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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 3, Cumulated No. 97, March 25, 2016

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CONTENTS   

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Assessment of Thyroid Dysfunction in Children with Beta – Thalassemia Major Attending Outpatient Clinic, Fayoum University Hospital

 

Nashwa Mamdouh Samra; Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelmoktader; Al Kassem Ahmed Algmeel and Rehab Galal Abd El-Hamid

 

Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt

rehabgalal13@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Thalassemic patients need regular and frequent blood transfusion. So these patients suffer from iron overload and consequently endocrine complication such as hypothyroidism. Aim of the study: This work was aiming to assess the thyroid dysfunction in Beta- thalassemia major children attending outpatient clinic, Fayoum university hospital to highlight the problem in Fayoum government for early detection and timely treatment of such complication. Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study was conducted to 70 thalassemic patients (5-16 years) who are on regular blood transfusion. Patients are subjected to full history taking, medical examination and laboratory investigation including, complete blood count, serum ferritin level and thyroid function tests. 70 age and sex matched children without thalassemia constituted the control group. Results: Four (5.7%) children of the thalassemic patients (70 children) were found to have primary subclinical hypothyroidism. Also there is positive correlation between age of patients (p value <0.001), frequency of blood transfusion (p value <0.01) and developing iron overload and consequently hypothyroidism. For subjects who use iron chelating agents, they still suffer from iron overload and under risk of developing hypothyroidism, so they need closer and more regular follow up. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is one of the endocrinopathies that may complicate beta thalassemia major, so regular and close follow up is required for early detection and treatment.

[Nashwa Mamdouh Samra; Ahmed Mahmoud Abdelmoktader; Al Kassem Ahmed Algmeel and Rehab Galal Abd El-Hamid. Assessment of Thyroid Dysfunction in Children with Beta – Thalassemia Major Attending Outpatient Clinic, Fayoum University Hospital. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):1-6]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.01.

 

Key words: Beta thalassemia major, Iron overload, Hypothyroidism

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Role of maternal liver sonography and Hepatic artery Dopplerin cases of preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome

 

Doaa Mahmoud Effat1 and Alya A. El Naggar2

 

1: Lecturer of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University

2: Assistant Professor of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University

effatdoaa942@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide Unfortunately, it may have no noticeable symptoms Ultrasonography in pregnancy, particularly with utilization of Doppler has been increasingly studied and utilized in several conditions,especially in some situation as prediction of preeclampsia, such method of evaluation has demonstrated its positive impact on prenatal follow up. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic and hepatic artery blood flow changes in the maternal liver in cases of preeclampsia and how can these changes predict HELLP syndrome. Study design: This prospective observational study was conducted at antennatal clinic of obstetrics and gynecology, Alzharaa Hospital Al Azhar University during period from October 2013-December 2014. Method: Sixty pregnant women with gestational age of 28-36 weeks were selected, they were divided equally into 3 groups each one 20 cases. Group I included 20 women with severe preeclampsia, group II with mild preeclampsia and group III included normotensive women as a control. All cases were subjected to initial ultrasound scanning of the maternal liver, including morphological appearance and hepatic artery Doppler resistive indices (pulsatility index (PI) and resistant index (RI)), and laboratory function tests (including liver function tests, and complete blood picture tests) then all were repeated one week after delivery and correlated to initial findings. Results: Initial abnormal liver sonography was only detected in75% of group I (severe preeclampsia) and no cases were detected in other groups (II or III). These abnormalities were in the form of right lobe hypertrophy (mean 16.5), left lobe hypertrophy (Mean 11.6 cm), per portal halo sign (mean 5.9 mm), gall bladder thickness (2.2 mm), ascites, abnormal liver texture, and tenderness in right hypochondrium on probe compression. There were higher values of HAPI and HARI in group I as compared to other groups (p=0.000-0.001), about 95%, 100% of group I had high PI and RI respectively. The initial laboratory changes were, only found in group I, They revealed 30% with HELLP syndrome and all of these patients had abnormal liver sonography and hepatic artery resistive indices. After delivery in group I, the morphological sonographic changes of liver were significantly improved (p<0.05). Although Doppler of HA resistive indices improved postpartum in group I but that had no statistically significant (p>0.05). Postpartum laboratory findings showed decreased one case of HELLP syndrome who diagnosed initially while there were 2 additional cases developed HELLP syndrome postpartum. Conclusion: The sonographic abnormalities of the maternal liver and decrease hepatic blood flow in cases of severe of preeclampsia might precede its biological abnormalities, especially for HEELP syndrome. Thus routine ultrasound liver scanning and hepatic artery Doppler should be contributed in obstetric care for all patients with severe preeclampsia. These may help the owners of opinion for conservative treatment with severe preeclampsia, to select their cases (after normal liver sonography and laboratory function tests had been detected).

