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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003, Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 8, Cumulated No. 90, August 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1108

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

Platinum based combination versus single agent gemcitabine in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

 

Abeer F Amin and Rehab F Mohammad

 

Department of Oncology, Assuit University Hospital

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Majority of pancreatic cancer patients was diagnosed with metastatic disease with a very poor prognosis, our study aimed to assess treatment toxicity and compare response rate (RR), overall survival (OS) and Progression free survival (PFS) in platinum based combination versus single agent gemcitabine. Patient and method: Thirty five patients pathologically confirmed to have metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma during period (2012-2014). Patients were randomly assigned into three groups: platinum based regimens group A: GEM OX, B: Gemcitabine, cisplatin & single agent Group C: Gemcitabine. Results: mean age was 52.5 years ,with nearly equal sex affection the main presenting symptoms was epigastric pain in 77% of patients and the main presenting sign was jaundice in 69% of patients. CA19-9 was elevated in 74% of patients and cancer head of pancreas was the most common site in 77% of patients. The most common pathology was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma 51.4% of patients. The median OS was prolonged, with an increase of 4 months in the group of (Gemzar & Cisplatin) as compared with the gemcitabine group (8 vs.4 months) or an increase of 2 months in comparison with Gem Ox (8 vs. 6 months), also median PFS was significantly prolonged compared with the gemcitabine group (6 vs.3 months) or in comparison with Gem Ox (6 vs. 5 months). As regard RR in (Gemzar & Cisplatin) higher response rate in comparison with Gem Ox (40% vs. 30%) and statistically significant difference with the single agent gemcitabine group (40% vs.8%). Conclusion: (Gemzar & Cisplatin) was an effective first line treatment option for patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and good ECOG performance status with improved OS & PFS. Patient age alone should not be a factor in treatment decision making.

[Abeer F Amin and Rehab F Mohammad. Platinum based combination versus single agent gemcitabine in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.01

 

Keywords: Platinum; single agent gemcitabine; Metastatic; Pancreatic; Cancer

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Awareness levels, nutrition practices and female students' opinions regarding public school canteens in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

 

Amani A. Alrasheedi and Abeer A. Aljehani

 

Home Economic Dept., Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University

 

Abstract: The aims of this study were to compare the awareness levels and nutrition practices of female intermediate and high school students regarding healthy lifestyle habits and to investigate these students' opinions toward food purchases in public school canteens. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of female intermediate and high school students in Jeddah. Two hundred students were selected at random from four public schools and study was conducted between January and March 2015. A self-reported questionnaire with 71 questions was designed. Results: Most students (49.5%) fell within a normal weight range (BMI 19–24.9), while 34.5% were overweight (BMI 25–29.9). Of the students surveyed, 66% purchased food once a day from school canteens, while 14% purchased food twice per day; 38% thought that the school canteen sold unhealthy foods, while 34.5% thought that the offerings lacked variety. Most of the students possessed a high level of awareness: 45% and 42% for high school and intermediate school students, respectively. Most students reported fair food habits (40% and 29.5% of intermediate and high school students, respectively). Conclusion: To improve students’ health and reduce the incidence of obesity, continued changes to the school food environment and practices are essential. Foods rich in saturated fats should be moderated, and sugary beverages and snacks should be replaced with healthier choices to reduce the intake of empty calories.

[Amani A. Alrasheedi and Abeer A. Aljehani. Awareness levels, nutrition practices and female students' opinions regarding public school canteens in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):7-11]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.02

 

Key words: awareness level, healthy lifestyle habits, school canteen, BMI.

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Solving of Ordinary differential equations with genetic programming

 

M.E. Wahed1, Z.A. Abdelslam2, O.M. Eldaken2

 

1 Department of Computer Sciences, Faculty of computers and information, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal

2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez Canal, Egypt

osama_m_edaken@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this work, a novel hybrid method for the solutions of ordinary equations is presented here. The method creates trial solutions in genetic programming on grammatical evolution. The trial solutions are enhanced periodically using a local optimization procedure.

[M.E. Wahed, Z.A. Abdelslamand O.M. Eldaken. Solving of Ordinary differential equations with genetic programming. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):12-16]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.03

 

Keywords: Differential equations, genetic programming and grammatical evolution.

