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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 2, Cumulated No. 96, February 25, 2016

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CONTENTS   

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1

Electromagnetic field induces cellular adaptation in the rat spinal cord ependyma

 

Lamiaa L.M. Ebraheim1 and Mohamed M.M. Metwally2

 

1Department of Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Email address: lamiaavet@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the cellular changes induced by EMF (electromagnetic field) in ependymal cells of the central canal of the rat spinal cord. Twenty adult male and female albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups. Animals in the control group were kept in EMF free space and animals in the second group was exposed to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF for two hours/day for 60 consecutive days. The rats were anesthetized and transcardial perfusion was applied. Spinal cords specimens were taken out, processed for light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Numerous cellular alterations represented by; decrease in cell height, staining affinity, microvilli number and number of cilia in ciliary tufts with abnormal clumping of the cilia, besides cellular detachment, glial aggregations and dilatation of the lumens of central canals were observed in the examined specimens taken from rats exposed to EMF in comparison with the control group.

[Lamiaa L.M. Ebraheim and Mohamed M.M. Metwally. Electromagnetic field induces cellular adaptation in the rat spinal cord ependyma. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):1-6]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.01.

 

Key words: electromagnetic field, spinal cord, rat

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Cardiac Biomarkers Assay for Early Detection of Toxic Myocarditis Following Scorpions Stings Exposure

 

Heba Youssef Mohamed1, Rasha Emad Badr2, Mohamed Seif El-din 3 and Omneya, I. Youssef 4

 

1Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology department Faculty of medicine Port Said University

2Clinical Pathology department Faculty of medicine Port Said University

3Information decision support center, Critical care department, Ministry of Health & Population, Egypt

4Pediatric Cardiology unit, Pediatric departement Faculty of medicine - Ain Shams University Hospitals

drheba_sayed@med.psu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Background: Scorpion envenomation is an important health hazard in tropical regions. Envenomation by scorpions can result in a wide range of clinical manifestations, but the most dangerous are the cardiotoxic effects. Objective: The aim of this study was first to evaluate the sociodemographic variables and clinical manifestations among patients exposed to scorpions stings. Second to assess the validity of serum cardiac biomarkers for early detection of acute toxic myocarditis. Subjects & Methods: The study was carried out in the period from March to December 2015 where sixty two patients of both sexes with different ages diagnosed as acute chest pain following scorpion sting. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of scorpion envenomation plus twenty four healthy volunteers served as a control group. Results: The sociodemographic variables revealed that most of cases were males exposed to stings by yellow colored scorpions at urban areas at night during summer months more at their lower limbs. General examination revealed significant hypertension among group II and III. Bradycardia, tachycardia, tachypnea and bradypnea were more significant among group III. Pan systolic murmur, cardiogenic pulmonary edema and CVS collapse were evident only among group III. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia PSVT, atrial fibrillation and first degree heart block were significant only among group III. Regrouping of patients into cardiac and non-cardiac affected groups revealed two steps of significant increase in the levels of H-FABP and myoglobin from control group to non-cardiac affected group then to cardiac- affected group, in contrary to CK-MB and Troponin I levels showed significant increase in cardiac-affected group only. Analysis of cardiac biomarkers proved that the area under the curves were observed to be higher in Troponin I followed by H-FABP, myoglobin and CK-MB, with marked inter significant difference between them (P<0.001). The area under the ROC showed diagnostic discrimination of biomarkers, at the optimum cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity to be 96 and 47% respectively in H-FABP, 96 and 25% respectively in CK-MB, 96 and 31% respectively in Myoglobin, 92 and 97% respectively in Troponin I. Conclusion: Troponin is proved to be the cardiac biomarker of highest specificity but has delayed onset of appearance in the serum. H-FABP becomes positive earlier than troponin and is more sensitive than myoglobin. Recommendations: Troponin and H-FABP assay should be done for early diagnosis and better outcome of acute chest pain following scorpion sting exposure.

[Heba Youssef Mohamed, Rasha Emad Badr, Mohamed Seif El-din and Omneya, I. Youssef. Cardiac Biomarkers Assay for Early Detection of Toxic Myocarditis Following Scorpions Stings Exposure. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):7-23]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.02.

