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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 10, Cumulated No. 104, October 25, 2016

Cover (pdf), Cover (jpg), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1210

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

“Holistic Symptom Management: Modeling the Interaction Phase”: Reaction Paper

 

Ahmad Mahmoud Saleh 1, Manar Mazher Nabulsi 2

 

1. Clinical Instructor, Department for Continuing Education, Al Khalidi Hospital & Medical Center, Amman, Jordan

2. Associate Professor, Clinical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

al_raminy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reaction paper or response paper is a type of academic writing that requires proper writing skills and the ability to think deeply. A reaction paper necessitates the writer to analyze a text, then develop commentary related to it. It is a common academic assignment because it requires thoughtful reading, and writing. In the current paper, authors write a reaction paper about research article "Holistic symptom management: modeling the interaction phase" which details an interaction model that link the way a nurse participates in a client's effort to describe the symptom experience and the eventual symptom management outcome.

[Saleh AM, & Nabulsi MM. “Holistic Symptom Management: Modeling the Interaction Phase”: Reaction Paper. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):1-2]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.01.

 

Keywords: Reaction Paper; Response Paper; Academic Writing

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Cardiac involvement in acute brucellosis At Toukh Fever Hospital

 

Fawzy M. Khaleil, Mohamed A. Elassal, Ramy A. Samy, Mohamed M. Abd Ellatif, Sabah S. Sabek

 

Department of Internal Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

dr_sabah24@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Aim of this study is to clarify cardiac involvement in patients with acute brucellosis. Participants and methods: In this study fifty brucellosis patients were selected and subjected to different serum analysis including: CBC, CRP, ESR, ALP, PT, PTT, INR, Brucella agglutination test, AST, ALT, CPK, CKMB, serum bilirubin, serum urea, serum creatinine, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray, Echocardiography. Results: Chest X-ray revealed free 49 (98%), heart enlargement 1 (2%). Echocardiography revealed normal 49 (98%), low amplitude 1(2%), Echoـ revealed49 (98%) of studied patients were of normal Echoـ, while 1 (2%) had pericardial effusion. Abdominal US revealed normal 39 (78%), liver enlargement 5 (10%), spleen enlargement 5 (10%), liver enlargement & liver mass 1 (2%). Conclusion: In the study the musculoskeletal system is the most affected part of the body. The prevalence of cardiac affection in Malta fever in this study was 2%.

[Fawzy M. Khaleil, Mohamed A. Elassal, Ramy A. Samy, Mohamed M. Abd Ellatif, Sabah S. Sabek. Cardiac involvement in acute brucellosis At Toukh Fever Hospital. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):3-7]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.02.

 

Keywords: Cardiac involvement, acute brucellosis

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Assessment of Cardiac Involvement Using Colour Tissue Doppler Imaging In Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

 

Samah F. Abbas1, Heba A. Seliem1, Ahmed Elhewala2 and Heba A. Hafez1

 

1Department of Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of medicine Zagazig University, Egypt

2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of medicine Zagazig University, Egypt.

nagam_bodda22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of rheumatic disease in children. It is estimated that JIA affects up to 1 in 1000 children worldwide. Cardiac involvement in the form of pericarditis, pericardial effusion, myocarditis and valvular disease is found in JIA. The aim of this work was to assess the cardiac involvement in patients with JIA using colour tissue Doppler imaging. The study was carried out on 23 patients (5 boys and 18 girls) without any cardiac symptoms. They aged from 5 to 16 years old (mean 11.83± 3.68 years) and 23 apparently healthy age-sex matched control group. We used colour tissue Doppler imaging to assess cardiac involvement inpatients with JIA. No abnormal echo findings were detected among control group. Regarding cases group; no cases were detected showing hypokinisis,21.7% had mild pericarditis, 4.3% showed aortic affection and 17.4 % mitral affection. Diastolic dysfunction pattern of the right and left ventricles was detected, also there was significant increase in pulmonary artery pressure. the M-mode measurements showed mild increase in left ventricle diastolic dimension LVIDd (cases 3.8±0.4 cm, controls 3.5±0.41 cm, p=0.02) and systolic dimension LVIDs (cases 2.49±0.3 cm, controls 2.28±0.22 cm, p=0.01) mild hypertrophied left ventricle posterior wall LVPWd (cases 0.87±0.17 cm, controls 0.78±0.14 cm, p=0.05). Using tissue Doppler imaging in our study, the myocardial tissue velocities were studied, we detected statistical difference and decreased myocardial tissue velocity in JIA patients in S wave septum, S wave tricuspid valve, E and A waves in free wall, septum and tricuspid valves. No correlation between Tissue Doppler measurements and JADAS of the JIA patients.