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[J Am Sci 2015;11(8):17-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

 Withdrawn

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Polymerization Shrinkage in An Experimental Fibre-Reinforced Dental Resin Composite

 

Dr. Fatin Hasanain

 

Restorative Consultant, King AbdulAziz University.

fhasanain@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Resin-based dental composite restorations are increasingly used to restore teeth in many clinical situations. However, they still have drawbacks such a polymerization shrinkage which limits their use. An experimental dental resin composite was made with fibre-reinforcement in an attempt to overcome some of the drawbacks. It has been stipulated that randomly oriented fibre reinforcement will significantly reduce shrinkage. Aim: This work aims to test the experimental fibre-reinforced composite (eFRC) with two commercially available materials, one fibre-reinforced and one particulate(Build It and Z250), in terms of their polymerization shrinkage using the bonded disc technique. Results:  Z250 shrank significantly less than either fibre-reinforced material, thus disputing giving the theory that randomly oriented fibre-reinforcement reduces shrinkage. Further work needs to be done to study the theory.

[Fatin Hasanain. Polymerization Shrinkage in An Experimental Fibre-Reinforced Dental Resin Composite. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):25-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi: 

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.05

 

Key words: dental resin composite , polymerization shrinkage, experimental fibre-reinforced composite

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Assessment of the effects of Capparis spinosa on the testes and epididymis of albino mice intoxicated with trichloroacetic acid

 

Aglal A. Alzergy1 and Saad M.S. Elgharbawy1,2

 

1Department of Anatomy and Embryology, faculty of Veterinary medicine, Omar El Mukhtar University, Libya.

2Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University.

E-mail: aglalalzergy@yahoo.comsaadomar201@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effectof Capparis spinosa leaves on the testicular tissue and epididymis in normal and trichloroacetic acid(TCA) intoxication mice.Healthy male mice (20-26gm body weight, 8 to 10 weeks old) were divided into 6 groups. Group I was the control group; group II treated orally with honey (40 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks), group III treated orally with a mixture of Capparis spinosa leaves powder and honey(40 mg/kg for 3 weeks), groupIV treated orally with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa leaves powder(40 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks), groupV treated with TCA in drinking water (500mg/kg for 3 and 6 weeks, then left for 3 weeks for recovery) and groupVI (Regeneration group) was given TCA for 6 weeks then treated with a mixture of Capparis spinosa leaves powder and honey (40 mg/kg for 3 weeks).Histological sections of testis of mice administrated with mixture of leavespowderof Capparis spinosa and honey or aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa showed mild abnormalities in some seminiferous tubules including disorganization or proliferation of germ cells lead to obscure their lumen, slight decrease in the spermatozoa in some seminiferous, clumped interstitial cells and congestion of blood vessels in interstitial tissue. Slight degeneration in interstitial tissue was also seen. Administrated of TCA for 3 and 6 weeks showed severe and variable lesions in testicular tissue including disorganization and decrease of germ cells in some seminiferous tubules, sloughing of germ cells, desquamation of germ cells with accumulation of the necrotic debris in the tubular lumen. Some of the seminiferous tubules were completely devoid of mature sperms and absence of spermiogenesis. Marked atrophy of seminiferous tubules associated with edema of the intertubular tissue and decrease interstitial cells were commonly observed. Such lesions in the testicular tissues were most pronounced in TCA recovery group. Animal intoxicated with TCA and treated with the mixture of leavespowderof Capparis spinosa and honey showed noticeable decrease of the testicular lesions. There were no significant lesions detected in the epididymal sections in mixture of leavespowderof Capparis spinosa and honey treated groups. The treatment with TCA caused many and sever degenerated changes including epididymal ductus with abnormal shape and many showed destructed and decrease in stereocilia of epididymal tubules, exfoliated, disorganized and necrotic epithelial cells as evident by the presence of pyknosis of nuclei, vacuolization in the epithelium, with accumulation of the necrotic debris in the tubular lumen, as well as, reduction in sperm density. Hyperplasia mononuclear cells infiltration and edema in the intertubular connective tissue and intertubular haemorrhage were seen in most of the examined specimens. These histopathological alterations became more pronounced in TCA recovery group. Such alterations were less prominent in mice intoxicated with TCA and treated with mixture of Capparis spinosa and honey.

