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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 11, Cumulated No. 105, November 25, 2016

Cover (pdf), Cover (jpg), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1211

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

Groundwater Quality and Vulnerability Assessment in the New Reclamation Areas, Assuit Governorate, West Nile River, Egypt

 

Abdel-Hameed M. El-Aassar1*, Rasha A. Hussien2, Saad Y. Ghoubachi3

 

1 Hydrogeochemistry Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2 Siting and Environment Department, Nuclear& Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Geological Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

* Corresponding author, Rashahussien76@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Groundwater vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. Reclamation processes at western part of Assuit Governorate have created many hydrogeological and environmental problems such as an increase of groundwater salinity, soil deterioration and water logging on the new cultivated land. This paper attempts to evaluate the groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural purposes and produce groundwater vulnerability maps using geographic information system (GIS). For irrigation purposes about 75% of water samples are unsuitable for MR (Magnesium Ratio) indicating unfavorable effects on crop yield and an increase in soil alkalinity. Calculating Kelly’s Index (KI) indicating 42% of water samples have (KI˃1) shows an excess of sodium.Vulnerability maps were produced by applying the Generic and Agricultural models according to DRASTIC charter. The resulting maps revealed that the potential for polluting groundwater with agricultural chemicals is greater than with Generic DRASTIC index pollutants due to extensive agricultural activities. Also, there are some groundwater samples were polluted with nitrate, iron and manganese. There is a trend of decreasing in both nitrate and manganese concentrations from East to West, i.e., the degree of pollution, decrease as we get far from the old cultivated lands (from Pleistocene aquifer to Eocene aquifer) and vice versa of iron.

[Abdel-Hameed M. El-Aassar, Rasha A. Hussien, Saad Y. Ghoubachi. Groundwater Quality and Vulnerability Assessment in the New Reclamation Areas, Assuit Governorate, West Nile River, Egypt. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):1-23]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.01.

 

Key words: Groundwater Quality Index / Vulnerability/ DRASTIC Method/ Assuit Governorate.

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Classification of impacted mandibular third molars in a sample of the Saudi population as assessed by cone beam CT

 

Fatima Jadu1; Daniah Alhazmi2; Fatma Badr3 and Ahmed Jan4

 1Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

2King Abdulaziz University and University of Iowa

3King Abdulaziz University and University of Florida

4Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

fjadu@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Objective: Treatment planning the removal of impacted third molars requires ample knowledge of their position and relation to adjacent vital structures. Traditionally two-dimensional radiographs have been used for this purpose. With the advent of volumetric imaging, the aim of this study was to examine the classification of impacted mandibular third molars using CBCT images. Materials and methods: A cross sectional retrospective chart review was conducted using the database of a university based oral and maxillofacial radiology service. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist reviewed the images of patient’s referred for CBCT imaging prior to extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. Results: The images of 100 consecutive patients were included. The most common mandibular third molar angulation was mesioangular and the most common depth was Level B while the most common ramus relation was class II. Discussion: New classifications for impacted third molars should be developed based on the added information provided by three-dimensional imaging.

[Fatima Jadu; Daniah Alhazmi; Fatma Badrand Ahmed Jan. Classification of impacted mandibular third molars in a sample of the Saudi population as assessed by cone beam CT. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):24-27]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.02.

 

Keyword: Classification; impacted; mandibular third molars; Saudi population; assessed by cone beam CT

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Synthesis and Characteristics of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Environmental Pollutant Wastes

 

N.A. Alian, M.M. El-Sawy, S.F. Hamza, A.A. Borai and N.O.Shaker

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science(Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo Egypt.

Correspondence to N.O. Shaker, e-mail: nihal_shaker@hotmail.com.

 

Abstract:Cellulose esters with saturated fatty acyl substituents (C12lauroyl to C18stearoyl) were synthesized in homogenous medium N,N,dimethylacetamide solution combined with lithium chloride (DMAc/LiCl) using triethylamine (TEA) as acid scavenger and characterized by means of FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal degradation of the esters was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). The products possess values of the degree of substitution (DS) between 0.16 and 1.95. Rosin cellulose esters were also prepared and studied for film properties. It was found that these films can be made compatible with conventional film formers such as alkyds, phenolics and epoxy esters and the combinations could be used in various surface coating formulations.

[N.A. Alian, M.M. El-Sawy, S.F. Hamza, A.A. Borai and N.O.Shaker. Synthesis and Characteristics of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Environmental Pollutant Wastes. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):28-39]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.03.