[Doaa Mahmoud Effat and Alya A. El Naggar. Role of maternal liver sonography and Hepatic artery Dopplerin cases of preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):7-16]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.02.

 

Keywords: HELLP syndrome, Doppler ultrasonography, hepatic artery resistance index (HARI), hepatic artery pulsatility index (HAPI)

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Tuberculous Synovitis and TB-Dilated Cardiomyopathy Case Report of a Rare, Fatal and Possibly Reversible Complication of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis With Literature Review

 

Yahya Elficki1, Ammar Elrefaay2, Owais Halabi3 and Farris Assem Alrady4

 

1 Consultant Internal Medicine, King AbdudlAzziz Hospital, KSA.

2Consultant Cardiology King Abdulazziz Hospital Jeddah, KSA.

3 Research Assistant and Coordinator, Internal Medicine Department, king Abulazziz Hospital, KSA.

4Research Assistant and Coordinator at King AbdulAzziz Hospital, KSA.

profelficki@yahoo.com

 

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a common public health problem in many parts of the world and despite being almost 100% curable, TB is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, representing second most common cause of death from infectious disease globally after HIV. TB is generally believed to spare four organs: heart, skeletal muscle, thyroid and pancreas.Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a multi-factorial disease; early detection and defining the exact etiology/etiologies are still a big challenge in the medical wards all over the world. Involvement of the heart with TB occurs in one to two percent of patients with TB, TB myocarditis may occur by hematogenous, lymphatic spread or directly from the contagious structures like pericardium. Commonest site involved is the pericardium, and tuberculous involvement of the myocardium was thought to be extremely rare. However, here we present a case mortality summary of patient presented with severe dilated Cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure, work up and emergency investigations specially echocardiography, sequence of events and radiological changes e.g. X-ray images managed to attribute the cause of the rapid and fatal deterioration of the patient condition to delayed unrecognized TB myocarditis and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

[Yahya Elficki, Ammar Elrefaay, Owais Halabi and Farris Assem Alrady. Tuberculous Synovitis and TB-Dilated Cardiomyopathy - Case Report of a Rare, Fatal and Possibly Reversible Complication of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis With Literature Review. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):17-22]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.03.

 

Key words: Tuberculous synovitis, TB myocarditis, dilated Cardiomyopathy.

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Physiological and biochemical impacts of dietary Nigella sativa levels and feeding system on does performance at first parity under Egyptian condition

 

U. M. Abdel-Monem1, A. M. Abdul Azeem2 and S.S. Hamza3

 

1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2Food Irradiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O Box 29, Nasr city Cairo, Egypt

3Regional Centre for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt

ormamohamed_2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One hundred and twenty New Zealand White (NZW) doe rabbits at first parity were used in the present study. The does were randomly divided into 12 treatment groups (10 does in each), in order to study the reproductive traits as affected by season of the year (mild and hot), feeding system (ad libitum and fed at night only) and Nigella sativa dietary supplementation (0, 0.5 and 1% seeds / kg diet) and their interaction, under Egyptian conditions. All groups were nearly similar in average initial body weights. The traits studied were some performance traits (feed intake, feed conversion and water intake), thermoregulation parameters (rectal temperature and respiration rate), some blood components (serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine) and doe traits (gestation length, litter size, weight at birth, 21 days and weaning, milk yield and pre-weaning mortality). The results showed that temperature–humidity index (THI) values estimated were 18.9 and 24.7 at mild and hot periods, respectively, indicating absence of heat stress during the mild period (less than 22.2) and exposure to severe heat stress during the hot period (23.3-25.5 0C)..The hot period of the year affected adversely (P<0.01 or 0.05) feed intake, water intake, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, litter size and weight at birth, 21 days and weaning, pre-weaning mortality and milk yield, while the effects were not significant on feed conversion, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine and gestation period. Feeding only at night, improved significantly (P<0.01 or 0.05) feed intake, litter size and weight at birth, 21 days and weaning and milk yield than in ad libitum feeding system. Meanwhile, water consumption decreased (13.2 %) significantly (P<0.05) with ad libitum than with the restricted feeding. Feed conversion, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, gestation period and pre-weaning mortality, were not significantly affected by feeding system. Dietary supplementation of the doe rabbits with Nigella sativa seeds (1% / kg diet) improved significantly feed intake (P<0.05), litter size and weight at birth (P<0.01 and 0.05), 21 days and at weaning (P<0.05), while the effects were not significant on feed conversion, water consumption, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, gestation period and pre-weaning mortality. Interaction effects of season of the year x feeding system were significant (P<0.05) on litter size at birth and 21 days and milk yield / doe. Feeding at night only showed the best values during the two periods (hot and mild), as well as, within the hot period. All the other interaction effects were not significant.

