Loading

 

Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 94, December 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1112

 

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

 

CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

Full

Text

No.

1

The Study of the Effect of Temperatures Change on HyalommaDromedatti (Ticks) Under Parametric of Laboratory Circumstances

 

Nada. O. Edrees

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul-Aziz University.Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

nedrees@kau.edu.sa; dr_nada_edrees2006@yahoo.com; nada.algalb@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The study focuses on the effects of the influence of two different temperatures on the growth and development of Hyalomma dromedatti during its life cycle. The study was accomplished using two different temperatures. The tests were conducted in the laboratory where the temperatures were kept at 30oC  with 80% humidity, and 34oC with 80% humidity. The tests were conducted on engorged mature female ticks that were collected from an infected camel from a stockyard in the suburbs of Jeddah city, located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The larvae were fed on white rats, while the nymph were fed rabbits. The results were recorded after applying the following parameters: Eggs incubation, pre-feeding, and pre-molting larvae, larvae and nymph. In addition, the mature female ticks: pre-feeding, feeding, pre-oviposition, oviposition. A significant difference was observed (P>0.005) in the egg incubation stage ((5.0 ± 0.01) at 34oC), (8.0 ± 0.71) at 30oC, where as in the larvae pre-moulting stage ((5.01 ± 0.29) at 34oC); ((6.03 ± 0.43) at 30o c). Changes in nymphs in the pre-moulting stage were recorded at ((16.4 ± 0.94) at 34oC); ((18.4 ± 0.71) at 30o c). The median growth rate was 90.5 days at an average (74-107) days at 30oC and 76 days at an average (64-88) days at 34oC.

[Nada. O. Edrees. The Study of the Effect of Temperatures Change on HyalommaDromedatti (Ticks) Under Parametric of Laboratory Circumstances. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.01.

 

Key words: Hyalomma dromedarri, oviposition, pre-ovipostion, Theileriosis, Hyalommam arginatum, Ambylomma, Boophilus annulatus, Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus sangineus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi, obligatory parasites

Full Text

1

2

Isolation and Identification of Proteus SPP from retailed milk with special reference to multidrug resistant strains

 

Safaa Samir Abdel Fatah¹, Nashwa A. Ezzeldeen1, 2, Khaled El Amry1, and Ahmed Samir Mohamed1

 

1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Biology, Faculty of science, Taif University, KSA

safaasamir21@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESβL) producing Proteus spp are emerging pathogens that have mounting public health significance and constitute great challenge in the human medicine. Much remains unknown about the epidemiology and zoonosis of such bacteria. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible role of raw milk in the epidemiology of ESβL producing Proteus spp. Methods: 151 raw and pasteurized milk samples were collected from farms and milk pending shops. Milk samples were cultured for isolation and identification of ESβL producing Proteus spp. Results: A total of 13 (8.6%) consecutive Proteus recovered during the study period in 151 milk samples of different area of Egypt, Antimicrobial sensitivity testing against 8 antibiotic agents revealed that all of isolates (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, while 92% of the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid and ceftazidime, 84.6% to ampicillin/ sulbactam, 70.9% to sulphamethoxazole/ trimethoprime, 69.2% to cefotaxime On the other hand,61% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by 53.8% to cephalexin. 12 (7.9%) isolates were ESBL producer and 1 (0.7%) isolates were non-ESBL producers. Conclusions: The occurrence of ESβL producing Proteus in milk is higher rates in milk vending house of milk may be lowered when it is contaminated by a number of factors such as adulteration, contamination during and after milking, presence of udder infection, mastitis disease and drugs residues used for treatment of disease which is considered to be public health concern and one of the most important causes of economic losses in the dairy industry worldwide. Otherwise Clinicians should consider ESBL production as a possibility in case of treatment failure with β-lactam antimicrobials.

[Safaa Samir abdel fatah, Nashwa A. Ezzeldeen, Khaled El amry, Ahmed Samir Mohamed. Isolation and Identification of Proteus SPP from retailed milk with special reference to multidrug resistant strains. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):7-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.02.

 

Key words: raw milk, ESβL, Proteus, antibiotic.

Full Text

2

3

Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Reproductive Dysfunction in Female Rats with Letrozole induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

 

Wessam E. Morsy and Manal S.Abd-El Hamid

 

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

manalsaidsun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and aim of work: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO) is a very common endocrine disease. Physical exercise and diet regimen appear to have positive effects on this syndrome. So much attention has been directed toward the use of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) in promoting exercise being fast and easy method. The study tried to evaluate the effect of this exercise type on reproductive dysfunction in rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Materials and Methods: Female white albino rats were allocated into three groups: Group I: Control rats, group II: Letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rats (PCO) where letrozole was given orally and daily in a dose of 1 mg/kg dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution for 21 days and group III: Polycystic ovarian syndrome rats subjected to bilateral transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (PCO+TEMS) of the lower limbs for three weeks after the induction of polycystic ovarian syndrome. After 6 weeks from the beginning of the study, final body weight, body mass and Lee indices were determined. Plasma levels of LH, free testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were measured. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Plasma catalase activity was determined. Histopathological ovarian examination was done. Results: The letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in group II showed significant increase in plasma free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and insulin levels with elevated insulin resistance score whereas estradiol, progesterone and catalase activity were significantly decreased compared to the control group. Furthermore, body weight, absolute retroperitoneal fat weight, ovarian weight and both final body mass and Lee indices were significantly increased in PCO group than the control group. Ovaries showed histological ovarian cysts and atretic ovarian follicles. Following transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation(TEMS) of PCO rats in group III, plasma free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and insulin levels were significantly decreased with improved insulin resistance score whereas progesterone, estradiol were significantly increased compared to the PCO ratsin group II. Meanwhile, catalase activity showed non-significant increase compared to non-treated PCO rats. In addition, body weight, retroperitoneal fat weight, ovarian weight and both final body mass and Lee indices were significantly decreased compared to the PCO group. Prolactin hormone level did not show any significant difference between three groups. In addition, ovarian morphology was reverted to normal. Conclusion: Letrozole successfully induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in adult female rats, however transcutaneous electric muscle stimulation as a passive exercise modality used in previous studies, succeeded to improve polycystic ovarian syndrome hormonal profile and the accompanied insulin resistance significantly, with partial improvement in the oxidant state.

[Wessam E. Morsy and Manal S. Abd-El Hamid. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Reproductive Dysfunction in Female Rats with Letrozole induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):10-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.03.

 

Key words: Polycystic ovarian disease, Amenorrhea, reproductive dysfunction, Infertility, Insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation

Full Text

3

4

Serum Uric Acid in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Basra:An Echocardiography Study

 

Dr. Sawsan Issa Habeeb

 

 Pediatric Department, Basra Medical College, Iraq

sawsan19612000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Cardiomyopathy isprimary myocardial disorders, are divided into dilated or congestive and non dilated or restrictive form. Echocardiography serves as a definitive tool for establishing the presence and type of cardiomyopathy. In patients with dilated type, the serum uric acid may increase, so the current research was designed to determine the level of serum uric acid and its correlation to systolic and diastolic function. Method: A case –control study has been conducted over a period of 24 months. Fifty four infants and children their ages ranged from 2-60 months, with confirmed dilated cardiomyopathy who were referred from pediatrics wards for echocardiographic examination were included. Other possible causes as: Metabolic, musculo-skeletal, coronary artery and hematological diseases were excluded. Fifty infants and children with normal physical and echocardiography reports were selected as control group; they were age and sex matched. Detailed echocardiographic examination was conducted to assess systolic, diastolic function and myocardial performance index and fasting serum uric acid was measured for all patients and the control group. Results: Age and sex distribution of the patients and control showed no significant difference reflecting the matching process. Mean serum uric acid in patients with dilated cardiomyopathywas 315.211±125.536 µ mg/L); significantly higher (P=0.0001) than the level in the control group (213.960±77.016). Studied left ventricle echocardiographic parameters revealed that; deceleration time, myocardial performance index, ejection fraction, fractioning shortening and left ventricular end diastolic dimension were statistically significant in dilated cardiomyopathy patients compared to control group. Significant correlation between left sided echcardiographic parameters; ejection time, pre-ejection period /ejection time, myocardial performance index, interventricular septum dimension, stroke volume and serum uric acid were also documented. Conclusion: The level of serum uric acidincreases in infants and children with dilated cardiomyopathy and correlates significantly with some left –heart echcardiographic parameters. So it has predictive value for progression of the disease.

[Sawsan Issa Habeeb. Serum Uric Acid in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Basra: An Echocardiography Study. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):22-25]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.04.

 

Keywords: serum uric acid, dilated cardiomyopathy, echocardiograohy

Full Text

4

5

The effects of the exhaustive 400m. crawl Swimming on some biological values in college students

 

Sherif M. Adel El Sangari

 

Sport specialist physical Education Fac. Zagazig University

Email: sherifsangary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the exhaustive 400m crawl swimming on some biological values in college students, they were divided to control (n = 10) and swimmers (n = 10) The control group were adapted to swim irregularly, while swimmers were training regularly 3 time weekly. All the participants executed an exhausted 400 m. crawl swim test. Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, cortisol, testosterone, lactate and performance time was determined. Blood sample was withdrawn before and after test. The results indicated a low heart rate, B/P, Respiratory rate in swimmers than control, that means that swimmers are more fit, testosterone was higher in swimmers, cortisol lower than control after test. Swimmers performed better, their lactate lower at rest and higher after the test. Conclusion: regular swimmers have higher testosterone, higher anabolic action on muscles, lower cortisol due to better capability and less stress during the test. Swimmers perform better, their low resting lactate and higher one after test means higher cardio-vascular endurance and fitness.

