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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 7, Cumulated No. 101, July 25, 2016

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

The Effect of Different Preparation Designs & Cement Type on the Marginal Adaptation of All-Ceramic Cantilever Anterior Fixed Partial Dentures

 

Yasser Sobhy, Tarek Salah and Maged Zohdy

 

Department of prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Yassoora86@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: This in vitro study is designed to evaluate the effect of Different preparation designs a) Full coverage retainer, b) Conventional Partial coverage retainer and c) Partial coverage retainer with labial extension: cemented using two Cements Resin Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement on the marginal adaptation of all ceramic cantilever anterior fixed partial dentures; the type of the ceramic material used was Partially stabilized Yttrium-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP). supplied by VITA Zahnfabrik H. Rauter Gmbh and Co.KG./Germany. The bridges fabricated using Cerec in lab CAD/CAM System which include (Cerec -3 acquisition unit and inlab MC XL milling unit) introduced by Sirona, bensheim, Germany.

[Yasser Sobhy, Tarek Salah and Maged Zohdy. The Effect of Different Preparation Designs & Cement Type on The Marginal Adaptation of All-Ceramic Cantilever Anterior Fixed Partial Dentures. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):1-5]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.01.

 

Keywords: Effect; Preparation; Design; Cement; Marginal Adaptation; Partial Denture

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Vital Role of Water Flow and Moisture Distributionin Soils and the Necessity of a New Out-Look and Simulation Modeling of Soil- Water Relations

 

Mostafa H. Hilal1 and Nabil M. Anwar2

 

1National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt; 2National water Research Centre, Egypt

mostafa@gizatec.com, nabilmanwar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Irrigation is the process of adding water to a soil to compensate for water losses by deep percolation, drainage, seepage, evaporation, transpiration and plant uptake. Moreover, downward movement of water through a soil profile, transports salts and nutrients deeper in the soil profile, while moisture and nutrients are retained in the micropores for the benefit of plants. Water flow and moisture movement in soils occur under 3 successive steps which are reflected on movement and residence of water, nutrients and salts as follows: 1) Intake of irrigation water by dry soil, 2) Soil Water flow from saturated layer to drier layer below field capacity, and 3) Water flow above saturation (under positive head). Water flow and moisture distribution in soil pores are governed by several important factors: 1) Irrigation frequency and scheduling. 2) Soil stratification. 3) Magnetization of irrigation water. 4) Control of soil salinity and alkalinity by treating soils with "Nile Fertile" which is a water absorber and an acid producer. Modeling water flow in unsaturated soils is very important for understanding many processes that occur in the plant-soil-water system. Many mathematical models simulate water flow in unsaturated soils using Richards' Equation, while other models use analytical or semi-analytical solutions based on such equation. Richards' Equation considers the soil as a system of a large number of small tubes that vary in diameter from very fine capillary micropores to larger gravitational macropores. It assumes that a soil segment sucks in water by the same suction head used to suck out water from it. It also assumes that water follows the same path in the soil during wetting but in the opposite direction as compared to drying. Richards’ equation is highly non-linear and requires the numerical solution to use very small spatial and temporal increments. However, the soil behavior is ‘hysteretic’ with respect to many phenomena such as sorption and desorption of heavy metals, magnetization and demagnetization of adsorbed water, and wetting and drying. The objective of this work was to provide a new understanding for water flow equations in the soil, where water flow is direction-dependent. Infiltration rate at the soil surface was obtained using relations of Eagleson and Phillip. Thereafter, Green-Ampt model was rearranged to obtain suction head at the wetting front using the infiltration rate as defined by Eagleson. Suction head at the wetting front was used to develop a new curve for sorption suction head at all water contents. The obtained curve is used instead of the pF curve in solving Richards’ Equation during sorption. This is because; water and moisture flow in the soil is directional. Besides, downward flow differs from upward flow. Rate of downward flow is estimated using the new sorption suction head curve, with the condition of no flow leaving the soil segment until the micropores are filled with water (reach field capacity). On the other hand, upward flow is solved using the pF curve as in Richards’ Equation solution. Simulation results of this work during ponded infiltration showed more infiltration water entering into the profile that penetrated deeper as compared to Richards’ Equation solution. Redistribution following the end of infiltration showed faster gravitational flow in the upper part of the profile above field capacity as compared to the solution of Richards’ Equation, and the drained water was absorbed in the next segment of the profile. This work will make numerical solution of water flow in unsaturated soil layers not need small spatial and temporal increments for wetting and drying processes.

[Mostafa H. Hilal and Nabil M. Anwar: Vital Role of Water Flow and Moisture Distribution in Soils and the Necessity of a New Out-Look and Simulation Modeling of Soil- Water Relations. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):6-18]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.02.

 

Key words: Soil stratification, water magnetization, frequency of irrigation, sorption-desorption suction head, infiltration rate, Nile Fertile.

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The shear bond strength of low fusing porcelain to zirconium oxide substructure compared to metal substructure. A literature review.

 

Esraa A. Attar, BDS, MS, MPH

 

Department of Oral Maxillofacial Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

eaattar@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Statement of the problem: A major problem of the all-ceramic restorations that made it less reliable than metal-ceramic restorations is the mechanical integrity and the bond strength of the veneering porcelain to the ceramic substructure. Purpose: This review traces the historic evolution of the different metal and all ceramic systems, in terms of mechanical properties and bond strength of substructure to veneering porcelain. Materials and methods: literature covering almost 40 years of studies investigating the bond strength of the metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations was reviewed. A MEDLINE search was used to locate the articles. Conclusion: The search for the ideal all-ceramic material that has a good clinical performance and longevity will continue. This is very important from a clinical point of view as the selection of new materials should be based on a strong evidence to support the clinical application ceramics, Dicor, In-Ceram, Empress, Lava, Procera, Alumina, Zirconia.