[Samah F. Abbas, Heba A. Seliem, Ahmed Elhewala. Assessment Of Cardiac Involvement Using Colour Tissue Doppler Imaging In Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Angiography. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):8-15]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.03.

 

Keywords: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Echocardiography

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Site selection using GIS, Simulated Annealing, AHP and EVAMIX approaches under Fuzzy Set Theory: A case study of landfill siting in Blantyre City, Malawi.

 

Rodney Godfrey Tsiko

 

Department Geoinformatics and Surveying, University of Zimbabwe, P.O Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe.

tsikoruz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper explores the applicability and capability of solving site location problems using an integrated approach that includes the Markov-chain based Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm, Geographic Information System (GIS), fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Evaluation of Mixed Data (EVAMIX). The novelty of the proposed methodology is its capability to combine the flexibility of fuzzy logic in handling uncertainty with the simplicity, easy implementation and independence offered by simulated annealing in solving non-linear optimization problems, thus providing good site location solutions without losing consistency. In addition, the EVAMIX approach provides complete flexibility in using both quantitative and qualitative criteria. The approach is applied to a multiple objective decision problem of selecting the best location for a new landfill site, which will serve Blantyre City, an urban agglomeration in Malawi.

[Tsiko RG. Site selection using GIS, Simulated Annealing, AHP and EVAMIX approaches under Fuzzy Set Theory: A case study of landfill siting in Blantyre City, Malawi. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):16-33]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.04.

 

Keywords: Simulated Annealing; fuzzy logic; GIS; Analytical Hierarchy Process; EVAMIX

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Effect of compost of Parthenium hysterophorus on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum): A comparative study

 

Satish Kumar Ameta*, Paras Tak, Rakshit Ameta, Suresh C. Ameta

 

Department of Chemistry, PAHER University, Udaipur-313003 (Raj.) India

* Corresponding Author, Email: skameta@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In last few decades, our planet Earth is facing an extreme pressure due to ever increasing population and resulting in a higher food demand. On the other side, weeds are adding to this problem. Parthenium hysterophorus is also such a weed that should be managed properly to maintain the balance of the ecosystem. In present days, a newer ecofriendly approach is used for managing Parthenium weed by preparing its compost. The compost of Parthenium hysterophorus weed was prepared using the Vishishta composting method. The effect of the compost of Parthenium weed and inorganic fertilizer was seen on yield of wheat crop (Triticum aestivum). Productivity of wheat has been seen and a comparative study was made under three different conditions. These are (i) An area, where the Parthenium compost was used as an external nutrient source, (ii) An area, where an inorganic fertilizer was used as an external nutrient source and (iii) An area, which is unfertilized i.e. no external nutrient source was used. It was observed that the compost of Parthenium hysterophorus weed gave good results in yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

[Satish Kumar Ameta, Paras Tak, Rakshit Ameta, Suresh C. Ameta. Effect of compost of Parthenium hysterophorus on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum): A comparative study. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):34-37]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.05.

 

Key Words: Allelochemicals, compost, environment, food, health, nutrients, Parthenium, seed, weed, wheat

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Evaluation of Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity of Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine Prepared from Local strainin calves and Its Related to Maternal Immunity

 

Mohamed G.Abdelwahab1, Heba A. Khafagy2, Abdelmoneim M. Moustafa1, Mohamed A. Saad2

 

1Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha, Egypt,

2Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

mgahassan@yahoo.com dr.hebakhafgy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, Lumpy skin disease virus(LSDV) (Local Ismailia strain) was identified by using PCR, Live attenuated local Ismailia lumpy skin disease vaccine (LSD) was prepared, its titer on MDBK cell was log 103.0 TCID50/dose. It was sterile, safe. Ten susceptible calves 6-8 months old were used. Two calves of them were used for safety so it was vaccinated I/D with 20xof field dose of LSD vaccine (log 10 3.0 TCID50), while five calves were vaccinated with 0.5 ml of prepared vaccine intra dermally (I/D) and three of them were kept as control. Also five pregnant cattle at the last 4thmonths of gestation were used. Three pregnant cattle were vaccinated with 0.5 ml I/D of prepared vaccine (log 10 3.0 TCID50) and two of them were kept as control. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated. Lymphocyte proliferation began to increase till reach to its peak (1.84) at 10th day then decrease after that, While Interferon gamma(IFN-ᵧ)detected in 1stday (25%) till 7thday (17%) post vaccination then decrease after that. The humoral immunity was evaluated by SNT and ELISA, Protective serum neutralizing antibody titer started at two weeks (1.5), (1.19) post vaccination then reach to its peak at 12th weeks (3.1),(2.34) respectively and persisted till 40 weeks, So LSD vaccine was highly immunogenic, inducing higher lymphocyte and interferon γ levelanda higher level of antibody titer with prolongation of the duration of immunity, so it considered the best choice of vaccine to control LSD in cattle. The maternal immunity was detected in newly born calves from vaccinated dams by SNT and ELISA, the titer started higher from 1st day (2.33), (1.956) till 4th month (1.57),(1.058)respectively then decrease after that, So newly born calves should be vaccinated before the end of the four months of age.

[Mohamed G. Abdelwahab, Heba A. Khafagy, Abdelmoneim M. Moustafa, Mohamed A. Saad. Evaluation of Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity of Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine Prepared from Local in calves and Its Related to Maternal Immunity. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):38-45]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.06.

 

Key Words: PCR, MDBK, LSD, SNT, ELISA, IFN-ᵧ, I/D.

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Single Nucleotides Polymorphism analysis of Salmonella typhi isolated from Egypt

 

Soliman, Y. A.1; Karam, M.A.2 and Seadawy, M.G.3

 

1Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abassia, Cairo, Egypt

2Deparment of Botany, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Egypt

3Main laboratories, chemical warfare, Egyptian army force, Egypt

dryousefadel@gmail.com, biologist202054@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Meat and meat byproducts were taken from various areas in Egypt (Cairo, Sharqia, Mansoura, Ismailia, Fayoum and Suez). The samples (n=200) were subjected to bacteriological isolation of salmonella spp. Fifteen samples gave a suspected growth on the selective agar media. After biochemical isolation they were identified as salmonella spp the total 15 isolates were sampled from Cairo (4 positive samples), Mansoura (2 positive samples), Ismailia (2 positive samples), Sharqia (2 positive samples) Fayoum (2 positive samples) and finally Suez governorate (3 positive samples). Two of these samples were identified as S. typhi (isolated from Suez governorate) and one identified as S. paratyphi (isolated from Fayoum governorate). All the samples were further identified by serotyping and the results were all S. typhimurium except the two strains which were identified by biochemical reaction as S. typhi and S. paratyphi that gave the same results by serotyping. The isolated strains were further identified by traditional real time PCR or the portable identification system (R.A.P.I.D). All samples gave a positive Ct. Whole genome sequencing using ion torrent PGM The developed contigs were assembled and 4.1 mega bases have been developed when single nucleotide polymorphism analysis was conducted, about 9401 SNPS have been found.

[Soliman, Y. A.; Karam, M. A. and Seadawy, M.G. Single Nucleotides Polymorphism analysis of Salmonella typhi isolated from Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):46-54]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.07.

 

Key words: salmonellosis; Salmonella enterica; NGS. Ion torrent; invA gene

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The Role of Platelets Rich Fibrin in Immediately Loaded Dental Implants: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

 

Ahmed El-Sayed Shaker1, Mohammed Hassan El-Kenawy2 and Ehab Abdelfadil Ahmed3

 

1Master student in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansura, Egypt.

2Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansura, President of Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Lecturer of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansura, Egypt.

drahmedshaker1985@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To assess whether PRF has a beneficial role in the immediate loading of dental implants.

