The Journal of American Science
(J Am Sci)
ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online);
Volume 11, Issue 7, Cumulated
, July 25, 2015
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Titles / Authors
vaccine against leishmaniasis
B cell epitope
of Leishmania vaccine
198 NDGDGEEEE, 359-
and477- 485 ASGSADGDE,
IgG OD values
Antibacterial efficacy of Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation after
rotary instrumentation of infected root canals. A clinical study
Mohamed Ibrahim Salman
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry,
Mansoura University, Egypt.
Introduction: This clinical study
was conducted to assess the bacterial reduction of rotary
instrumentation and the additive antibacterial effect of
Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation.
Fifteen mesial roots of mandibular molars with primary
endodontic infections and chronic apical periodontitis were
prepared with a combined ProTaper/GTX
technique up to size 40/.04 taper followed by 30 s Sonicare
CanalBrush agitation of 17% EDTA then 60 s 5.25% NaOCl. Canals
were sampled before and after instrumentation and after Sonicare
CanalBrush agitation of irrigats. Samples were incubated
anaerobically for 7 days at 37˚C and colony forming units
(CFUs) were counted and the number of bacteria in each sample
All samples showed bacterial growth before treatment. 50% of
samples showed negative cultures after rotary instrumentation
alone while, 83.3% of samples were free of bacteria after the
additional Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation. Furthermore, one
minute Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation resulted in significant
(p<0.05) reduction in CFU count.
Bacterial counts and number of negative cultures were
substantially reduced after Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation. This
treatment protocol may be a valuable adjunct in the search for
more effective antimicrobial treatment strategies to render the
root canal system free of bacteria.
Antibacterial efficacy of Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation
after rotary instrumentation of infected root canals. A clinical
J Am Sci
CanalBrush, ProTaper, Sonic, irrigation.
A Social History of Hieratic Graffiti in Eighteenth Dynasty
Mohamed A. Mohamed Nassar; Maher A.Eissa;
Department of Egyptology- Faculty of archaeology-
The graffiti can be therefore considered as one of the sources
of studying Egyptian uses of the past, and the historical
tradition of Kings. The study of graffiti allows us to observe
the cultural and social identity promoted in these literary
works in an archaeologically secure context, and it also helps
us to gauge the level of cultural literacy of the scribe.
A. Mohamed Nassar; Maher A. Eissa; Wazir W.
A Social History of Hieratic Graffiti in Eighteenth Dynasty.
J Am Sci
Graffiti, Hieratic, A social
history, Eighteenth dynasty.
Development of a Novel Ketorolac Tromethamine Sublingual Film
Magdy I. Mohamed1, Nadia A. Soliman2 and
Sarah H. Abd-El Rahim2
of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
of Pharmaceutics, National Organization for Drug Control and
Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt
Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drug (NSAID). All NSAIDs can disturb gastric mucosa and lead to
ulcers. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) gained great interest
as an alternative to conventional tablets to improve patient
compliance. The aim of this study was to enhance sublingual
permeability of KT and to formulate KT sublingual FDOFs to
provide fast relieve of pain with minimum local gastric side
effects. Different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate
(SLS) and sodium tarucholate (STC) were used to enhance KT
permeability. KT sublingual FDOFs were prepared by
solvent-casting method using methocel (E5 and E50, 1% and 2%
w/v) as film-forming agent, propylene glycol (PG) or
polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as plasticizers and SLS as
permeation enhancer. The prepared formulae were evaluated for
their in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro
disintegration time, and physico-mechanical properties. The
optimized formula was subjected to stability study.SLS (1% w/w
of KT weight) improved KT permeation parameters with PER of
218.6%. The optimized formula composed mainly of methocel E5,
PEG 400 and SLS had the highest drug dissolution rate (T100%=
2min) with the least disintegration time (16sec) and suitable
physico-mechanical properties with absence of any signs of
instability. These results provide a rational to subject KT
sublingual FDOF for further clinical studies.
[Magdy I. Mohamed, Nadia A. Soliman and Sarah H. Abd-El Rahim.
Development of a Novel Ketorolac Tromethamine Sublingual Film.
J Am Sci
Fast-dissolving oral films; permeability enhancement;
solvent-casting method; ketorelac tromethamine.