[U. M. Abdel-Monem, A. M.Abdul Azeem and S.S. Hamza. Physiological and biochemical impacts of dietary Nigella sativa levels and feeding system on does performance at first parity under Egyptian condition. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):23-29]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.04.

 

Key words: feeding system, heat stress, Nigella sativa dietary supplementation, rabbit doe traits

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Morphometric Analysis of Himalayan ground skink Scincella himalayanus Gunther (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) from Kashmir

 

Aamir Maqbool1 and Abdul Lateef Khanday2*

 

1Zoological Museum, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006 (India)

2Entomology Research Division, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar-190006 (India)

*Corresponding author: lateefkhanday@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ten specimens of Himalayan ground skink Scincella himalayanus Gunther (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) collected from Dachigam National Park, Kashmir were examined using 8 morphometric characters. The phenotypic measurements of collected specimens indicate that S. himalayanus differs from its closely related species. This paper also documents the first collection of S. himalayanus from Dachigam National Park, Kashmir.

[Maqbool A. and Khanday A.L. Morphometric Analysis of Himalayan ground skink Scincella himalayanus Gunther (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) from Kashmir. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):30-34]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.05.

 

Keywords: Himalayan ground skink; Scincella himalayanus; Scincidae; morphometric characters

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Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia: Study of 23 Cases

 

1M Osman and 2M Khallaf

 

1Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

2Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

mh.osman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Despite recent advances in the understanding of the natural history and molecular abnormalities, many questions remain surrounding the progression and management of fibrous dysplasia. We aimed to describe the clinical, radiological findings and management in a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with fibrous dysplasia of the craniofacial bones. Patients and methods: A prospective and retrospective analysis of collected data for23patients with histopathologically confirmed fibrous dysplasia involving the skull and facial bones managed at the Maxillofacial and Neurosurgical department between February 2011-June 2012. The demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic characteristics, and the management of these patients were reviewed. Result: Age of patients ranged from 7-55 years with higher predilection in female (16 patients, 70%). In the current study, the most common affected fascial bones were maxilla (7 patients), mandible (3patients). As regarding the cranial bones, the frontal and temporal bones were affected in 5 patients. Sphenoidal bone was affected in 3 patients. Most of the patients presented by facial painless swelling of deformity (17 patients) while 6patients presented by swelling and proptosis. Conservative surgical procedures (shaving) were performed in 15 cases while resection and reconstruction were performed in 8 cases. Reconstruction with mesh was used in 7 patients while reconstruct with bone graft was used in one patient. All patients were followed up for more than 6 months, by clinical examination, x ray and CT scanning. The frequency of follow up was tailored according disease aggressiveness, optic nerve involvement and type of intervention performed. Marked improvement in the aesthetic aspect in most cases.3 of the patients who were treated by shaving required further creation, and one patient required 3sittings to reach acceptable results. Conclusions: Each patient may present with variable symptoms and clinical findings, thus the care of these patients must be customized to their needs and sites of involvement.

[M Osman and Mkhallaf. Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia: Study of 23 Cases. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):35-43]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.06.

 

Keywords: fibrous dysplasia, cranial bone, fascial bone.