[Aglal A. Alzergy and Saad M.S. Elgharbawy. Assessment of the effects of Capparis spinosa on the testes and epididymis of albino mice intoxicated with trichloroacetic acid. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):28-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.06

 

Key words: Capparis spinosa, trichloroaceticacid,histopathological changes,testicular tissue and epididymis, mice

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Strength and Ductility Assessment of Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP with Varied Width and Thickness

 

Khair Al-Deen Bsisu 1, Shad Sargand 2, Ryan Ball 3

 

1. The University of Jordan, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Amman, Jordan,

2. Ohio University, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio Research Institute for Transportation and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA

3. Ohio University, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA

k.bsisu@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: Several publications suggest a set of measures for strengthening of reinforced concrete beams and give an estimate of the additional flexural load carrying capacity of strengthened beams with CFRP.  Some of these publications offer contradicting conclusions regarding the width of the CFRP sheets and the use of multiple layers.  In this study a total of ten under-reinforced beams; nine of which are strengthened with CFRP of different widths and different number of layers; are fitted with electronic strain gauges on the top concrete fiber and on the reinforcing steel and the CFRP material, stains at mid-span were recorded for each load increment and modes of failure reported.  The data was analyzed and compared with other researchers findings.  It was concluded that the ACI 440 committee guidelines give a about 68%-81% accurate results for 5” wide layers, and completely erroneous results of 1” wide strips.

[Khair Al-Deen Bsisu, Shad Sargand, Ryan Ball. Strength and Ductility Assessment of Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP with Varied Width and Thickness. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):43-47]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.07

 

Keywords: CFRP Width, CFRP number of layers, Stress, Failure Mode, Ductility, Reinforced concrete

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Finite Element Analysis of Retrofitting Techniques for Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint

 

Khair Al-Deen Bsisu 1, Belal O. Hiari2

 

1 The University of Jordan, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Amman, Jordan

2 The University of Jordan, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Amman, Jordan

 

Abstract: This study presents an analytical investigation of three retrofitting techniques, using finite element analysis aimed at improving the behavior of reinforced concrete beam-column joints to enhance the performance and load carrying capacity of structures. The three suggested retrofitting techniques presented are; reinforced concrete jacketing, steel plate jacketing and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets wrapping in two orthogonal directions to strengthen the joint and reduce deformations. Nonlinear static finite element analysis was carried out to evaluate the performance of the original and strengthened joint models. The performance has been investigated in terms of load carrying capacity, deflection, failure pattern and displacement ductility. The study shows that using steel plates jacketing with adequate thickness is more effective in reducing the deflection than the use of concrete jacketing and CFRP sheets. On the other hand, CFRP wrapping has shown an increase in the load carrying capacity and a weak beam-strong column failure pattern.

[Khair Al-Deen Bsisu, Belal O. Hiari. Finite Element Analysis of Retrofitting Techniques for Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):48-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.08

 

Keywords: Beam-Column Joint, Retrofitting, Finite Element Analysis, Reinforced Concrete

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Effectiveness of Office Nasal Endoscopy as Preliminary Diagnostic Tool: A Comparative Study versus CT Sinus Imaging

 

Mohamed F. Shindy MD & Mohamed Ali El-Sayed MD

 

Otorhrinolaryngology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

 