Materials and Methods: Sixteen healed edentulous spaces located in the maxillary anterior and premolar regions were rehabilitated using dental implants. The age of recruited patients ranged from 17 to 47 years, with a mean age of27 years. Eight implants were inserted following the traditional protocol in the control group. In the study group; a PRF clot was prepared and packed into the osteotomy site prior to implant insertion. A PRF membrane was carried on the healing abutment and adapted on the crestal bone surrounding the implant. All implants were restored with a provisional restoration within 48hours. Final restoration was delivered after 3 months. Results: No statistical significant difference regarding implant stability was observed between the two groups except at 1 month, where the stability of the PRF group was significantly higher (P=0.0095). No significant difference was observed regarding the gingival health, peri-implant pocket depth, orcrestal bone loss between the two groups at 3, 6 and 12 months after the delivery of final restoration. Conclusion: PRF has an early but short-term beneficial effect on the process of osseointegration as reflected by increased implant stability. PRF has no effect on the condition of the peri-implant gingival tissues, pocket depth or crestal bone loss.

[Ahmed El-sayed Shaker, Mohammed Hassan El-Kenawy and EhabAbdelfadil Ahmed. The role of Platelets Rich Fibrinin Immediately Loaded Dental Implants: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):55-62]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.08.

 

Keywords: immediate loading, implant, stability, provisional restoration.

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Vanadium inhibition capacity on nutrients and heavy metal uptake by Cucumis Sativus

 

Osu Charles I. and Mark O. Onyema

 

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt, Nigeria

charsike@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibition capacity of vanadium on nutrients and heavy metals uptake by Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber). The concentration of the nutrients and heavy metals were determined using standard methods. The results revealed that as the concentration of NH4VO3 increases the uptake of the nutrients and heavy metals decreases. The Percentage uptake ranged from 13.00 to 61.70%, N; 18.30 to 46.50%, P; 24.30 to 54.30%, Zn; 8.90 to 43.40 %, K; 8.80 to 33.40 %, Fe; 4.30 to 23.51 %, Pb and 20.50 to 52.00 %, Cd. Uptake of the nutrients and heavy metals was high in the non-vanadium treated (control) soil sample with values, 61.70%, N; 46.50%, P; 43.40%, K; 33.40%, Fe; 54.30%, Zn; 23.51%, Pb; and 52.00%, Cd. Percentage uptake decreases as the concentrations of vanadium increases. At 30 Mg/L vanadium, the nutrients decreased as follows 13.00%, N; 18.30%, P; 24.30%, Zn; 8.90%, K; 8.80%, Fe; 4.30%, Pb and 20.50%, Cd. There is antagonist effect on the heavy metals, Pb and Cd uptake could be especially relevant since the metals are toxic.

[Osu Charles I. and Mark O. Onyema. Vanadium inhibition capacity on nutrients and heavy metal uptake by Cucumis Sativus. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):63-66]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.09.

 

Keywords: Toxicity; Cucumis Stisva; heavy metals; Nutrients

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Cost Control in Construction Project Using Primavera Project Planner

 

Mohammadreza Emadi Andani & Golsa Moshayedi

 

Technology University Of Mohsen Mohajer, Isfahan, Iran.

Email: emadi.mohammadreza@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The construction industry is one of the oldest and largest industries next to the agricultural sector. It is the second major field that contributes maximum to GDP of India. Any major construction project involves effective utilization of resources to complete the project successfully within the budgeted cost and stipulated time period. Construction planning plays the major role in the construction industry. The aim of the project manager is to execute the work in a planned and efficient manner within a fixed time and to the specified standards of quality. Planning, scheduling and controlling are the key requirements for effective project execution. Construction activities consist of large number of uncertainties due to various unpredictable factors such as climatic conditions, difficulties in the procurement of materials, and price fluctuations. These factors affect the planning techniques for optimization. Conventional planning techniques have contributed to the long drawn out projects with inflated costs and delayed utilization. In addition drastic improvements in design and technology have added new dimension to the construction industry. Construction of a project includes large numbers of activities with various interrelationships. These interrelationships among activities and Planning, scheduling and controlling of a project can be effectively done by using primavera project planner. This produces a detailed scheduling system and provides a means for planning, controlling project from conception to the completion of the project. It’s useful for large scale construction, where more than or equal to 1000 activities has to be performed without disturbing each other activity in sequential manner. Further the budget control and manpower control san be assessed in proper way without giving any scope to unnecessary cost and time during execution of work. This tool is useful for all construction professional to accomplishment project in most organized way. Finally can say, project manager can manage the project with combination of knowledge and primavera project planner as a tool to get best result in control of project and finish the project on time and less than estimated cost.

