Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online); doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 7, Cumulated No. 89, July 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1107


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Titles / Authors





Immunological, histopathological and immunohistochemical responses to a new B cell epitope-based vaccine against leishmaniasis in experimental mice


Nadia S. El-Nahas1, Gehan S. Sadek1, Amal Mahmoud2, Amany A. Rady1, Salwa F. Oshiba1 and Reham M.



1Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

2Bioinformatic Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Sadat

University, Egypt gss_bmd@yahoo.com


Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a significant worldwide health problem for which no vaccine exists. Recent trend in vaccine design has been shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are more specific, safe and easy to produce. Indeed, as far as we knew, the B cell epitope technique for vaccine development has not been used for preparation of Leishmania vaccine till now. Hence, the aim of the present work was to evaluate a new vaccine using different antigenic B cell epitopes. To achieve this aim, eighty albino mice were used. They were classified into 3 main groups; group I (10 mice) (non- infected, non-vaccinated), group II (10 mice) (infected, non-vaccinated) and group III (60 mice) (infected, vaccinated). Group III was subclassified into 6 subgroups named "a "to" f ", each subgroup was formed of 10 mice. They were vaccinated by epitopes: 239-247 DGMEGSCSG, 6-14 SWGANHYDG, 163-171 SYETGSSTL, 190- 198 NDGDGEEEE, 359- 367 KQKKDEGNQ and477- 485 ASGSADGDE, respectively. Serum IgG  OD  values  were  evaluated  using  ELISA.  Histopathological  examination  of  spleen  and  skin  tissues  was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical staining of spleen tissue was accomplished for measuring CD4+ and CD8+T cells counts. The most considerable findings were the detection of higher serum IgG OD values in subgroups IIIa & IIIb than in group II with the presence of high statistical significant difference. No mice related to subgroups IIIa or  IIIb showed hyaline  changes of spleen  (with the presencof statistical significant difference when compared to group II), ulcer in skin or atrophic epidermis (with the presence of high statistical significant difference when compared to group II). CD4+T cells count was significantly higher in all subgroups of group III than group II while the CD8+T cells count was significantly higher in group II than all subgroups of group III. In conclusion, the currently used new B cell epitope-based vaccine proved beneficial in protection against leishmaniasis. Epitopes 239-247 DGMEGSCSG and 6-14 SWGANHYDG gave the best prophylactic yield as evidenced by detection of high serum IgG OD values together with the best resolution of histopathological changes in spleen and skin tissues when compared to the non-vaccinated infected group. It seems that CD4+T cells expressed in spleen tissue in this study were related to Th-1 subset which proved protective against leishmaniasis. It is advised to apply these two promising epitopes in vaccine design against leishmaniasis in clinical trials.

[Nadia S. El-Nahas, Gehan S. Sadek, Amal M. Husein, Amany A. Rady, Salwa F. Oshiba and Reham M. Barakat. Immunological, histopathological and immunohistochemical responses  to a new B cell epitope-based vaccine against  leishmaniasis in experimental mice.  J Am Sci 2015;11(7):1-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1



Key words: Leishmania, B cell epitope- based vaccine.

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Antibacterial efficacy of Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation after rotary instrumentation of infected root canals. A clinical study


Mohamed Ibrahim Salman


Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.



Abstract: Introduction: This clinical study was conducted to assess the bacterial reduction of rotary instrumentation and the additive antibacterial effect of Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation. Methods: Fifteen mesial roots of mandibular molars with primary endodontic infections and chronic apical periodontitis were prepared with a combined ProTaper/GTX technique up to size 40/.04 taper followed by 30 s Sonicare CanalBrush agitation of 17% EDTA then 60 s 5.25% NaOCl. Canals were sampled before and after instrumentation and after Sonicare CanalBrush agitation of irrigats. Samples were incubated anaerobically for 7 days at 37˚C and colony forming units (CFUs) were counted and the number of bacteria in each sample was calculated. Results: All samples showed bacterial growth before treatment. 50% of samples showed negative cultures after rotary instrumentation alone while, 83.3% of samples were free of bacteria after the additional Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation. Furthermore, one minute Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction in CFU count. Conclusions: Bacterial counts and number of negative cultures were substantially reduced after Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation. This treatment protocol may be a valuable adjunct in the search for more effective antimicrobial treatment strategies to render the root canal system free of bacteria.

[Mohamed Salman. Antibacterial efficacy of Sonicare CanalBrush irrigation after rotary instrumentation of infected root canals. A clinical study. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):16-20]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2



Keywords: CanalBrush, ProTaper, Sonic, irrigation.