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Evaluation of antioxidant activity of propolis (bee glue) on the histopathologyof hepatocytes in mice treated with dacarbazine

 

Salwa Mohammed Quita

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

doctorsalwa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current study aims to assess the protective effect of propolis against hepatocyte histopathological changes during dacarbasine (DTIC) treatment in mice model. To achieve this goal a total of 30 male mice were divided into four groups: The first served as a control (Gr1). The second (Gr2) and third (Gr3) groups received propolis (50 mg/kg bw) and dacarbazine (3.5 mg/kg bw) respectively. The fourth were administered dacarbazine (3.5 mg/kg bw) plus propolis (50 mg/kg bw) and divided into three categories: a) Treated with propolis 2h before the administration of DTIC. b) Treated with both propolis and DTIC in the same time. c) Treated with propolis 2h after the DTIC administration. All groups treated for ten consecutive days and killed after 24h from the last dose. The livers were removed and subjected for light microscopic study. DTIC treatment induced liver damage, loss of hepatocytes architecture and vacuolar degeneration, inflammatory cellular infiltration in between hepatocellular necrosis and blood sinusoids congestion and dilation were detected. In fourth group the liver restored the normal histological structure only in the first category, there are marked reduction of cytoplasmic vacuoles, less dilation of central and portal veins and reduction of sinusoids congestion. While in the second and third categories showed no improvement in the liver damage.

[Salwa Mohammed Quita. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of propolis (bee glue) on the histopathology of hepatocytes in mice treated with dacarbazine. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):44-50]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.07.

 

Keywords:Dacarbazine, Propolis, Histopathological changes, Liver, Mice.

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Performance of Portland Cement Mortar incorporated with Reactive Magnesium Oxide

 

S.A. Abo-EL-ENein1, H.A. Abdel-Gawwad*2, O.A-Hodhod3, I.M.H-El-kattan4

 

1 Faculty of science- Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Housing and Building National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Faculty of Engineering – Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

4 PHI for Engineering and Technology- 6th October City- Egypt.

*Hamdyabdelgawwad@yahoo.com, ibrahemelkattan86@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present paper aimed at studying the effect of reactive magnesium oxide (MgO) on the physico-mechanical properties of cement mortar (CM). Reactive magnesium oxide was prepared by calcination of hydromagnesite at 550șC, namely MgO550. 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 wt., % MgO550 have been added to CM. Different experimental methods such as linear expansion, water absorption, and compressive strength, were carried out to evaluate the physico-mechanical properties of CM-MgO blends. The characterization of hydration products formed a long cement matrix was done by using x-ray diffractograms (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The results showed the CM watery consistency increased with the increase of MgO550 content. The water absorption decreases with MgO550 wt., % up to 5 wt, %. The addition of MgO550 beyond 5 wt., % leads to increase the water absorption. Compressive strength enhancement was observed in case of CM having 2.5 and 5 wt., % MgO550. The CM containing 10 and 15 wt., % MgO550 showed the lowest compressive strength. The linear expansion of CM increases with the increase of MgO550 content.

[S.A. Abo-EL-ENein, H.A. Abdel-Gawwad, O.A-Hodhod and I.M.H-El-kattan. Performance of Portland Cement Mortar incorporated with Reactive Magnesium Oxide. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):51-58]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.08.

 

Key words: Reactive MgO, Cement mortar, Compressive strength, linear expansion, Magnesium hydroxide

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Creating Evidence to Advocate the Validity of Results of Clinical Performance in the Undergraduate Surgery Clerkship

 

Omayma A.E. Hamed1,2; Husain Hamza Jabbad1; Hebatullah Alsayed3; Asim Alshareef1; Mohannad Alzain1;

Omar I. Saadah1; Fatin M. Al-Sayes1; Rani Ghazi Ahmad1

 

Faculty of Medicine- King Abdulaziz University 1, Faculty of Medicine-Cairo University2, and Faculty of Dentistry- King Abdulaziz University3