Abstract: Objectives: To determine diagnostic effectiveness of office fiberoptic nasal endoscopy as preliminary examination tool during outpatient clinic examinations of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Patients & Methods: One hundred CRS UAE patients (Group A) and another 100 Egyptian patients (Group B). All patients were evaluated for impact of CRS on their quality of life (QOL) using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22 test) followed by endoscopic evaluation of the extent of the disease using Lund & Kennedy score (LKS) and CT scan of paranasal sinuses interpreted according to Lund-Mackay scale (LMS). All patients received bilateral sinonasal irrigation using ceftriaxone sodium 1 gm dissolved in 200 ml normal saline. Nasal irrigation using the same fluid was used twice daily for 6 weeks and reevaluated. Patients with persistent manifestations were prepared for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and were re-evaluated 6 weeks after surgery. Patients' response to treatment as judged by SNOT-22 test evaluated at end of 6 weeks was used to verify outcome of preliminary investigation modality. Results: Baseline SNOT-22 score of group A was significantly higher than group B. SNOT-22 scores determined at end of treatment were significantly lower in both groups compared to their respective baseline scores. SNOT-22 score determined at end of treatment was significantly higher in group B compared to group A. Frequency of patients had secretions and mucosal edema in group A was significantly higher than in group B with significantly higher scoring and significantly higher total scoring in group A than in group B. Baseline SNOT-22 in both groups showed positive significant correlation with LKS and LMS scoring. However, the correlation was more significant between baseline SNOT-22 and LKS scoring than with LMS scoring. Cumulative risk for CRS of imposing high impact on patients' QOL was higher with high LKS scoring for endoscopic findings than with high LMS scoring for CT findings. Conclusion: Office nasal endoscopy is effective diagnostic modality for patients with CRS and could spare the need for CT for preliminary evaluation. For these advantages, office nasal endoscopy is recommended as routine examination tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients presenting with manifestations of CRS.

[Mohamed F. Shindy and Mohamed Ali El-Sayed. Effectiveness of Office Nasal Endoscopy as Preliminary Diagnostic Tool: A Comparative Study versus CT Sinus Imaging. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):57-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.09

 

Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis, Nasal Endoscopy, CT scan, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test

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Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of petitgrain essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. "Russian colon"

 

Asmaa E. Sherif, Amani M. Marzouk, Mona G. Zaghloul, Ahmed F. Halim

 

.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

asmaasherif80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves of the locally cultivated Citrus aurantium L. "Russian colon" has been analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty three components accounting to 94.88% of the total detected constituents were identified. The major ones were: linalool (49.90%), linalyl acetate (13.09%), α-terpineol (8.81%), geraniol (4.69%) and geranyl acetate (4.49%).Screening of the cytotoxic effect of the oil on two malignant cell lines of hepatic origin (HepG2), and breast tissue origin(MCF-7) was studied. The oil exhibited a moderate activity against HepG-2 cell line only.

[Sherif AE, Marzouk AM, Zaghloul  MG, Halim AF. Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of petitgrain essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. "Russian colon". J Am Sci 2015;11(8):64-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.10

 

Keywords: Citrus aurantium; leaf oil; linalool/linalyl acetate chemotype; cytotoxic activity.

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Structural, Electric and Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Doped Nickel-Cobalt Ferrite

 

Hala Moustafa Ahmed

 

Medical Biophysics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, October 6 University, Egypt

bakar_tarek_76@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Cadmium doped nickel-cobalt ferrite with chemical formula Ni0.8-x Co0.2 Cdx Fe2O4 is prepared by standard double sintering ceramic method. Electric and dielectric properties of nickel cobalt cadmium ferrite are investigated. The a.c conductivity (𝜎) of this system has been investigated in the frequency range 200 Hz – 10 kHz, and in the temperature range 300K-1073K .The D.C resistivity (ρ) is determined as a function of temperature in the range 300K-1073K by two probe method. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decrease as the frequency increases at constant temperature. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were increased as the temperature increased at a constant frequency. Dielectric constant (έ) is determined by measuring capacitance (C).Variations of Dielectric constant (έ) with frequency as well as temperature are studied. A.C. conductivity (σac) is derived from dielectric constant (έ) and loss tangent (tan δ) values

[Hala Moustafa Ahmed. Structural, Electric and Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Doped Nickel-Cobalt Ferrite. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):69-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.11

 

Keywords: Cadmium doped nickel-cobalt ferrite, Dielectric, Electric.

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Investigating Volutaria abyssinica as a potential source for cytotoxic sesquiterpenoids

 

Amani M. Marzouk

 

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

Fax: +2-050-2247496.