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A Social History of Hieratic Graffiti in Eighteenth Dynasty


Mohamed A. Mohamed Nassar; Maher A.Eissa; Wazir W. Abd el-Wahab


Department of Egyptology- Faculty of archaeology- FayoumUninersity



Abstract: The graffiti can be therefore considered as one of the sources of studying Egyptian uses of the past, and the historical tradition of Kings. The study of graffiti allows us to observe the cultural and social identity promoted in these literary works in an archaeologically secure context, and it also helps us to gauge the level of cultural literacy of the scribe.

[Mohamed A. Mohamed Nassar; Maher A. Eissa; Wazir W. Abd el-Wahab. A Social History of Hieratic Graffiti in Eighteenth Dynasty. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):21-26]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3



Key words: Graffiti, Hieratic, A social history, Eighteenth dynasty.

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Development of a Novel Ketorolac Tromethamine Sublingual Film


Magdy I. Mohamed1, Nadia A. Soliman2 and Sarah H. Abd-El Rahim2


1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Departement of Pharmaceutics, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). All NSAIDs can disturb gastric mucosa and lead to ulcers. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) gained great interest as an alternative to conventional tablets to improve patient compliance. The aim of this study was to enhance sublingual permeability of KT and to formulate KT sublingual FDOFs to provide fast relieve of pain with minimum local gastric side effects. Different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and sodium tarucholate (STC) were used to enhance KT permeability. KT sublingual FDOFs were prepared by solvent-casting method using methocel (E5 and E50, 1% and 2% w/v) as film-forming agent, propylene glycol (PG) or polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) as plasticizers and SLS as permeation enhancer. The prepared formulae were evaluated for their in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro disintegration time, and physico-mechanical properties. The optimized formula was subjected to stability study.SLS (1% w/w of KT weight) improved KT permeation parameters with PER of 218.6%. The optimized formula composed mainly of methocel E5, PEG 400 and SLS had the highest drug dissolution rate (T100%= 2min) with the least disintegration time (16sec) and suitable physico-mechanical properties with absence of any signs of instability. These results provide a rational to subject KT sublingual FDOF for further clinical studies.

[Magdy I. Mohamed, Nadia A. Soliman and Sarah H. Abd-El Rahim. Development of a Novel Ketorolac Tromethamine Sublingual Film. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):27-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4



Key words: Fast-dissolving oral films; permeability enhancement; solvent-casting method; ketorelac tromethamine.

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[J Am Sci 2015;11(7):38-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas110715.05


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Flux Pinning and Intergranular Critical Current Density Study in SmBa2Cu3-xFexO7 Superconductor


M.I. Youssif 1,2 and A. Sedky 3,4


1. Physics Department, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517, Egypt

2. Physics and Astronomy Department, Collage of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

3. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

4. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa 31982, Saudi Arabia

sedky1960@yahoo.com; youssifm@yahoo.com


Abstract: Low field ac magnetic susceptibility study for SmBa2Cu3-xFexO7 superconductors with various x values (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) is reported. The results of ac susceptibility are used to determine the pinning force density and intergranular critical current density. However, two different values of q factor obeying the law  are extracted from the slope of each plot. The first corresponds to smaller field (0.00 ≤ Hm ≤ 300 A/m), and its values are between 0.19 and 0.66. While, the second corresponds to higher field (300 A/m ≤ Hm ≤ 600 A/m) and its values are between 0.30 and 0.91. Compared to pure sample, the pinning force density is decreased by 0.01 of Fe addition, followed by an increase with further increase of Fe up to 0.06. Similar behavior is obtained for intergranular critical current density. These results are discussed in terms of induced weak link which is produced by Fe doping in Sm: 123 superconductors.

[M.I. Youssif and A. Sedky. Flux Pinning and Intergranular Critical Current Density Study in SmBa2Cu3-xFexO7 Superconductor. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):42-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6



Keywords: Ac susceptibility; SmBCO; Critical current; Weak- link

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Design of Efficient Noise Reduction Scheme for Secure Speech Masked by Chaotic Signals


Hikmat N. Abdullah 1, Saad S. Hreshee 2, Ameer K. Jawad 3


1. College of Information Engineering, AL-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq

2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Babylon University, Babylon-Iraq

3. Department of Electrical Engineering, AL-Mustansiryah University, Baghdad-Iraq

E-mail: dr.h.abdullah@ieee.org


Abstract: To achieve efficient transmission through public channels, the communication system should have ability to overcome many problems. Among these problems, the security and the noise are the most challenging ones. In this paper, an efficient communication system with high security and high immunity against noise based on sample repetitions has been proposed. From security perspective, the simulation results show that the Segmental Spectral Signal to Noise Ratio (SSSNR) of Lorenz chaotic masking is reduced by 20.679 dB in comparison with time domain scrambling. Concerning the immunity against noise, the proposed system is based on conversion of information from analog to digital format before doing the masking. The simulation results of this method show that the mean square error (MSE) is reduced and this reduction increases as signal to noise ratio (SNR) increase. For instance when QUOTE SNR=10 dB , SNR=10dB, MSE is reduced from 0.1 to 0.02 while it reduced from 5*10-3 to 10-6 when SNR=22dB.