[Esraa A. Attar. The shear bond strength of low fusing porcelain to zirconium oxide substructure compared to metal substructure. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):19-27]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.03.

 

Keywords: shear bond strength, flexural strength, metal-ceramic restorations, all-ceramic restorations, CAD/ CAM

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Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and its Relation to Self-esteem, Depression, and Quality of Life of Female Students in Health-Related Facultiesat Umm Al-Qura University

 

Hanan Said Ali1, Youssreya Ibrahim2, Abdullah A Saati3, Esraa Esam-Eldin1, Muna Ibrahim H Al Harbi4

 

Medical Surgical Nursing1, Critical Care Nursing2, Environmental Health and Toxicology Department of Community Medicine and Pilgrims Healthcare. Faculty of Medicine3, Community Health Nursing4, Umm Al Qura University

dr_hanan10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a widespread disorder associated with stressful factors among university students. This study aim was to measure the prevalence of IBS among female students in health-related faculties, identify its potential risk factors, and assess associated psychological aspects such as symptoms of depression, self-esteem, and Quality of Life (QoL). This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 1351 female students enrolled in all medical faculties, faculty of nursing, pharmacy, applied medical science and faculty of medicine, dentist at Umm Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding IBS (developed by the World Gastroenterology Organization), self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale), and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), the IBS-QoL scale, in addition to relevant socio-demographic and health data. Data were collected from December 2013 to May 2014. The prevalence of IBS was 33.7% (95% CI 31.33-36.07); 58.5% had depressive symptoms (95% CI 56.03-60.97); 9.3% had low self-esteem (95% CI 7.85-10.75), and 10.0% had low QoL (95% CI 8.50-11.50). From multivariate analysis, IBS was associated with use of laxatives (OR=4.14), stress (OR=2.14), and drinking tea (OR=1.43), while the intake of fibers was protective (OR=0.65). The presence of IBS was significant independent factor leading to worse QoL, while a higher school year and a higher self-esteem were associated with better QoL. The study concludes that the prevalence of IBS among university students in health-related faculties is high. Its independently associated factors are stress, use of laxatives, and low fiber intake. The disorder is associated with high prevalence of depressive symptoms and low QoL, in addition to low self-esteem. Screening programs for IBS and related psychological problems are recommended.

[Hanan Said Ali, Youssreya Ibrahim, Abdullah A Saati, EsraaEsam-Eldin, Muna Ibrahim H Al Harbi. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and its Relation to Self-esteem, Depression, and Quality of Life of Female Students in Health-Related Faculties at Umm Al-Qura University. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):28-39]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.04.

 

Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Self-esteem, Depression, Quality of Life, University students.

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Genetic behavior in selected tomatoes lines for yield and quality traits

 

Rashwan A.M.A and Abdel-Haleem A. H. El-Shaieny

 

Horticulture Depat. (Vegetable crops) Faculty, of Agriculture South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt

a.elshaieny@agr.svu.edu.eg, rashwan_univ@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The goal of this research is to study the genetic behavior in selected tomato lines to yield and quality traits. Results, showed highly significant differences among genotypes (G) for all studied traits. The (GY) interaction was not significant for all studied traits except for TSS trait. Average lycopene content trait ranged from 19.27 for line SV5 to 37.24 for line SV2, Ascorbic acid ranged from 14.21 for Super Strain- B to 32.63 for line SV6, total soluble solids ranged from 5.83 for Super Strain B to 6.71 for line SV2, yield/ plant (g) ranged 1410 for line SV8 to 2329.99 (g) for hybrid followed by SV1, SV2 and SV4. The heritability estimated ranged from 27.78 for number of locus trait to 99.88 for lycopene content. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were observed with slight differences between them for all studied traits except for TSS, reflecting to high genotypic variance and resulted in high estimates of broad-sense heritability. Genetic advance ranged from 2.94% for TSS to 43.48% for Lycopene trait. Results revealed tat fruit yield/ plant (g) was highly significant positive correlated with lycopene (0.519), ASC (0.337) and NL (0.411), While non significant with TSS (0.240).

[Rashwan A.M.A and Abdel-Haleem A. H. El-Shaieny. Genetic behavior in selected tomatoes lines for yield and quality traits. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):40-44]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.05.

 

Key words: Correlation, Genetic advance, Heritability, Lycopene, Tomato, yield per plant

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Assessment of color stability of different resin cements having different modes of polymerization before and after aging

 

Ahmed M. Mesbah, Tarek S. Morsi and Ahmed E. Sabet

 

Department of Fixed prosthodontics, Faculty Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

ahmed.f.mesbah@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: This the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of aging on the color change of three different resin cements of light and dual polymerization mechanisms and compare between the change in their color content after the aging process to determine which mode of polymerization has better color stability. Methods: 30 ceramic discs of diameter of 10 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared from IPS Empress CAD blocks and three different resin cements, (Rely X Unicem, Rely X Ultimate and Rely X Veneer) were applied to the surface treated ceramic discs (each cement was applied on 10 discs) with a thickness of 0.1 mm through a custom made Teflon mould of internal thickness of 0.6 mm and then light curied, after that the samples have undergone an aging process (Thermocycling) in which the shade was measured by a digital spectrophotometer before aging and after 1000, 2000 and 3000 thermal cycling to determine the change in the color content of the resin cements. Results: Rely X Ultimate showed the highest color stability followed by Rely X Veneer while Rely X Unicem showed the lowest color stability of all the resin cements used. The results showed that within all the cements there was an increase in ∆E with increasing the number of thermal cycles and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between 24 hours and (1000 cycles, 2000 cycles and 3000 cycles), for the Rely X Ultimate and the Rely X Unicem there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between 1000 cycles and (2000 cycles and 3000 cycles) as for the Rely X Veneer there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between 1000 cycles and 3000 cycles, although all the final results of E among all the cements were clinically acceptable. Conclusions: The studied cements behaved acceptably according to E, but they became Darker after aging, and that the Rely X Ultimate (dual cured) resin cement could be used to cement either crowns or veneers with a high final esthetic outcome with a high degree of color stability like that of the light cured resin cements. Clinical Implications: The studied cements both using the dual cured and light cured mode of polymerization can ensure color stability when used to cement porcelain laminate veneers.