E-mail: amarzouk2003@yahoo.co.uk, amarzouk@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Phytochemical investigation of Volutaria abyssinica (A. Rich.) C. Jeffrey led to the isolation of three sesquiterpene lactones, viz., amberboin, lipidiol and cynaropicrin along with daucosterol and 20-hydroxy ecdysone. All these compounds are identified for the first time in the plant. Their structures were determined based on chemical and spectroscopic data. The sesquiterpene lactones were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines and the results were explained through a molecular modeling study.

[Marzouk, A M. Investigating Volutaria abyssinica as a potential source for cytotoxic sesquiterpenoids. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):73-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.12

 

Key words: Volutaria abyssinica, Asteraceae, Centaureinae, sesquiterpenoids, amberboin, lipidiol, cynaropicrin, ecdysteroids, cytotoxicity, in silico, molecular modeling.

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Investigating relationship between forward P/E ratio and expected earnings growth rate in car manufacturing industry and basic metals within the theoretical framework of AEG model

 

Mohammad Zeynolabedini1, Seyed Ali Lajevardi 2

 

1. MA Student Of Accounting, Islamic Aazad University, Kashan Branch, Iran

2. Department of Accounting, Islamic Aazad University, Kashan Branch, Iran

a.lajevardi@iaukashan.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between forward P/E ratio and the expected earnings growth rate within the theoretical framework of the AEG model. The expected earnings growth rate is divided into short-term expected earnings growth rate and long-term expected earnings growth rate. The cost of capital is also used as a control variable. This study was conducted over a five-year period from 2009 to 2013.The statistical population of this research consists of all car manufacturing and basic metal industry firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The multiple hierarchical regression model and partial correlation are used in the methodology section of this study in order to investigate the level of relationships as well as partial coefficient of correlation between each independent variable in order to control the cost of capital as the control variable. The data and variables in this research are analyzed by SPSS and Eviews. The results indicated a negative correlation between forward P/E ratio and short-term expected earnings growth rate, a positive correlation between forward P/E ratio and long-term expected earnings growth rate, and a negative correlation between forward P/E ratio and cost of capital. In general, the results show that there is a weak linear relationship between forward P/E ratio and expected earnings growth rate.

[Mohammad Zeynolabedini, Seyed Ali Lajevardi. Investigating relationship between forward P/E ratio and expected earnings growth rate in car manufacturing industry and basic metals within the theoretical framework of AEG model. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):82-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.13

 

Keywords: forward P/E ratio, short-term earnings growth rate, long-term earnings growth rate, cost of capital, Ohlson model

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Analysis of Genetic Diversity among Different Egyptian Chicken Strains Using RAPD and SSR Markers

 

Karim El-Sabrout, Mohamed H. Khalil and Mostafa K. Shebl

 

Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

kareem.badr@alexu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Molecular markers including random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) fingerprints represent reliable tools which may have a great impact in chickens breeding programs and genetic improvement. Twenty primers (10 RAPD and 10 SSR) were examined to study the genetic variation among four Egyptian chicken strains (Fayoumi, Alexandria, Matrouh and Golden-Montazah); Eight RAPD primers were screened and yielded distinct polymorphic RAPD profiles at MW ranged from 600 to 1800 bp with a total of 86 of polymorphic band patterns and nine monomorphic band patterns. The primers also detected 2, 4 and 2 unique bands specific for Fayoumi, Alexandria and Golden-Montaza strain respectively. While six SSR primers detected specific markers at MW ranged from 850 to 1750 bp, these markers were generated from primers (2, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 10). A total of 62 alleles were found across 10 loci, with overall mean number of alleles per locus of 6.2. Polymorphism results demonstrate the efficiency of the studied primers to assess the genetic specificity and analysis the genetic diversity among strains. Phylogenetic analysis using Nei and Li method generally produced three clusters which were completely distinguished based on the locality of the chicken strains.