[Abdullah H, Hreshee S, Jawad A. Design of Efficient Noise Reduction Scheme for Secure Speech Masked by Chaotic Signals. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):49-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7



Keywords: Key words: chaotic encryption, chaotic masking, speech quality, and Communication security

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Mixture of exponent tied Frechet distribution based on upper record values


M.M. Badr


Statistics Dept., Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21577, P. O. Box 70973, Saudi Arabia. Email: mbador@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: In this paper, we will discuss the mixture distribution consists of two components from exponentiated Frechet distribution (EFD) based on upper record values. We will study the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and Bayes estimation under quadratic loss and LINEX loss functions for two parameters  and  of distribution, reliability and failure rate functions. Through Monte Carlo simulation, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the estimators are computed and compared between them.

[M.M. Badr. Mixture of exponentatied Frechet distribution based on upper record values. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):56-64]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8



Keywords: Mixture distributions; Exponentiated Frechet distribution (EFD); Upper record values; Maximum likelihood estimation; Bayes estimation; Quadratic loss function; LINEX loss function.

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The effect of green campus on higher education for sustainable development: The case of Engineering Faculty, Alexandria University


Faten Fares Fouad


Architectural Engineer in Bibliotheca Alexandrina

PhD Student in Architectural Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Alexandria University, Egypt


Abstract: The higher education has a key role to play in the move toward a more sustainable world. Through the Curriculum, Research and Operations conducted on campuses to support environmental integrity, economic vitality and social justice for present and future generations. This paper investigates the role of the physical campus environment in embedding sustainable development in Curriculum, research and Campus Community Culture. A questionnaire survey was carried out within the Engineering Faculty at Alexandria University to identify how academic staff, student, administration and graduates perceive sustainable development into the campus through three levels: 1- Curriculum, Teaching and Research; 2- Campus Community culture; 3- Site, Built Environment and Facilities. The findings show the disparity in knowledge between different sectors of the respondents at the university. Finally, the study findings emphasize the need to clear strategies developing approach to sustainability into campus.

[Faten Fares Fouad. The effect of green campus on higher education for sustainable development: The case of Engineering Faculty, Alexandria University. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):65-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9



Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable development; Education for sustainable development; Green campus

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Hepatotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles & the Possible Protective Role of N-acetylcysteine in Adult Male Albino Rats (Histological & Biochemical Study)


Eman S. El-Zahed; Hoda R. El-Sayed, Osama Y. Ibraheem* and Bothina H. F. Omran.


Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology and Histology* Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. Usay2003@yahoo.com


Abstract: Background: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) nanoparticles are among the most commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles in industrial products, such as cosmetics, sunscreens, food products, paints and drugs. They have been reported to elicit various adverse cellular effects including oxidative stress and DNA damage. Aim: The aim of this work was to study the toxic effects of oral TiO2NPs and the possible antioxidant protective role of N-acetylecysteiene (NAC) on the liver of adult albino rats. Material and methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were classified into five equal groups. Group I: Negative control received regular diet and water. Group II: Positive control administered 1ml of 5% gum acacia solution (solvent of TiO2) once daily. Group III: Each rat gavaged orally with 100 mg/kg b.w. NAC once daily. Group IV: Each rat received 1200 mg/kg b.w. TiO2NPs in 1ml of 5% gum acacia once daily. Group V: Each rat gavaged orally with 100 mg/kg b.w. NAC then 1200 mg/kg b.w. TiO2NPs once daily. After 12 weeks the rats of all groups were subjected to blood sample for estimating aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), Total bilirubin (TBIL), reduced glutathione (GSH) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Then the liver was dissected and subjected to histological and ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemical detection of TNF-α. Cell suspension from the liver was examined to determine the extent of DNA damage by the Comet assay. Results: The results revealed that TiO2NPs induced histological and ultrastructral changes in the liver in the form of congestion and lymphocytic aggregation. The hepatocytes were vacuolated with pyknotic nuclei and positive for TNF-α immunoreaction. Also, the oxidative toxic effects of TiO2NPs on liver function were demonstrated through the detection of increased AST, ALT and serum MDA level with decreased in TBIL and GSH level in comparison to controls. Also, commet assay result showed that TiO2NPs exposure produced DNA damage in liver cells. On the other hand administration of NAC with TiO2NPs produced partial to complete protection of hepatic histological changes, TNF-α immunoreactivity, liver function tests and oxidative stress markers with moderate protective effects against DNA damage. Conclusion: TiO2NPs exposure causes toxic effects on the liver that may be attributable to oxidative stress and administration of NAC offers protection against its damaging effects. Recommendations: It is recommended to limit ingestion of TiO2 nanoparticles through nonessential drug additives, food colors, etc. and to decrease the risk of TiO2NPs toxicity, NAC can be used as supplement to occupationally exposed workers.