dr.omayma.aly@gmail.com, hjabbad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background/ Purpose: Evidential bases were not performed en masse to validate assessment results in the undergraduate Surgery clerkship in King Abdulaziz University (KAU). This study aimed at producing a comprehensive package of evidence to prove validity of students’ clinical performance assessment results (as defined by Messick’s framework). Method: Guided by Messick’s conceptual framework, the problem was analyzed. Hands-on faculty development on creating an exam blueprint was done: 1. Learning objectives (LOs) revised; 2. Alignment secured; 3. Weight of (LOs) determined; 4. Number of items/topic/domain calculated; and 5. Appropriate assessment methods selected..Quantitative evidences as reliability and correlation coefficients of various validity components were calculated. The underlying values that scaffold validity evidences were explored via a Focus Group Discussion and the results analyzed by content analysis. Results: 1. The weight of different domains in the test equally reflected their weight in the curriculum (content validity); 2. Positive unintended consequences resulted from the new assessment approach (consequential validity); 3. There was a statistically significant correlation among various assessment methods that provided evidence for concurrent and predictive validity; 4. Success rates and grades distribution alone could not provide evidence to advocate an argument on validity of results. Conclusion: A newly introduced assessment plan with new tools had to be validated by pursuing a comprehensive, unified approach to create evidence from multiple sources of data in order to support the argument of advocating the assessment results.

[Omayma A.E. Hamed; Husain Hamza Jabbad; Hebatullah Alsayed; Asim Alshareef; Mohannad Alzain; Omar I. Saadah; Fatin M. Al-Sayes; Rani Ghazi Ahmad. Creating Evidence to Advocate the Validity of Results of Clinical Performance in the Undergraduate Surgery Clerkship. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):59-71]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.09.

 

Keywords: Construct validity, Messick’s framework, undergraduate, assessment, Surgery, evidential bases, ACGME

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Synthesis of Graphene and Graphene Oxide by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

 

Mahmoud Gomaa and Gamal Abdel Fattah*

 

National Institute of laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*gfattah@niles.edu.eg

 

Abstract: In this work we construct a simple experiment for rapid synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) sheets using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MWPCVD) which uses a conventional microwave oven operating at frequency of 2.45GHZandwith a power of 700W to produce plasma inside a tube of quartz for 2min and the polyethylene which consist of small beads was used as a carbon source. The graphene and graphene oxide sheets were characterized by different techniques such as Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible Absorption, Photoluminescence and FT-IR spectroscopy. TEM shows that the morphology of graphene suspension in the form of crumpled and folded sheets, X –ray diffraction for graphene shows the presence of a high and small peak around 2θ=24.56ο and 2θ=43.65ο respectively. Raman spectra indicated the difference between position and shape of peaks, crystal size and intensity ratio of the D to G modes (ID/IG) for graphene and graphene oxide. Also the FT-IR of GO exhibits the presence of C=O (1735cm-1), O-H (3425cm-1), C=C (1625cm-1) and C-O (1078cm-1). The emission spectra of GO exhibits abroad emission band between 400 to 800nm. An absorption peak of GO at 235 nm was observed in UV- vis absorption spectra. All the characteristic techniques revealed that MWPCVD is appropriate for synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide.

[Mahmoud Gomaa and Gamal Abdel Fattah. Synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):72-80]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.10.

 

Keywords: Graphene, Graphene Oxide, Microwave Plasma, polyethylene

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Impact of Pumping Rate on Seawater Intrusion in Jefara Plain, Libya

 

A.M. S Gejam1 P. H.S. Riad1, M.A. Gad1, K.A. Rashed2 and N.A. Hasan1

 

1. Irrigation and Hydraulic Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2. Civil Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya

aa.baset@yahoo.com, aa.abdulbaset@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Jefara Plain located at north western of Libya. Jefara Plain influenced by arid desert areas to the south and Mediterranean Sea to the north. Groundwater is the main source of water in the Plain where the scarcity of water is major issue. Current groundwater resources are not covering the rapid development in the plain. Numerical modeling is an effective tool for managing groundwater resources and predicting future responses, MODFLOW and MT3DMS used to simulate groundwater flow and solute transport in Jefara Plain. In this study, four suggested scenarios for years 1993 through 2040 have been explored by using the three dimensional finite difference flow model (MODFLOW 2000) to simulate the flow system, and the solute transport model (MT3DMS) to predict the transport of total dissolved solids. These scenarios include: first, model will run without abstraction from the aquifers; second, pumping of agriculture assumed constant in this scenario, and the pumping of municipal are varied depending on population demand; third, running of the model under 1993 situation where the pumping rate for agriculture and municipal remaining constant during the interval 1993-2040 without any management or climate change effects.; and finally, pumping of municipal and agriculture assumed varied depending on future predictions. Results indicate that the fourth scenario has biggest effect on the drawdown and seawater intrusion extent. Different parameters including TDS, recharge, model boundary and advection parameters were adjusted to run the model. The fourth scenario with highest pumping rate value caused a slight increase of TDS values over the values simulated by other scenarios.