[El-Sabrout K., Khalil M.H., Shebl M.K. Analysis of Genetic Diversity among Different Egyptian Chicken Strains Using RAPD and SSR Markers. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):92-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.14

 

Keywords: Chicken genotypes; Genetic diversity; RAPD markers; SSR markers; Phylogenetic relationships; Genetic improvement

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Nephrectomy. A clinicopathological study

 

Abdulghafoor S. Abdulkareem 1, Bashar A. Hassawi 2, Ziyad Ahmed 3

 

1.  Assistant Professor. Department of surgery. Faculty of medical sciences. University of Duhok, Iraq

2.  Assistant Professor. Department of Anatomy. Faculty of medical sciences. University of Duhok, Iraq.

3.  Lecturer. Department of Pathology. University of Ninhava. Iraq.

E-mail: b-hassawi@yahoo.com; Phone no.: 009647507644861

 

Abstract: To provide the surgeon with a working knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis of nephrectomy cases, to correlate the clinical findings and indications with histopathological results and to see the relative frequency of each type and its specific pathologic characters this study was done. The study was conducted at Azadi teaching hospital and in the department of pathology, faculty of medical science, university of Duhok during a period from (Nov 2012 – Nov 2014). A total 161 nephrectomy specimens were examined grossly. Representative blocks were taken for histopathological examination. 76 percent (47.2) of the patients were males, (85) 52.8% were females, with male: female ratio of 1:1.08. The mean age was 35.6 years. On histological examination revealed in descending order 62.65% were inflammatory conditions (including chronic pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and tuberculous pyelonephritis). Adult type malignant conditions found in 26% of the total cases (including renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma). Only one case was lymphoma and other metastatic carcinoma. 9.8 % were cystic lesions of the kidney, 4.96 % were pediatric tumors (including nephroblastoma only), 2.48% was angiomyolipoma. Chronic pyelonephritis is the most frequent pathologic indication for nephrectomy irrespective of age or sex. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is seen in age below 25 years and was usually associated with nephrolithiasis. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common kidney cancer in adults affects mainly males followed by transitional cell carcinoma and Nephroblastoma is the main type of malignant tumors of the kidney in children. Secondary in the kidney is rare.

[Abdulghafoor S. Abdulkareem, Bashar A. Hassawi, Ziyad Ahmed. Nephrectomy. A clinicopathological study. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):97-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.15

 

Keywords: Nephrectomy, clinicopathological study

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Soil Nailing For Radial Reinforcement of NATM Tunnels

 

Prof. Dr. Emad Abd-Elmonem Osman1, Prof. Dr. Mostafa Z. Abd Elrehim1, Eng. Ibrahim Abed2

 

1. Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111, Egypt

2. Technical Department (TD), National Authority for Tunnels (NAT), Cairo, Egypt

abed53@icloud.com

 

Abstract: Due to the rapid growth in urban development in most major cities, and space limitations the demand for tunnels construction for various purposes (utilities, and transportation systems) is increasing. These tunnels are constructed at shallow depths mostly, for accessibility, serviceability and economy reasons. Since the ground at shallow depth consists of either soft soils or weak rocks, shallow tunnels are usually exposed to the occurrence of excessive settlement. In such areas, settlements induced by the tunnelling excavation may cause serious damage even collapses to nearby structures. Shallow tunnels are usually constructed by either TBM or conventional tunneling methods such as the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM). Accordingly, maintaining the tunnel stability has the highest priority since the instability issues may cause a loosening of the ground leading to a complete tunnel collapse. Therefore, the focusing of this paper is to control displacements in NATM tunnels, by using soil nailing system as a radial reinforcement technique. A series of 3D and 2D finite element analyses were conducted to investigate the deformation of NATM tunnel excavation under different conditions of face subdivision and excavation step length. Accordingly, the critical case for the 3D analysis was determined to be used in addition to 2D model for studying the displacement control by soil nailing technique as a radial reinforcement. Hence, 3D and 2D finite element analyses established for simulating the contribution of soil nailing in assisting NATM tunnels stability and controlling displacements. A wide range of system parameters were considered by varying reinforcement (diameter, density, length…etc.). Using the relationships between the displacements (vertical, horizontal) and the soil nailing system parameters, the effect of the reinforcement on displacement control in NATM tunnels was investigated. A new construction technique was developed and checked to increase the efficiency of the system.