[Eman S. El-Zahed; Hoda R. El-Sayed, Osama Y. Ibraheem and Bothina H. F. Omran. Hepatotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles & the Possible Protective Role of N-acetylcysteine in Adult Male Albino Rats (Histological & Biochemical Study). J Am Sci 2015;11(7):79-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10



Key words: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, N-acetylcysteine, Hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress.

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Adverse effects of Diclofenac Potassium and Dexamethason on some hematobiochemical and immunological parameters in Egyptian goat bucks


Abd Elazem. M. A and Seham. Y. Abo-Kora


Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt



Abstract: Fifteen, 4-8 months old goats were used to study the effect of diclofenac potassium and dexamethasone on some hematobiochemical parameters, as well as immunity. Animals were divided into 3 groups (5 buck each) 1st group was left without treatment as control while 2nd and 3rd groups were treated by diclofenac potassium (1.1 mg/kg b.wt.) and dexamethasone (0.20 mg/kg b. wt.) respectively as therapeutic dose for 5 successive days. Two blood samples were collected from on 1st, 7th and 14th days after the last injection of both drugs for leukogram and biochemical analysis. The results revealed that, diclofenac potassium and dexamethasone induced significant increase in total leucocytic count, neutrophil, monocyte, basophil, esionophil, ALT, AST, urea and creatinine, calcium, potassium and inorganic phosphorus, beside significant decrease in lymphocyte, total protein, albumin, globulin ALP and sodium also significant decrease in in RBCs, Hb, PCV, IgA, IgG, IgM, on the 1st. and 7th after the last injection was recorded. It could be concluded that both diclofenac potassium and dexamethasone induced several hematobiochemical and immunological changes as well as the adverse effects of diclofenac potassium were completely reversible within 14 days while they were incompletely reversible within 14 days with dexamethasone.

[Abd Elazem. M.A and Seham. Y. Abo-Kora. Adverse effects of Diclofenac Potassium and Dexamethason on some hematobiochemical and immunological parameters in Egyptian goat bucks. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):92-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11



Keywords: Anti-inflammatory drugs, Egyptian goat, hematobiochemical parameter

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Association between Serum Myeloperoxidase And Cardiovascular Risk Factor In Psoriatic Children In Damietta Governorate


Mohamed A. Salam1; Zakaria Mahran2, Tarek Emran3 Hammouda Abdul khalik4


Pediatrics1, Dermatology2, Clinical pathology3 and Cardiology4 Deparments, Damietta Faculty of medicine- Al Azhar University, Egypt.



Abstract: MPO is often released from stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes at sites of inflammation and is involved in the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and tissue damage. Thus, it can play a role of inflammatory skin disease such as psoriasis and subsequent development of cardiovascular comorbidities associated with psoriasis. Aim of the work: to examine the association between serum myeloperoxidase and cardiovascular risk factor in psoriatic children in Damietta governorate. Fifty psoriasis children and fifty age and sex matched con­trols were recruited from pediatric and dermatology clinics at Al-Azhar University Hospital (New Damietta), Egypt. All were submitted to full history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigation with measurement of myeloperoxidase serum levels. Results of the present study showed that, there was significant increase of traditional risk factors for cardiac disease in study group when compared to control group. In addition, MPO was significantly increased in psoriasis patients (pointing to possible role in pathogenesis of psoriasis). However, there was no significant correlation between MPO and risk factors of psoriasis. On the other hand, there was significant positive correlation between MPO and duration of disease at the first followed by severity of the disease. Conclusion: MPO played a role in pathogenesis of psoriasis. But, MPO do not play a role in development of CVD in children with psoriasis.

[Mohamed A. Salam; Zakaria Mahran, Tarek Emran and Hammouda Abdul khalik. Association between Serum Myeloperoxidase And Cardiovascular Risk Factor In Psoriatic Children In Damietta Governorate. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):100-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12



Keywords: myeloperoxidase, psoriasis, cardiovascular, children

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The Machine Interference Model with Bulk Arrivals and Hyperexponential Service Time Distribution: MX/Hr /1/K/N with Balking and Reneging


M. M. Badr


Statistics Department, Faculty of Science – AL Faisaleya Campus, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21577, P.O. Box 70973, SAUDI ARABIA.