[J Am Sci
and Intergranular Critical Current Density Study in SmBa2Cu3-xFexO7
1,2 and A. Sedky 3,4
Department, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta
University, New Damietta 34517, Egypt
Physics and Astronomy Department, Collage of Science, King Saud
University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University,
Department, Faculty of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa
31982, Saudi Arabia
Low field ac
magnetic susceptibility study for SmBa2Cu3-xFexO7
with various x
values (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) is reported. The results of ac
susceptibility are used to determine the pinning force density
and intergranular critical current density. However, two
different values of q factor obeying the law
extracted from the slope of each plot. The first corresponds to
smaller field (0.00 ≤ Hm ≤ 300 A/m), and its values
are between 0.19 and 0.66. While, the second corresponds to
higher field (300 A/m ≤ Hm ≤ 600 A/m) and its values
are between 0.30 and 0.91. Compared to pure sample, the pinning
force density is decreased by 0.01 of Fe addition, followed by
an increase with further increase of Fe up to 0.06. Similar
behavior is obtained for intergranular critical current density.
These results are discussed in terms of induced weak link which
is produced by Fe doping in Sm: 123 superconductors.
[M.I. Youssif and A. Sedky. Flux Pinning and
Intergranular Critical Current Density Study in SmBa2Cu3-xFexO7
Superconductor. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):42-48].
Keywords: Ac susceptibility; SmBCO; Critical current; Weak- link
Design of Efficient Noise
Reduction Scheme for Secure Speech Masked by Chaotic Signals
Hikmat N. Abdullah
1, Saad S.
Ameer K. Jawad
College of Information Engineering,
Department of Electrical Engineering, Babylon University,
Department of Electrical Engineering, AL-Mustansiryah
To achieve efficient transmission
through public channels, the communication system should have
ability to overcome many problems. Among these problems, the
security and the noise are the most challenging ones.
In this paper, an efficient communication system with high
security and high immunity against noise based on sample
repetitions has been proposed. From security perspective, the
simulation results show
that the Segmental Spectral Signal to Noise Ratio (SSSNR)
of Lorenz chaotic masking is reduced by 20.679 dB in comparison
with time domain scrambling.
Concerning the immunity against noise, the proposed system is
based on conversion of information from analog to digital format
before doing the masking. The simulation results of this method
show that the mean square error (MSE) is reduced and this
reduction increases as signal to noise ratio (SNR) increase. For
instance when QUOTE
SNR=10 dB ,
SNR=10dB, MSE is reduced from 0.1 to 0.02 while it reduced from
[Abdullah H, Hreshee S, Jawad A.
Design of Efficient Noise Reduction Scheme for Secure Speech
Masked by Chaotic Signals.
J Am Sci
Key words: chaotic encryption,
chaotic masking, speech quality, and Communication security
Mixture of exponent tied Frechet distribution based on upper
Statistics Dept., Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz
University, Jeddah 21577, P. O. Box 70973, Saudi Arabia. Email:
In this paper, we
will discuss the mixture distribution consists of two components
from exponentiated Frechet distribution (EFD) based on upper
record values. We will study the maximum likelihood estimator
(MLE) and Bayes estimation under quadratic loss and LINEX loss
functions for two parameters and
distribution, reliability and failure rate functions. Through
Monte Carlo simulation, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) of
the estimators are computed and compared between them.
Mixture of exponentatied Frechet distribution based on upper
J Am Sci
Mixture distributions; Exponentiated Frechet distribution (EFD);
Upper record values; Maximum likelihood estimation; Bayes
estimation; Quadratic loss function; LINEX loss function.
The effect of green campus on
education for sustainable development: The case of Engineering
Faculty, Alexandria University
Faten Fares Fouad
Architectural Engineer in Bibliotheca Alexandrina
PhD Student in Architectural Engineering Department, Engineering
Faculty, Alexandria University, Egypt
Abstract: The higher education
has a key role to play in the move toward a more sustainable
world. Through the Curriculum, Research and Operations conducted
on campuses to support environmental integrity, economic
vitality and social justice for present and future generations.
This paper investigates the role of the physical campus
environment in embedding sustainable development in Curriculum,
research and Campus Community Culture. A questionnaire survey
was carried out within the Engineering Faculty at Alexandria
University to identify how academic staff, student,
administration and graduates perceive sustainable development
into the campus through three levels: 1- Curriculum, Teaching
and Research; 2- Campus Community culture; 3- Site, Built
Environment and Facilities. The findings show the disparity in
knowledge between different sectors of the respondents at the
university. Finally, the study findings emphasize the need to
clear strategies developing approach to sustainability into
[Faten Fares Fouad.