[Abd-Elmonem E, Zaki M, Abed I. Soil Nailing For Radial Reinforcement of NATM Tunnels. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):102-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.16

 

Keywords: Soil nailing; radial reinforcement; NATM tunnels; displacement control

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Detection of the Discriminative Power of Variable Number Tandem Repeats Polymorphism to Be Used After Bone Marrow Transplantation

 

Doaa M. Abdelaziz1, Taysir R. Hafiz2, Khaled O. Abdallah1, Salwa I. Bakr1, Shahira F. Elfedawy1, Hala A. Talkhan1 and Omima M. Hassanin3

 

1Department of Clinical and Chemical, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Al Azhar University

3Molecular Biology Department, Medical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt

dr.taysiralassuty@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background & Objective: During the last 3 decades, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have become the treatment of choice for patients suffering from certain malignant and non malignant hematological disorders. In human allogenic HSCT, complete donor-derived hematopoiesis has been considered essential for sustained engraftment and for the prevention of relapse. The major causes of these treatments failure are disease relapse, graft rejection, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).The success of HSCT treatment modality is mainly affected by the recurrence of the underlying disease, here is the advantage of these methods which predict disease relapse after chemotherapy or HSCT and allow early intervention and may result in “salvage” of many patients and improvement in the probability of long-term disease free survivalInce. Variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) are highly polymorphic markers constitute unique sets of genetic markers for individual identification. The purpose of our study to detect polymorphism, discriminative power and establish a logarithm of VNTR to follow up chimerism in patients undergoing BMT. Material & Methods: A total of 40 subjects were included in the study [18 plus 11 pairs (donors and their recipients)], (age range: 20 – 34 years, mean 26.15 4.34). The six loc (Apo-B, YNZ-22, D1S80, 33.1, 33.6 and HRAS) were detected in every subject. Apo-B, YNZ-22 and D1S80 were examined in 40 cases (18 + 11 pairs), while 33.1, 33.6 and HRAS were examined in 30 cases (18 + 6 pairs). Blood samples were withdrawn from each subject. After DNA extraction amplification of VNTR loci were performed with PCR. Amplified product of DNA samples were run on 2% agarose, stained with ethidium bromide together with DNA ladder to identify the site of the band. Results: Apo-B was the most polymorphic VNTR locus with 5 detected alleles. Followed by YNZ-22, D1S80and 33.6 with 4 detected alleles. Heterozygosity index of Apo-B locus among included cases was 70%; of YNZ-22 locus was 55%; of DIS80 locus was 71.5%; of 33.1 locus was 66.7%; of 33.6 locus was 60%, and of H-Ras locus was 36.7%. Concerning discriminative power of Apo-B, YNZ-22, DIS80, 33.1,33.6 and HRAS VNTR loci among the included paired cases.YNZ-22 had the highest discriminative power (72.7%), followed by 33.1 (66.7%, Apo-B (54.5%) and DIS80 (45.5%), while 33.6 and H-Ras had the lowest discriminative power (33.3%). Nevertheless, Apo-B and DIS80 had a higher non-identical discriminative power, when compared to YNZ-22, 33.1, 33.6 and H-Ras (36.4% vs. 36.4% vs. 18.2% vs. 16.7% vs. 16.7% vs. 0%, respectively). Moreover, combination of more than one loci increase the discrimination power more than use of one separate locus. Conclusion: Our results indicate that ApoB, YNZ-22 and D1S80 are very polymorphic in Egyptian. The uses of more than one loci is essential to increase the discrimination power of VNTR loci. Furthermore, the number of segregating alleles and higher heterozygosity in Egyptians further support the usefulness of VNTR loci for population genetic studies, chimerismfollow up linkage analysis and forensic purposes. The aim of this study is to establish a logarithm of VNTR to follow up chimerism in patients undergoing BMT.

[Doaa M. Abdelaziz, Taysir R. Hafiz, Khaled O. Abdallah, Salwa I. Bakr, Shahira F. Elfedawy, Hala A. Talkhan and Omima M. Hassanin. Detection of the Discriminative Power of Variable Number Tandem Repeats Polymorphism to Be Used After Bone Marrow Transplantation. J Am Sci 2015;11(8):112-117]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas110815.17

 

Keywords: VNTR, PCR, HSCT, chimerism

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 22, 2015. 

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