E-mail: mbador@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: The objective of this paper is to derive the analytical solution of the machine interference model: MX/Hr/1/k/N with balking and reneging considering the discipline FIFO. Some measures of effectiveness are deduced and some special cases are also obtained.

[M. M. Badr. The Machine Interference Model with Bulk Arrivals and Hyperexponential Service Time Distribution: MX/Hr /1/K/N with Balking and Reneging. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):106-112]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13



Keywords: machine interference model; bulk arrival; hyperexponential service; time distribution

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Cost-effectiveness of Using “Tyvek” in Wedding Dress


Ghada Al-Gamal*, Wafaa Alsabagh**


* Lecturer at Apparel Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

** Freelancer Fashion Designer



Abstract: The wedding dress is the finest product made in the garment industry, because of the high prices of raw materials used, from fabrics to accessories, as well as the accuracy required in the sewing and finishing. In addition, the dress often features decoration such as embroidery or hand-drawing. All these factors make the wedding dress an expensive commodity on which thousands of Pounds are spent, although it is only used for few hours. Thus using inexpensive innovative raw materials to design wedding dresses and exploit the potential of such materials in the production of these dresses, without compromising on the high aesthetic value is an important target. The study entails the possibility of simulating three international designs of wedding dresses (after permission from the original designers of using simulators for scientific purposes) by using innovative raw materials as “Tyvek” and comparing cost-effectiveness and consumer opinions between the original designs and simulated designs. Questionnaires of Consumers; that consists of a sample of 20 girls and women aged between 20-40 years, they were about to marry and they were from different residential areas and economic levels, were done. The questionnaire included the following parameters: simulation of innovation, simulation of attractiveness, simulation of functional convenience and price; each girl or woman evaluated both the original and simulated wedding dress through specific evaluation expressions and gave score of 5 for each design of the three simulated designs. The study concluded that the idea of ​​using economic raw material was accepted for ​​the consumers as long as it is offered in an innovative pattern. It also demonstrated that using economic raw materials such as tyvek with other supplemented materials as synthetic leather for wedding dress design are effective.

[Ghada Al-Gamal, Wafaa Alsabagh. Cost-effectiveness of Using “Tyvek” in Wedding Dress.  J Am Sci 2015; 11(7):113-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  14



Keywords: Tyvek, Wedding dress, Cost-effectiveness, Simulation

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Improving Punching Shear Behavior of Flat RC Slabs


1Omar El-Nawawy, 1Ayman Hussein Hosny, 2Eiad H.Zahran and 3Hamada Ali Hamada Mohamed


1Faculty of Engineering at Ain Shams University-Civil Engineering Department

2Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology- New Cairo Academy

3Teaching Assistant -P.H.I for Engineering and Technology



Abstract: This work presents a technique to improve punching shear behavior of flat RC slabs that develop cracking at regions between the slab and column due to error of design or construction. The work examines the improvement of the punching resistance due to repair of the slabs using glass fiber wrappings. The study consists of an experimental part and a theoretical part. The experimental work divides the test specimens into two groups (A & B). The first, Group (A) includes three specimens of reinforced concrete slabs having a compressive strength (35 N/mm2). This specimens rest on columns .The second group, Group (B) is similar; however, it has a compressive strength of (17 N/mm2). Tow reference specimens were loaded until failure and four specimens were loaded up to 80% and 50% of failure load. After being unloaded, these four specimens were repaired using glass wrapping then loaded to failure. The deflection, cracking, failure modes, strain in steel reinforcement and relationship between load deflection andload-strain were recorded and discussed. Results show that repair using GFRP enhanced the shear capacity of the tested specimens. Enhancement was more noticeable for 35 N/mm2 specimens. In the analytical study, the specimens were modeled using (ANSYS) computer program based on finite element analysis system. Fair agreement was found between the experimental and the theoretical results.

[Omar El-Nawawy, Ayman Hussein Hosny, Eiad H.Zahran and Hamada Ali Hamada Mohamed. Improving Punching Shear Behavior of Flat RC Slabs. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):122-129]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15



Keywords: Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers, Slab-Column connections, Punching Shear, Retrofit and Repairing.