[Sherif M. Adel El Sangari. The effects of the exhaustive 400m. crawl Swimming on some biological values in college students. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):26-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.05.

 

Key words: Biological values, performance, crawl swimming, exhaustive test.

Full Text

5

6

Study of the possible protective effect of lemon fruit extract against the histopathological changes induced in kidney of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide

 

Salwa Mohammed Quita-WejdanSaad Al-Amri

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University

doctorsalwa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible protective effect of lemon fruit extract against the histopathological changes induced in kidney of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide.To achieve this goal a total of 30 male mice were divided into six groups: G1 control group, G2 treated with LFE (10ml/kg b wt.), G3 treated with CP (10mg/kg b wt.), and G4 treated with CP (20mg/kg b wt.), G5 treated with LFE (10ml/kg) +CP (10mg/kg), G6 treated with LFE (10ml/kg) + CP (20mg/kg). All of the abovementioned groups were treated daily for five consecutive days. The examination of kidney tissue of the CP treated male mice, demonstrated several histopathological changes of which intensity depended on the increase of the dose. Severe bleeding in interstitial f the kidney with a defect in the normal structure of most nephron was also noticed. Furthermore, confusion in the order of the cells forming the distal convoluted tubules has occurred along with the in ability to view the intercellular membrane and the disappearance of the inner lumen of most of them. While the co-administration treatment of lemon extract with CP should clear response, the kidney restored some of its normal structure, such as the disappearance of signs if inner bleeding, and glomerulus and renal tubules have become semi-normal to some extent.

[Salwa Mohammed Quita-WejdanSaad Al-Amri. Study of the possible protective effect of lemon fruit extract against the histopathological changes induced in kidney of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):30-38]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.06.

 

Keywords: Cyclophosphamide-Lemon-Histopathological changes-Kidney-Mice.

Full Text

6

7

Thermophilic paenibacillus Nitrogen Fixation bacteria increases cereal crops productivity

 

Nahed Abdel Ghaffar Abdel Aziz Ibrahim1 and Mohamed Nabil Abdel Mageed Omar2

 

1Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt, 2Soil, water and Environment Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt.

Nahedabdelghffar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a major contributor to the global nitrogen fixation and ranges between 50 and 60% of the total nitrogen fixed. In this work, 4 thermophilic bacterial strains that isolated from costal ridge of Mediterranean in Egypt were used. It was identified by 16 S rRNA as Peanibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa). Glutamine synthetase (GS), the key enzyme in the pathway of ammonia incorporation into amino acids by bacteria, was detected in these bacterial strains at approximately 46 KDa and proved by western blot reaction. Then, three field experiments were applied in three successive seasons (summer, winter, summer of 2010/2011) on cereal crops maize and wheat to evaluate the effect of our bacterial strains on crop productivity. The results showed that, plants inoculated with bacterial strains plus 75% (90 Kg) of the recommended dose of mineral fertilizers (MF) led to increasing the yield of maize crop by 7% and wheat crop by 13.7% more than plants that only treated with 100% (full dose) MF. Moreover, increasing the protein content in grains as a result of raising the rate of nitrogen inside it and this was obviously in the total protein profiling of seeds which new protein bands appeared in the region between 28 & 17 KDa in maize and at 36 KDa in wheat. In conclusion: The application of NF bacterial inoculums plus 75% MF are saving 25% (30 Kg/ fed) of MF and increasing the yield of crops, in addition, increasing the protein content in the grain.

[Nahed Abdel Ghaffar Abdel Aziz Ibrahim and Mohamed Nabil Abdel Mageed Omar. Thermophilic paenibacillus Nitrogen Fixation bacteria increases cereal crops productivity. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):39-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.07.

 

Key words: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), thermophilic bacteria, paenibacillus polymyxa, Glutamine synthetase (GS) enzyme, bacterial inoculation

Full Text

7

8

Ecosystem Restoration Using Maintenance Dredging In Lake Qarun, Egypt

 

Reda M. A. Hassan

 

Environment and climate change Research Institute, National Water Research Center

doctor_reda2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The rise in Lake Qarun level problem is essentially due to the excess of agricultural drainage water, as well as other types of drainage water. The excess of this drainage water causes the inundation of contiguous lands, in particular the southern floodplain tourism areas of the lake. The negative impacts of this problem are water logging of agricultural lands, water pollution and increasing salinity of lake. Drainage water has different types of heavy metals. These heavy metals cause the deterioration of ecosystem. Bottom sediment of lake is a basin for heavy metals. The reduction of heavy metals and consequently, improving ecosystem comes from reduction of bottom polluted sediment. Many studies had been carried out to alleviate water excess problem, but the problem still subsists. This paper assesses the probability of using the dredging technique as a possible solution for the excess of drainage water problems. The aim of this paper also is to demonstrate the total amounts of different heavy metals in bottom sediment of lake. These amounts of heavy metals can reveal the deterioration circumstance of ecosystem of lake. Achieving research objectives and as the lack of information about the flood plain areas and actual area of lake. The relation among water level, time in months and area of flood plains adjacent to lake should be derived as a tool to accomplish research goals. It could be concluded from the research that, dredging technique can be a possible solution for the excess of drainage water problems in Lake Qarun. The dredging of one meter from bottom sediment of eastern part can be applied firstly to reduce water level by 30 cm, after that the process can be repeated for the western and middle parts of lake to reduce water level by one meter. It could be recommended that, the huge amounts of different heavy metals for 17 elements of heavy metals in lake bed sediment (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, As, Cu, Pb, Sn, Mo, V, and Co) can be used in minerals extraction industry. The physical environmental removal of heavy metals from Lake Qarun will reduce the contaminants and as a result will improve the ecosystem.

[Reda M. A. Hassan. Ecosystem Restoration Using Maintenance Dredging In Lake Qarun, Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):55-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.08.

 

Keywords: Flood Plain Areas -Qarun Lake - Excess water –Dredging Technique

Full Text

8

9

Effect of Sesame Oil, Nigella sativa L Oil and their Mixtures on Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

 

Maha Ahmed Al-Ahdab

 

Home Economic Dept., Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdul-Aziz University, KSA.

 

Abstract: Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of sesame oil and Nigella sativa L oil and their mixture in a dose of (5 mg/kg b.wt.) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats for 6 weeks on body weight gain %, feed efficiency ratio,serum levels of total lipid, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), lipoprotein fractions and liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were performed. Histopathological examination of liver andheart were also carried out. Methods: Thirty five male Wistar rats were distributed into five equal groups as follows: negative (normal rats), positive (hypercholesterolemic rats) control groups and positive groups orally given sesame oil and Nigella sativa L oil and their mixturein a dose of 5 mg/kg b.wt., respectively. Results: The results showed that oral administration of sesame oil and Nigella sativa L oil and their mixture in a dose of 5 mg/kg b.wt. to hypercholesterolemic rats for 6 weeks significantly decreased serum levels of TL,TC, TG, low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c), very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (VLDL-c) and liver enzymes when compared to the control positive group. Level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was significantly increased as compared to the control positive group. Histopathological examination of liver and heart of sesame oil and Nigella sativa L oil and their mixture in a dose of 5 mg/kg b.wt. showed amelioration of histological changes caused by high level of cholesterol in the positive control group. Conclusion: Results indicated that sesame oil and Nigella sativaL oil and their mixture in a dose of 5 mg/kg b.wt., have potent antiatherogenic and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. This study recommends that consuming sesame oil and Nigella sativaL oil and their mixture in a dose of 5 mg/kg b.wt. may be beneficial for patients who suffer from hypercholesterolemia and/orarteriosclerosis.

[Maha Ahmed Al-Ahdab. Effect of Sesame Oil, Nigella sativa L Oil and their Mixtures on Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):66-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.09.

 

Keywords: sesame oil; Nigella sativa L oil; lipid; liver; enzyme; hypercholesterolemic rat

Full Text

9

10

Characterization of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Its Impact on Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis C Patients

 

Somaya Osman El-Deeb,1 Ahmed Bahgat Zied,2 Olfat Mohamed Hendy,2 Salwa Rashad Ali,3 Nashwa Sheble2, Helmy Saber Mohamad Saleh4 and Noha Ahmad Mahana1*

 

1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2 National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt

3 Faculties of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

4Public Health Microbiology Department, Animal Research Centre, Menoufiya, Egypt

E-mail address: nohamahana@gmail.com, Ahmadbahgat30@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hypoxia is a common feature of many solid tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can promote tumor progression and induce radiation and chemotherapy resistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is one of the major mediators of hypoxic response, it has been demonstrated that a high level of HIF-1 in the HCC microenvironment leads to enhanced proliferation and survival of HCC cells. Accordingly, overexpression of HIF-1 is associated with poor prognosis in HCC. The study included 20 healthy subjects that served as control group, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis and 30 patients with HCC. All subjects were subjected to thorough history and clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigations including; complete blood picture, liver function tests, in addition to measurement of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and HIF-1 serum levels. The serum levels of HIF-1α were significantly (P < 0.001) increased in HCC patients as compared to those with HCV and controls subjects. The circulating HIF-1α has a high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.7%) for HCC prediction than AFP (87.5% and 67.4%, respectively) and the associated high level of HIF-1α with metastatic HCC cases suggesting its role in the prognosis of HCC and it could be a useful molecular marker in HCC diagnosis, and monitoring prognosis. In conclusion, serum HIF-1α is highly sensitive and specific for detecting HCC alone or if combined with AFP. Therefore, it may play an important role in early diagnosis of HCC.