[Mohammadreza Emadi Andani & Golsa Moshayedi. Cost Control in Construction Project Using Primavera Project Planner. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):67-75]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.10.

 

Keywords: construction project, cost management, cost control

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Smoking in Medical Students of Northern Border University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Nagah Mohamed Abo el-Fetoh1, Nesreen A. Mohammed2, Anfal M. Alanazi3, Habibah T. Alruwaily4, Omar TabaanAlenezi5, Jawaher Ali Alhowaish6

 

1Associated Prof. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University and Northern border University; E-mail-id: elshmaa3332004@yahoo.com

2 Lecturer of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University; E-mail-id: nesreenhammad180@yahoo.com

3Faculty of medicine, Northern border University; E-mail-id: toop-1991@hotmail.Com

4Faculty of medicine, Northern border University; E-mail-id: lula3332010@hotmail.Com

5 Faculty of medicine, Northern border University; E-mail-id: ulv-11@hotmail.Com

6 Faculty of medicine, northern border university; Email-id: Diamond-135@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Tobacco is the most important preventable cause of mortality worldwide. An alarming increase in smoking among young adults since the early 1990s was reported. Studies have shown that initiating smoking early in life is associated with increased risk for serious health outcomes. Aim Of The Study: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of smoking among medical students of Northern Border University in Arar City, to determine the ecological factors for the problem, and to show the students’ knowledge about smoking effects. Subjects And Methods: The study was cross sectional study. It was conducted in February 2016. All medical students at the time of study (n = 377) were included, with response rate = 80.01%. Data collected via personal interview and filling a questionnaire which was prepared after reviewing literature for similar studies. Results: Males comprised (88.2%) of the respondent medical students who smoke with a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between males and females as regards smoking. Year of study of medical student, educational achievement and family history of smoking had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on medical students smoking. Of the studied smoker medical students 35.6% reported that they smoke both cigarette and water pipe. 66.7% of smoker students reported that they had the intention to stop smoking and 82.4% considered smoking as hazardous. Conclusion: Smoking among medical students is considered a problem and efforts are needed to help students to quit smoking and this is considered as a preventive approach to smoking among tomorrow's doctors.

[Nagah Mohamed Abo el-Fetoh, Nesreen A. Mohammed, Anfal M. Alanazi, Habibah T. Alruwaily, Omar Tabaan Alenezi, Jawaher Ali Alhowaish. Smoking in Medical Students of Northern Border University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):76-81]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.11.

 

Keywords: Smoking; medical students; prevalence; consumption pattern; impact of tobacco use.

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Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) oxidation of Landfill Leachate and Sewage: Removal of COD and BOD

 

Osu, Charles I*. and Chukwu Uche J.

 

*Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323.

charsike@yahoo.com, +2348037783246

*Corresponding author

 

Abstract: Oxidation of landfill leachate and sewage from different locations using potassium ferrate and percentage removal of Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) using K2FeO4 at 298 K for 30 minutes were investigated. Ferrate oxidized the landfill leachate and sewage and was effective within 30minutes at 298 K temperature. The percentage COD reduction after treatment ranged from 61.70 to 70.00 % and 61.00 to 68.70 % for landfill leachate and sewage respectively. The concentration of BOD reduced with the range of 42.60 to 53.56 %, and 48.30 to 60.30 % for landfill leachate and sewage respectively. The results obtained for landfill leachate ranged from 13400 ± 0.80 to 20420.13 ± 0.60 MgL-1, BOD; 16930 ± 2.00 to 33400 ± 0.20MgL-1 COD; 1.03 ± 0.05 to 2.50 ± 0.50 MgL-1, DO; 6450 ± 1.30 MgL-1, TDS; 693.40 ± 0.20, TSS; 1634.00 ± 1.10 to 3140.15 ± 3.40 µsCm-1, EC and 6.80 to 8.60, pH. The concentration for sewage ranged from 113.30 ± 0.30 to 310.60 MgL-1, BOD; 840.30 ± 0.60 to 7540.70 ± 1.80 MgL-1, COD; 0.06 ± 0.30 to 0.10 ± 0.00 MgL-1, DO; 959.00 ± 1.40 to 1070.60 ± 1.20 MgL-1, TDS; 14560 ± 1.60 to 21000 ± 1.80 MgL-1, TSS; 970.60 ± 0.70 to 1600.80 ± 0.90 µsCm-1, EC and 6.60 to 8.70, pH.