The effect of green campus on
education for sustainable development: The case of Engineering
Faculty, Alexandria University.
J Am Sci
Sustainable development; Education for sustainable development;
Hepatotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles & the
Possible Protective Role of N-acetylcysteine in Adult Male
Albino Rats (Histological & Biochemical Study)
Eman S. El-Zahed; Hoda R. El-Sayed,
Osama Y. Ibraheem* and Bothina H. F. Omran.
Forensic Medicine and Clinical
Toxicology and Histology* Departments, Faculty of Medicine,
Zagazig University, Egypt.
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) nanoparticles are among
the most commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles in industrial
products, such as cosmetics, sunscreens, food products, paints
and drugs. They have been reported to elicit various adverse
cellular effects including oxidative stress and DNA damage.
The aim of this work was to study the toxic effects of oral
TiO2NPs and the possible antioxidant protective role of N-acetylecysteiene
(NAC) on the liver of adult albino rats. Material and
methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were classified into
five equal groups. Group I: Negative control
received regular diet and water. Group II: Positive control
administered 1ml of 5% gum acacia solution (solvent of TiO2)
once daily. Group III: Each rat gavaged orally with 100
mg/kg b.w. NAC once daily. Group IV: Each rat received
1200 mg/kg b.w. TiO2NPs in 1ml of 5% gum acacia once daily.
Each rat gavaged orally with 100
mg/kg b.w. NAC then 1200 mg/kg b.w. TiO2NPs once daily. After 12
weeks the rats of all groups were subjected to blood sample for
estimating aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase
(ALT), Total bilirubin (TBIL), reduced glutathione (GSH) and
serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Then the liver was dissected
and subjected to histological and ultrastructural
examination and immunohistochemical detection of TNF-α. Cell
suspension from the liver was examined to determine the extent
of DNA damage by the Comet assay. Results: The results
revealed that TiO2NPs induced histological and
ultrastructral changes in the liver in the form of congestion
and lymphocytic aggregation. The hepatocytes were vacuolated
with pyknotic nuclei and positive for TNF-α immunoreaction.
Also, the oxidative toxic effects of TiO2NPs on liver
function were demonstrated through the detection of increased
AST, ALT and serum MDA level with decreased in TBIL and GSH
level in comparison to controls.
Also, commet assay result
showed that TiO2NPs exposure produced DNA damage in
liver cells. On the other hand
administration of NAC with
TiO2NPs produced partial to complete protection of
hepatic histological changes, TNF-α immunoreactivity, liver
function tests and oxidative stress markers with moderate
protective effects against DNA damage. Conclusion: TiO2NPs
exposure causes toxic effects on the liver that may be
attributable to oxidative stress and administration of NAC
offers protection against
its damaging effects. Recommendations: It is recommended
to limit ingestion of TiO2 nanoparticles through
nonessential drug additives, food colors, etc. and to decrease
the risk of TiO2NPs toxicity, NAC can be used as
supplement to occupationally exposed workers.
[Eman S. El-Zahed; Hoda R. El-Sayed, Osama Y. Ibraheem and Bothina H. F.
Omran. Hepatotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide
Nanoparticles & the Possible Protective Role of N-acetylcysteine
in Adult Male Albino Rats (Histological & Biochemical Study).
J Am Sci
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, N-acetylcysteine,
Hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress.
effects of Diclofenac Potassium and Dexamethason on some
hematobiochemical and immunological parameters in Egyptian goat
Abd Elazem. M. A and Seham. Y.
Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt
Fifteen, 4-8 months old goats were used to study the effect of
diclofenac potassium and dexamethasone on some hematobiochemical
parameters, as well as immunity. Animals were divided into 3
groups (5 buck each) 1st group was left without
treatment as control while 2nd and 3rd
groups were treated by diclofenac potassium (1.1 mg/kg b.wt.)