[Somaya Osman El-Deeb, Ahmed Bahgat Zied, Olfat Mohamed Hendy, Salwa Rashad Ali, Nashwa Sheble, Helmy Saber Mohamad Saleh and Noha Ahmad Mahana. Characterization of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Its Impact on Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis C Patients. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):74-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.10.

 

Key Words: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatitis C virus; early diagnosis; prognosis; hypoxia; hypoxia inducible factor-1

Full Text

10

11

Effect of Yucca Schidigera on water quality of Nile Tilapia fingerlings

 

Riad Hassan Khalil1, Talaat Talaat Saad1, Hani Mehana1, Gamal Ragab2, Reham Abd El Aziz Mohammed2

 

1Fish and Crustacean diseases, Faculty of Veterinary medicine - Alexandria University

2Animal Health Research Institute

Hamaaziz45@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of supplementation of Yucca Schidigers in feed and water of Nile tilapia. Sixty fish were stocked in four glass aquaria (15 fish per aquarium). Diets were fed to fish at rate of 3% of body weight as fed control diet in first group, add Y. Schidigera (1 g\kg) in second group, add Y. Schidigera in water of third and fourth group (0.25,0.5 gm\L) for 6 weeks. The result revealed that Yucca cause significant (p<0.05) lower levels of ammonia and nitrite in the aquaria water especially in groups (4,5) and increase in nitrate in water.

[Riad Hassan Khalil, Talaat Talaat Saad, Hani Mehana Gamal Ragab, and Reham Abd El Aziz Mohammed. Effect of Yucca Schidigera on water quality of Nile Tilapia fingerlings. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):83-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.11.

 

Keywords: Yucca Schidigera, Nile Tilapia, fingerlings, water quality

Full Text

11

12

Color Stability of Shade Guides After Disinfection and Autoclave Sterilization

 

Fahmy M. A.* and Maglad S. A**

 

* Professor of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Burydah collage, KSA.

** Hani S. Maglad, M Sc Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Burydah collage, KSA.

 

Abstract: Shade selection for dental restorations involves many factors, and one of the most important is the shade tabs used in the selection process. Dental shade guides used to evaluate tooth color before prosthodontic procedures should be disinfected after use. Chemical solutions and autoclave sterilization have been widely used for disinfection of Dental shade guides, but their effect on color stability of shade guides tabs after repeated procedures is still unclear. The aim was to evaluate whether disinfection protocol applied in Burydah Dental collage that include autoclave sterilization or chemical disinfectants has any effects on color stability of shade guides (VITA 3D-Master Shade System) at one year of usage. Material and methods: the CIELAB values of eighteen shade tabs, non-used vita 3d-master shade guides were measured with vita easy shade compact, two chemical disinfectants HAMA -surf spray and HAMA instru( KOL AL HEMAYA MEDICAL FACTORY-Riyadh, Saudia Arabia) and autoclave were used for disinfection. in order to simulate 120, 180 and 360 day usage, the first shade guides group were immersed into disinfectant solutions for15minx120, 15minx180 and 15minx360. second shade guides group were sprayed for 120,180 and 360 cycles the third shade guides group was autoclaved at 135°c/10minx120, 135°c/10minx180 and 135°c/10minx360. CIELAB measurements of all tabs were repeated at 120, 180 and 360 day periods. in order to measure the color changes at shade guides,120, 180 and 360 day CIELAB values were compared with initial measurements by using the formula of “delta e=([l1-l2]2+[ a1-a2]2+[ b1-b2]2)1/2. Statistical analysis was accomplished by a 2-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test (α=.05). Results: A significant difference was noted in the degree of shade tab color change, in case of autoclave sterilization 2M1, 2M2 tabs that increase with the time periods. No significant difference was noted in the amount of shade tab color change that occurred after disinfection among the different shade tabs used in all time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitation of this study, it was found that utilization of HAMA- instru. and HAMA-Surf spray for up to one simulated years causes minute changes in the color of VITA Tooth guide 3D-Master Shade Guide after simulated treatments, these changes didn’t cause a clinically significant difference and were not perceptible to the clinician. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization for one year caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides 2M1 and 2M2,these differences are considered not clinically acceptable. With the other tabs autoclaving causes minute changes in the color that didn’t cause a clinical significant difference and were not perceptible to the clinician.

[Fahmy M.A. and Maglad S.A. Color Stability of Shade Guides After Disinfection and Autoclave Sterilization. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):89-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.12.

 

Keywords: Color; Stability; Shade Guide; Disinfection; Autoclave; Sterilization

Full Text

12

13

Endometrial Ablation Therapy in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB), is it the Answer for Safety and Satisfaction?

 

Afaf A. Ismail1, Lamyaa M. Yosry1, Nahed Ezzat Allam1,  Aminah Abd El-Fattah Mohammed1  and Ahmed Hassan Soliman2

 

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University, Egypt.

2Radiodiagnostic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

aya.m.mostafa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate 1- the effectiveness and safety of endometrial ablation with thermal balloon (therma choice uterine balloon therapy system – Gynecare) (TBEA) in patients suffering from premonopausal dysfunction uterine bleeding (DUB). 2- Uterine artery pulsitility index “PI” before and after endometrial thermoablation therapy in one year follow up as a marker of the efficacy of therapy in rising the impedance to uterine artery blood flow which may be due to fibrosis in the uterine cavity. 3- Patient satisfaction through one year follow up. Design: Prospective study. Setting: AlZahraa University hospital, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University, Al Haram Hospital (for research and treatment, Ministry of health and some private hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Method: Sixty two premenopausal patients with (DUB) were allocated in this study since 2010 to 2013. All patients were submitted to history, examination, pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound (U/S), pap. Smear, diagnostic hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy. The endometrial therapy using (thermachoice system) was carried out on cycle 3-8. Color Doppler measurements were carried too. Flow waveforms were obtained from the main branch of the uterine arteries on both sides. Doppler flow parameters were used for statistical analysis. The measurements took place before the initiation of treatment, on the first day post operative, 3,6 months and one year after initiation of the study.  Results: The pulsatility index (PI) was statistically significant higher after endometrial ablation than pretreatment level. The PI was gradually increased throughout the period of follow up at 6 months (2.8±0.9), and 12 months (2.9±0.8), post treatment vs. (1.9±0.4) pretreatment. Conclusion: Thermoablation therapy induces a rise in impedance to uterine blood flow which is a good marker for inducing amenorrhea in DUB patients. The procedure was accepted by the patients with a high efficacy rate 90%. The existing evidence suggested that the success rates and complications profile of 3rd generation are low depend on proper patient selection.

[Afaf A. Ismail; Lamyaa M. Yosry; Nahed Ezzat Allam; Aminah Abd El-Fattah Mohammed and Ahmed Hassan Soliman. Endometrial Ablation Therapy in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB), is it the Answer for Safety and Satisfaction? J Am Sci 2015;11(12):96-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.13.

 

Keywords: Endometrial thermoablation , dysfunctional uterine bleeding , Doppler.

Full Text

13

14

Relationship between Matrilin-3 (MATN-3) Gene Single Nucleotide Six Polymorphism, Transforming Growth Factor Beta2 and Radiographic Grading in Primary Osteoarthritis

 

Rawhia H. El Edel1, Dalia H. Abou-Elela1, Rasha I Noureldin1, Heba A. Esaily2

 

1Clinical pathology department, Faculty of medicine, Menoufia University.

2 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Faculty of medicine, Menoufia University.

aboeleladalia@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Assess serum level of Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2) and Matrilin-3 (MATN3) SNP6 polymorphism in osteoarthritic patients Background:.Osteoarthritis (OA) is a musculoskeletal disease characterized by pain and joint stiffness. TGF-β 2 is involved in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, It has found thatMATN3 gene and protein expression was correlated with the extent of tissue damage in OA. Findings suggest that regulation of MATN3 expression is essential for maintenance of the cartilage extracellular matrix microenvironment Subjects and Methods:72 cases of primary OA (56 with knee OA and 16 with generalised OA were compared with that of 18 healthy controls. Radiographs were scored with the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Serum TGF-β2 was measured by using (ELISA), levels of marker were correlated to radiographic grading of disease and MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism was determined by (PCR-RFLP).Results: MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and serum level of TGF-β2were higher in OA compared with controls. Genotype, NN and N allele frequency were higher in patients with OA compared with controls. NN genotype and N allele frequency were higher in knee osteoarthritis than generalised OA.Significant positive correlation between level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in group with knee OA, but no correlation between serum level of TGFβ2 and radiographic grading in generalised OA.Conclusion:MATN3 SNP6 polymorphism and TGF-β2 implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Association of N/N genotype with primary osteoarthritis emphasizes on the need for  prospective study  include larger sample size to confirm the results of the present study.

[Rawhia H. El Edel,Dalia H. Abou-Elela, Rasha I Noureldin, Heba A. Esaily. Relationship between Matrilin-3 (MATN-3) gene single nucleotide six polymorphism, transforming growth factor beta2 and radiographic grading in primary osteoarthritis. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):100-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.14.

