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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 95, January 25, 2016

Cover Page (pdf), Cover (jpg), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1201

 

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CONTENTS  

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1

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Changes on the Eastern Nile Flow at Aswan

 

Hany Mostafa 1, Hazem Saleh 2, Mahmoud El Sheikh 2 and Khaled Kheireldin 1

 

1 Department of Environmental Studies, Environment and Climate changes Research Institute, National Water Research Center Building El-Qanater El-Khairiya, Egypt,

2 Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minoufiya University, Egypt,

E-mail: hany_moustafa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The Eastern Nile River Basin is currently experiencing new developments of 13 dams and reservoirs; both in Ethiopia and in Sudan to full utilize the basin for electricity generating and irrigation to face the population growth. These dams are 5 dams (Gambella, Baro1, Baro 2, Geba A and GebaR) on Baro-Akobo- Sobat-White Nile, 3 dams (Metema Dam, Rumela Dam and Humera Dam) on Tekeze-Setit-Atbara and 4 dams (Mandaya, Karadopi, Beko Abo and Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam) on Blue Nile and one dam (Kajbar Dam) on Main Nile. Egypt and Sudan are hot arid and semiarid countries, almost vitally relying on the Nile water as water source, with water demand in Egypt alone set to increase. These developments will strongly affect the water flow at Aswan. Therefore, it is needed to take into account these developments for Egyptian water right. In addition, the impacts of climate change for the whole basin development and management for near future (2011-2040), intermediate future (2041 – 2070) and far future (2071 – 2100) on the inflow, evaporation and energy production at High Aswan Dam have been taken into consideration. RIBASIM Model has been used in this study to simulate the water system in the Eastern Nile Basin. The model has advanced flexible features in operating goals for several different types of demand (hydro-power, irrigation, etc.) and the option to manage the system with priority to different demands. The baseline models is configured with the existing infrastructure and calibrated with historical hydrological regime. The model performed very well and satisfactory simulates the monthly flow distribution. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and coefficient of determination accuracy were 0.95 for most of the gauge stations, Where, Mean Relative Bias (PBAIS) and Root Mean Square error (RMSE) varies between 0.015-28, 29-555m3/s, respectively. 32 scenarios have been considered to assess the impacts of climate change on the Eastern Nile River. These scenarios comprise baseline scenario, 14 development scenarios, 18 combined / management scenarios (17 individual covering basin and 1 overall basin) during the current century and 4 climate change scenarios 2011–2040 (near future), 2041-2070 (intermediate future) and 2071-2100 (far future), respectively. 10 dams out of the 13 have a negative impact to the inflow at Aswan, The development and management of 10 dams on the Eastern Nile would reduce average annual the inflow, evaporation and energy production at Lake Nasser/ HAD by 18%, 4% and 4%, respectively. However, climate change can force these Lake Nasser to be drier. The average annual inflow reductions at High Aswan Dam due to climate change are estimated to be 24%, 35% and 36% for near future (2011-2040), intermediate future (2041-2070) and far future (2071 -2100), respectively.

[Hany Mostafa, Hazem Saleh, Mahmoud El Sheikh and Khaled Kheireldin. Assessing the Impacts of Climate Changes on the Eastern Nile Flow at Aswan. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.01.

 

Keyword: RIBASIM, Hydrological mode, Calibration, Validation, Climate changes, Eastern Nile and Aswan

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Therapeutic efficacy of licorice and/or cisplatin against diethylnitrosamine and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats

 

Faried A. E. Hemieda, Hanaa M. Serag, El-Sayed El-Baz andSally M. E. Ramadan

 

Department of Zoology, Mansoura University, Faculty of Science, Mansoura, Egypt.