[Osu, Charles I. and Chukwu Uche J. Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) oxidation of Landfill Leachate and Sewage: Removal of COD and BOD. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):82-84]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.12.

 

Keywords: Leachate, Sewage, Ferrate, Oxidation, COD, BOD.

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Consumer Buying Behavior towards Organized Retailing: An Exploratory Analysis of Saudi Arabian Supermarkets

 

Dr. Salah Abunar1 and Dr. Mohammad Zulfeequar Alam2

 

1Assistant Professor of Supply Chain Management. Dean, College of Business Administration (CBA), University of Business & Technology (UBT), KSA. Email: salah@ubt.edu.sa

2Assistant Professor of Marketing Department, College of Business Administration (CBA), University of Business & Technology (UBT), KSA. Email: zulfeqarm@ubt.edu.sa

smabunar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Retail sector in Saudi Arabia is growing very fast. It started making its presence felt nearly a decade after the first lot of retail hypermarket introduced in KSA. Developments in the food retailing industry have led to growth of shopping malls, particularly in the large cities of Saudi Arabia. As a consumer play an important role in any business. Therefore understanding consumer buying behaviors are important to success of super or hyper market business. For the purpose an exploratory study with structured questionnaire was developed and online survey with 244 Saudi customers were conducted to identify and explore their satisfaction regarding super/ hyper market services provided by these sectors in the region. After analysis it was found that there were significant differences in their opinion towards organized retailing among the super market shoppers in the region.

[Salah Abunar and Dr. Mohammad Zulfeequar Alam. Consumer Buying Behavior towards Organized Retailing: An Exploratory Analysis of Saudi Arabian Supermarkets. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):85-95]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.13.

 

Keywords: Super Market, Hyper Market, Consumer Behavior, Retail Sector, Consumer Satisfaction, Saudi Arabia.

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Preparation and Characterization of Poly (urethane amide) Resins from Soybean Oil for Surface Coating Applications as Renewable Recourses

 

N. A. Alian

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

dr_ossama22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Poly(urethane amide) PUA resins with varying ratio of NCO/OH (0.5: 1 – 2:1) were synthesized from Soybean oil (S.O) with 2,4 toluene diisocyanate (TDI) using dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBTDL) as catalyst in order to tune the final properties of the materials. Methyl esters of soy oil were first prepared by reacting soy oil with dry methanol in presence of sodium methoxide (NaOMe) as catalyst, then the obtained methyl esters were reacted with diethanolamine to give N, N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) soy fatty amide. The resins have been characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis. The physicochemical characterization like hydroxyl value, iodine value saponification value and viscosity of poly(urethane amide) resins were carried out by standard methods. The coating performance of the resins was evaluated for film thickness, drying time, adhesion, flexibility, pencil hardness, impact resistance, gloss and chemical resistance properties.

The results show good performance of the poly(urethane amide) resins that hold promise for use as effective surface coating materials.

[N. A. Alian. Preparation and Characterization of Poly (urethane amide) Resins from Soybean Oil for Surface Coating Applications as Renewable Recourses. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):96-102]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.14.

 

Keywords: Soybean oil; poly(urethaneamide) resins; coating performance; Renewable resource.

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A Comparative Study to Evaluate Canal Transportation and Centering Ratio at Different Levels of Simulated Curved Canals Prepared by iRaCe, ProTaper NEXT and ProTaper Universal Files.

 

Hikmet A. Sh. Al-Gharrawi 1, Mohammed Ali Fadhil 2

 

1Assistant Professor. Department of Conservative Dentistry. College of Dentistry, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq.

2Assistant Lecturer. Department of Conservative Dentistry. College of Dentistry, Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq.