[A.M.S. Gejam P. H.S. Riad, M.A. Jad, K.A. Rashed and N.H. Ali. Impact of Pumping Rate on Seawater Intrusion in Jefara Plain Plain. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):81-88]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.11.

 

Keywords: Jefara Plain, Groundwater, Modflow, MT3D, TDS, SWI, Abstractions

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Learning Swimming Strategy of Children Using the Complete Method for Improving Abilities and Physical Performance

 

Ashraf M. S.

 

Department of Curricula and Learning Method, Faculty of Physical Education, Helwan Univ., Egypt.

Adel.ahmed3550@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Learning is: The ability to alter behavior in the basis of experience. It has many benefits: recreational, psychological, physiological and health. The purpose of the study was to express of learning program on some abilities and physical performance of children. The experimental method was used, 20 childs were randomly selected, aged 9 y., they were not regular swimmers, they were subjected to 3 months swimming learning is swimming pool at El Zamalek club, using the complete method of teaching in the summer of 2013. A performance test and ability one were performed in a shallow and deep pool. Results indicated an increased percent of performance and abilities of the children after the learning swimming program. The researcher came to the conclusion: 1. A significant percent of children learned basic swimming skills. 2. The program led to increased confidence in water. 3. The program improved abilities and physical performance. Recommendation: it is recommended to begin swimming in children through learning and playing not through competition.

[Ashraf M. S. Learning Swimming Strategy of Children Using the Complete Method for Improving Abilities and Physical Performance. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):89-92]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.12.

 

Keyword: Learning swimming, abilities, physical performance

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Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Infecting Cucurbita pepo in Egypt

 

Mohamed A. Nasr-Eldin1*; Hayam S. Abdelkader2; Amel S. Abo-Senna3 and Badawi A. Othman4

 

1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518, Egypt.

2 Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology & Information (MTI), Cairo, Egypt.

2Virus and Phytoplasma Research Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agriculture research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

3 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls Branch), Cairo, Egypt

4 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

hayamabdelkader68@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was isolated from naturally infected squash plants exhibiting systemic vein-banding, yellowing, mosaic, leaf deformation and stunting symptoms. In this study, the virus isolate was identified using biological, serological and molecular techniques as ZYMV. In biological analysis, the isolate produced severe symptoms on susceptible cucurbit hosts and local lesions on leaves of indicator plants. Direct enzyme linked immunesorbent assay and direct tissue blot immunosorbent assay (DTBIA) were successfully used to detect ZYMV isolate in squash plants. Electron microscopy of leaf dip preparation of infected squash leaves showed long flexuous filamentous virus particles of size (750X13 nm). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out using ZYMV-specific primers, designed to amplify a 1005-bp fragment covering the entire coat protein (CP) gene and part of 3'-untranslated region (3′-UTR) from infected squash plants. The partial nucleotide sequence of the CP gene of ZYMV-EG isolate has been deposited in NCBI GenBank under accession number KU127244. According to the sequence analysis the Egyptian isolate has specific amino acids sequences that are different from other ZYMV isolates. Comparison with 30 ZYMV sequences retrieved from GenBank presented nucleotide identities in the range of 95-97%, amino acids sequences similarities ranged from 92.23-96.12%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZYMV-EG isolate was grouped into a distinct clade comprising Taiwan isolates (TW-TN3 and TW-NT1), Chinese isolate (Hangzhou) and Brazilian isolate (ZYMV-DF) in the cluster A which is apparently the most widespread throughout the world.

[Mohamed A. Nasr-Eldin; Hayam S. Abdelkader; Amel S. Abo-Senna and Badawi A. Othman. Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Infecting Cucurbita pepo in Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):93-104]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.13.