sally_mahmoud_2012@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Complementary and alternative use of traditional herbs has raised hopes for finding curative options for liver diseases. In the present study, the curative effect of licorice extract against diethyl nitrosamine (DENA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in male rats in the presence or absence of the antineoplastic agent cisplatin was investigated. The results showed that treatment with DENA/CCl4 caused oxidative stress as indicated by obtained increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the liver. Meanwhile, reduction in the antioxidants including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST)] was observed. Also, the results showed induction of apoptosis as reflected by increase both p53 and caspases-3 along with decreased Bcl-2 in the liver. This was accompanied with changes in the hepatic function biomarkers which characterized by increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin; and decrease in total proteins and albumin content in the serum. Treatment of DENA/CCl4 rats with cisplatin significantly reduced the changes in most parameters of oxidative stress, apoptosis and liver function, when compared to the untreated group of DENA/CCl4.Administration of licorice significantly alleviated the adverse effects induced by DENA/CCl4 in the presence or absence of cisplatin in all investigated parameters, compared to the untreated HCC group. In intact rats, administration of licorice alone had no side effects on mentioned parameters, while cisplatin caused adverse changes. Treatment with licorice in rats treated with cisplatin ameliorated induced hepatotoxicity by cisplatin. In conclusion, obtained results showed that treatment with licorice alone seemed to be more effective in attenuation of the hepatocarcinogenic action of DENA/CCl4 than treatment of licorice pluscisplatin or cisplatin alone. Since licorice, unlike cisplatin, has no side effects, further studies on experimental animals are required in order to assess the strategy of cancer treatment using licorice extract and its active ingredients.

[Faried A. E. Hemieda, Hanaa M. Serag, El-Sayed El-Baz and Sally M. E. Ramadan. Therapeutic efficacy of licorice and/or cisplatin against diethylnitrosamine and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):10-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.02.

 

Key words: Diethylnitrosamine - Carbon tetrachloride - Hepatocellular carcinoma– Licorice –Cisplatin - Oxidative stress – Transaminases– Apoptosis

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Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Relations to Co-morbidities and Functional abilities

 

Loaie M El-Helw1, 2 and Hanaa Elkhenini 1, 3

 

1 The medical oncology unit, internal medicine department, Mansoura University, Egypt.

2 The Royal Derby hospital and the City General hospital, United Kingdom.

3 North West E-Health Department, the University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

loaieelhelw@hotmail.com loaieelhelw@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: We aimed to study the management of a cohort of elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated by our oncology team between April 2010 until December 2012 in relation to their comorbidities and functional abilities. Patients and methods: That was an observational prospective study of 43 patients with mCRC. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with XELOX (oxaliplatin and capecitabine) regimen. They had Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatric (CIRS-G) score of 0-3, Lawton Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) score of 8 and performance status (PS) of 1. Partial response (PR) of 61.5% and stable (SD) 30.8% were achieved. The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) durations were 10 and 16 months respectively. Ten patients had oral capecitabine. They had CIRS-G score of 0-3, IADL score of 4-8 and PS 2. Two had PR (20%) and 6 SD (60%). The median PFS and OS were 11 and 12 months respectively. Five patients were treated with FOLFIRI (Irinotecan and modified Degramont) regimen. They had CIRS-G 1-3, Lawton IADL of 5-8 and PS 1-2. Two patients had PR (40%) and 1 (20%) SD. Median PFS and OS were 9 months and 14 months respectively. Fifteen patients had ischaemic heart diseases were treated with Raltitrexed. They had CIRS-G score of 2-3, IADL score of 4-8 and PS 1-2. PR and SD rates were 35.7% each. Median PFS and OS were 7 and 10 months respectively. Conclusion: CIRS-G score, IADL and PS are quite helpful tools in assessing elderly patients prior to chemotherapy.

[Loaie M El-Helw and Hanaa Elkhenini. Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Relations to Co-morbidities and Functional abilities. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):20-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.03.

 

Key words: Colorectal cancer-metastases-CIRS-G-Lawton IADL

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Combined effects of Bacillus thuringiensis and Serratia marcescens on cotton leaf worm, Spodopteralittoralis

 

1ElSayed I. A. and 2Nada .O. Edrees

 

1Microbiology Dept., Soil, Water and Environmental Inst., Agriculture Research Centre. Giza- Egypt

2Department of Biology – Zoology- Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University – Jeddah- Saudi

Email: Dr.Ahmedie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study evaluated insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis and Serratia marcescens against cotton leaf worm, Spodopteralittoralis. Biopesticides (Bacillus thurinogensis (4QSTR1) + Serratia marcescens) appeared significant increase in duration by days of larval stage in three concentrations (20, 25 and 75 ppm). Whereas, Bacillus thurinogensis (4QSTR1) appeared the same trend in 75 ppm. The biopesticides (Bacillus thurinogensis (4QSTR1) + Serratia marcescens) showed significant increase in pupation percentage in all treatments about 75 ppm. The highest effect in emergence of S. littoratis by bioinsecticid Bacillus thurinogensis (4QSTR1) + Serratia marcescens in 25,50 and 75 ppm concentration.

