multi-drug resistant, a percentage far exceeding the WHO predictions (0-4.3%); 4 specimens (9.7%) were 1NH-mono-resistant and one (2.4%) was RIF mono-resistant. No significant association was observed between drug resistance and age groups (p=0.531) or sex (p= 0.508). This research is aimed at determining the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pattern in Kano metropolis, using the Genotype MTB DR plus.

[Ado U. Adamu and Taysir R. Hafiz. Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Pattern in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):293-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.34

 

Key Words: Genotype MTBDR, AKTH Kano

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Impact of counseling program on Knowledge and self-efficacy of patients withimplanted permanent pacemaker

 

Manal Houssien Nasr1, Galila Shawky El Ganzory2 and Magda Abd ElSattar Ahmed3

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department1, Psychiatric Nursing Department2, Community Health Department3, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

manalelwakeel@hotmail.com

 

Abstract" Background: Patients undergoing permanent implantable pacemaker, challenge with multiple physical, psychological and social complications. The patients may perceive the pacemaker device as an electronic security or as a source of physical and emotional discomfort. Aim: Evaluate the effect of counseling program on knowledge and self-efficacy of patients with permanent pacemaker. Design: A quasi-experimental. Setting: The present study was conducted in both inpatient department and outpatient clinic of cardiology which are affiliated to Ain Shams university hospital. Subjects: A convenience sample of 35 adult patients from both genders undergoing permanent pacemaker and didn't participate in any previous educational programs regarding pacemakers were recruited. Tools of data collection: Three tools were used by the researchers: 1- Patients' interviewing questionnaire: It is consisted of three parts: - demographic characteristics – patients' knowledge assessment sheet which was used as pre/posttests – Indicators of counseling program success which was used as a pre and follow up tests. 2- Pacemaker self-efficacy questionnaire which was used as a pre/post and follow up tests to assess perceived self-efficacy. 3- Aga Khan University anxiety and depression scale: it was used as a pre/post and follow up tests to assess psychiatric symptoms in the cardiac patients. Results: It was revealed that, 51.4% of the patients were females, 77.1% of them were married, and also 65.7% were illiterates and 62. % has jobs. Statistically significant differences were found between the pre/post and follow up tests after implementing the counseling program regarding all items of knowledge and self-efficacy (p= <0.001). There is a highly statistically difference in the post and follow up test compared to pretest regarding level of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The counseling program had a positive effect in improving knowledge, anxiety and depression and in turn the self-efficacy of patients with permanent implanted pacemakers. There was also a positive correlation between levels of patients' knowledge as regards their self-efficacy and level of anxiety and depression. Recommendations: -The counseling program should be an integral part of the total management of patients with implanted pacemakers.-Long term effects of the counseling program should be further studied. - Education is extremely important for nurses counseling patients with implanted devices in order to play successful role as the continuous link to the multidisciplinary professional team that guide the oftentimes forgotten humanistic care of these patients.

[Manal Houssien Nasr, Galila Shawky El Ganzoryand Magda Abd ElSattar Ahmed. Impact of counseling program on Knowledge and self-efficacy of patients withimplanted permanent pacemaker. J Am Sci 2015;11(6):297-306]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas110615.35

 

Key words: counseling program - implanted pacemaker – knowledge –self-efficacy – anxiety - depression

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 28, 2015.

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