Mohamoa@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Root canal preparation includes both shaping and enlargement of the endodontic space in conjunction with its disinfection, without any procedural error is of the utmost preference. Recently, in endodontic practice, the nickel-titanium instruments are used commonly for preparation of the root canal space. Nickel-titanium instruments are much more flexible than stainless steel files and have superior cutting efficiency. Aim of this study was to measure and compare the canal transportation and centering ability of iRaCe and ProTaper NEXT nickel titanium instruments with ProTaper Universal instruments in simulated curved canals at different levels and compare canal transportation and centering ability among different levels for each tested instrument. Material and Methods: Sixty simulated curved canals of 40°curvature were randomly divided into three groups of twenty canals each; the first group (group A) was prepared with iRaCe instruments, the second group (group B) was prepared with ProTaper NEXT instruments and the third group (group C) was prepared with ProTaper Universal instruments. The canals were prepared to an apical size 30 by crown-down instrumentation technique. Removal of material was measured at five different levels: at the canal orifice (O), half way to the orifice in the straight sections (HO); the beginning of the curve (BC); the crest of the curve (AC); the end point (EP). Pre- and post-operative photos of the simulated canals were taken in a standardized technique at magnification of 40X. An assessment of canal shape has been determined using Photoshop CC 2014 and AutoCAD 2014 software program. The data of canal transportation as well as centering ratio were analyzed statistically using Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: the results of this study demonstrated that the iRaCe instruments showed a significantly less canal transportation and a significantly better centering ability than both ProTaper NEXT and ProTaper Universal instruments at all levels of measurements, followed by ProTaper NEXT instruments that showed a significantly less canal transportation and significantly better centering ability at all levels when compared with ProTaper Universal, while the ProTaper Universal instruments showed the highest values of canal transportation and the worst ability to stay centered in the canals at all levels. Considering the direction of canal transportation, the iRaCe instruments showed minimal transportation towards inner aspect of canal at coronal and at the apex of curve and towards outer aspect of canal at middle, beginning of curve and at the end point of the preparation, while ProTaper NEXT instruments were showed transportation usually towards the inner aspect of the canal at middle part of the canal and towards the outer aspect at coronal, beginning of curve, apex of curve and at the endpoint of the preparation, while ProTaper Universal files were usually towards the inner aspect at middle part of the canal and towards the outer aspect at coronal, beginning of curve, apex of curve and at the endpoint of the preparation. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that canal preparation with the three files of Ni-Ti instruments produced canal transportation. The iRaCe file showed less canal transportation and better centering ability than ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal groups at all the five measuring levels, followed by ProTaper NEXT, while the ProTaper Universal files showed the least centering ability and increased straightening and canal transportation at all the five measuring levels especially at the apical portion of the canal.

[Al-Gharrawi HA, Fadhil MA. A Comparative Study to Evaluate Canal Transportation and Centering Ratio at Different Levels of Simulated Curved Canals Prepared by iRaCe, ProTaper NEXT and ProTaper Universal Files. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):103-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.15.

 

Key words: Canal transportation, centering ratio, iRaCe, ProTaper NEXT, ProTaper Universal.

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The out-to-in employees’ marginalization: does it really affect the core organization’s non-structural aspects

 

Dr. Amgad Hamed Omara

 

Assist. Prof., Business Administration Dept., Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Commerce, Menoufia University, Egypt. amgadomara63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: When one feels that he is not considered in terms of the life foremost underpinnings, left for long carelessly neglected, and permanently faced with no positive response, although he is doing his best in shouting loudly for being gotten or listened to, in this case, he has no way but to get severely frustrated and considered himself as marginalized in life. This may occur in people’s common life as individuals in community or it may happen to them in their organizations’ community, when they are employed in some workplace. This research is interested in investigating such a phenomenon whether it is based upon true grounds or even just perceived reasons that may stemming from people’s convinces of facing marginalization. The interest is directed to the phenomenon whatever the form it actually takes due to the same consequences left by it on the community, particularly inside the organization. An aggregate approach was adopted to consider in breadth the out-to-in marginalization that’s externally occurs outside the organization and internally has its reflection inside it. Four types of marginalization were to be interested in this direction; the true marginalization outside the organization that leads to a true one inside, the true marginalization outside that leads to a perceived one inside, the perceived marginalization outside that leads to a true one inside, and the perceived marginalization outside that leads to a perceived one inside. A theo-analytical preface was provided to be based upon in methodologically establishing a hypothetical path between three variables; the septic case of the organization’s soft aspects as the dependent one or research problem, the internal marginalization inside the organization as an intermediate variable that hypothetically represents the direct reason behind the problem, and external marginalization outside the organization as an explanatory or independent variable, which hypothetically materializes the indirect reason that’s originating the problem. Three hypotheses were to be statistically examined in order to cover four types of the out-to-in marginalization. There was a general conclusion that signifies the real existence of the four types of the out-to-in marginalization, in the target population contained by this research field study. Hence, it was satisfactorily justifying to recommend that the organizations’ management have to consider a periodical investigation to find out if their employees - or even some of them - are suffering sort of marginalization or not.