 

Key words: Scorpion sting, Cardiac biomarkers, Toxic myocarditis

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Determination of crustal thickness from the spectrum of P-wave under Nile Delta Region

 

Awad I. Hassoup1, Mohamed Sh. Moustafa2, Amr M.T. Ali-Eldin2, Ramadan M. Ali1

 

1 Seismology dept, National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt.

2 Computer Engineering and Control Systems, Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

ramhbakir@gmail.com

 

Summery : The crustal structure beneath the Nile Delta region has been investigated using the spectral analysis of the P-wave amplitude ratios. This ratio of the vertical to the horizontal component is utilized to obtain crustal transfer functions using the Thomson-Haskell matrix formulation for horizontally layered crustal models. Earthquakes data recorded by acceleration network established at the Nile Delta region between azimuth 20° to 350° were selected for analysis based on the following criteria: focal depth in the range 5 To 250 km; body wave magnitude greater than 5.0; and epicentre distances in the range of 5° to 20°. Selection criteria for the final model in the forward modelling process were based on the correlation coefficient between observed and theoretical transfer function according to initial model. This initial model was derived by allowing both layer velocities and thicknesses to vary until a theoretical model was reached which fitted the observed data. Our results revealed that the crust beneath the Delta region is divided into five layers, the sedimentary cover; the upper crust; the medium crust; the lower crust; and the uppermost Mantle. The average thickness of the sedimentary cover was 2.4 km; the average P-wave velocity was 3.4 km/s; the average shear wave velocity was 1.8 km/s; and the average density was 2.1 gm/cm3. For the upper crust, the average thickness was 7.4 km; the average P-wave velocity was 5.0 km/s; the average shear wave velocity was 2.6 km/s; and the average density was 2.3 gm/cm3. For the medium crust, the average thickness was 7.0 km; the average P-wave velocity was 6.0 km/s; the average shear wave velocity was 3.5 km/s; and the average density was 2.5 gm/cm3. For the lower crust, the average thickness was ~16.0 km; the average P-wave velocity was 6.8 km/s; the average shear wave velocity was 4.0 km/s; and the average density was 2.9 gm/cm3. While for the uppermost Mantle, the average P-wave velocity was 8.1 km/s; the average shear wave velocity was 4.6 km/s; and the average density was 3.3 gm/cm3. From the obtained results, we can conclude that the crust beneath our study area is characterized by an average crustal thickness of 33.0 km; an average P-wave velocity of ~ 6.1 km/s; an average shear wave velocity of 3.4 km/s; and an average density of 2.6 gm/cm3, which delineates to a normal felsic crust.

[Awad I. Hassoup, Mohamed Sh. Moustafa, Amr M.T. Ali-Eldin and Ramadan M. Ali. Determination of crustal thickness from the spectrum of P-wave under Nile Delta Region. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):24-32]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.03.

 

Key words: crustal structure, Delta region, Egypt, felsic crust

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A study of some risk factors of ischemic stroke in patients with hepatitis C viral infection

 

Mohamed H. El-Azab¹, Abd El Naser A. Morad¹, Abo Zaid A. Khodair¹, Khalid S. Moselhy¹, and Anas A. Youseif²

 

¹Neurology Department, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

²Clinical Pathology Department, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

dr_mohammedhammad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim was to study the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods: 100 patients with ischemic stroke were evaluated and classified into two groups (group I were patients with ischemic stroke and positive HCV infection & group II were patients with ischemic stroke and negative HCV infection). Results: Patients with positive HCV infection were younger [61.72 ± 6vs. 67.42±4.4 years old, respectively; P value <0. 001], had elevated ESR (P value <0. 001), had lower serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides (P value <0. 001 and <0. 05, respectively). There was increased incidence of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody (ANA), anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with positive HCV infection (P value <0.001) with higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (P value <0.05).Hypertension was more prevalent in patients with recurrent stroke (p value <0.001). More patients with recurrent stroke had positive ANA, ANCA and anticardiolipin antibodies (P value <0.05). Conclusions: HCV infection is a risk factor for earlier and recurrent stroke. Inflammation has a key role.

[Mohamed H. El-Azab, Abd El Naser A. Morad, Abo Zaid A. Khodair, Khalid S. Moselhy, and Anas A. Youseif. A study of some risk factors of ischemic stroke in patients with hepatitis C viral infection. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):33-39]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.04.