[ElSayed I. A. and Nada O. Edrees. Combined effects of Bacillus thuringiensis and Serratia marcescens oncotton leafworm, Spodopteralittoralis. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):28-30]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.04.

 

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, biological control, combined effects, cotton leafworm, crystal proteins, Serratia marcescens.

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Quantum Dot Density Influence upon Coulomb Scattering Rates in Transition Stage and Steady State of QD Laser

 

Ra'ed M. Hassan

 

Dept. of Physics, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, IRAQ

raed_m_hassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this work, we take into account the semiconductor quantum dot (QD) rate equations based on a microscopic approach which used with a fitting expressions of nonlinear Coulomb scattering rates. The scattering rates play a role in the rate equations of semiconductor QD laser. This paper discussed the influence of different values of the QD density upon the nonlinear Coulomb scattering rates in transition stage and at the steady state of QD laser output. Our results show the dependence of the carrier-carrier scattering rates on both the wetting layer and QD.

[Ra'ed M. Hassan. Quantum Dot Density Influence upon Coulomb Scattering Rates in Transition Stage and Steady State of QD Laser. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):31-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.05.

 

Keywords: Quantum Dot laser, Coulomb Scattering Rates, QD Density, InAs/GaAs laser

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Design, Synthesis, Biological Activity and Molecular Modeling of New Heterocyclic Tetrazole Derivatives

 

Said M. Bayomi1, Mohamed A. Moustafa*1, Azza R. Maarouf 1, Mohamed H. Abutaleb1.

 

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

*maastafa0828@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A series of new tetrazole heterocyclic derivatives were designed and synthesized through reaction of 5-chloro-1-phenyl-1H-tetrazole with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide to give the key intermediate 4-((1-phenyl-1H-tetrazole-5-yl)oxy)benzohydrazide, which was condensed with different aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes to give a series of tetrazole N-aroylhydrazone derivatives 6-19 followed by reflux with thioglycolic acid or acetic anhydride to give the targeted tetrazole 4-thiazolidinones 20-29 and 2,5-oxadiazoline derivatives 30-40. Selected compounds was tested for their in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity. Compounds with the most pronounced antimicrobial activity 3, 14, 26, and 35, in addition to 36 were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against (HuH-7) and (CaCo-2) cell lines. Compound 14 and 35 were the most active against (CaCo-2) cell line with IC50 of 4.2μM and 9.8μM, respectively, while compound 35 was the most active against (HuH-7) cell line with IC50 of 24μM. On the other hand, incorporation of 1-phenyl-tetrazole moiety into propyl paraben 2 led to three times increase in the antifungal activity. A molecular modeling study was performed on propyl paraben 2 and its tetrazole derivative 3.

[Bayomi SM, Moustafa MA, Maarouf AR, Abutaleb MH. Design, Synthesis, Biological Activity and Molecular Modeling of New Heterocyclic Tetrazole Derivatives. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):40-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.06.

 

Keywords: tetrazoles, antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, molecular modeling

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Prophylactic Modified B-Lynch suture versus Medications During Cesarean Section in women at high risk of Atonic postpartum haemorrhage

 

Mohamed Ali Mohamed, Abd El Sattar M Farhan, Aseem Anwar Abdo, Mohamed Emad Ahmed(*)

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department (Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt)

(*)Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology (EL Mounira General Hospital, Cairo, Egypt)

drmohamednad@yahoo.com, medoedoo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To compare between the effect of Prophylactic Modified B-Lynch suture, Carbetocin and Oxytocin on prevention of atonic postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section in pregnant women at high risk of atonic postpartum hemorrhage. Study design: Randomized controlled prospective study on 150 pregnant women at high risk to develop postpartum hemorrhage were going to have Cesarean section. They were randomized to have during cesarean section either Prophylactic Modified B-Lynch suture or receive Prophylactic 100 microgram of Carbetocin IV or Prophylactic 20 units of oxytocin IV infusion on 1000 ml saline with a rate of 250 ml per hour. The primary outcomes were to estimate mean operative blood loss, compare the occurrence of major obstetric hemorrhage (Blood loss ≥ 1000 ml), objective changes in hemoglobin preoperatively and postoperatively, and need for additional uterotonic agents or additional interventions to control bleeding. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of severe anemia, need for blood transfusion, side effects (e.g. paralytic ilieus) and postnatal hospital stay. Results: In our study the Estimated mean operative blood loss between the three groups was about 100ml less in Modified B-Lynch group than in Carbetocin and Oxytocin groups (P- value < 0.05), Average decrease in haemoglobin 24 hours after delivery in Modified B-Lynch was 1.1 0.5 gm/dl compared to 1.7 0.56 gm/dl in Carbetocin group and 1.8 0.58 gm/dl in Oxytocin group (P- value < 0.05), None of the patients who had Modified B-Lynch developed major obstetric haemorrhage compared to 2 patients in Carbetocin group & 3 patients in Oxytocin group, only 1 patient in Modified B-Lynch required additional uterotonic agent to control bleeding compared to 2 patients in Carbetocin group and 4 patients in oxytocin group. Conclusion: Modified B-Lynch suture appears to be more effective in maintaining adequate uterine tone and preventing excessive blood loss in patients undergoing cesarean section with high risk to develop postpartum hemorrhage.