 

Key words: Matrilin-3,Transforming growth factor beta 2, and primary osteoarthritis.

Full Text

14

15

PTEN Mutations Mapped in BPH and PCa in a Selected Egyptian Population; A Pilot for New Diagnostic Markers

 

Maha A. Bassuoni1, Randa M. Talaat2, Ahmed A. sonbol1, Ayman A. Diab3,Ahmed A.sadik4

 

1Clinical pathology department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University,

2 Microbiology and Immunology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, El Sadat University, Cairo, Egypt,

3Dean of Faculty of Biotechnology, Modern science and Arts University of 6th October, Egypt,

4BSC of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo university

ahmed_sonbolmmm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: PTEN is one of the tumor suppressor genes involved in secondary cancer progression prevention. In Egypt, Prostate Adenocarcinoma (PCa) recorded the highest incidence and mortality among cancers of the genitourinary system. Aim: This was a pilot study that aimed to detect the presence or absence of mutations along exons 5 & 7 in the tumor suppressor PTEN gene in BPH and PCa patients and correlate between PTEN and the pathogenesis of both PCa and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and Methods: Twenty benign and malignant patients were recruited, as well as seven apparently normal subject served as controls. Whole blood samples were collected from patients previously diagnosed using TRUS-Biopsies. Control subjects were free of chronic disorders and tumors, yet some had family history of benign and malignant tumors. Studied groups had age range between 54 and 77yrs that averaged 64 ± 7.5 and average PSA level of 2.3, 19.9 and 35ng/ml for Control, BPH and PCa groups respectively. PCR were performed, using intronic primers specific for exons 5 and 7, to map possible mutations (for positive PCR reactions sequencing done using both forward and reverse primers). Results: Analyzing mutations mapped for the selected studied groups proved the likeliness of correlating between both BPH and PCa patients. PTEN association in PCa patient was correlated with their pathology findings and clinical picture. One patient out of 10 showing complete deletion had the highest Gleason score (9) and worst clinical picture, two patients out of 10 showed partial deletion (one losing the phosphatase function and the other losing the C2 domain of the direct protein binding). Upon thorough analysis high occurring genotypes were defined. Ten mutations were mapped across the exons and their near end site introns both upstream and downstream revealing 5 potentially significant mutations. All 5 potentially significant mutations (g.74482dupA, g.74818dupG, g.74845dupC and g.99506C>G, g.99582dupA) shared the presence of the highly occurring genotypes except g.99506C>G of exon 7 benign patient (7b6). Conclusion: Mutations mapped have revealed some potentially significant mutant variants of PTEN pointing towards its role in both BPH and PCa Pathology and the possibility of a bridging correlation between both benign and malignant prostate tumors.

[Maha A. Bassuoni, Randa M. Talaat, Ahmed A. sonbol, Ayman A. Diab, Ahmed A.sadik. PTEN Mutations Mapped in BPH and PCa in a Selected Egyptian Population; A Pilot for New Diagnostic Markers. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):108-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.15.

 

Key words: BPH, PTEN, Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Gleason score, Mutation

Full Text

15

16

IL-2 polymorphisms and IL-2 serum levels association with susceptibility to HBV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Ahmed A Sonbol MD1, Blal A Montaser MD1, Hosam El-Din M Seleem MD2

 

1 Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt,

2 Tropical Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt,

ahmed_sonbolmmm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Polymorphisms in cytokine genes responsible for inflammatory and immune responses are associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high-risk population. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an immuno-regulatory cytokine produced by T cells and plays an important role in anti-tumor immunity. Variations in the DNA sequence of the IL-2 gene may lead to altered cytokine production and/or activity, and thus modulate an individual’s susceptibility to hepatitis B virus-related hepato-cellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC). Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether IL-2 gene polymorphisms and its serum levels are associated with HBV-related HCC. Patients and Methods: The -384 T/G polymorphisms in the IL-2 gene were examined in 25 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 25 cases of HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), 25 cases of HBV-related HCC, and 25 healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) . The serum IL-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results showed that there were highly significant difference between HBV-related HCC patients and healthy controls regarding the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-2 polymorphisms respectively. The TG (OR = 4.81, 95% CI, 1.14 – 20.25, P = 0.03) and GG (OR = 11.67, 95% CI, 2.13 – 64.04, P = 0.003) genotypes were correlated with a significant increased HCC risk as compared with the TT genotype and the G allele was correlated with a significant increased HCC risk when compared with the T allele (OR = 4.2, 95% CI, 1.81 – 9.73, P = 0.001). There was significant decrease in serum IL-2 levels between HBV-related HCC patients (177.78±71.7) and healthy controls (256.9±33.2). The genotypes of the IL-2 gene polymorphism were observed significantly correlated with serum IL-2 levels in HBV-related HCC patients with highly significant decrease in serum IL-2 levels in individuals with homozygous GG genotypes (107.7±.8 ng/L) or heterozygous TG genotypes (194.8±12.5 ng/L) than homozygous TT genotypes (306.3±29.8 ng/L) Conclusion: The results suggested that the IL-2 -384 T/G polymorphism might contribute to an increased risk of developing HBV-related HCC by affecting the serum IL-2 secretion.

[Ahmed A Sonbol, Blal A Montaser, Hosam El-Din M Seleem. IL-2 polymorphisms and IL-2 serum levels association with susceptibility to HBV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):116-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.16.

 

Key words: IL-2 polymorphisms, IL-2 serum levels, HBV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Full Text

16

17

Endothelial progenitor cell at hospital admission: an important risk for impaired longitudinal Left ventricular strain among type 2 diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction

 

RM. Hamdy1, LA. Mohamed1, Taghreed Abed-Alrahman Ahmed1, Aida Ahmed Abdel Hameed 2, H.Elhakeem2, M. E. El Saied3

 

1Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a subpopulation of adult stem cells, have emerged as critical to endothelial repair and vascular homeostasis.  In response to tissue injury, their numbers significantly increase in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, diabetic patients present impaired function and reduced numbers of circulating EPCs, but unfortunately the data addressing the correlation of EPCs level and left ventricular (LV) deformation in diabetic patients with acute AMI are scarce. Objective: To correlate LV longitudinal strain obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) or 2-D STE and EPCs level at hospital admission in type 2 diabetic patients with acute STEMI. Methods: We enrolled 30 patients with acute STEMI.  15 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 58.1±6.9 years) were compared to 15 non-diabetic patients (mean age 57.5±9.5 years).  All patients received thrombolytic therapy. A comprehensive 2D and Doppler echocardiography including TDI were obtained. Global LV longitudinal strain (GLS) was obtained by 2-D STE. Circulating EPCs (CD45dimCD34+KDR+cells) were evaluated using flow cytometry within the first 24 hours of hospital admission. Results: LV-GLS was significantly impaired in type 2 diabetic vs. non-diabetic patients (10.5±3.3% vs. 12.8±2.9%, p<0.05).  EPCs level significantly decreased in diabetic vs. non-diabetic patients (3.1±0.7% vs. 8.3±2.3% CD45dimCD34+KDR+ cells count %, p<0.0001). A significant positive correlation was found between EPCs level and LV GLs by 2-D STE (r=0.436, p<0.05) in STEMI patients. Moreover, average peak LV systolic strain (Av.PSS) obtained by TDI was positively correlated with EPCs level (r=0.438, p<0.05). Conclusion: LV dysfunction evaluated by 2D-STE and TDI-derived strain was more prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients with acute ST segment elevation (STEMI). Circulating EPCs levels were strikingly reduced in the early phases of an AMI in diabetic patients that is likely to contribute to the deterioration in left ventricular function.

[RM. Hamdy, LA. Mohamed, Taghreed Abed-Alrahman Ahmed, Aida Ahmed Abdel Hameed, H. Elhakeem and ME. El Saied. Endothelial progenitor cell at hospital admission: an important risk for impaired longitudinal Left ventricular strain among type 2 diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):124-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.17.

 

Key words: Endothelial progenitor cells, acute myocardial infarction, speckle tracking echocardiography, type2 diabetes mellitus.

Full Text

17

18

Visfatin Level and Its Relation To Visfatin Gene SNPs -1001t/G and 1535 C/T – In Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

 

Seham A Khodeer1 and Saeed S Khamees2

 

Departments of Clinical Pathology 1& Internal Medicine2, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University

 

Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most relevant diabetic complications. Visfatin is an adipocyte hormone expressed in peripheral blood neutrophils upon stimulation by inflammatory factors. Objective: to investigate the alteration of visfatin level and its relation to visfatin gene SNPs 1001T/G & 1535C/T in patients with DN. Subjects and methods: group I included 20 diabetic patients without nephropathy. Group II included 29 patients with DN& group III included23 subjectsas controls. They were subjected to history taking, BMI, FBG, fasting insulin, microalbumin, Hs-CRP, visfatin, and genetic analysis of 1535C/T &1001T/G SNPs by real-time PCR. Results: visfatin were higher in group I and group II compared with group III. There was a high significant difference between group I & II. Regarding SNP1001 T/G, the highest frequencies of TT genotype & T allel were found in group III (78.3% & 87.0%) followed by group I (55% &67.5%) and lastly group II (37.9% & 46.6%). Regarding TG/GG genotypes & G allel frequencies, the highest distributions were in the favor of group II (62.1% & 53.4%) then group I (45.0% & 32.5%) and finally group III (21.7% & 13.0%). There were statistical significant differences between the three studied groups regarding T & G alleles. By using odds ratio, TG/GG genotypes is more risky for DN 2.0times than TT &G allele is more risky for DN 2.38 times than T allele. Regarding 1535T/C SNP, no statistical significant differences were observe in genotypes and alleles in the studied groups. visfatinin individuals with the TG/GG genotypes in group II were higher than those with the TT genotype. Conclusion: visfatin level was significantly higher& correlated with microalbumin in patients with DN. Hence, it could be used as an early marker of renal endothelial dysfunction. SNP T/G 1001 may augment propensity to DN.