 

Keywords: HCV, ischemic stroke, anticardiolipin antibodies

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Efficacy of Implementing Nursing Care Protocol on the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit at Tanta Emergency Hospital

 

Zeinab Mohammed Shaban Aysha1, Sanaa Mohamed Alaa El-Din2, Nagwa Ragab Attia2, and Mohammad Ibrahim Akab3

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing (Critical Care) Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

3Anesthesia and Critical Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Email: ngawagad@Rocketmail.com

 

Abstract: Utilization of protocols of care in the ICU can potentially improve the care of the critically ill patient, by improve patients' outcomes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of implementing nursing care protocol on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit at Tanta Emergency hospital. Materials and Method: The study was conducted in anesthesia and Emergency ICU at Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egypt. Data collection was extended from June 2009 to the end of March 2010. The sample of the study was consisted of two subjects (patients and nurses) A convenience sample of 60 adult mechanical ventilated patient for longer than 24 hours and fulfilling the inclusive criteria were included, and divided into three equal groups: Group I: (Control group) pre intervention group. Group II Studied group and group III Follow up group. Four tools were used for the collection of data as follows: Tool (I) Mechanical-Ventilated Assessment tool: Tool (II) Ventilator-associated- pneumonia assessment tool: Tool (III): Nurse's Knowledge questionnaire Tool (IV) Observational checklist for nurses was practicing ventilator associated pneumonia protocol of care. Results: The main results revealed that: there were a highly significant difference among mean scores of nurse's knowledge and performance at three phases (phase I versus II) and between (phase I and phase III) and between (phase II and III) at p value, equal (0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001) respectively. on the other hand It was found that there was a significant decrease in the incidence rate of VAP infection among the three studied groups three quarter (75%) of patients within group I had developed VAP infection versus to more than one third (35%) in-group II patients and 20% group III patients. Conclusion and recommendations: Protocol of care education was effective and successfully enhancing ICU nurses’ competencies improving in clinical outcomes and reduction of VAP rate among mechanically ventilated patients. It was recommended that provision of institutional written policies and guidelines regarding application of protocol of care in daily routine care for mechanically ventilated patients.

[Zeinab Mohammed Shaban Aysha, Sanaa Mohamed Alaa El-Din, Nagwa Ragab Attia, and Mohammad Ibrahim Akab. Efficacy of Implementing Nursing Care Protocol on the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit at Tanta Emergency Hospital. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):40-52]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.05.

 

Key words: Ventilator associated pneumonia, Protocol of care, Critical ill, Ventilated patient

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The value of E-cadherin and EGFR expression in ovarian serous tumors

 

Mohamed Y. Ali M.D.

 

Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

mohamedyousef79@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To study the expression of E-cadherin and EGFR in ovarian serous tumors in an attempt to determine the predictor for their biological behavior. Materials and Methods: E-cadherin and EGFR immunostaining was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections of 50 ovarian serous tumors. Results: Regarding ovarian serous tumor cases, the incidence of bilaterality in benign, borderline and OSC cases was 16.7 % &. 25% and 83.3% respectively. On the other hand, E-cadherin was expressed in all benign ovarian serous tumor cases while it was expressed only in 6 cases (75 %) of borderline tumors.On contrary,only 8 cases (26.7%) of ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC) cases expressed E-cadherin. Regarding EGFR, all benign tumor cases were negative while, only 2 cases (25%) of borderline tumors were positive whereas, 21 cases (70%) of OSC were positive. So for both E-Cad and EGFR, only significant differences were documented between malignant and benign serous tumors but was not evident between borderline and the other two groups. Regarding OSC cases, a statistically significant decrease of E-cadherin expression was observed in both higher tumor grade and advanced stage. Conversely, a statistically significant increase of EGFR expression was observed only in higher tumor grade. Finally, there is high statistically significant differences between the positive and negative EGFR/ E-Cadherin groups. Conclusion: Direct relationship between incidence of bilaterality and aggressiveness of the tumor is documented. Regarding OSC, E-cadherin is a good prognostic marker whereas, EGFR is a bad prognostic marker.This inverse correlation represents a potential prognostic marker for OSC and may lead to development of different therapeutic strategies for either low or high - grade OSC.

[Mohamed Y. Ali. The value of E-cadherin and EGFR expression in ovarian serous tumors. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):53-61]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.06.

 

Keywords: EGFR; ECAD; FIGO stage; OSC

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Nursing Students’ Perceptions Towards Flipped Classroom Educational Strategies.