and dexamethasone (0.20 mg/kg b. wt.) respectively as
therapeutic dose for 5 successive days. Two blood samples were
collected from on 1st, 7th and 14th
days after the last
injection of both drugs
for leukogram and biochemical analysis. The results revealed
potassium and dexamethasone induced significant increase in
total leucocytic count, neutrophil, monocyte, basophil,
esionophil, ALT, AST, urea and creatinine, calcium, potassium
and inorganic phosphorus, beside significant decrease in
lymphocyte, total protein, albumin, globulin ALP and sodium also
significant decrease in in RBCs, Hb, PCV, IgA, IgG, IgM, on the
1st. and 7th after the last injection was
recorded. It could be concluded that both diclofenac potassium
and dexamethasone induced several hematobiochemical and
as well as the
adverse effects of diclofenac potassium were completely
reversible within 14 days while they were incompletely
reversible within 14 days
[Abd Elazem. M.A and Seham. Y.
effects of Diclofenac Potassium and Dexamethason on some
hematobiochemical and immunological parameters in Egyptian goat
Anti-inflammatory drugs, Egyptian goat, hematobiochemical
Serum Myeloperoxidase And Cardiovascular Risk Factor In
Psoriatic Children In Damietta Governorate
Mohamed A. Salam1;
Hammouda Abdul khalik4
Dermatology2, Clinical pathology3 and
Deparments, Damietta Faculty of medicine- Al Azhar University,
MPO is often released from stimulated polymorphonuclear
leukocytes at sites of inflammation and is involved in the
generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and tissue
damage. Thus, it can play a role of inflammatory skin disease
such as psoriasis and subsequent development of cardiovascular
comorbidities associated with psoriasis. Aim of the work:
to examine the association between serum myeloperoxidase and
cardiovascular risk factor in psoriatic children in Damietta
governorate. Fifty psoriasis children and fifty age and sex
matched controls were recruited from pediatric and dermatology
clinics at Al-Azhar University Hospital (New Damietta), Egypt.
All were submitted to full history taking, clinical examination
and laboratory investigation with measurement of myeloperoxidase
serum levels. Results of the present study showed that,
there was significant increase of traditional risk factors for
cardiac disease in study group when compared to control group.
In addition, MPO was significantly increased in psoriasis
patients (pointing to possible role in pathogenesis of
psoriasis). However, there was no significant correlation
between MPO and risk factors of psoriasis. On the other hand,
there was significant positive correlation between MPO and
duration of disease at the first followed by severity of the
disease. Conclusion: MPO played a role in pathogenesis of
psoriasis. But, MPO do not play a role in development of CVD in
children with psoriasis.
Tarek Emran and Hammouda Abdul
khalik. Association between Serum Myeloperoxidase And
Cardiovascular Risk Factor In Psoriatic Children In Damietta
J Am Sci
psoriasis, cardiovascular, children
Machine Interference Model with Bulk Arrivals and
Hyperexponential Service Time Distribution: MX/Hr
/1/K/N with Balking and Reneging
M. M. Badr
Statistics Department, Faculty of
Science – AL Faisaleya Campus, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah
21577, P.O. Box 70973, SAUDI ARABIA.
The objective of this paper is to
derive the analytical solution of the machine interference
model: MX/Hr/1/k/N with balking and
reneging considering the discipline FIFO. Some measures of
effectiveness are deduced and some special cases are also
M. Badr. The Machine Interference Model with Bulk Arrivals
and Hyperexponential Service Time Distribution: MX/Hr
/1/K/N with Balking and Reneging. J Am Sci
interference model; bulk arrival; hyperexponential service; time
Cost-effectiveness of Using
“Tyvek” in Wedding Dress
Ghada Al-Gamal*, Wafaa Alsabagh**
Lecturer at Apparel Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan
University, Cairo, Egypt
** Freelancer Fashion Designer
The wedding dress is the finest
product made in the garment industry, because of the high prices
of raw materials used, from fabrics to accessories, as well as
the accuracy required in the sewing and finishing. In addition,
the dress often features decoration such as embroidery or
hand-drawing. All these factors make the wedding dress an
expensive commodity on which thousands of Pounds are spent,
although it is only used for few hours. Thus using inexpensive
innovative raw materials to design wedding dresses and exploit
the potential of such materials in the production of these
dresses, without compromising on the high aesthetic value is an
important target. The study entails the possibility of
simulating three international designs of wedding dresses (after
permission from the original designers of using simulators for
scientific purposes) by using innovative raw materials as
“Tyvek” and comparing cost-effectiveness and consumer opinions
between the original designs and simulated designs.