[Ahmed M. Mesbah, Tarek S. Morsi and Ahmed E. Sabet. Assessment of color stability of different resin cements having different modes of polymerization before and after aging. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):45-51]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.06.

 

Keywords: Resin cement, Aging, Thermocycling, Color Stability

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Adolescent Girls’ Communication with their Mothers on Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters among Secondary and Preparatory Schools’ Students

 

Manal Mohamed Ahmed Ayed 1, Amina Mohamed Thabet 1, Eman Ez El- regal Esia 2 and Nour El Hoda Mostafa Mohamed 3

 

1 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, 2Community Health Nursing Department, and 3 Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

 

Abstract: In many parts of the world, adolescents are poorly informed about their health, bodies, sexuality, and physical well-being. Adolescent girls in particular are often kept from learning about sexuality and reproductive health (SRH) issues because of cultural and religious sensitivities. The study aimed to assess adolescent girls’ communication with their mothers on sexual and reproductive health matters among preparatory and secondary schools’ students. Cross-sectional descriptive research design was adopted for this study. The study sample included 630 adolescent girls which selected randomly from five preparatory and secondary schools at Assuit City on March 2016. One tool questionnaire sheet was utilized to collect data pertinent to this study which designed by the researchers. Results: The mean age of adolescent girls were 13.42 2.71 years. Nearly three forth of them (73.3%) reported that the most common source of information about SRH were their friends. Nearly one-third (29.76%) of them were identified as satisfactory communication with their mothers, 38.91% were poor communication, and 31.33% were very poor communication. 74.1% of the them reported that the barriers which made them difficult to discuss these topics with their mothers were their mothers fear of directing their girls to engage in sexual activity followed by 60.2% were feel shame to discuss these topics with their mother. Conclusion: The study concluded that large proportion of the studied adolescent girls was poor and very poor communication with their mothers related to discussion of SRH topics. Recommendation: Parents need to be educated to understand that adolescents are not young as at that age, they are aware of sexual needs, and some of them may be sexually active. They need all the necessary education and information before it is too late to correct any mistakes.

[Manal Mohamed Ahmed Ayed, Amina Mohamed Thabet, Eman Ez El- regal Esia and Nour El Hoda Mostafa Mohamed. Adolescent Girls’ Communication with their Mothers on Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters among Secondary and Preparatory Schools’ Students. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):52-61]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.07.

 

Key words: Adolescent Girls, Communication, Sexual, Reproductive Health, Mothers, Secondary, Preparatory Schools.

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The effect of implant placement depth and impression material on the stability of an open tray impression coping

 

Tarek Salah Morsi, Maged Mohamed Zohdy and Mahmoud Mohamed Emad

 

Crown and Bridge Department, Faculty of dentistry, Ain Shams University, Egypt

dr-memad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: to measure the effect of implant depth and type of impression material on the stability of open tray impression coping. Materials & Methods: Four single implant analogs were placed in four acrylic master models with different depths (1mm, 2mm, 3mm & 4mm). Custom made tray were constructed for each model for taking impressions. Twenty implant level impressions were taken by polyether impression material, five impressions for each group and same procedure was repeated for VPS impression material. A device with compression force gauge was used to test the stability of the dental implant analog. The value of the force needed to move the implant analog connected to the impression coping by 1.0 mm was displayed on the force gauge monitor in Newton (N). Data was collected and statistically analyzed. Results: In both materials, a mean greater force was observed at 1mm depth, with a gradual decrease in the mean force associated with increase in depth. The lowest mean force was found at 4mm. At all depths, greater mean compression force was required in the polyether impression material. Two-ways ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant difference (P=0.002). Tukey’s post hoc test revealed a significant difference between each two depths in both materials. Conclusion: within the limitations of this study, implant placement depth and type of impression material affects the stability of open tray impression coping.

[Tarek Salah Morsi, Maged Mohamed Zohdy and Mahmoud Mohamed Emad. The effect of implant placement depth and impression material on the stability of an open tray impression coping. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):62-67]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.08.

 

Key words: implant placement depth, VPS impression material, Polyether impression material, open tray impression coping, implant analog.

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The Structural Changes to the Employment of Egyptian Women In Light of the Free Market Mechanisms

 

Wafaa Mohamed Mohamed Salman

 