[Seham A Khodeer and Saeed S Khamees. Visfatin Level and Its Relation To Visfatin Gene SNPs -1001t/G and 1535 C/T – in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):132-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.18.

 

Keywords: visfatin – gene polymorphism- diabetic nephropathy

Full Text

18

19

Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Leflunomide Oral Tablet with Enhanced Dissolution

 

Amal A. Ammar1, Shereen A. Eladawy1, Ghada H. Elosaily1, 2 and Omnya M. Amin1

 

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Girl Branch, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology & Information (MTI), Egypt

gh_elosaily@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Leflunomide is a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor belonging to the DMARD (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug) used in pain management associated with rheumatoid arthritis, which shows its maximum effects during morning hours. It is practically insoluble in water, so in turn showing slow dissolution pattern. The aim of this study is to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of leflunomide by solid dispersion techniques. This is achieved by using different hydrophilic polymers at different ratios such as poloxamer 407, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), sodium laurayl sulfate (SLS), urea and polyethelenglycol 4000 (PEG 4000) at different ratios {(1:4), (1:6) and (1:8)} drug: carrier and beta-cyclodextrine (β-CD) at different molar ratios {(1:1), (1:2) and (1:3)} drug: carrier at one dose 20 mg of leflunomide. The study shows all used carriers (poloxamer 407, PVP K30, S.L.S, urea, PEG 4000 and β-CD) increased the solubility and the dissolution rate of leflunomide. IR spectroscopy and DSC techniques obviate that all the used carriers are physically compatible with leflunomide. After one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of leflunomide formulae with respect to their % released (greater than 80%) at 15 minute followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test, the following formulae: P4, P12, P15, P16, P21, P24, P25, P33, P40, P47 andP49 were selected. These selected formulae were used to prepare leflunomide tablets by direct compression technique. All the prepared leflunomide tablets complied with the pharmacopieal requirements for uniformity of drug content and disintegration time.C24, C33 and C49 were selected as the best formulae after one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of lefluonamide tablets with respect to their % released (greater than 85%) at 15 minute followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test. The release kinetics of leflunomide from solid dispersion formulae, the prepared tablets and commercial tablet were evaluated by employing the Korsmeyer peppa's equation.

[Amal A. Ammar, Shereen A. Eladawy, Ghada H. Elosaily and Omnya M. Amin. Formulation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Leflunomide Oral Tablet with Enhanced Dissolution. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):140-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.19.

 

Key words: Leflunomide, beta-cyclodextrine, sodium laurayl sulfate, solid dispersion, oral tablet and enhanced dissolution

Full Text

19

20

New innovation benefit for classification of groundwater quality

 

Elhag A. B

 

Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Saudi

Author - email address: ahmedhydro@gmail.com; abalhaj@kku.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to develop new innovation with detection for the chemistry of water quality. A simple, precise, fast and selective method has been developed for interpreting the hydrochemical facies. This method is able to provide sufficient information on the chemical quality of water, particularly the origin for the rock. Banaga scheme used in the field of hydrochemical studies and classification of groundwater quality, which reveals that there are eight different groundwater types divided into two groups. Among the most important components of this invention is the presence of two triangles, one is located at the top side with a view to signing ratios negative ions values and the other triangle is located at the bottom of the general form of the invention the side and it is signed ratios cation values also in addition to two diamonds, which including the right hand side and the left side of the chart, the former it classifies water quality of groundwater at the present time, and the other shows is that evolution will happen to the groundwater in the future.

[Elhag A. B. New innovation benefit for classification of groundwater quality. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):154-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.20.

 

Keywords: groundwater quality, Banaga scheme, two trilinears and diamonds.

Full Text

20

21

Numerical study for dynamic vibration absorber using Coriolis force for pendulum system

 

M. F. Younes

 

Department of Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering – Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt mf.fahmy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work is concerned with the vibration reduction of pendulum system with dynamic vibration absorber using Coriolis force. The proposed dynamic vibration absorber DVA can attenuate the bi-directional vibration of the pendulum system by one mass, which attaches to the main system through an additional spring and damper. The mass of the DVA moves in the radial direction and it provides Coriolis force in the circumference direction to reduce the swing of main system. The response of the main system is evaluated numerically under free and forced excitations. The damping ratio for free vibration is evaluated for different mass ratios, position ratios, initial amplitudes and DVA natural frequency. The main system response is evaluated in frequency domain for different DVA design parameters. The results indicate that the proposed DVA installed with suitable parameters in the system can effectively attenuate the main system vibration over a broad frequency range, especially for large vibration. The DVA natural frequency should be tuned to twice as that of the pendulum.

[M. F. Younes. Numerical study for dynamic vibration absorber using Coriolis force for pendulum system. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):157-162]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.21.

 

Keywords: vibration control, dynamic vibration absorber, spherical pendulum, ropeway carrier

Full Text

21

22

Correlation Study of Transverse Cerebellar Diameter with Gestational Age in Normal and Growth Restricted Fetuses (IUGR).

 

Mona Al Sayed Elkafrawy1, Amal Abdel Mageed Ahmed2, Ahmed Hassan Soliman3

 

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Radiodiagnostic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

drsaad53@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Measurement and demonstration of fetal cerebellum is a new and unique parameter of fetal brain growth which is useful in assessing gestational age. Cerebellum lies in the posterior cranial fossa and easily visualized sonographically. Transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) is more accurate and a better predictor of gestational age in normal as well as in intrauterine growth restricted fetuses (IUGR). The TCD in IUGR fetuses does not affected and so can be used in measurement of gestational age (GA). So, Determination of fetal age is of significant not only in obstetrics management but also in medicolegal cases. Aim of this work: This study aims to confirm the relationship between gestational age and TCD in prediction of gestational age by TCD in normal and IUGR fetuses, and assesses the reliability of TCD measurement. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 330 pregnant women between 14 – 40 weeks fulfilling the inclusion criteria .300pregnant women with normal pregnancy and 30 pregnant women with IUGR pregnancy all of them aiming for routine ultrasound and antenatal care at Alzhraa University Hospital. Ultrasound was done for measuring of TCD, BPD, HC, AC and FL to detect gestational age and weight of the fetus, all data were collected and analyzed. Results: in normal pregnancy TCD increases with advancing of age, with a linear relationship between TCD and gestational age, also in pregnancy with IUGR increases with increasing gestational age. Transverse cerebellar diameter in millimeter was found equivalent to gestational age till age of 26 weeks, where the mean of TCD was 17.39mm in 14-20weeks of gestation, 24.44 mm in 21-27 weeks, 32.04mm in 28-37 weeks and 42.73 mm in 35-40 weeks of gestation. The correlation coefficient between gestational age and TCD in normal pregnancy was found to be 0.792 with statistically significant P value 0.000, and regression analysis was 85% and 84% in normal and IUGR pregnancy respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a highly significant correlation between transverse cerebellar diameter and gestational age in normal and IUGR fetuses indicating that TCD is a good marker for estimation of gestational age. Thus it can serve as highly valuable and trustworthy parameter in the fetal age estimation and help investigating authorities to solve legal problems in relation to fetuses.

[Mona Al Sayed Elkafrawy, Amal Abdel Mageed Ahmed, Ahmed Hassan Soliman. Correlation Study of Transverse Cerebellar Diameter with Gestational Age in Normal and Growth Restricted Fetuses (IUGR). J Am Sci 2015;11(12):163-168]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.22.

 

Keywords: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), gestational age (GA) fetuses, transverse cerebeller diameter (TCD) ultrasound graphically (USG).

Full Text

22

23

An Integrated Study of Gravity and Magnetic Data on West El-Minya Area, Western Desert, Egypt.

 

Saada1 S. A. and El-Khadragy2 A. A.

 

1-Faculty of Science, Geology Department, Suez University, Suez, Egypt.

2 Faculty of Science, Geology Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

saada_geo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The potential field data in the West El-Minya area had been analyzed to delineate the regional subsurface structural and tectonic framework of the buried basement rocks. To achieve this goal, several techniques are applied on both gravity and magnetic data. Trend analysis is applied on gravity and magnetic maps to define the major subsurface tectonic trends. Regional-residual separation was carried out using two methods (filtering analysis technique and least-squares polynomial fitting). In addition, depths to the basement rocks were estimated by using spectral analysis technique along 28 profiles. Moreover, Bouguer gravity and RTP anomalies are used with the drilled wells to construct gravity and magnetic models of the earth’s crust along four profiles trending in N-S, NE-SW and E-W directions. These models divided the upper crust into two portions, the first upper one is composed of several blocks with different densities and magnetic susceptibilities while, the lower one has no magnetic susceptibilities. They show also the depths of the Conrad discontinuity vary from 21.2 to 24.7km and Moho discontinuity ranges from 30.5 to 34.9km. The computed depths were used to construct the basement relief map which shows that the depth to the basement rocks ranges from 0.5 to 4.2km. The results of quantitative techniques were integrated together to construct structure map of the study area. This map is mainly composed of faulted basement rocks of alternated uplifted and down-lifted blocks in NE-SW intersected by younger NNW- SSW transform faults.