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Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic plaque Psoriasis in Damietta Governorate


 Zakaria Mahran1 and Tarek M. Emran2


Departments of Dermatology and Andrology1 and Clinical Pathology2, Faculty of Medicine. AlAzhar University. Egypt


Abstract: Background: Many skin diseases, including psoriasis, have been described in association with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The important observations that propose a role for HCV in psoriasis include the existence of psoriasis in HCV infected patients, detection of anti-HCV antibodies in psoriatic patients and detection of HCV-RNA by PCR in the skin lesions of psoriatic patients with HCV infection. It is possible that the presence of HCV in the skin could trigger psoriasis through stimulating inflammatory cells to infiltrate skin lesions. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Participants and methods: A total 120 individuals included in our study and divided into two groups; 60 psoriatic group who had been attending to our dermatology outpatient clinics .The study also included 60 apparently healthy subjects as control group. All individuals were subjected to history taking, general and local examinations including joint examination and laboratory investigation that include immune-fluorescence assay (IFA) of HCV antibodies and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: Our results showed that incidence of HCV infection was significantly higher in psoriatic patients compared with the control subjects (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is association between psoriasis and HCV infection and helping us to recommend to screening for HCV infection in severe and longstanding psoriatic patients.

[Zakaria Mahran and Tarek M. Emran. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with chronic plaque Psoriasis in Damietta Governorate. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):130-133]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16



Keywords: HCV, psoriasis, IFA, PCR

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Rehabilitation Program: Effect on Physical and Psychological Functioning of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis


Manal Houssien Nasr1, Dalia Ali Amin1, Howyda Ahmed Mohammed1 and GalilaShawky El Ganzory2


Medical-Surgical Nursing Department1, Psychiatric Nursing Department2, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Back ground:  Rheumatoid arthritis may be severe enough to restrict daily activities in the home, and workplace. The nurse has a crucial role in implementing strategies for relevant effective care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of rehabilitation program on the knowledge, physical and psychological Functions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The current research hypothesized that post implementation of the rehabilitation program, knowledge, physical and psychological functioning of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis scores will be higher than their pre-implementation and there is a positive correlation between level of patients' knowledge and physical functioning, worry & depression. Design: a quasi-experimental research design was used. Setting: the study was conducted at the inpatient department and outpatient clinic of rheumatoid arthritis, affiliated to Ain-shams university hospital. Sample: a purposive sample of (80) rheumatoid arthritis adult patients from both sexes; these patients were divided randomly into two equal groups: a study group (40) for application of the intervention, and a control group (40) to receive the routine management of the hospital. Tools: four tools were used for data collection 1- A pre designed patients' interviewing questionnaire. 2- Arthritis health assessment questionnaire. 3- Hospital depression scale. 4- Penn state worry questionnaire. Results: Demographic characteristics were similar for both groups. The knowledge scores were statistically significantly higher among study group (p<o.001) post program implementation. They also had significantly better scores in physical functioning, worry, and hospital depression levels after implementation of the rehabilitation program. There was a correlation between levels of patients' knowledge and their worry and depression. Conclusion and recommendations: The study concludes that, after providing the information needed by patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a rehabilitation program, their knowledge improved with consequent positive impact on their physical functioning, worry and depression Therefore, rehabilitative programs should become an integral part of the total nursing management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

[Manal Houssien Nasr, Dalia Ali Amin, Howyda Ahmed Mohammed and Galila Shawky El Ganzory. Rehabilitation Program: Effect on Physical and Psychological Functioning of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):134-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17



Key word: rheumatoid arthritis, physical health, worry and depression, rehabilitative program

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Biodiversity and Distribution of Airborne Cladosporium Species in Riyadh city


Mohammed S. Alhussaini1*, M.A. Moslem2, Mohammed I. Alghonaim3, Abdullah A. Al-Ghanayem4 and Hamido M. Hefny5


*1,4,5Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia.

2College of Science, Botany and Microbiology Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Biology, College of Science and humanities, Al-Quway’iyah, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia.



Abstract: Species of the genus Cladosporium are among the most common fungi to be isolated from the environment almost anywhere in the world, in indoors as well as outdoors air. Many species are known to be plant pathogens, while others are regularly encountered as contaminants and spoilage agents in food or industrial products. Cladosporium spp. are pathogenic for humans, causing localized infections, more severe respiratory diseases, or systemic mycoses. This study is a first step towards the identification of Cladosporium spp. in the atmosphere of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In order to investigate the geographical distribution of Cladosporium spp. air was sampled from forty sites on north east, North West, south east, south west and middle of Riyadh. A total of 870 fungal colonies were isolated, 108 (12.4%) of them were Cladosporium spp. The genus Cladosporium spp. was represented in all studied sites. Nineteen isolates belong to five Cladosporium species were identified. In all sampling sites, the most prevalent Cladosporium species were Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresenius) de Vries and Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penzig, followed by Cladosporium herbarum (Persoon) Link, Cladosporium macrocarpum Preuss, and Cladosporium chlamydosporis Matsushima. Density of Cladosporium spp. during the investigation of Seasonal variation was affected by month and site. The two main effects of ANOVA (month and site) were all very highly significant sources of variation in density of Cladosporium spp. isolated from Riyadh city. Also, the two-way interaction for month × site was a very highly significant source of variation in the case of density of Cladosporium spp. (P = 0.0000).