[Mohamed Ali Mohamed, Abd El Sattar Farhan, Aseem Anwar Abdo, Mohamed Emad Ahmed. Prophylactic Modified B-Lynch suture versus Medications During Cesarean Section in women at high risk of Atonic postpartum haemorrhage. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):56-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.07.

 

Keywords: Postpartum hemorrhage, Modified B-Lynch, Carbetocin, Oxytocin, Cesarean section

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Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells: Relation to Clinico-pathological Features and Prognosis

 

Sameh Shamaa, Nadia Atwan*, Mohamed Abdel Wahab**, Tawfik El Khodary, M. Awad, Loaie El-Helw; Maryan Waheeb.

 

The medical oncology unit, internal medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

*Pathology department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.

** Gastro-Entrology & General Surgery department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

loaieelhelw@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) are cells that have the ability of self-renewal, tumour propagation and resistance to systemic anticancer treatment. They are identified by expression of CD44 and CD133 antigens. We aimed to study the expression and prognostic significance of CRCSCs in a cohort of colon cancer patients. Material and method: A total of 84 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stage I-III colon cancer were included in this study between 2005-2010 in the Oncology Center of Mansoura University (OCMU). The resect tissue samples were prepared and stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin as well as immune-histopathological staining for CD133 and CD44. The clinic-pathological features and outcome of those patients were correlated with CD133 and CD44 expression. Results: Among the 84 patients; 12 were in stage I (14.3%); 38 in stage II (45.2%) and 34 in stage III clinical stages CRC (40.5%). The median age was 52 years. All patients underwent curative resection surgeries. High grade adenocarcinoma was the most common histology. The median disease free survival (DFS) is 41 months among the studied patients. In multivariate analysis, the relations of DFS to higher grade, advanced stage and CD133 score were statistically significant. Thirty three cases (39.3%) died at the end of follow up. The median overall survival was not reached. Conclusion: CD133 score, stage and histological grade are independent prognostic factors of disease free survival in colorectal cancer.

[Sameh Shamaa, Nadia Atwan, Mohamed Abdel Wahab, Tawfik El Khodary, M. Awad, Loaie El-Helw; Maryan Waheeb. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells: Relation to Clinico-pathological Features and Prognosis. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):62-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.08.

 

Key words: colon cancer-stem cells-prognosis

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Histological in View on the conus medullaris and filum terminale in rabbits

 

Lamiaa L.M. Ebraheim

 

Department of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

E-mail: lamiaavet@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The terminal end of the spinal cord and filum terminale had significant roles in spinal cord pathophysiology, therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the structural characteristics for that areas. Ten white adult male and female New Zealand rabbits were used in this experiment. Transcardial perfusion technique was made and the spinal cord terminal ends and fila terminale were collected and processed for histological examination by light and electron microscopes. The results revealed that the spinal cord transformed into conus medullaris at the end of the second sacral segment at which a characteristic lateral and ventral neuronal interdigitations between the white and gray matter was evident. The filum terminale internum had a different zonal organization to the white and gray matters. The filum terminale externum formed from fibrous stroma and characterized by an absence of neurons, glia and ependyma.

[Lamiaa L.M. Ebraheim. Histological in View on the conus medullaris and filum terminale in rabbits. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):69-76]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.09.

 

Key words: spinal cord, conus medullaris, rabbits, electron microscopes.