 

Keywords: ZYMV, RT-PCR, potyvirus, amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis

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Body Weight Perception and Dietary Control Methods among Egyptian University Students

 

Doaa Abd El Salam Amin1and Houaida Anas El Wogoud2

 

1 Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Damanhour University, Egypt

2department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Alexandria University, Egypt

doaamin_y@hotmail.com, houaida_helal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Most countries in the Middle East are becoming part of the global obesity pandemic, and the problem becomes significant when the trend towards a more “Western” lifestyle is considered in developing countries. Body weight and its perception play an important role in the physical and mental well-being of a person. Weight perception is found to be a better predictor of weight management behavior as compared to actual weight. Aim of the study was to explore relationships between body weight perception, actual weight status, and weight control measure among students of Alexandria and Damanhour Universities. Material & methods: A cross sectional study was carried out during scholastic year 2013/2014. Subjects: A total of 400 faculties students from two Egyptian universities, Alexandria and Damanhour, aged 18 to 24 years, male and female students were participated in the study. Tool: Body weight perception structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic, weight perception and weight control practices history. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured, overweight and obesity was estimated according to body mass index BMI standard. Results: A high percentage of faculties’ students consider themselves as overweight or obese, despite nearly half of them had normal BMI. More than one third of them were practicing dieting reducing measures (44.8% Female, 41.2% Male). Weight-loss behaviors were more prevalent among female, young students, living in urban and affiliated to faculty of education. Reducing fat and sugar intake, skipping meal, and practicing sports were the most commonly reported methods to lose weight. Conclusion: Body weight perception was poorly associated with actual weight status. Gender difference was observed in body weight perception. Recommendations: It worthwhile to implements health promotion program to raise awareness regarding concepts of healthy body image in relation to medical definitions of overweight might improve accuracy of weight perceptions, promote healthy realistic body weight and lead to healthier eating and promote physical activity.

[Doaa Abd El Salam Aminand HouaidaAnas El Wogoud. Body Weight Perception and Dietary Control Methods among Egyptian University Students. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):105-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.14.

 

Key words: Weight perceptions, dietary control methods, faculty students, Egypt

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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism (insertion/deletion) and The Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian HCV and HBV Patients

 

Waleed M Fathy1, Belal A Montaser1, Mohamed El-Assal2

 

1 Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.

2 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

mohamedelassal2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the major risk factor for the development hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Hepatitis C infection represents a major health problem in Egypt with a reported prevalence of more than 20%. About 60 to 80% of patients develop chronic infection, which may progress to complications. Different studies have illustrated a genetic predisposition for viral infections and development of complications. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is directly involved in the process of cancer cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. It also plays a vital role in inducing liver fibrosis and developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim: The aim of this study was to study whether ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism associated with risk of HCC in Egyptian HCV and HBV patients. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on one hundred and fifty subjects who were divided into three groups: 60 patients with chronic HCV & HBV, 60 patients with HCV & HBV related HCC and 30 healthy gender and age matched subjects. Full clinical examination and history were taken, Liver function tests, Alpha fetoprotein by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the distribution of allele and genotype frequency of ACE I/D polymorphism. Results: The results showed that there were a significant statistical difference between HCC patients and healthy controls regarding the genotype and allele frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism[ DD (OR = 26, 95% CI, 2.61- 259.32, P = 0.002) and DI (OR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.26 – 28.55; P = 0.02)]. The D allele was correlated with a significant increased HCC risk when compared with the I allele (OR = 6.91, 95% CI, 2.45– 19.5 P> 0.001). The DD genotype were more frequently increased in HCC group than in chronic HCV & HBV group with significant statistical difference (OR = 5.2, 95% CI, 1.25 - 21.57, P = 0.02) between both groups, and the D allele was correlated with a significant increased HCC risk when compared with the I allele (OR = 2.59, 95% CI, 1.24 – 5.41 P> 0.01).There were significant statistical differences between different genotypes as regard tumor size in HCC group( P = 0.01).There were no significant statistical differences between different genotypes as regards liver functions and alpha fetoprotein in HCC cases( P >0.05 ). Conclusion: The results suggested The DD and DI genotypes were correlated with a significant increased HCC risk as compared with the II genotype and the D allele was correlated with a significant increased HCC risk.

[Waleed M Fathy, Belal A Montaser, Mohamed El-Assal. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism (insertion/deletion) and The Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Egyptian HCV and HBV Patients. J Am Sci 2016;12(3):116-124]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas120316.15.

 

Keywords: Angiotenisn Converting enzyme gene polymorphism, I/D polymorphism, HCV, HBV, HCC.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from February 17, 2016. 

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