Questionnaires of Consumers; that consists of a sample of 20
girls and women aged between 20-40 years, they were about to
marry and they were from different residential areas and
economic levels, were done. The questionnaire
included the following parameters: simulation of innovation,
simulation of attractiveness, simulation of functional
convenience and price; each girl or woman evaluated both the
original and simulated wedding dress through specific evaluation
expressions and gave score of 5 for each design of the three
simulated designs. The study concluded that the idea of
using economic raw material was accepted for the consumers
as long as it is offered in an innovative pattern. It also
demonstrated that using economic raw materials such as tyvek
with other supplemented materials as synthetic leather for
wedding dress design are effective.
[Ghada Al-Gamal, Wafaa Alsabagh.
Cost-effectiveness of Using “Tyvek” in Wedding Dress.
J Am Sci
Tyvek, Wedding dress,
Improving Punching Shear Behavior of Flat RC Slabs
El-Nawawy, 1Ayman Hussein Hosny, 2Eiad
Ali Hamada Mohamed
of Engineering at Ain Shams University-Civil Engineering
Institute of Engineering and Technology- New Cairo Academy
Assistant -P.H.I for Engineering and Technology
This work presents a technique to improve punching shear
behavior of flat RC slabs that develop cracking at regions
between the slab and column due to error of design or
construction. The work examines the improvement of the punching
resistance due to repair of the slabs using glass fiber
wrappings. The study consists of an experimental part and a
theoretical part. The experimental work divides the test
specimens into two groups (A & B). The first, Group (A) includes
three specimens of reinforced concrete slabs having a
compressive strength (35 N/mm2). This specimens rest on columns
.The second group, Group (B) is similar; however, it has a
compressive strength of (17 N/mm2). Tow reference specimens were
loaded until failure and four specimens were loaded up to 80%
and 50% of failure load. After being unloaded, these four
specimens were repaired using glass wrapping then loaded to
failure. The deflection, cracking, failure modes, strain in steel
reinforcement and relationship between load deflection
andload-strain were recorded and discussed. Results show that
repair using GFRP enhanced the shear capacity of the tested
specimens. Enhancement was more noticeable for 35 N/mm2
In the analytical study, the specimens were modeled using
(ANSYS) computer program based on finite element analysis
system. Fair agreement was found between the experimental and
the theoretical results.
Ayman Hussein Hosny, Eiad H.Zahran
Hamada Ali Hamada Mohamed.
Improving Punching Shear Behavior of Flat RC Slabs.
J Am Sci
Reinforced Polymers, Slab-Column connections, Punching Shear,
Retrofit and Repairing.
Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in
patients with chronic plaque Psoriasis in Damietta Governorate
Zakaria Mahran1 and Tarek
Departments of Dermatology and Andrology1
and Clinical Pathology2, Faculty of Medicine.
AlAzhar University. Egypt
Many skin diseases, including psoriasis, have
been described in association with hepatitis C virus
(HCV). The important observations that propose a role for HCV in
psoriasis include the existence of psoriasis in HCV infected
patients, detection of anti-HCV antibodies in psoriatic patients
and detection of HCV-RNA by PCR in the skin lesions of psoriatic
patients with HCV infection. It is possible that the presence of
HCV in the skin could trigger psoriasis through stimulating
inflammatory cells to infiltrate skin lesions. Aim of the
study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic plaque
psoriasis. Participants and methods: A total 120
individuals included in our study and divided into two groups;
60 psoriatic group who had been attending to our dermatology
outpatient clinics .The study also included 60 apparently
healthy subjects as control group. All individuals were
subjected to history taking, general and local examinations
including joint examination and laboratory investigation that
include immune-fluorescence assay (IFA) of HCV antibodies and
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: Our results
showed that incidence of HCV infection was significantly higher
in psoriatic patients compared with the control subjects (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is association
between psoriasis and HCV infection and helping us to recommend
to screening for HCV infection in severe and longstanding
[Zakaria Mahran and Tarek M. Emran.
Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in patients
with chronic plaque Psoriasis in Damietta Governorate. J
Am Sci 2015;11(7):130-133].
psoriasis, IFA, PCR
Program: Effect on Physical and Psychological Functioning of
Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Manal Houssien Nasr1,
Dalia Ali Amin1, Howyda Ahmed Mohammed1
and GalilaShawky El Ganzory2
Nursing Department1, Psychiatric Nursing Department2,
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: Back ground:
Rheumatoid arthritis may be severe enough to restrict daily
activities in the home, and workplace. The nurse has a
crucial role in implementing strategies for relevant effective
care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose
of this study was to evaluate effect of rehabilitation program
on the knowledge, physical and psychological Functions of
patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The current research
hypothesized that post implementation of the rehabilitation
program, knowledge, physical and psychological functioning of
the patients with rheumatoid arthritis scores will be higher
than their pre-implementation and there is a positive
correlation between level of patients' knowledge and physical
functioning, worry & depression. Design: a
quasi-experimental research design was used. Setting: the
study was conducted at the inpatient department and outpatient
clinic of rheumatoid arthritis, affiliated to Ain-shams
university hospital. Sample: a purposive sample of (80)
rheumatoid arthritis adult patients from both sexes; these
patients were divided randomly into two equal groups: a study
group (40) for application of the intervention, and a control
group (40) to receive the routine management of the hospital.
Tools: four tools were used for data collection 1- A pre
designed patients' interviewing questionnaire. 2- Arthritis
health assessment questionnaire. 3- Hospital depression scale.
4- Penn state worry questionnaire. Results: Demographic
characteristics were similar for both groups. The knowledge
scores were statistically significantly higher among study group
(p<o.001) post program implementation. They also had
significantly better scores in physical functioning, worry, and
hospital depression levels after implementation of the
rehabilitation program. There was a correlation between levels
of patients' knowledge and their worry and depression.
Conclusion and recommendations: The study concludes that,
after providing the information needed by patients with
rheumatoid arthritis in a rehabilitation program, their
knowledge improved with consequent positive impact on their
physical functioning, worry and depression Therefore,
rehabilitative programs should become an integral part of the
total nursing management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Houssien Nasr, Dalia Ali Amin, Howyda Ahmed Mohammed and Galila
Shawky El Ganzory.
Rehabilitation Program: Effect on Physical and Psychological
Functioning of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
J Am Sci
rheumatoid arthritis, physical health, worry and depression,
Biodiversity and Distribution of Airborne Cladosporium
Species in Riyadh city
Mohammed S. Alhussaini1*,
Mohammed I. Alghonaim3,
Abdullah A. Al-Ghanayem4
and Hamido M. Hefny5
of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical
Sciences, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia.
of Science, Botany and Microbiology Department, King Saud
University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
of Biology, College of Science and humanities, Al-Quway’iyah,
Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia.
Species of the genus Cladosporium are among the most common
fungi to be isolated from the environment almost anywhere in the
world, in indoors as well as outdoors air. Many species are
known to be plant pathogens, while others are regularly
encountered as contaminants and spoilage agents in food or
industrial products. Cladosporium spp. are pathogenic for
humans, causing localized infections, more severe respiratory
diseases, or systemic mycoses. This study is a first step
towards the identification of Cladosporium spp. in the
atmosphere of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In order to investigate the
geographical distribution of Cladosporium spp. air was sampled
from forty sites on north east, North West, south east, south
west and middle of Riyadh. A total of 870 fungal colonies were
isolated, 108 (12.4%) of them were Cladosporium spp. The genus
Cladosporium spp. was represented in all studied sites. Nineteen
isolates belong to five Cladosporium species were identified. In
all sampling sites, the most prevalent Cladosporium species were
Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresenius) de Vries and
Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penzig, followed by
Cladosporium herbarum (Persoon) Link, Cladosporium
macrocarpum Preuss, and Cladosporium chlamydosporis
Matsushima. Density of Cladosporium spp. during the
investigation of Seasonal variation was affected by month and
site. The two main effects of ANOVA (month and site) were all
very highly significant sources of variation in density of
Cladosporium spp. isolated from Riyadh city. Also, the two-way
interaction for month × site was a very highly significant
source of variation in the case of density of Cladosporium spp.
(P = 0.0000).
[Mohammed S. Alhussaini,
Mohammed I. Alghonaim, Abdullah A. Al-Ghanayem
and Hamido M. Hefny.
Biodiversity and Distribution of Airborne Cladosporium
Species in Riyadh city.
J Am Sci
Cladosporium species and Chromomycosi.
Relative Microhardness and Flexural Strength of Different Bulk
Fill Resin Composite Restorative Materials
Dr. Reem Ali Ajaj
Department of Operative Dentistry.Section of Biomaterials, King
Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD), Jeddah,
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,
to find out if there is a significant difference in the curing
efficiency at the claimed 4 mm depth and in the mechanical
properties between the tested paste- form bulk fill resin
composite materials. Materials and Methods: Three
paste-consistency bulk-fill resin composites were used in this
study (Filtek bulk fill- 3M; X-trafil- Voco; and SonicFill
bulk-fill- Kerr). For the microhardness testing, standardized
disc-shaped resin composite samples (6mm X 4mm) were prepared.