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Molecular and serological studies on Coxeilla burnetii in camels at Marsa Matrouh governorate in Egypt

 

Samah F. Ali 1, Ibrahim E. M1 and Jakeen El Jakee2

 

1 Animal Health Research Institute, Nadi El-said, Dokki, Egypt

2 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

samah_hefny2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium causing Q fever, is an obligate intracellular biosafety level 3 agent. In animals, the organism is mainly found in the reproductive system and may primarily cause abortion or infertility. Antibodies to this organism have been reported in a wide range of animals including mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds. In the present study, a total of 125 serum, bulk tank milk, vaginal swab, placenta and internal organ of aborted foeti samples were collected from aborted she camels and apparently healthy in Marsa Matrouh governorate, Egypt to detect the prevalence of C. burnetii at flock level by ELISA and Real-Time PCR as well as the pathogen amplification in Embryonated Chicken Egg (ECE).This study proves that camels in Egypt may play an important role as a reservoir of C. burnetii and they could be a significant source for the transmission of Q-Fever to other animal species and to humans. The preferred route of shedding of C. burnetii in camel appeared to be the milk followed by placenta.

[Samah F. Ali, Ibrahim E.M and Jakeen El Jakee. Molecular and serological studies on Coxeillaburnetii in camels at Marsa Matrouh governorate in Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):77-82]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.10.

 

Key words: Coxeilla burnetii, Camels, Real-Time PCR, ECE

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Bone remodeling regulated by long non-coding RNAs

 

Jianlong Gao* and Xijun Liu

 

People’s hospital, Jianhu County, Jiangsu province, China

15298570305@163.com

 

Abstract: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of non-coding RNA molecules in metazoan genome and might play widespread roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. This review will highlight our current understanding of lncRNA biology, mechanisms of action, and summarize recent work on the role of lncRNAs including lncRNA ANCR in bone remodeling. These studies epitomize emerging importance of lncRNAs in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation and function, indicating new potential targets for bone wound healing.

[Gao J and Liu XJ. Bone remodeling regulated by long non-coding RNAs. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):83-86]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.11.

 

Keywords: bone remodeling, bone metabolism, osteoblast differentiation, long noncoding RNAs, lncRNA-ANCR, MEG3

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Interlaced impacts of solar radiation energy and amounts of water on some forest trees growth parameters

 

A. K. Mahmoud1 and A. M. El-Gindy2

 

1Department of Chemical and Soil physics -Desert Research Center (DRC), Cairo, EGYPT

2Department, of Agric. Eng., Fac. of Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Shoubra El-kheima, Cairo, EGYPT

amr_73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract; This study was carried out at Serapium forest at Ismailia governorate and Luxor forest at Luxor governorate. The experiment was conducted to assess the influence of different amounts of water with different Solar Radiation Energy (SRE) on some growth parameters [Height and root collar diameter (RCD)] for two forest tree species (Azadirachta indicaand Gmelina arborea). Thus; experiment was laid out on complete randomized block design with two factors. First factor is amount of water which comprise into five treatments (Q1, Q2 Q3, Q4 and Q5) with average (130%; 1.15%; 100%; 85%; 70%) respectively from total water applied. Second factor is two Solar radiation energy (SRE) with [6902.8 MJ/m2/year at Ismailia and 7717.1 MJ/m2/year at Luxor] during period November 2013 to March 2015. The results revealed that the water quantities has a significant influence on total tree Height for A.indica especially between Q2 and Q5; however; amounts of water have not any significant influence on both tree height and (RCD) for G.arborea. Moreover; at Luxor the SRE recorded a best value for A.indica tree height comparing with SRE at Ismailia by 2.1mm/MJ.m-2. On the other hand; G.arborea obtained a highest value for tree height parameter at Ismailia (SRE) by 1.38mm//MJ.m-2. Finally; effective water use for A.indica tree height at Luxor is (51.3cm/m3) and at Ismailia is (40.7cm/m3) but with G.arborea the effective water use is (30.48cm/m3) at Ismailia and (23.7cm/m3) at Luxor.

[A.K. Mahmoud and A.M. El-Gindy. Interlaced impacts of solar radiation energy and amounts of water on some forest trees growth parameters. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):87-95]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.12.