Associate professor of Economics& Vice dean for the education and students affairs, Faculty of Commerce, Zagazig University

wafaasalman1964@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The Egyptian economy has gone through a number of economic and structural transformations that has affected employment in general and employment for women in particular, where the Ministry of Manpower has seized control of the labor market, but to leave the labor market to the forces of supply and demand and free market mechanisms in the early nineties, and the application of economic reform and structural adjustment program, through a number of economic crises and social revolutions that have swept the Egyptian economy and impacted seriously on a lot of economic sectors including the Egyptian labor sector, which draws attention to the need to analyze these developments on the Egyptian women's employment in terms of gains or losses, specially in light of the evolution of investment and educational policies, and legislations and laws in Egypt. Research problem: The research is an attempt to answer a number of questions, namely: What is the impact of economic and policies changes on Egyptian women's employment. (1) The direct foreign investment impact on the Egyptian women's employment. (2) Legislation and laws and their impact on women's employment in Egypt. (3) The determinants of women's employment in Egypt. Research methodology: The research is based on the inductive and analytical approach in showing the structural developments of the Egyptian women's employment in the light of the free market mechanisms through local and international data and reports, periodicals, and theses of master and doctoral degrees. As well as, using quantitative approach to analyze the factors affecting the employment of women through the SPSS program. Research importance: The research importance is due to that it sheds light on the most important determinants that affected the Egyptian women's employment and the impact of economic, investment and educational policies on the solution of the problem of unemployment in such sector. Research plan: The research consists of five main sections: (1) Section One: The Evolution of Egyptian women's employment at the sectorial level. (2) Section Two: The economic impact of investment policies (Local - foreign) on Egyptian women's employment. (3) Section Three: The distributional effects of educational policies on Egyptian women's employment. (4) Section Four: Legislations and laws, and the Egyptian work market. (5) Section Five: Determinants of employment of women in Egypt. Research hypotheses: The research is based on testing a number of hypotheses of the employment of Egyptian women and the factors influencing them; including: (1) The increase in women's unemployment rates is due to poor implementation of economic policies. (2) The direct foreign investment helped to increase Egyptian women's employment. (3) The educational policies contributed in opening employment areas to the Egyptian women. (4) The laws and regulations have an important role in the treatment of the Egyptian labor market problems.

[Wafaa Mohamed Mohamed Salman. The Structural Changes to the Employment of Egyptian Women In Light of the Free Market Mechanisms. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):68-85]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.09.

 

Keywords: structural; employment; Egyptian; women; light; free market mechanisms

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Effect of an educational program for parents of children with recurrent otitis media during early childhood on prevention of its recurrence

 

Amina Mohamed Thabet1; Mohamed Salama Bakr2; Soheir A. Dabash3 and Fathia Zaky Mohamed4

 

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Sohag University, Egypt.

2 Head of Audiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

3 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt.

4 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Otitis media is one of the most common illnesses in children today. It is estimated to account for as many as one-third of all pediatrician visits. Recurrent otitis media can lead to problems with hearing or hearing loss. If this occurs at early stages of a child's life, it may interfere with language, speech and cognitive development. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of an educational program for parents of children with recurrent otitis media during early childhood on prevention of its recurrence. Quasi- experimental design was selected for this study. A sample of 100 child suffering from recurrent otitis media and their parents were selected randomly from the Audiology Unit – Assiut University Hospital. Two tools were designed, to collect data1)- an interview questionnaire sheet, 2)- Family socio-economic Scale. Results of this study showed that the episodes frequency of otitis media per year were reduced among study group children than those in the control group with percentage 8% after application of the educational program and the effect of the educational program on the parents' level of knowledge was highly significant. It is concluded that: the episodes of recurrent otitis media per year were reduced in the frequency in the study group than those in the control group with percentage 8% after application of the educational program. According to the results the following recommendations were suggested: the Ministry of health and Population should focus on screening programs for all children in the community for early detection of otitis media and prevention of its complications. The pediatric and community nurse at home or in MCH centers gives all new parents an audio-visual material like an Arabic booklet that describes the baby care, the risk factors of otitis media and measures for prevention.

[Amina Mohamed Thabet; Mohamed Salama Baker; Soheir A. Dabash and Fathia Zaky Mohamed. Effect of an educational program for parents of children with recurrent otitis media during early childhood on prevention of its recurrence. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):86-98]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.10.

 

Key words: Otitis media, effusion

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Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Acinetobacter Infection in Intensive Care Units in Egypt

 

Marwa M. Shalaby1, Mina S. Meseehah1, Asmaa M. Shahin1, Amany M. Abdelwahaab2, Soheir S. Maklad2

 

1Microbiology & Immunology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Microbiology & Immunology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

amanimohamed1960@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant organism associated with nosocomial infections particularly in intensive care units. This study was carried out to investigate the biotype, resist type and genotype of A. baumannii isolated from different ICU patients at Tanta University Hospital using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to monitor outbreaks and spread of different clones and determine their relatedness with that isolates from ICU environment and Hospital Care Workers (HCW).Twenty four A. baumanni isolates were studied; 20 of them were mostly (70.8%) isolated from respiratory specimens of patients, 3 were from I CU environment and only one isolate from a HCW. Antibiogram analysis showed that the isolates were fully (100%) resistant to piperacillin, ceftriaxone, Cefoperazone and Aztreonam. Resistance to other antibiotics were 95.8%, 91.7%, 83.3%, 75%, 70.8%, 66.7% for Cefotaxime, Netilmicin, Tobramycin, Cefoperazone-sulbactam, Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Ciprofloxacin respectively Among isolates; 3 biotypes, 9 resist type and10 distinct genotypes were identified, with predominance of PFGE clone E (37.5%). Some environmental isolates had identical resistance and PFGE profiles and were closely related to an isolate from a HCW. Cluster analysis showed that there was a persistent endemic clone in Tanta Hospital ICUs. Conclusion: survival and circulating some clonally related A. baumannii were identified among patients and different ICU environment and HCW, which were probably selected because of their resistance to the majority of antimicrobial agents. These data provided a better understanding of A. baumannii epidemiology within hospitals, possible source and route of transmission and the resistance pattern in order toimplement a more strict prevention programs and improve antimicrobial therapy.

[Marwa M. Shalaby, Mina S. Meseehah, Asmaa M. Shahin, Amany M. Abdelwahaab, Soheir S. Maklad. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Acinetobacter Infection in Intensive Care Units in Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):99-109]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.11.