[Saada S. A. and El-Khadragy A. A. An Integrated Study of Gravity and Magnetic Data on West El-Minya Area, Western Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):169-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.23.

 

Keywords: El-Minya- FFT- 2D crustal modeling- structure map.

Full Text

23

24

A stepwise approach for the management of nasal bone fractures

 

Mohammed Hasan Osman 1; Salah El-Dein Shaltout1; Ahmed Gaber 2 and Tarik Elsayed Ftohy 2

 

1Maxillofacial unit, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt

2Maxillofacial unit, Sohag University Hospital, Sohag University, Egypt

mh.osman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This study introduces a novel nasal bone fracture classification system, presents a simple and clear algorithm for the management of nasal bone fracture, and evaluates the effectiveness of minimally invasive techniques for managing nasal bone fractures. Details were recorded for patients diagnosed with nasal fracture (n=240) and they were classified as: type I, closed, simple nasal bone fracture (unilateral and bilateral); type II, closed comminuted nasal bone fracture (unilateral and bilateral); type III, complex nasal bone fracture (with naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures); and type IV, open nasal bone fracture (with external nasal skin lacerations). Three surgical techniques were used: closed reduction), open reduction, and transnasal fixation. Closed reduction was used for patients with closed simple fractures and closed unilateral comminuted fractures with good nasal contour (88.9%), percutaneous transnasal fixation was used for patients presenting with closed bilateral comminuted nasal bone fractures with good results (84.8%), and open reduction with direct fixation was used for patients with complex nasal fractures and patients with open fractures with good results (88.7%). Appropriate assessment and reduction of the nasal fracture is essential for optimal treatment. Thus, it is mandatory to determine the appropriate surgical technique based on the type of nasal fracture.

[Mohammed Hasan Osman; Salah El-Dein Shaltout; Ahmed Gaberand Tarik Elsayed Ftohy. A stepwise approach for the management of nasal bone fractures. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):185-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.24.

 

Keywords: fracture nasal bone, transnasal fixation

Full Text

24

25

Electrical conductivity of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) doped conductive PPy polymer blends

 

N. I. Aljuraide

 

Faculty of Medical Applied Sciences and Scientific Departments, Department of Physics, Turabah Branch, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, P.O. Box 888, 21974, Saudi Arabia, n.aljuraied@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: The electrical conductivity Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) doped conductive PPy polymer blends thin films has been measured at room temperature (300K) by studying the IV characteristics at various loading conductive PPy. The results are presented in the form of IV characteristics and analysis has been made by interpretation of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, Schottky, Richardson and Arrhenius plots. Most samples except (5, 15, 20 phr), show a nonlinear increase in the current with applied voltage and does not follow a power law, I=KVm. The applicable conduction mechanism for all samples was found to be Schottky- Richardson mechanism. The analysis of these results suggests that Schottky and Richardson mechanisms are primarily responsible for the observed conduction.

[N. I. Aljuraide. Electrical conductivity of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) doped conductive PPy polymer blends. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):191-198]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.25.

 

Keywords: Electrical conductivity, (EVA), conductive PPy and polymer blend.

Full Text

25

26

Homozygous Protein C Deficiency: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

 

Huda Elfaraidi1, Azzah Alzahrani1, Fahad Alabbas1, Tahani Bin Ali1, Ghaleb Elyamany 2,3

 

1 Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant, Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

2Department of Hematology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt, 3 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

ghalebelyamany@Psmmc.med.sa

 

Abstract: Homozygous protein C deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that usually presents in the neonatal period with purpura fulminans (PF) and severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), often with concomitant venous thromboembolism (VTE). Mutational analysis of symptomatic patients shows a wide range of genetic mutations. We report here a quite rare case of severe homozygous protein C deficiency from Saudi Arabia. Plasma Protein C antigen level was measured by enzyme immunoassay while the protein C activity was measured by using chromogenic assay. Homozygous protein C deficiency state is usually not compatible with long-term survival and often fatal unless there is early recognition of the clinical symptoms, prompt diagnosis, and urgent therapy is crucial to avoid further damage after delivery.

[Huda Elfaraidi, Azzah Alzahrani, Fahad Alabbas, Tahani Bin Ali, Ghaleb Elyamany. Homozygous Protein C Deficiency: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):199-201]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.26.

 

Keywords: Protein C deficiency, neonate, thrombophilia

Full Text

26

27

[J Am Sci 2015;11(12):202-215]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.27.

 Withdrawn

Full Text

27

28

Egyptian Crust: A structural modeling, based on gravity and seismic data

 

Ahmad Azab1, Ali El-Khadragy2 and Shokry A. Soliman1

 

1 Exploration Department. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

2 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

shokry61@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work depends essentially on the analysis of Bouguer gravity map constrained by the deep seismic data and geological information to reinterpret and delineate the regional crustal structure of Egypt. The approach intends first to evaluate the most efficient estimation of the crustal discontinuities depths. For that, the Bouguer gravity map was initially upwardly continued to proper heights and then the degree of regional polynomial to fit the Bouguer anomalies was done. As well, spectral analysis is used to estimate the approximate depths to the effective density interfaces of the crust, which serves as model data. At last, the evaluation of the structure of the crust has been accomplished through application of the 2D gravity modeling, based on the deep seismic refraction and spectral analysis results. The results indicate that, the complex gravity field of Egypt is attributed to different sources at varying depths of lithosphere. The Egyptian crust is essentially continental in type and suffers from lake of thickness at certain places. The northern and eastern margins exhibit thickness variations along marine boundaries, and density inhomogeneities within the crust or even the sub-crust. The crust-mantel boundary extended down to ~33Km below the Western Desert, with reduction in the thickness below Abu Gharadig basin (28km) and toward the Mediterranean Sea (~26km). Eastward, the Moho under the Eastern Desert is situated at depth of ~31Km, and significantly increases below the Red Sea hills (~37km). The results give evidence supporting a loss of the crust underneath the Gulf of Suez basin (~27km). The model across the northern Red Sea indicates the existence of oceanic crust below the main trough. The crustal thickness critically decreases beneath the axial zone (~11km). The sub-Moho reflector was roughly established at a depth of ~44km below the Egytian shield, and was modeled at ~33km blew the rift-axis.

[Ahmad Azab, Ali El-Khadragy and Shokry A. Soliman. Egyptian Crust: A structural modeling, based on gravity and seismic data. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):216-229]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.28.

 

Keywords: Egypt; Polynomial; Crustal structure; Sub-Moho; 2-D Modeling and Spectral Analysis

Full Text

28

29

Short-Term Effects of Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling in Patients with Polycyctic Ovarian Disease

 

Moustafa Abdel-khalek Abdel-Lah; Salah Mohamad Rasheed; Mohamed Nour-Aldeen Mohamed; and Ahmed Mohamad Khalifa

 

Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

mostafa_atya@med.sohag.edu.eg

 

Abstract: About 15-40% of Polycystic ovarian Disease (PCOD) are considered clomiphene- resistant PCOD patients. One of the lines of management of those patients is laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD). Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of LOD in women with PCOD as regards ovulation induction, pregnancy rate, abortion rate, and hormonal profile changes. Subjects and Methods: Systematic review was done enrolling the randomized controlled studies as the gold standard during the period from 2000 to 2015. Results: Out of the selected 107/174 studies; after removal of repeated cases the true total number of cases was 5746. The mean age was 28.9 years and mean duration of infertility was 49.5 months. Ovulation was achieved in 68% and pregnancy in about 47% after LOD, but abortion occurred in about 19% of the pregnant cases. Patient age <25 years, obesity, duration of infertility <3 years, high LH, High LH/FSH, and high testosterone were favorable prognostic factors in 7 studies. On the other hand, patient age >30 years, BMI<30 kg/m2, duration of infertility >3 years, low LH, low LH/FSH, and low testosterone were unfavorable prognostic factors in 11 studies. Normalization of LH, LH/FSH and testosterone was achieved in 13 studies. Conclusions: LOD is considered a successful 2nd line treatment for patients with clomiphene- resistant PCO patients. Recommendations: LOD is recommended as a 2nd line therapy for patients with PCO after being clomiphene- resistant.

[Moustafa Abdel-khalek Abdel-Lah; Salah Mohamad Rasheed; Mohamed Nour-Aldeen Mohamed; and Ahmed Mohamad Khalifa. Short-Term Effects of Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling in Patients with Polycyctic Ovarian Disease. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):230-235]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.29.

 

Key words: PCO, PCOS, PSOD, ovarian drilling, and laparoscopic drilling.