[Amgad Hamed Omara. The out-to-in employees’ marginalization: does it really affect the core organization’s non-structural aspects. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):116-135]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.16.

 

Key words: out-to-in marginalization, in-to-out marginalization, true marginalization, perceived marginalization, organization’s soft, smooth or non-structural aspects, organization’s hard, tough or structural aspects.

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Correlation between cervical consistency index and vitamin D binding protein in prediction of preterm labour

 

Eman A. Alkholy1, Asmaa F. Abdelhalim1, Afaf A. Ismail1, Reham S. Fathy2, Aaisha H. F. Hussein1

 

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Al Azhar University (for Girls), Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Al Azhar University (for Girls), Cairo, Egypt

emanobgyn40@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Prediction of preterm delivery is not an easy process and requires high obstetriccare of pregnant women at risk, or presented with threatened preterm labour. Sonographic evaluation of cervix began in 1970s, and development oftransvaginal probe a decade later improved its accuracy and diagnostic value inevaluation of cervix in pregnancy. Objective: to assess the diagnostic power of a CCI obtained using TVU and evaluates the correlation between it and vitamin D binding protein serum level in prediction of preterm labour. Patients and Method: A prospective case control study was done on 45 pregnant attending Al Zahraa University Hospital & El Khanka Hospital (30 case and 15 control) from June to December 2015. Pregnant woman with symptoms suggestive of preterm labour, single tone or twin gestations, intact amniotic membranes, past history of PTL and in the stages of pregnancy from 24 to 28 weeks gestation were included in the study. Pregnant women with major fetal anomaly, confirmed membrane rupture, cervical cerculage, abruption placenta or those with intra uterine growth restrictions were excluded from the study. Measurement of vitamin D binding protein in maternal serum by ELISA technique and TVU to detect CCIwere done to all cases. Result: Preterm delivery showed significantly lesser AP” diameter and CCI at 28 weeks when compared to those delivered at term, while AP diameter, AP’, CCI at 24 weeks and AP at 28 weeks did not differ significantly between preterm and term deliveries. Term deliveries showed significant decrease in AP diameter, AP’, and CCI at 28 weeks when compared to 24 weeks (p=0.001 for each). Cervical AP’ was significantly lower when compared to cervical AP at 24 and 28 weeks (p=0.001 for both). While at preterm there was a significant decrease in AP diameter, AP’, and CCI at 28 weeks when compared to 24 weeks (p<0.001 for each). Cervical AP’ was significantly lower when compared to cervical AP at 24 and 28 weeks (p<0.001 for both). Regarding the VDBP, there was a significant increase at 28 weeks when compared to 24 weeks. There were no significant differences found between term and preterm groups at 24 and at 28 weeks. Conclusion: CCI showed the highest specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values than VDPB. This results support the use of TVS in all cases at high risk or presented with threatened preterm labour for detection of cervical parameters especially CCI, aiding in early prediction of preterm labour with confirmation by serum VDBP.

[Eman A. Alkholy, Asmaa F. Abdelhalim, Afaf A. Ismail, Reham S. Fathy, Aaisha H. F. Hussein. Correlation between cervical consistency index and vitamin D binding protein in prediction of preterm labour. J Am Sci 2016;12(10):136-143]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas121016.17.

 

Keywords: Preterm labour, cervical consistency index, vitamin D binding protein, trans vaginal ultrasound.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 2, 2016. 

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