[Mohammed S. Alhussaini, M.A. Moslem, Mohammed I. Alghonaim, Abdullah A. Al-Ghanayem and Hamido M. Hefny. Biodiversity and Distribution of Airborne Cladosporium Species in Riyadh city. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):145-154]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18



Keywords: Cladosporium, Cladosporium species and Chromomycosi.

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Relative Microhardness and Flexural Strength of Different Bulk Fill Resin Composite Restorative Materials


Dr. Reem Ali Ajaj


Department of Operative Dentistry.Section of Biomaterials, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, raajaj@kau.edu.sa


Abstract: Aim: to find out if there is a significant difference in the curing efficiency at the claimed 4 mm depth and in the mechanical properties between the tested paste- form bulk fill resin composite materials. Materials and Methods: Three paste-consistency bulk-fill resin composites were used in this study (Filtek bulk fill- 3M; X-trafil- Voco; and SonicFill bulk-fill- Kerr). For the microhardness testing, standardized disc-shaped resin composite samples (6mm X 4mm) were prepared. For the Flexural Strength testing, standardized resin composite samples with the dimensions of (2mm x 2mm x 25mm) were fabricated. All samples were light cured following the manufacturers’ instructions using high intensity LED light-curing unit. Five samples were prepared from each material for each test with a total of 30 samples (15 for each test). Both tests were run at baseline after preparing the specimens without storage. Vickers microhardness values of the top and bottom surfaces were recorded. Three-point flexural strength test values were recorded. One-way ANOVA test statistics was done to compare between the mean values for the 3 materials with p value less than 0.05. Least significance test was followed to compare between each two materials in case statistical significance was found. Results: 3M had statistically significant lower surface microhardness values on both surfaces (top and bottom) at p< 0.05. All the three bulk fill resin composite materials showed sufficient relative microhardness values (>0.80) at 4 mm depth. 3M had the lowest mean flexural strength value and SonicFill had the highest mean flexural strength value but the difference is not statistically significant at p< 0.05. Conclusion: Microhardness values of paste consistency bulk fill materials can differ compared to each other but all showed sufficient depth of cure at 4 mm depth and no significant difference in their flexural strength. 

[Reem Ali Ajaj. Relative Microhardness and Flexural Strength of Different Bulk Fill Resin Composite Restorative Materials. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):155-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19



Key Words: Bulk fill, flexural strength, relative microhardness, depth of cure.

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Ramanujan-Nagell Equation: A Simple Solution


Omer I. Eid 1,2


1. Current Address: Northern Border University, Faculty of Science and Arts, P O Box 1321, Rafha, Saudi Arabia

2. Permanent Address: University of Khartoum, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, P O Box 321, (11115) Khartoum, Sudan.

oieid@uofk.edu, omereid@gmail.com


Abstract: In this article we solved the Ramanujan-Nagell equation by using elementary algebraic methods and employing the Lucas- Lehmer numbers. The main objective of this article is to present a simple solution to the equation without going deep into the theorems used in solving the equation. We then assume our solution to be useful for those who are not well familiar with the kind of mathematics that usually imposed in solving the equation. Certainly many different solutions were provided in literature by utilizing different mathematical techniques, some of them are very specialized.

[Omer I. Eid. Ramanujan-Nagell Equation: A Simple Solution. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):160-162]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20



Keywords: Diophantine equations, Ramanujan-Nagell, Number theory, Algebra, Ramanujan’s Numbers.

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The Influence of Silver Nano-treatment on Sewing Threads


Ghada Al-Gamal, Eman Raafat


Lecturer at Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Sewing thread is an integral component of the garment. Although sewing thread can be made from any fiber, most threads are made from polyester, cotton or blend of them. The fiber choice is in large part dependent on the end use. Nanotreatment was used to enhance sewing threads properties. In this study the role and impact of silver nanoparticles on three types of industrial sewing threads (sample no.1: (100% polyester), sample no.2: (75% polyester & 25% cotton) and sample no.3 (25% polyester & 75% cotton) have been investigated. Tests were focused on changes at the structural level and changes in linear density, tensile strength, tenacity, elongation and frictional coefficient properties before and after silver nanotreated sewing threads. The structure and morphology of the silver nanoparticles was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All results have been statistically analyzed using statistica software. The effect of silver nanoparticles on physical and functional properties was highlighted. The difference of the impact of silver nanoparticles on polyester and its blend with cotton sewing threads has been compared. It was found that silver nanotreatment lead to unchanged linear density, an increase in tensile strength and tenacity. The nanotreatment of threads improved its frictional coefficient properties in a highly significant manner. Study of the impact of nanotreatment on the properties of cotton and polyester samples showed a bigger impact on blended cotton samples than polyester samples.