 

Doaa Abd El Salam Amin Yacout 1 and Abeer Abd El Fattah Abou Shosha2

 

1Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing - University of Damanhour Egypt

2Nursing Education Department, Faculty of Nursing - University of Damanhour Egypt

doaamin_y@hotmail.com, abirshosha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The Flipped Classroom (FC) is an instructional strategy that can provide educators with a way of minimizing the amount of direct-instruction in their teaching practice while maximizing one-to-one interaction. Aim of the study: to investigate nursing students’ perceptions, satisfaction and experience towards Flipped Classroom educational strategy. Material & methods: An exploratory descriptive research design was followed to carry out the study. The study was conducted at faculty of nursing Damanhour University Egypt. Total sample was 146 nursing students who registered at community health nursing course during the first semester of the last academic year (2015-2016). Two tools were used for data collection. The first tool: Students’ Basic Data Structured Questionnaire and second tool Students’ Perceptions to Flipped Classroom Structured Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentages, Pearson Chi-square, and Monte Carlo exact probability. Results: The study reveals that more than half of students showed a moderate level of satisfaction and positive perception regarding using FC in clinical activities. It also shows that short video lectures can be of significant value for nursing students. More than half preferred the traditional method of teaching while, more than one third of them preferred FC. Significant differences were observed between students’ gender, age, residence and their last academic achievement. Students mentioned "facilitate understanding topic, give ideas about class activities, and increase retention of information" as advantages of FC. Students also mentioned that the main challenges of FC were" need extra time to watch, no possibility of immediate feedback during watching videos, and that FC cannot be applied in all nursing courses". Conclusion: Flipped Classroom is a promising alternative to traditional lectures in nursing education, that solve the problem of increased number of nursing students and shortage of staff. Besides, it helps students become more engaging in the classroom. It can result in a high level of student satisfaction, self-pacing and independency. Recommendations: Introduce Flipped Classroom to other courses and students with different level, improve the quality of videos like sound, embedded quizzes, and activities to create a more engaging experience for the user. Faculty as facilitators of students’ learning should, facilitate the learning process by helping students relates didactic content to clinical.

[Doaa Abd El Salam Amin Yacout and Abeer Abd El Fattah Abou Shosha. Nursing Students’ Perceptions Towards Flipped Classroom Educational Strategies. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):62-75]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.07.

 

Keywords: flipped classroom, inverted classroom, nursing education, community health nursing, video lecture, active learning

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Quality of nursing care in the labor wards of selected hospitals in Egypt

 

1Salwa Ahmed Mohamed, 2 Hend S. Mohammed, 3Maha Abdeen Abdeen and 4 Nadia Abdalla Mohamed

 

1Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University, Egypt

2Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

 3Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

 4Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University, Egypt

Corresponding author: drsalwaged@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Measuring quality is an important tool in assessing compliance with standards particularly that the efforts to measure quality of nursing care and nursing service are very limited. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of nursing care in the labor wards of selected hospitals in Egypt. This record-based study was carried out in the labor wards of five hospitals in Egypt representing various sectors of health care system during the period from 2001 to 2010. Data collection sheets were used data about the Adverse Outcomes Index indicators giving the Weighted Adverse Outcome Score (WAOS), and other data about the setting such as nursing staff and physicians. The fieldwork lasted from July to December 2013. The results demonstrated a wide variation in the WAOS of the five study hospitals, as well as the birth trauma rates and the rates of perineal tear during the study period. Statistically significant moderate positive correlations were revealed between WAOS scores and the number of nurses/woman, and the number of physicians/woman, but a negative correlation with the nurse/physician ratio. It also had a statistically significant weak negative correlation with the percent of staff nurses to total nurses. In conclusion, the quality of care provided to parturient women is better in University and Teaching hospitals compared to the general hospitals affiliated to the MOH. An adequate staff mix is important in improving the quality of service, with lower rates of birth trauma and perineal tear. It is recommended that the hospitals increase their nurse/physician ratios, and to have suitable percentages of junior nurses and physicians compared to senior staff.

[Salwa Ahmed Mohamed, Hend S. Mohammed, Maha Abdeen Abdeen and Nadia Abdalla Mohamed. Quality of obstetric care in the labor wards of selected hospitals in Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):76-83]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.08.