For the Flexural Strength testing, standardized resin composite
samples with the dimensions of (2mm x 2mm x 25mm) were
All samples were light cured following the manufacturers’
instructions using high intensity LED light-curing unit.
Five samples were prepared from each material for each test with
a total of 30 samples (15 for each test). Both tests were run at
baseline after preparing the specimens without storage. Vickers
microhardness values of the top and bottom surfaces were
recorded. Three-point flexural strength test values were
One-way ANOVA test statistics was done to compare between the
mean values for the 3 materials with p value less than
0.05. Least significance test was followed to compare between
each two materials in case statistical significance was found.
Results: 3M had statistically significant lower surface
microhardness values on both surfaces (top and bottom) at p<
0.05. All the three bulk fill resin composite materials showed
sufficient relative microhardness values (>0.80) at 4 mm depth.
3M had the lowest mean flexural strength value and SonicFill had
the highest mean flexural strength value but the difference is
not statistically significant at p< 0.05. Conclusion:
Microhardness values of paste consistency bulk fill materials
can differ compared to each other but all showed sufficient
depth of cure at 4 mm depth and no significant difference in
their flexural strength.
[Reem Ali Ajaj. Relative Microhardness and Flexural Strength
of Different Bulk Fill Resin Composite Restorative Materials.
J Am Sci
Bulk fill, flexural strength, relative microhardness, depth of
Ramanujan-Nagell Equation: A
Omer I. Eid
Current Address: Northern Border University, Faculty of Science
and Arts, P O Box 1321, Rafha, Saudi Arabia
Permanent Address: University of Khartoum, Faculty of Science,
Department of Physics, P O Box 321, (11115) Khartoum, Sudan.
In this article we solved the
Ramanujan-Nagell equation by using elementary algebraic methods
and employing the Lucas- Lehmer numbers. The main objective of
this article is to present a simple solution to the equation
without going deep into the theorems used in solving the
equation. We then assume our solution to be useful for those who
are not well familiar with the kind of mathematics that usually
imposed in solving the equation. Certainly many different
solutions were provided in literature by utilizing different
mathematical techniques, some of them are very specialized.
[Omer I. Eid. Ramanujan-Nagell
Equation: A Simple Solution.
J Am Sci
Ramanujan-Nagell, Number theory, Algebra, Ramanujan’s Numbers.
The Influence of Silver Nano-treatment
on Sewing Threads
Ghada Al-Gamal, Eman Raafat
Lecturer at Faculty of Applied
Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
Sewing thread is an integral
component of the garment. Although sewing thread can be made
from any fiber, most threads are made from polyester, cotton or
blend of them. The fiber choice is in large part dependent on
the end use. Nanotreatment was used to enhance sewing threads
properties. In this study the role and impact of silver
nanoparticles on three types of industrial sewing threads
(sample no.1: (100%
polyester), sample no.2: (75% polyester & 25% cotton) and sample
no.3 (25% polyester & 75% cotton)
have been investigated. Tests were focused on changes at the
structural level and changes in linear density, tensile
strength, tenacity, elongation and frictional coefficient
properties before and after silver nanotreated sewing threads.
The structure and morphology of the silver nanoparticles was
observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All results have
been statistically analyzed using statistica software.
The effect of silver nanoparticles on physical and functional
properties was highlighted. The difference of the impact of
silver nanoparticles on polyester and its blend with cotton
sewing threads has been compared. It was found that silver
nanotreatment lead to unchanged linear density, an increase in
tensile strength and tenacity. The nanotreatment of threads
improved its frictional coefficient properties in a highly
significant manner. Study of the impact of nanotreatment on the
properties of cotton and polyester samples showed a bigger
impact on blended cotton samples than polyester samples.
G, Raafat E. The
Influence of Silver Nano-treatment on Sewing Threads. J Am Sci
Sewing Threads, Nano-treatment,
Scanning Electron Microscopy,
Effect of Applying
Performance Improvement Model on Ante-Natal Care Nurses
Performance in Family Heath Centers in Qena City
Faten Ezz El-din Fikry1,
Mahassen Ahmed Abd E-wahed1 Fathia Khamis Kassem1,
Nagda Abou Hashima Dyab2
Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University,
Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University,
Background: Pregnancy is one of the most important
periods in the life of a woman, her family and the society.