 

Keywords: Phenotypic; Genotypic; Acinetobacter; Infection; Egypt

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Factors Control of Gold Mineralization and Associated Ore Metals, Um Rus Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

I. Abu El-Leil1, S. M. Sakr1, L. M. Abd El-Salam2, H. M. Azzam3, and R. M. El-Wardany 2

 

1 Al-Azhar University, Cairo Branch.

2 Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch.

3 Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority (EMRA).

refaey_fz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:  Geological studies and mineralogical investigation reveal that gold mineralization and associated ore metals are essentially associated with smoky quartz and wall rock alteration zones, whereas kaolinitization, sericitization, vermiculitization and carbonatization are present as by-products of alteration processes. The studies reveal also that the base metal sulphides associated with gold mineralization are represented by pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite, bornit, covellite, and marcasite, as well as oxides such as magnetite, hematite and hydroxides such as goethite. Gold is commonly present as fine minute specks scattered within some sulphides such as pyrite and chalcopyrite and hydroxides such as goethite. However, in quartz veins is obtained along the microfractures. In the alteration zones, it is relatively more abundant in the highly ferruginted rocks. Paragenetic sequence of gold and associated ore metals suggests three different stages. These are pyrite and magnetite stage, followed by pyrite and arsenopyrite stage, and marcasite, hematite and goethite stage. Actually, the second stage of pyrite-arsenopyrite stage represents the most common one of gold mineralization.

[I. Abu El-Leil, S. M. Sakr, L. M. Abd El-Salam, H. M. Azzam, and R. M. El-Wardany  Factors Control of Gold Mineralization and Associated Ore Metals, Um Rus Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):110-125]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.12.

 

Keyword: Um Rus, Gold mineralization, Paragenesis sequence

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The effect of milk serum whey on some physical and physiological parameters of diving coaches

 

Ryeaan Abdel Moneim Abdel Rahim 1 and Saleh Abdel Salam El Tarabily2

 

1 Department of Specific Education, Faculty of Home Economics "Nutrition", Suez Canal University, Egypt.

2 Department of Water Sports, Faculty of Physical Education, El Arish, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

Rayyan8@gimail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of a dietary supplement (milk serum whey) on some physical and physiological parameters of diving coaches. Methods: Thirty healthy male divers aged (27.4   3.31 y) height (179.2 4.9 cm), weight (78.8 2.7 kg) were participating in this study. They were divided to two equal groups, a control and experiment group. They were instructed to dive for 45 minutes four times per week in Melia sharm, Reef Oasis. The divers coaches used Nitrox, enriched air, announced by PADI 1996, In case of the control group (using Placebo) and serum milk whey for the experimental one (30 grams) twice daily for 60 days. Physical and physiological tests were determined before and after the dietary program (60 days). Results: There was a significant improvement for the sake of experimental group in physical tests (vertical jump, zigzag run, running 30m. x 5, shuttling running and muscle strength) and another improvement in physiological tests (T. proteins, creatinine, lactate, CPK, AST, ALT) together with Malondialdehyde, SOD, Leucocyte counts ) and Neutrophils, lymphocytes, Monocytes. Conclusion: Milk serum whey demonstrates a beneficial effect on muscle strength, recovery of muscles and affect positively antioxidants and immunity of the divers coaches.

[Ryeaan Abdel Moneim Abdel Rahim  and Saleh Abdel Salam El Tarabily. The effect of milk serum whey on some physical and physiological parameters of diving coaches. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):126-132]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.13.

 

Keywords: Milk serum whey. Physical, physiological changes and immunity

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The role of Beet Root ingestion on respiratory cardiovascular system of diving coaches

 

Ryeaan Abdel Moneim Abdel Rahim 1 and Saleh Abdel Salam El Tarabily2

 

1 Department of Specific Education, Faculty of Home Economics "Nutrition", Suez Canal University, Egypt.

2 Department of Water Sports, Faculty of Physical Education, El Arish, Suez Canal University, Egypt.

Rayyan8@gimail.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the research is to study the role of Beet Root ingestion on respiratory cardiovascular system of divers. Materials, Methods: Twenty four male diving coaches aged (22-25y), participated to the research. They were divided to two groups, placebo, experimental, experimental ingested 100g of Beet Root for 30 days as a supplement, they dive 45 min four times per week, in Melia Sharm, Reef Oasis, Some Respiratory and Cardiovascular variables were determined before and after the supplement, placebo. Results: Indicated a positive effect of Beet Root on Vital capacity VO2 max, physical efficiency for respiratory variables together with increased blood cells, albumin, globulin fibrinogen and hematocrit values together with decreased pulse rate of the divers. Conclusion: Beet Root contents affects positively both respiratory and cardiovascular system leading to higher fitness and better health of the divers.

[Ryeaan Abdel Moneim Abdel Rahim and Saleh Abdel Salam El Tarabily. The role of Beet Root ingestion on respiratory cardiovascular system of diving coaches. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):133-138]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.14.

 

Keywords: Beet root, respiratory-cardiovascular system

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Alpha 1 Acid Glycoprotein as a Marker for Diagnosis of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Fullterm Neonates

 

Amina M.Abdel Wahab1, Sonia G.Elsharkawy1, Nouran B. AbdAllah1, AbdelhakimM.Elkasaby2

 

1Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

2Pediatric Department, Port Foad Hospital, Egypt

nouranboym2@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Despite improved neonatal care over the past decades, neonatal sepsis remains common and life threatening for newborns admitted to the intensive care units. The WHO estimates that 1 million deaths per year representing 10% of all deaths under 5 years are due to neonatal sepsis. Unfortunately, early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis remains challenging for practitioners as the manifestations are vague and require high index of suspicion. There is no single diagnostic test, which can reliably diagnose sepsis in newborns, therefore many tests and sepsis markers are currently used to diagnose or confirm sepsis. Aim of Study: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the role of Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Material and Methods: This study was a prospective case control conducted on 65 fullterm neonates who were admitted to NICU of Suez Canal University hospital from May 2013 to August 2014. Neonates were aged from day 0 to day 7 of life, they were categorized into 3 different groups according to clinical symptoms of sepsis, bacteriological and laboratory results. Group I consisted of 30 newborns with positive blood cultures and other biological tests which suggested infections (confirmed sepsis). Group II consisted of 15 newborns with negative blood cultures but who had two or three clinical signs of sepsis (suspected sepsis). The control group included 20 healthy newborns referred for follow up after delivery in SCU obstetric ward. Alpha 1acid glycoprotein (α-1AGP) and CRP were determined sphectometrically and by rapid agglutination test respectively. Results: There was a significant highα-1AGP level for confirmed and suspected sepsis. As well, CRP levels were significantly elevated in neonates with confirmed sepsis compared to other groups (p<0.001). Values of (α1AGP) in suspected group after 48 hours showed elevation and a positive significant relationship with neonatal mortality. Values of α1AGP were significantly higher in neonates who died due to sepsis in all groups. Conclusion: We concluded that α1AGP and CRP are good predictor markers for detection of early onset sepsis (EOS).

[Amina M. Abdel Wahab, Sonia G. Elsharkawy, Nouran B. AbdAllah, Abdelhakim M. Elkasaby. Alpha 1 Acid Glycoprotein as a Marker for Diagnosis of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Fullterm Neonates. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):139-144]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.15.

 

Keywords: Alpha-1acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, Neonatal sepsis

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Incidentally depicted herniation of posteroinferior cerebellar lobe

 

Hosam Eldeen Mostafa Ali1, MD, Seham Abbas Ali2, MD, Mahmoud Farid Bathalla3, MD

 

1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

3Neurosurgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

faridneuro@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and objective- the mild herniation of the posteroinferior cerebellar lobe used to be considered as a normal variant or irrelevant. The current study aims to determine the symptoms associated with incidentally discovered mild herniation of the posteroinferior cerebellar lobe through the foramen magnum. Methods- thirty incidentally depicted cases of mild herniation of the posteroinferior cerebellar lobe through foramen magnum (less than 5 mm) with no associated cervical cord syringomyelia or cerebral disorders associated with Chiari malformations, seen between December 2007 & March 2009. Those cases were subjected to complete neurological examination to depict the symptoms related to the herniation of the posteroinferior cerebellar lobe. The diagnosis of the herniation of the posteroinferior cerebellar lobe is based on mid-sagittal T1 or T2 FSE MRI. Results- the symptomatic cases mainly presented with chronic intractable occipital headache, vertigo, vomiting & disequilibrium. All patients included in the study showed normal brain except for herniation of the posteroinferior cerebellar lobewhich has been historically thought of no clinical relevance. 12 symptomatic cases subjected to further neurological examinations to elicit the etiological relationship between the posteroinferior cerebellar lobe herniation and such symptoms.

[Hosam Eldeen Mostafa Ali, Seham Abbas Ali, Mahmoud Farid Bathalla. Incidentally depicted herniation of posteroinferior cerebellar lobe. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):145-151]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.16.

 

Keywords: depict; herniation; posteroinferior; cerebellar; lobe

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Study on HCV direct acting drugs in treatment of chronic hepatitis C

 

Atef Ahmed Ibrahim, Roshdy Mohamed Khalf Allah, Amr Mostafa Al hammadiand and Mohamed Mahmoud Khamiss Abd Elguaad

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

Dr.m.khamiss@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern that affects 170 million people worldwide for which no vaccine is available. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. It is a member of the Hepacivirus genus in the family Flaviviridae. There are seven major genotypes of HCV, which are known as genotypes one to seven. Among those infected approximately 20–30% develop severe liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. The combined use of the nucleoside analog ribavirin and pegylated interferon alpha was the current standard of care. How-ever, success in treatment depends largely on the viral genotype. For instance, the rate of viral clearance upon current standard of care is only 50% with genotype 1, the most prevalent circulating strain in Western Europe and North America. Egypt's epidemiological and social situation differs from Western countries states that the prevalence of C virus is very high (estimated infection rate among adults by 10 and 20% in urban areas and rural areas, respectively). The origin of the epidemic due in the treatment of schistosomiasis control in rural areas in 1960 campaigns. Since then, the virus has continued to spread, mainly through intravenous injections and other medical procedures. But there is an important difference about the epidemic in Egypt is that more than 95% of infections are genotype 4 (HCVg4). Currently there are more than 8 million people infected in Egypt and the incidence of new infections is still the highest in all parts of the world. In addition, this combined regimen of treatment has been associated with many serious side effects such as fatigue, depression, nausea and bone marrow depression. All of these issues justify the need to develop novel, more efficacious and safer anti-HCV drugs. The development of new models and tools has led to the discovery and clinical development of a large number of new anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs. Telaprevir and boceprevir, both first-wave, first-generation NS3-4A protease inhibitors Two others in 2013/2014: Simeprevir, a second-wave, first-generation NS3-4A protease inhibitor. And Sofosbuvir, a nucleotide analogue inhibitor of the viral polymerase. Numerous other drugs have reached phase II or III clinical development. Beginning in 2015 and beyond and cure rates have increased to more than 90 percent.

[Atef Ahmed Ibrahim, Roshdy Mohamed Khalf Allah, Amr Mostafa Al hammadiand and Mohamed Mahmoud Khamiss Abd Elguaad. Study on HCV direct acting drugs in treatment of chronic hepatitis C. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):152-181]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.17.