 

Key words: Quality care, Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Labor wards, Weighted Adverse Outcome Score

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Histological and ultrastructural study of the effect of potassium dichromate with evaluation of potential protective role of vitamin C on submandibular salivary gland of rats

 

Elsayed Mohamed Deraz*; Amel Mohammed Ezzat Abd-Elhamid* and Ahmed Nabil Fahmi**

 

*Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University. ** Faculty of Dentistry, Benisuf University, Egypt.

amezzat26@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Potassium dichromate is a heavy metal found in rocks, plants and animals that commonly used in paints, stainless steel manufacturing and food additives. Contamination of water with dichromate results in serious damage in body. Vitamin C is a potent hydrophilic antioxidant able to scavenge a variety of free radicals and oxidative molecules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of potassium dichromate on submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) of rats with evaluation of the protective role of vitamin C. The present work was carried on healthy 30 adult male albino rats which were randomly divided into three groups. Group (I) act as control group, group (II) which received potassium dichromate and group (III) which received the same dose of potassium dichromate but with vitamin C. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and the submandibular salivary glands were collected. The specimens then underwent light and electron microscopical study. Light microscopical examination of SMG specimens in group (II) revealed fatty degenerative changes with loss of normal architecture. Interestingly, these damaging effects of potassium dichromate on SMGs were decreased in group (III) after treatment by vitamin C. Ultrastructural study of specimens of potassium dichromate group showed degenerative changes represented by cytoplasmic accumulation of lipid droplets that substitute SMG structure together with wide perinuclear membrane, distended rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae (RER). Vitamin C-treated glands showed mild ultrastructural changes with almost normal RER, mitochondria, nuclei, perinuclear membrane and secretory granules. So, we can conclude that the exposure to chromium caused damaging effects on salivary glands and these damaging effects may be decreased by using vitamin C as a protective agent.

[Elsayed Mohamed Deraz; Amel Mohammed Ezzat Abd-Elhamid and Ahmed Nabil Fahmi. Histological and ultrastructural study of the effect of potassium dichromate with evaluation of potential protective role of vitamin C on submandibular salivary gland of rats. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):84-90]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.09.

 

Key Words: potassium dichromate, vitamin C, submandibular salivary gland, rats

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Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and its Relation to Self-esteem, Depression, and Quality of Life of Female Students in Health-Related Facultiesat Umm Al-Qura University

 

Hanan Said Ali1, Youssreya Ibrahim2, Abdullah A Saati3, Esraa Esam-Eldin1, Muna Ibrahim H Al Harbi4

 

Medical Surgical Nursing1, Critical Care Nursing2, Environmental Health and Toxicology Department of Community Medicine and Pilgrims Healthcare. Faculty of Medicine3, Community Health Nursing4, Umm Al Qura University

dr_hanan10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a widespread disorder associated with stressful factors among university students. This study aim was to measure the prevalence of IBS among female students in health-related faculties, identify its potential risk factors, and assess associated psychological aspects such as symptoms of depression, self-esteem, and Quality of Life (QoL). This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 1351 female students enrolled in all medical faculties, faculty of nursing, pharmacy, applied medical science and faculty of medicine, dentist at Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding IBS (developed by the World Gastroenterology Organization), self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale), and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), the IBS-QoL scale, in addition to relevant socio-demographic and health data. Data were collected from December 2013 to May 2014.The prevalence of IBS was 33.7% (95% CI 31.33-36.07); 58.5% had depressive symptoms (95% CI 56.03-60.97); 9.3% had low self-esteem (95% CI 7.85-10.75), and 10.0% had low QoL (95% CI 8.50-11.50).From multivariate analysis, IBS was associated with use of laxatives (OR=4.14), stress (OR=2.14), and drinking tea (OR=1.43), while the intake of fibers was protective (OR=0.65). The presence of IBS was significant independent factor leading to worse QoL, while a higher school year and a higher self-esteem were associated with better QoL. The study concludes that the prevalence of IBS among university students in health-related faculties is high. Its independently associated factors are stress, use of laxatives, and low fiber intake. The disorder is associated with high prevalence of depressive symptoms and low QoL, in addition to low self-esteem. Screening programs for IBS and related psychological problems are recommended.

[Hanan Said Ali, Youssreya Ibrahim, Abdullah A Saati, Esraa Esam-Eldin, Muna Ibrahim H Al Harbi. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and its Relation to Self-esteem, Depression, and Quality of Life of Female Students in Health-Related Faculties at Umm Al-Qura University. J Am Sci2016;12(2):91-102]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online).http://www.jofamericanscience.org.10. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.10.

 

Keywords:Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Self-esteem, Depression, Quality of Life, University students.