Full Text

29

30

An Immunohistochemical Study of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Spontaneous Abortion in Egyptian Women

 

Nirmeen Kotb Ebrahim1, Amina Hanem Abd-Alla Zidan2 Bahaa Bedier Ghannam 2, Hoda Mohammed Salah2 and Ashraf Sobhy Abou Louz 3

 

1Forensic Medical Laboratory, Medicolegal Authority, Ministry of Justice, Egypt

2Department of pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of pathology, 6 October University, Cairo, Egypt

abeer_said123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Miscarriage, the most common complication of pregnancy, is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached viability. Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been described in abortion tissues. The histopathologic changes of the placenta during viral infection show a wide spectrum, but seldom associated with inclusion bodies. However, the possible pathogenic role of this virus in abortion is under discussion. CMV is found throughout all geographic locations and socioeconomic groups but the incidence and frequency of HCMV infection can considerably vary among different study populations with definite correlations to low socioeconomic levels and bad hygienic measures, making it more prevalent in developing countries than developed ones. Objective: Determining the expression of HCMV associated antigen in spontaneous abortions to verify prevalence of HCMV in abortive tissue in Egyptian women and correlated it to certain pathologic criteria providing a clue of connection between HCMV and the described pathological criteria. Material and methods: This study was carried out on fifty four placentas of abortive specimens collected from aborted women during 8 to 13 week of gestational age. All were formalin fixed, routinely processed and paraffin embedded. Five micron thick serial sections were obtained from all the chosen specimens one was stained by H&E for histopathological evaluation and the others were mounted on positive charged slides for immunostaining using Avidin-Biotin techniquel method to detect HCMV antibodies. We collected the available clinical data regarding age of patients, gestational age and obstetric history from available request sheet. Results and conclusion: It was found that our studied histopathological criteria are related to HCMV infection and that there is a high prevalence of HCMV positive cases in our studied group (67%). This could be attributed to high incidence in our community and to selection of cases based on trying to exclude most commonly related causes and in choosing those with no obviously related abortion causes to any proposed etiology.

[Nirmeen Kotb Ebrahim, Amina Hanem Abd-Alla Zidan, Bahaa Bedier Ghannam, Hoda Mohammed Salah and Ashraf Sobhy Abou Louz. An Immunohistochemical Study of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Spontaneous Abortion in Egyptian Women. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):236-243]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.30.

 

Keywords: placenta, cytomegalovirus, abortion

Full Text

30

31

Outcome of Mid - Trimester Emergency Cervical Cerclage

 

Mohammed Ali Mohammed
 

Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

drmohamednad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the role of emergency cervical cerclage in prolongation of pregnancy and its effect on pregnancy outcome. Type of Study: a prospective clinical trial. Location: Tertiary Center Hospital, during the period from March 2012 to May 2015. Subjects and Method: Twenty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (who presented with a dilated cervical or with or without bulging fetal membranes between 16 and 27 weeks) followed a set protocol of prophylactic antibiotics and tocolytics before and after application of the cerclage suture. In all procedures, the McDonald's technique was applied. Results: In general, Pregnancy was prolonged by 67.1+ 38.1 days (ranged from 0 to 118 days). For the survivors it was 88.3 + SD 15.8 days (ranged from 62to 118 days). In 75% of the patients (N=15) pregnancy was prolonged beyond 31 weeks gestation with seventeen survivors (two set of twins). The mean gestational age at delivery was 32.03 ±6.2 weeks (ranged from 20.2 to 39.5 weeks).For the survivors it was 35.5 ± 2.5weeks (ranged from 31 to 39.5 weeks). The mean birth weight at delivery 1879.2± 911.9gm (ranged from 390 to 3300gm). For the survivors it was 2333.3± 491gm (ranged from 1650 to 3300 gm). Conclusion: Emergency cervical cerclage is an effective obstetric procedure. Despite its associated potential com­plications, it is probably the only option for women presented with advanced cervical dilatation with or without prolapsed membranes. Nevertheless, it should be used judiciously and only after comprehensive patients evaluation and extensive counseling.

[Mohammed Ali Mohammed. Outcome of Mid - Trimester Emergency Cervical Cerclage. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):244-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.31.

 

Key words: Emergency Cervical Cerclage, Mid – Trimester Abortion

Full Text

31

32

Effect of Clove Plant Extract on Land Slug and Their Reproductive System under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

 

Soha A. Mobarak; Randa A. Kandil and Samah M. AbdEl-Kader

 

Plant Protection Research Institute, ARC., Giza Egypt.

Soha_snails@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Effect of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) plant extract was studied against land slug, Limax flavus, under laboratory and field conditions. Slugs were treated with different concentrations of plant extract as a contact for one week and LC50 value was calculated. Result indicated that plant extracted by ethanol more toxic than plant extracted by acetone. The pathological changes of reproductive system were studied on the treated animals. Results revealed that the clove plant extracted by ethanol caused severe swelling in the size of the organs of the reproductive system more than plant extracted by acetone. Also, the effect of LC50 of each plant extract on the nervous tissue enzymes AchE and ALP of slugs was studied after 7 days of treatment. Results showed that AchE and ALP activity decreased after 3 days of treatment by acetone extract while they increased after 7 days post treatment. Vis-versa occurred in case of ethanol plant extract whereas it enhanced the level of ALP post 3 and 7 days of treatment. While it caused fluctuate effect in case of AchE after the both periods of treatment. On the other hand, the performance of ethanolic extract (which gave good results in laboratory) was evaluated under the field conditions. The plant extract was tested as a spray comparing with methomyl (the recommended compound). The results indicated that the crude plant extract gave satisfying results compared with methomyl whereas it gave 74.5% population reduction comparing with 94.4% for methomyl, respectively. Finally, we can conclude that clove plant extract by ethanol was achieved good results to control the slugs. It has high toxic effect against slugs in addition the teratogenic effects on reproductive system on the surviving individuals leading to prevent the slug to produce eggs.

[Soha A. Mobarak; Randa A. Kandil and Samah M. Abd El-Kader. Effect of Clove Plant Extract on Land Slug and Their Reproductive System Under Laboratory and Field Conditions. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):250-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.32.

 

Key words: Clove extract, (Syzygium aromaticum ) - Land slug, (Limax flavus)- reproductive system - nervous tissue enzymes

Full Text

32

33

Effect of nutritional health education on awareness of pregnant women attending maternal and child health care centers and private clinics in Sharkia Governorate-Egypt

 

Saeed M. Khalifa, Ghada F. El-Sharkawy, Shereen E. Mohamed, Hanaa A. Nofal

 

Departments of Public Health and community medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Hananofal196@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nutritional health education is expected to have an obvious benefit on awareness of pregnant women especially when designed after studying their nutritional habits and usual intake. Aim & Objectives: This research was done to study nutritional habits of pregnant women, to assess their knowledge and attitude regarding healthy nutrition and to apply a health education intervention and measure its effect. Methods: The study was conducted in two phases in 2013 - 2015, the 1st phase was a cross- sectional study included 350 females got by multistage random sampling technique from public and private facilities in rural and urban areas. Their sociodemographic and nutritional data were got by a semi structured questionnaire which included 24 hour recall of intake of the main categories of food. Out of the first phase participants, 130 women shared in 2nd ˝intervention phase˝, they were randomized to intervention and control groups (65 women each)with no significant difference in age or socioeconomic status and a structured questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge and attitude before and after the intervention. Intervention was two health education sessions with use of posters and distribution of booklets. Results: The results revealed that most of our sample in public and private health care facility in rural and urban areas had 3-4 meals∕ day with irregular time and take extra food between meals, only 53.6 % of MCH attendants got protein in previous day. In the 2nd phase the pre intervention level of knowledge and attitude was defective in both intervention and control groups with no significant difference while post intervention highly significant difference was detected between the two groups. Also, self matching paired pre -post test analysis of the intervention group revealed a highly significant improvement in knowledge and attitude with 86.2% satisfactory change in total knowledge and 76.92% satisfactory change in total attitude. Conclusion: this study revealed a state of inadequate knowledge and attitude towards healthy nutrition among pregnant females and health education program can lead to significant improvement in them in different types of antenatal care facilities in rural and urban areas pointing to the importance of generalized adoption of such programs.

[Saeed M. Khalifa, Ghada F. El-Sharkawy, Shereen E. Mohamed, Hanaa A. Nofal. Effect of nutritional health education on awareness of pregnant women attending maternal and child health care centers and private clinics in Sharkia Governorate-Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):256-263]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.33.

 

Keywords: Nutrition education, awareness, MCH and private clinic

Full Text

33

34

Evaluate the performance of bioagents against Tetranychus urticae in vitro.

 

ElSayed I. A. 1 and Nada O. Edrees2

 

1Microbiology Dept., Soil, Water and Environmental Inst., Agriculture Research Centre. Giza- Egypt

2Department of Biology – Zoology- Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University – Jeddah- Saudi

nedrees@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard are important pests of horticultural crops. This study was conducted to determine the effect of some bioagentsa gainst Tetranychus urticae. Our results the data showed that the lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) appeared non-significant on the mean number of T. urticae through different times Whereas, the high concentration of bioagents culture (100%) appeared significant increase inhibit the growth of Tetranychus urticae adult after 24 and 120 hours. that mortality percentage of Tetranychus urticae after 24, 48, 72. 96. 120 and 144 h respectively affected by 50 % and 100% culture of bioagents culture. Mortality ranged from 0 to 62 % during different time by 50 % culture of bioagents culture .Beauveria bassiana and serratia (Sm) recorded highly mortality percentage at different times. On the other hands, Mortality ranged from 0 to 55 % during different time by 50 % culture of bioagents culture. Streptomyces sp (STR) recorded highly mortality percentage at different times.

[ElSayed I. A. and Nada .O. Edrees. Evaluate the performance of bioagents against Tetranychus urticae in vitro. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):264-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.34.