 

Key words: solar radiation energy; water quantities; forest tree and water use

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Wettability and Water Vapor Transfer Rate of knitted garments utilizing Non-thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

 

B.G. Gabr1, A.A. Salem2, 3, G.A. EL-Kholy1, A.S. EL-Salmawy1 and S. Hassaballa4

 

1Apparel Design & Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

2Textile Printing, Dyeing & Finishing Department, Faculty of Applied Arts Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

3Kind Abdulaziz University, college of Art and Design, Fashion Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

bahiragabr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sensible and insensible perspiration are crucial aspects of clothing comfort for knitted garments; examined as wettability and WVTR, respectively. Sensible perspiration is when moisture or insensible perspiration is accumulated and transformed into water droplets so called sweat. To maximize comfort, sweat produced during various activities should be able to evaporate through a clothing system. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma produced in O2 and air, onto comfort properties of warp knitted PET. Through experimental, wettability and WVTR (Water Vapor Transfer Rate) were examined, as well the durability factor was studied using bursting strength test. Surface morphology of tested fabrics has been detected using SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscopy), finally, FTIS (Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy) analysis has been obtained searching for development of any new chemical groups. Resultant data, showed wettability values to be accelerated, a negligible effect of 3% WVTR was obtained, in general, this would enhance wearer comfort properties of knitted garments. It is recommended to utilize lower discharge power, of O2 Plasma, obtaining the optimum perspiration transfer with minimum loss in fabric strength. Even though, wettability has been enhanced for textile printing purposes, using Plasma in previous studies, none has been used for WVTR and comfort properties.

[Gabr G, Salem A, El-Kholy G, El-Salmawy A, Hassablla S. Wettability and Water Vapor Transfer Rate of knitted garments utilizing Non-thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):96-103]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.13.

 

Keywords: plasma surface treatment; Clothing comfort; Moisture Transfer

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Some horticultural and pathological studies to reduce fruit decay of "Anna" apple and increase fruit set, yield and improve fruit quality and storability

 

Nevine, M. Taha1, and K.M. El-Ghany2

 

1Hort. Res. Institute, ARC, Egypt

2Plant Path. Res. Institute, ARC, Egypt

hanaa.sheref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2012 and 2013 on "Anna" apple budded on Mauls rootstock in a private orchard, Tanboal road from Cairo–Alexandria desert road at El-Monofeya governorate. The trees were 10-years old and planted at 3x3m apart. CPPU (Sitofex at (100 cm3/20L water), Inca at (40cm3/ 20L water) and Calbor at (40 cm3/20L water) were sprayed three times (at full bloom, fruit set, and month before harvest), and treatment of Kemazed 50% WP at (50 g/100 L water) was sprayed twice, 30 and 15 days before harvest. in addition, Humic acid at (60 cm3/tree) as a soil drench was applied in the same pervious times to assess their effect on yield, fruit quality, storability and disease severity. The results showed that, Sitofex effectively increased fruit Iet percentage and number of fruits/ branch. Calbor treatment increased fruit yield, number of fruits / branch and/ tree as well as fruit firmness and decreased fruit drop percentage. Hence, CPPU+ Calbor treatment induced much more fruit yield, number of fruits / tree and fruit firmness. Humic acid could increase fruit quality (fruit weight, size and diameter). Inca treatment decreased fruit juice acidity and fruit shape index. CPPU, Inca and Inca+ CPPU effectively reduced fruit weight loss and maintained fruit firmness during storage at 3C and 90 R.H. for 12 weeks. Calbor treatment improved all studied fruit quality attributes. The highest disease severity was obtained by two pathogens Penicillium puberulum and Scytalidium dimidiatum. Kemazed 50% WP fungicide completely inhibited the growth of both Penicillium puberulum and Scytalidium dimidiatum in vitro. Chitosan decreased the mycelium growth of both them where the inhibitor effect increased with increasing chitosan concentration up to 1.0%. The highest disease severity with P. puberulum and S. dimidiatum occurred when fruit treatment with Acetic acid at 0.5% and Control without chitosan, while Chitosan + Kemazed 50% WP and Chitosan +calboro induced the least disease severity.

[Nevine, M. Taha and K.M. El-Ghany. Some horticultural and pathological studies to reduce fruit decay of "Anna" apple and increase fruit set, yield and improve fruit quality and storability. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):104-122]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.14.