[Al-Gamal G, Raafat E. The Influence of Silver Nano-treatment on Sewing Threads. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):163-168]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21



Keywords: Sewing Threads, Nano-treatment, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Frictional Coefficient, Tenacity

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Effect of Applying Performance Improvement Model on Ante-Natal Care Nurses Performance in Family Heath Centers in Qena City


Faten Ezz El-din Fikry1, Mahassen Ahmed Abd E-wahed1 Fathia Khamis Kassem1, Nagda Abou Hashima Dyab2


1Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt.

2Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Pregnancy is one of the most important periods in the life of a woman, her family and the society. Therefore extraordinary attention is given to antenatal care. In recent years, emphasis on improv­ing the quality of care provided by the nation’s health setting has increased significantly. Nurses are integral to patients’ care, they are also pivotal in nation’s efforts to improve quality. Objective: identifying the effect of applying performance improvement model on antenatal care nurses' performance in family health centers. Setting: The study was carried out in 5 family health centers in Qena city. Subject: the subjects of the study were all nurses providing ante- natal care in the previously selected settings (37nurses). Tools: Three tools were developed for data collection. The first one was a structured questionnaire sheet which assessed: personal and socio demographic data about nurses, nurses’ knowledge regarding antenatal care and the most common problems facing nurses at their work. The second tool was an observation checklist to observe actual nursing performance in ante-natal care clinic. The third tool was an observation check list to observe the family health center environment. Results: Findings of the present study revealed that more than three quarters (78.4) of nurses had poor knowledge regarding ante-natal care and 83.3% of them had poor performance of ante natal care preprogram. There was a significant improvement in nurses' knowledge and performance immediately after program implementation and three months after program implementation. Conclusion: Implementing performance improvement model on ante natal care nurses upgraded their knowledge and performance. Recommendation: periodic educational training programs to improve knowledge and performance of nurses about antenatal care as well as to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes, Clear job description should be made for nurses working in family health centers generally and in antenatal clinic specifically.

[Faten Ezz El-din Fikry, Mahassen Ahmed Abd E-wahed, Fathia Khamis Kassem, Nagda Abou Hashima Dyab. Effect of Applying Performance Improvement Model on Ante-Natal Care Nurses Performance in Family Heath Centers in Qena City interaction. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):169-180]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22



Key wards: Ante-natal care, performance improvement, standard of care in Family health center

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"Coronary artery bypass grafting" Effect of developing and implementing Nursing Care Standards on patient's outcome.


Ghada H.Ahmed1, Zienab AE. Muhammad2, Mahmoud K. Abd-Elateef3 and Hala M. Ghanem4


2,4 Medical- Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cardiothoracic surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University.



Abstract: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common surgery to treat coronary artery disease. It involves a section of a vein or an artery to create a connection (or bypass) between the aorta and the coronary artery beyond the obstruction. Aim: This study aimed to assess nurses' knowledge and practice regarding patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, to develop nursing care standards for coronary artery bypass grafting on patient's outcome, and to evaluate the effect of implementing nursing care standards on nurse's knowledge, practice as well as on patient's outcome. Methods: Quasi-experimental research design was utilized to conduct this study, the study was carried out cardiothoracic surgery department, post operative intensive care unit, and operating room at Assiut University Hospital. Sample: A convenient sample included (38) nurses and (40) patients who had CABG (20) patients pre and (20) patients post implementing nursing care standards aged from 18-65 years from both sexes. Tools: a) pre/post structured interview sheet. b) pre/post observation checklist sheet. c) Cardiac surgery patient's assessment sheet. d) Construction of nursing care standards booklet. Results: The first and second hypotheses were supported as a good improvement in the mean knowledge and practice scores were found post implementation of nursing care standards. The third hypotheses were supported as postoperative complications were reduced post nursing care standards implementation. The fourth hypotheses were supported as a positive relationship was found between nurses` knowledge and practice scores immediately post nursing care standards implementation. Conclusion: Improving nurses` knowledge and practice can favorable affect the incidence of coronary artery bypass graft surgery patient's complications. Recommendations: in-service training programs and refreshing courses must be applied to improve nurse's knowledge which will reflect into their practice while working with patients.

[Ghada H. Ahmed, Zienab AE. Muhammad, Mahmoud K. Abd-Elateef, Hala M. Ghanem. Coronary artery bypass grafting" Effect of developing and implementing Nursing Care Standards on patient's outcome. J Am Sci 2015;11(7):181-188]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23



Key words: Coronary artery disease, Coronary artery bypass grafting, nursing care standards

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 19, 2015

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