 

Key words: antagonistic - bioagents – biological control - in vitro – Tetranychu surticae

Full Text

34

35

Comparative Histological Studies of the Kidney, Liver and Testes of the Adult Male Domestic and Wild Rabbits (Oryctolaguscuniculus) in Saudi Arabia.

 

Abdul Rahman A.I. Alyahya

 

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

E-Mail: alya7ya@su.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the comparative histological traits between kidney, liver and testes of male domestic and wild rabbits in Saudi Arabia. A total of five male rabbits from each species were bred and maintained under the same conditions. The studies were done using standard histological techniques. Microscopic examinations of the kidney of wild rabbits showed increased vasculature and glomerular capillaries compared to domestic rabbits. Furthermore, the blood vessels surrounding the renal tubules appeared congested with blood and juxtaglomerular apparatus was well- developed and the kidney connective tissue capsule was not clearly formed in the wild species while no significant differences were observed with regard to renal tubules, and renal corpuscles.In the liver of domestic rabbits, hepatocytes were polyhedral in shape with acidophilic less vacuolated cytoplasm compared to that of wild rabbit, which was more vacuolated. The central vein of the liver was not congested with blood in the domestic rabbits relative to that of wild rabbit. The blood sinusoids in liver of domestic species were not dilated nor congested with blood as compared to that of wild rabbit. No changes could be detected between the testes of wild and domestic rabbits. The differences obtained in kidney and liver between domestic and wild rabbits in Saudi Arabia may be due to environmental factors such as temperature, thermal stress during harsh winters, fluctuations and humidity changes.

[Abdul Rahman A.I. Alyahya. Comparative Histological Studies of the Kidney, Liver and Testes of the Adult Male Domestic and Wild Rabbits (Oryctolaguscuniculus) in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):270-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.35.

 

Key words: comparative, Domestic Rabbit, Wild rabbit,Kidney, hepatocytes.

Full Text

35

36

Petrographic Characterization, Diagenetic Implications and its Effectsonthe Carbonate Reservoir Quality ofthe Kareem and Rudeis Formations, Zeit Bay Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

 

Elshahat, O.R.1, El-Shayeb, H.2, Abd El-Gawad, E.1, El-Desouki, H2 and Haddad, I.3

 

1Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University

2Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University

3Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation

osamaramzy80@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Lower- Middle Miocene (Upper Aquitanian-Serravallian) Kareem and Rudeis formations of the Gulf of Suez are composed of mixed siliciclastic/carbonate rocks. Eightcarbonate microfacies are recognized and described including mudstone, wackestone- packstone, packstone- grainstone and boundstone. The observed post-depositional changes in the studied rock units include (approximately in a paragenetic sequence): cementation, recrystallization, dolomitization, pressure solution, dedolomitization and dissolution and fillings. Petrographical studies of the Kareem and Rudeis formations revealed the presence of different types of secondary porosity which include: intra-intercrystalline, vuggy, fractures and channel porosity. Dissolution dolomitization and dedolomitization were improved the reservoir quality, and generated secondary porosity such micro-inter-crystalline and vuggular, porosity. While cementation had most effect on decline the porosity and permeability in the Kareem and Rudeis reservoir.

[Elshahat, O.R., El-Shayeb, H., Abd El-Gawad, E., El-Desouki, H, and Haddad, I. Petrographic Characterization, Diagenetic Implications and its Effects on the Carbonate Reservoir Quality of the Kareem and Rudeis Formations, Zeit Bay Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):276-293]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.36.

 

Keywords: Kareem- Rudeis, microfacies, diagenesis and porosity

Full Text

36

37

Assessing the effect of Thyme and Rosemary as antiaflatoxicosis on fertility in male rats

 

Nashwa A. H. Ahmed*, Nahed, M. El-Mokhtar** and Rania A. H. Abd El-Aal***

 

Biochemistry*, Mycology** Dept. Animal Health Research Institute, Developmental Pharmacology Dep.***, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Egypt.

raniaawad350@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thyme and rosemary play a role in hepatoprotectivity and act as antiaflatoxicosis. This study has attempted to investigate effect of subacute dose of aflatoxin AFB1 on fertility in albino rats and possibly to predict any benefits or harms of rosemary and thyme leaves powder. Aflatoxin were detected and extracted from poultry rations and processed animal feeds. One hundred samples of poultry rations and processed animal feeds (50 of each) were collected from markets at Cairo governorate for investigation of fungal contamination and detection of aflatoxin. The maximum levels of toxin were obtained from Aspergillus flavus isolated from processed animal feeds (80% of isolates produced mean level of 60 ± 0.1 ppb) followed by those isolated from poultry rations (50% with the mean level of 10.0 ± 0.71 ppb). Forty eight apparently health male albino rats weighed (150-170 g) were divided randomly into 6 equal groups. Animals of the first group were given healthy commercial pelleted basal diet and kept as a negative control. The animals of groups 2, 4 and 6 were injected intraperitoneal with AFB1, 1.5 mg/kg body weight. Then on the second day the diet of rats were supplemented with 5% commercial thyme leaves powder for groups 3 & 4 and 2.5 % commercial rosemary powder for groups 5&6. The second group was left without any treatment and kept as a positive control. The period of feeding was continued for 28 days. Aflatoxin injected rats showed unexpectedly increase in weight gain comparing to all tested groups, a significant decrease in somatic index of testes, no significant effect on seminal vesicles, prostate gland weights, sperm count and motility between intoxicated rats and controls. Though a significant increase in testosterone and estradiol levels in intoxicated rats compared to the control group, no significant difference in testosterone estradiol ratio T/E2 was observed. A significant decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and a significant increase in lipid peroxides (LPO) were observed. Thyme leaves powder fed to healthy or aflatoxin injected rats resulted in significant decrease in weight gain and no significant in testeis weight. Thyme leaves improved sperm count and motility, no significant difference in testosterone and progesterone levels. Thyme supplemented to the diet of intoxicated rats did not exhibit any improvement in TAC&LPO. Rosemary leaves powder increased the weight gain significantly in comparable to control group, but reverse effect on weight gain occurred in intoxicated rats. No significant effect on testis and prostate gland weights, sperm count and motility either in healthy or intoxicated rats. Rosemary increased testosterone and estradiol levels either in intoxicated rats or not. Rosemary supplemented to the diet of intoxicated rats did not exhibit any improvement in TAC and LPO. It is interesting to report here that the aflatoxicated rats that treated with rosemary and thyme showed a significant diminution the levels of aflatoxin residues in testeis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland. Though doses were referenced, more studies, different doses and pure extracts of thyme and rosemary are recommended.

[Nashwa A.H. Ahmed, Nahed, M. El-Mokhtarand Rania A. H. Abd El-Aal. Assessing the effect of Thyme and Rosemary as antiaflatoxicosis on fertility in male rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):294-302]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.37.

 

Key words: Thyme-rosemary- antiaflatoxicosis- fertility- rats

Full Text

37

38

Treatment of Mixed Domestic-industrial Wastewater Using microalgae Chlorella sp.

 

Hammouda, O.1, Abdel-Raouf, N.1, Shaaban, M.2, and Kamal, M.1

 

1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

2 Beni-Suef Wastewater Treatment Plant, Beni-Suef, Egypt

4 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

marwakamal_211@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Microalgae culture offers an effective solution for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for different purposes. The present study demonstrated the growth of Chlorella sp. in mixed domestic-industrial wastewater without sterilization in a laboratory scale batch process under the continuous illumination of light and continuous aeration and evaluated efficiency of Chlorella sp. for eliminating ammonium- nitrogen, nitrate- nitrogen, phosphorus, coliform bacteria, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals. The growth of microalgae Chlorella sp. in wastewater was relatively lower than its growth in standard medium (Z-medium) under the same conditions, where dry weight recorded 1.42 and 1.13gm l-1, at the same time chlorophyll (a) recorded 5.65 and 4.55 mg l-1 while, cell count was 22.3x106 and 12.8x106 in z-medium and wastewater respectively. The removal efficiency percentage of BOD, COD, NH4-N, NO3–N and PO4–P reached 90.8 %, 80.1 %, 98.9 %, 87.6 %, and 90 %, respectively. Chlorella sp. has the ability to accumulate the heavy metals from the wastewater to Whereas, the heavy metals biosorption performance of Chlorella sp. Was higher in accumulating nickel (99.5 %), Mn (73.2 %), Fe (92.2 %), Cu (54.5 %), Zn (51.4), Cr (56.3 %), Mo (99.7 %), Al (98.8 %), Si (48.5 %), V (100 %), Ti (100 %), Sr (41.9 %). Therefore, removal of heavy metals and nutrients by the tested algae is strongly recommended as a powerful technique for the removal of pollutants from wastewater.

[Hammouda, O., Abdel-Raouf, N., Shaaban, M., and Kamal, M. Treatment of Mixed Domestic-industrial Wastewater Using microalgae Chlorella sp. J Am Sci 2015;11(12):303-315]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38. doi:10.7537/marsjas111215.38.

 

Keywords: Microalgae, Chlorella sp., Heavy metals, Biosorption, Domestic-Industrial, Wastewater treatment.

Full Text

38

 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 21, 2015. 

 All comments are welcome: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com, or contact with author(s) directly.

For back issues of the Journal of American Science, click here.

Emails: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com

 

Marsland Press: http://www.sciencepub.net

 

 

Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

© 2015 Marsland Press