 

Keywords: horticultural; pathological; fruit; decay; apple; quality; storability

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Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Cerebellar Toxicity; Possible Role of Nitric Oxide in Adult Albino Rats

 

Heba Youssef M. Sayed2, Dalia M. Abd-Elhalim1, Mona A Hussain2 and Horeya E Korayem1

 

1 Physiology &1 Histology departments, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

2 Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology department and Physiology department Faculty of Medicine Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.

drheba_sayed@med.psu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background: Several studies indicated that monosodium glutamate (MSG) disrupts the metabolism, the development, and the functions of various organs, such as liver, thymus, ovaries, kidney, and many parts of brain, including cerebellum. Nitric Oxide (NO) is known to be responsible for the organization of many biological events in the mammalian body as a second messenger and a neural messenger. Some studies found that NO is a neuroprotective substance while others qualify it as a neurotoxic. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of non-selective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase enzyme isoforms on cerebellar structure and function in normal rats and in rats with MSG-induced cerebellar toxicity. Material and methods: The study groups included thirty two male adult albino Sprague-Dawley rats which were divided into four groups; group I (control), group II (LNAME-treated), group III (MSG- treated) and group IV (combined LNAME and MSG-treated). Motor coordination was assessed by rotarod test. Cerebellar nitrite concentration was measured. Histopathological evaluation of cerebellar structure and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 were done. Results: Both LNAME and MSG significantly impaired cerebellar function and resulted in marked cerebellar injury and an increase in apoptosis. This effect was most prominent in group III. Conclusion: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase enzyme disturbed cerebellar structure and function in normal rats and potentiated MSG-induced cerebellar toxicity. Further studies are required for better understanding of the role of the NO pathway and developing therapeutic strategies that are based on manipulation of NO synthesis.

[Heba Youssef M. Sayed, Dalia M. Abd-Elhalim, Mona A Hussain and Horeya E Korayem. Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Cerebellar Toxicity; Possible Role of Nitric Oxide in Adult Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):123-131]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.15.

 

Keywords: Cerebellum; Nitric oxide; LNAME; Cerebellartoxicity; MSG

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Desarda Inguinal Herniorrhaphy

 

Mohamed Abd Al-Fatah, Gamal Al-Sheemy, Ahmed Abd Al-Aal, Ahmad Fathy El-Hussainy, Abd Al-Monem Adam, Ahmed Hassan, Mahmoud Abo Amrra, Abd Al-Latif Abd Al-Latif, Mansour Abd Al-Khalek

 

Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

Doc2rahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although tension free repair of inguinal hernia with a mesh is the standard technique in many countries with high standard of living, its use remains low in countries with low standard of living due to the initial high cost of the polypropylene mesh. The tissue-dependent techniques (herniorrhaphy) are still acknowledged to be acceptable for the repair of primary inguinal hernia (European Hernia Society guidelines). Shouldice and Modified Bassini repairs are well known tissue repairs of inguinal hernia in Egypt. Desarda’s technique, is an original hernia repair technique which use undetached segment of external oblique aponeurosis to strength the posterior wall of the inguinal canal. Desarda’s repair of inguinal hernia is not well-known in Egypt. This study will record and evaluate the short-term outcome of inguinal hernia repair with Desarda’s technique. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty patients presented with unilateral, uncomplicated, primary inguinal hernia (direct, indirect, and/or bantallon) were recruited through the surgical department. Postoperative pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale 3 hours after the operation, on the 3rd and 7th post-operative days. The primary outcomes measured were postoperative early recurrence, and wound complications. Foreign body feeling, and return to daily activities were examined in hospital and at 7 days, 1, 6, and 12months post-operatively. Results: Of the 180male patients underwent surgery, three patients were lost in the follow up period and one patient died. During the follow-up of the remaining 176 patients, only two recurrences recorded after one year post-operatively (1.1%). Chronic pain was recorded in5 cases (2.8%). Most patients (92%) returned to normal activity on the third week. There was small number of the patients with wound complications. Conclusion: Results of primary inguinal hernia repair with Desarda’s techniqueis compatible after the end of one-year of follow-up to other recorded early postoperative complications of Lichtenstein hernioplasty, and modified Bassini and Shouldice herniorrhaphy. The technique may adda new technique of pure tissue-based repair available for treating inguinal hernias.

[Mohamed Abd Al-Fatah, Gamal Al-Sheemy, Ahmed Abd Al-Aal, Ahmad Fathy El-Hussainy, Abd Al-Monem Adam, Ahmed Hassan, Mahmoud Abo Amrra, Abd Al-Latif Abd Al-Latif, Mansour Abd Al-Khalek. Desarda Inguinal Herniorrhaphy. J Am Sci 2016;12(1):132-140]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas120116.16.

 

Key words:Inguinal hernia, repair, Desarda technique

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 16, 2016. 

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