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The Role of Resistant Training on Bone health of Female Students in 100, meters run

 

Enas Aboul Mohamed

 

Lecturer of Training Departmentm Fac. of Physical Education for Girls, Helwan University. Egypt

Email: dr.enas_zaki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Exercise as a potential factor in the prevention of osteoporosis has attracted interest in recent years. The significant effect of the level of physical activity on muscle strength and the bone mineral density has been demonstrated. But, Exercise as a prophylactic intervention has not been investigated extensively. The aim of this study was to assess the role of resistant training on bone density of female students in 100, 200 meters run. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers of female students (age 18-20y) participants, in 100, meters run were assigned to a resistant training group (n = 10), three times weekly for 12 weeks and a control group (n = 10). The resistance training group performed knee extensors by dynamic leg press, and leg extension exercises increasing from low (20RM) to high (8RM) resistance. The control group did not participate to any training. Hip bone density was measured using DEXA, before and after intervention, leg strength was measured by dynamometer, parathyroid hormone by Elisa, calcium by atomic absorption method, data were analyzed by means of Anova. Results: Resistance training improved leg strength tests, and also increased significantly BMD, calcium, parathyroid hormone increased significantly P > 0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Resistant training may be effective in retardation osteoporosis and modify risk factors.

[Enas Aboul Mohamed. The Role of Resistant Training on Bone health of Female Students in 100, meters run. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):103-106]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.11.

 

Key words: Resistant training, Bone mineral density, calcium, parathyroid hormone.

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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, when to do?

 

Hisham Rizk1, AsaadSalama2, WisamJamal1, Hussam Hamdy2, Ahmed Makki3 and Ahmed Hazem Helmy2

 

1General and Laparoscopic Surgery Department. University of Jeddah, KSA.

2General, Hepatobiliary, Transplantation & Laparoscopic Surgery Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. 3Surgery Department, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

hishamrizk@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Acute cholecystitis (AC) is common, the optimal time for surgery is still debatable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of early intervention within 1 to 3 days of onset of symptoms compared to those done after 3 days to 7 days, with reference to patients who were subjected to late procedure after 6 weeks. This retrospective study was done during the period from February 2013 to February 2015. 177 patients were included in this study. Patients were classified into two main groups 1 & 2; group 1 patients had undergone surgery while group 2 had been managed conservatively. Group 1 included 105 patients for whom LC was done during the same admission were further subdivided into group A & B. Group A (65 patients) who were operated upon during 1 to 3 days of onset of symptoms i.e. Golden early LC (GELC) while the remaining 40 patients (Group B) were operated upon from 3 to 7 days of onset of symptoms (Silver late LC (SLLC). Group 2 (72 patients), who were treated conservatively and scheduled for late (interval) cholecystectomy after 6 weeks. We concluded that while performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis during the early golden (1 to 3 days) is the best, still late early silver LC during 3 to 7 days of onset of symptoms (index admission LC) is feasible, coast effective with minimal morbidity.

[Hisham Rizk, Asaad Fayrouz Salama, Wisam Jamal, HussamHamdy, Ahmed M. Makki and Ahmed Hazem I. Helmy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, when to do? J Am Sci 2016;12(2):107-110]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.12.

 

Keyword: Acute, cholesystitis, laparoscopy, timing

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Evaluation of the Results after Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD), and Sleeve Gastrectomy Operations as a Treatment for Morbid Obesity

 

Yasser Hussain

 

General surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Severe obesity is associated with multiple co morbidities which reduce the life expectancy and markedly impair the quality of life. Obesity-related problems begin at the head and end at the toes, affecting almost every organ in between. This study was begun on June 2011and continued through June 2014 to evaluate the results after operations had done for morbid obese patients, Bilio pancreatic diversion (BPD) (Scopinaro) and Laparoscopic sleeve gasterectomy (LSG) in Al Hussein hospital. 54 were females (90%) and 6 were males (10%), after three years follow up of the patients: the scopinaro operation result in complete cure of most of comorbidity except osteoarthritis, also result in rapid weight loss with more nutritional complications. On the other hand the sleeve gastrectomy result in gradual weight loss, less nutritional complications, but less effect on co morbidity, also needs more time for follow up. BPD need much post operative nutritional and vitamin supply for life which is not available for most of the patients due to their economic stat.

[Yasser Hussain. Evaluation of the Results after Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD), and Sleeve Gastrectomy Operations as a Treatment for Morbid Obesity. J Am Sci 2016;12(2):111-117]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas120216.13.

 

Keywords: Biliopancreatic Diversion, Sleeve Gastrectomy, Morbid Obesity, results, surgery

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 14, 2015. 

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