Therefore extraordinary attention is given to antenatal care. In
recent years, emphasis on improving the quality of care
provided by the nation’s health setting has increased
significantly. Nurses are integral to patients’ care, they are
also pivotal in nation’s efforts to improve quality.
Objective: identifying the effect of applying performance
improvement model on antenatal care nurses' performance in
family health centers. Setting: The study was carried out in 5
family health centers in Qena city. Subject: the subjects of the
study were all nurses providing ante- natal care in the
previously selected settings (37nurses). Tools: Three
tools were developed for data collection. The first one was a
structured questionnaire sheet which assessed: personal and
socio demographic data about nurses, nurses’ knowledge regarding
antenatal care and the most common problems facing nurses at
their work. The second tool was an observation checklist to
observe actual nursing performance in ante-natal care clinic.
The third tool was an observation check list to observe the
family health center environment. Results: Findings of
the present study revealed that more than three quarters (78.4)
of nurses had poor knowledge regarding ante-natal care and 83.3%
of them had poor performance of ante natal care preprogram.
There was a significant improvement in nurses' knowledge and
performance immediately after program implementation and three
months after program implementation. Conclusion:
Implementing performance improvement model on ante natal care
nurses upgraded their knowledge and performance.
Recommendation: periodic educational training programs to
improve knowledge and performance of nurses about antenatal care
as well as to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes, Clear job
description should be made for nurses working in family health
centers generally and in antenatal clinic specifically.
[Faten Ezz El-din Fikry,
Mahassen Ahmed Abd E-wahed,
Fathia Khamis Kassem, Nagda Abou Hashima Dyab.
Effect of Applying Performance Improvement Model
on Ante-Natal Care Nurses Performance in Family Heath Centers in
J Am Sci
Ante-natal care, performance improvement, standard of care in
Family health center
"Coronary artery bypass
grafting" Effect of developing and implementing Nursing Care
Standards on patient's outcome.
Zienab AE. Muhammad2, Mahmoud K. Abd-Elateef3
and Hala M. Ghanem4
Medical- Surgical Nursing,
Faculty of Nursing, Cardiothoracic surgery, Faculty of Medicine,
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common surgery to
treat coronary artery disease. It involves a section of a vein
or an artery to create a connection (or bypass) between the
aorta and the coronary artery beyond the obstruction. Aim:
This study aimed to assess nurses' knowledge and practice
regarding patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting,
develop nursing care standards
for coronary artery bypass grafting on patient's outcome, and to
evaluate the effect of
implementing nursing care standards on nurse's knowledge,
practice as well as on patient's outcome. Methods:
Quasi-experimental research design was utilized to conduct this
study, the study was carried out cardiothoracic surgery
department, post operative intensive care unit, and operating
room at Assiut University Hospital. Sample: A convenient
sample included (38) nurses and (40) patients who had CABG (20)
patients pre and (20) patients post implementing nursing care
standards aged from 18-65 years from both sexes. Tools:
pre/post structured interview
sheet. b) pre/post observation checklist sheet. c) Cardiac
surgery patient's assessment sheet. d) Construction of nursing
care standards booklet. Results: The first and second
hypotheses were supported as a good improvement in the mean
knowledge and practice scores were found post implementation of
nursing care standards. The third hypotheses were supported as
postoperative complications were reduced post nursing care
standards implementation. The fourth hypotheses were supported
as a positive relationship was found between nurses` knowledge
and practice scores immediately post nursing care standards
implementation. Conclusion: Improving nurses` knowledge
and practice can favorable affect the incidence of coronary
artery bypass graft surgery patient's complications.
Recommendations: in-service training programs and refreshing
courses must be applied to improve nurse's knowledge which will
reflect into their practice while working with patients.
[Ghada H. Ahmed, Zienab AE.
Muhammad, Mahmoud K. Abd-Elateef, Hala M. Ghanem. Coronary
artery bypass grafting" Effect of developing and implementing
Nursing Care Standards on patient's outcome.
J Am Sci
Coronary artery disease, Coronary artery bypass grafting,
nursing care standards
manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review, starting from
May 19, 2015.
comments are welcome:
or contact with author(s) directly.
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