 

Keyword: HCV, viral hepatitis, direct acting anti viral, DAAS

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Glutathione S transeferase as Aprediagnostic tool and tumor marker in breast cancer

 

Ahmed A. Hendawy1, Mohsen R. tolba1, Amal F. Gharib2 and Noha A. Ibrahim1

 

1Zoology department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2MedicalBiochemistryDepartment, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

Admirable_chica@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is one of leading causes of death in women, polymorphism of glutathione s- transferase (GSTT1) gene is known of risk factor for some environmental related diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of polymorphism in GSTT1 gene and breast cancer in Egyptian women at Sharkia governorate, and to analyze the correlation of GSTT1gene polymorphism with some hematological parameters. GSTT1 gene polymorphism were genotyped by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 200 Egyptian women, 100 patients suffered from breast cancer and 100 healthy women had no history of cancer, other physiological parameters were elevated as kidney function parameters (creatinine. Urea), liver function parameters (Albumin, AST, ALT, LDH), reproductive parameters (FSH, LH, PRL and Estrogen). Breast cancer women had a significance prevalence of GSTT1 null p=(0.002) than control group, GSTT1 null genotype in age group (40-60) in cancer cases p=(0.000) comparing with age group (40-60) in control group. GSTT1 null genotype in cancer group (40-60) associated with higher significance in some physiological parameters as creatinine, FSH, PRL and Estrogen. GSTT1 gene polymorphism may play an important role in pathogens and susceptibility to breast cancer in Egyptian women.

[Ahmed A. Hendawy, Mohsen R. tolba, Amal F. Gharib and Noha A. Ibrahim. Glutathione S transeferase as Aprediagnostic tool and tumor marker in breast cancer. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):182-193]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.18.

 

Keywords: Breast cancer, Glutathione s transferase t1, DNA extraction, Polymerase chain reaction

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Mean platelet volume: can be an indicator to inflammation in Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

 

Mervat E. Behiry 1, Dina M. Hassan2, Gihan S. Dedik1 and Emad M. Elmootasem1

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2Departmentof Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

lambaa2020@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of serious complications with a high death rate, in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Mean platelet volume (MPV)is an index of active platelets with more proinflammatory actions. The present study was aiming to prove that high mean platelet volume is an indicator of inflammatory processes in SBP. Subjects and methods: 50 patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with ascites and 30 healthy subjects as controls.Routine laboratory investigations including complete blood picture (CBC) with MPV estimation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C- reactive protein (CRP), Ascitic fluid analysis, and abdominal ultrasound done for all patients and compared to controls.Results: MPV was significantly higher in patient than in controls (11.01.2 and 9.90.9) respectively with (P. value < 0.001). At a cutoff value ≥ 10.8fl, MPV had 82.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity for determining SBP. Conclusion: MPV increases in cirrhotic patients with ascitic fluid infection, indicting occurrence of systemic inflammatory response.

[Mervat Essam, Dina hassan, Gihan Dedik and Emad Elmootasem. Mean platelet volume: can be an indicator to inflammation in Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):194-198]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.19.

 

Keywords: mean platelet volume; ascitic fluid infection; inflammation; cirrhosis.

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Effect of conductive PPy on the Mechanical properties of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) polymer blends

 

A.M. Abd Elbary(1) and N.I. Aljuraide(2)

 

1Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics and Mathematical Engineering Science, New Cairo Academy, 5th settlement, New Cairo City, Egypt.

2Faculty of Medical Applied Sciences and Scientific Departments, Department of Physics, Turabah Branch, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, P.O. Box 888, 21974, Saudi Arabia,

dr_ah_abdelbary2005@yahoo.com,; n.aljuraied@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Films of EVA, containing 12% VA and Polypyrrole / carbon nano-particles used for this study were prepared. The x-ray diffract grams of films were obtained for all the samples and ensures the amorphous nature. Tensile strength and elongation at break were estimated from stress strain curves measured by using a tension meter. The mechanical properties of these filled EVA samples show high initial elastic modulus increases with PPy contents up to 30 phr. The degree of reinforcement achieved through incorporation of conductive PPy is the highest at 30phr loading. The cross linking density calculated from the Mooney-Rivlin equation is found to be maximized at PPy loading of 30 phr. Finally, the experimental results were compared with theoretical a prediction, which indicates the absence of fitting between them. Meanwhile, polynomial empirical formula fit well the experimental results.

[A.M. Abd Elbaryand N.I. Aljuraide. Effect of conductive PPy on the Mechanical properties of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) polymer blends. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):199-203]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.20.

 

Keywords: Mechanical properties, (EVA), conductive PPy and polymer blend.

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The Possible Protective Role of Lemon Fruit Extract Against  Cytogenetic Effects Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Male Albino Mice

 

Lina Abdul-Fattah Kurdi and Wejdan Saad Alamri

 

Department of Biology (Zoology), Faculty of Sciences, Al Faisaliah- King Abdul Aziz University, P.O. Box. 4938, Jeddah 21412, KSA. dr.lina_kurdi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aims to evaluate the possible protective effect of lemon fruit extract (LFE) against  DNA damage in bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide. To attain this aim the 18 male mice be divided into six groups: G1 control group, G2 male mice treated with LFE (10ml/kg /day orally), G3 & G4 male mice treated with CP (10 & 20 mg/kg /day intraperitoneally), G5 & G6 male mice dually treated with LFE (10ml/kg/day orally) + CP (10 & 20 mg/kg /day intraperitoneally). All of the abovementioned groups were treated daily for 5 successive days. The micronucleus test showed that CP stimulates the production of micronucleus in polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow of treated mice giving evidence that CP is positive clastogen. While dual treatment with LFE and CP showed a reduction in the mean of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronucleus. Therefore, LFE could be concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

[Lina Abdul-Fattah Kurdi and Wejdan Saad Alamri. The Possible Protective Role of Lemon Fruit Extract Against Cytogenetic Effects Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Male Albino Mice. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):204-214]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.21.

 

Key Words: cyclophosphamide, bone marrow cells, micronucleus, lemon, mice

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Gated Pipes Irrigation System for Optimum Water Productivity of Sugar cane in Egypt

 

Hassan A. Abdel-Raheem1 and Ali Mohamed Elwan2

 

1Water Management Research Institute (WMRI), National Water Research Centre (NWRC), Egypt

2Sugar crops Research Institute - Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

dr.hassanahmed_999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In Egypt, water scarcity is one of the main challenges that hinder agricultural expansion and development. Also, sugar cane is the principal crop for the sugar industry and is the sole source for molasses, in addition, it provides many essential industries with raw materials. Sugarcane is well-known as one of the freshwater-guzzling crops, where one feddan (0.42 ha) planted by sugar cane in old lands need to more of irrigation water around 10800m3 than other field crops in Egypt. Therefore, optimization of water use of sugar cane involves getting the maximum value output for minimum amount of water consumed. Consequently, two field experiments during seasons (2015 and 2016) were conducted at three region at El – Minia (middle Egypt), Luxor (begin of Upper Egypt) and Aswan (end of Upper Egypt) experiment stations. Gated pipes irrigation system compared with conventional flood irrigation for irrigating sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were examined under two different planting methods (raised-beds and furrows) for the resulting differences in yield, water applied, actual water consumptive use, water saving, total irrigation efficiency, irrigation time and irrigation costs. Results indicated that the irrigated sugar cane crop by gated pipes system and planting in beds leads to an increase in productivity with rate equals 11.82%, 14.04 % and 16.03 %, saving of water by 32.35 %, 33.10% and 35.67 %, decrease the irrigation time about 36.90%, 37.95 % and 38.19 % % and rising the total irrigation’s efficiency about 75.78%, 75.10% and 74.83 % compared with conventional treatment (flood irrigation and planting in furrow) for El-Minia, Luxor and Aswan regions respectively. Result indicated that (from view point of water) when we use the best irrigation system (irrigated by gated pipes and planting in beds) we can save water irrigation about 1,035420270, 1,25400762 and 1,992858540 Millar m3/area in Egypt for same regions respectively. This quantity saving water enough to cultivate different areas from field and horticulture crops under Egypt conditions. It could be recommended to application gated pipes in beds to produce high yield and quality with less amount of water applied under different soil texture and weather conditions in Egypt.

[Hassan A. Abdel-Raheem and Ali Mohamed Elwan. Gated Pipes Irrigation System for Optimum Water Productivity of Sugar cane in Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(7):215-225]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.22.

 

Keywords: Gated Pipes; Irrigation; System; Optimum; Water; Productivity; Sugar cane; Egypt

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Factors Far Affecting beyond Just Traditionally Managing the Employees: An Approach to (HR) Meta-Management (MM) by Grounded Theory (GT)

 

Assist. Prof. Dr. Amgad Hamed Omara

 

Business Administration Dept., Vice Dean of the Faculty of Commerce, Menoufia University – Egypt.

amgadomara63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Do people in organizations have to be considered only as human resources? Or should they have to be dealt with as human beings as well? If you agree with the first half of this compound query, you are traditionally thinking that management theory is proportionally tend to be sufficient to deal with all the people's objectives. If you go to consider additionally the second half of the previous question, then you will think in organization's people out of being just employees. This research argues that managers have no way but to adopt the latter view, and whilst they are doing so, they should be aware that the context within which they are dealing with people is actually crossing over the limits of employees private and organizational objectives, to cover those people's communal purposes. In other words, people's backgrounds concerning the overall community issues, ambitions and goals are critically have emerged and clearly floated up to get enforced into the managers zone of work. In this, the research claims that management theory will not be that sufficient to allow managers to deal with the people widely extended ideological backgrounds that are conditionally affecting their work as well as workplaces. As an alternative, they have to be creatively able to utilize the whole body of knowledge in order to manage such ambitious goals of people. They have to use what to be called herein a meta-management (MM). However, getting correctly informed about the people's ideological backgrounds concerning the varied communal issues, managers have to go and directly ask those people. Since there will be too much vague and fake to build on a pre-set understanding to these ideological issues via the provided assumptions of management theory. That's why this research is highlighting the grounded theory (GT) as the method to use for originating the true theories which are actually based upon reality in considering what people think about and believe in. Due to the wide range of the employees ideologically communal backgrounds that have to be dealt with by the managers in different organizations, this research has been focused on those ideological backgrounds normally found and become more critically important by the mechanism of the development mobility, wherever it occurs in the world different countries, particularly in Egypt as a developing third world country. As a consequence, four issues were given the priority in this research; democracy concerning the political life, technology concerning the precedence of progress, capitalism concerning the economic welfare affairs, and the supremacy of law concerning the social control. The objective was to know how employees really think about and/or believe in these issues, to what extent this really governing and affect their work life, to what extent this thinking reflects on organizations, and what could be the additional task of managers in facing such a case. The research field study has empirically covered the Egyptian local community development societies (ELCDSs), those precisely based on the Lower Egypt governorates and the research population has contained a combination of non-top managerial and non-managerial staffs who are working there.

[Amgad Hamed Omara. Factors Far Affecting beyond Just Traditionally Managing the Employees: An Approach to (HR) Meta-Management (MM) by Grounded Theory (GT). J Am Sci 2016;12(7):226-246]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas120716.23.

 

Key words: Human resources, human beings, Meta management (MM), grounded theories (GT), democracy, technology, ruling of law, capitalism and globalization, development mobility

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 23, 2016. 

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2016 Marsland Press