 

Key words: Cellulose, cellulose esters, Rosin cellulose esters, DMAc/LiCl, thermal analysis.

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Potential protective role of barley's grains on methotrexate induced jejunal mucosal damage in male albino rats

 

Mohamed Ahmed Dosuky1, Esam Salah Kamel 2, Salwa Mohammed Ouies3, Noha Abd El-Magid Ragab Fouda4

 

1Department of Human Anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Alminia University, Egypt

2Department f Human Anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

3Department of Human anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

4Department of Human anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

salwaouies@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used as chemotherapy drug in the treatment of rheumatoid disease. MTX is known for its common effect in causing intestinal mucosal injury. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an ancient grain, has been domesticated since 8000 B.C. possesses significant antioxidant, antiradical potentials and antiulcerative activity. Aim of the Work: To investigate the Potential protective effects of barley's grains on methotrexate induced jejunal mucosal damage in male albino rats by light and scanning electron microscope and morphometric study. Material and Methods: thirty adult male rats weighting 150-200 gm were used and randomly divided into three equal groups: Control group; MTX group was given 6 mg/kg body weight of Methotrexate for 5 days intraperitoneal injection; the third group was given barley grains at a dose of 200g /kg/day beside the usual food for 30 days plus intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate on the day 25, at the dose 6mg/kg /day for 5 days then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Jejunal samples were excised for light and scanning electron microscopic study and morphometric study. Results: intraperitoneal administration of methotrexate induced marked changes in jejunal mucosa detected by both light and scanning electron microscope with severe erosions, exfoliation and ulcer formation. The addition of barley significantly decrease jejunal damage and could protect intestinal mucosa against the injurious effects of methotrexate. Conclusions: These results concluded that methotrexate combined with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in comparison with methotrexate induced less intestinal mucosal damage and this protective effect might be due to the anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activity of barley.

[Mohamed Ahmed Dosuky, Esam Salah Kamel, Salwa Mohammed Ouies, Noha Abd El-Magid Ragab Fouda. Potential protective role of barley's grains on methotrexate induced jejunal mucosal damage in male albino rats. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):40-51]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.04.

 

Keywords: Methotrexate, barley, jejunal mucosal, rats.

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Study on polyamide thin film nano-composite membranes using different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at different pH feed solutions

 

Abdel-Hameed Mostafa El-Aassar

 

Egyptian Desalination Research Center of Excellence (EDRC), Desert Research Center (DRC), Cairo, Egypt. Tel.:+202-01002501524;+202-26389069, amelaassar@edrc.gov.eg, hameed_m50@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: To enhance the performance of polyamide thin film composite (PA-TFC) membranes, non-functionalized, NH2 and COOH functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) were used as additives. The PA active layer was prepared via interfacial polymerization between m-Phenylene diamine (MPD) in aqueous phase and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in dodecane as organic phase. The obtained results indicated a general improvement in the RO performance, the values of permeate flux increased from 33.61 for non-modified PA-TFC membrane to 37.78, 36.15, 38.12 L/m2.h for non-functionalized, NH2, COOH functionalized MW-CNTs, respectively. The obtained TFNC membranes possess high values of salt rejection (%) that is not lower 99.63. The surface hydrophilicity of PA-TFNC membranes improved as compared with the neat PA-TFC membrane. Also, the rejection (R) of both Na+ and Cl-ions showed that at pH< 6.5, at acidic media; the R (Na+) > R (Cl-). On the other hand, at pH > 6.5, at alkaline media the R (Na+) < R (Cl-). While, at pH=6.5, at slightly neutral media; the R (Na+) = R (Cl-).

[Abdel-Hameed Mostafa El-Aassar. Study on polyamide thin film nano-composite membranes using different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at different pH feed solutions. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):52-63]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.05.

 

Key words: Thin film nano-composite membranes; carbon nanotubes; water desalination; reverse osmosis; pH feed solution.

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Effect of a Training Program on Nurses' Knowledge and Performance Regarding Infection Control Standard Precautions at M.C.H. Center in Rural Area

 

Hala Hassan Saied Khalil1and Hoda Ahmed Hussein2

 

1Lecturer of Community Health Nursing Department -Faculty of Nursing- El-Fayoum University, El-Fayoum, Egypt

2Lecturer of Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Modern University for Technology and Information, Egypt

hoda_hussein@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Standard precautions formerly known as universal precautions underpin routine safe practice protecting both staff and clients from infection by applying standard precautions at all times and to all patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a training program on nurses' knowledge and performance regarding standard precautions in M.C.H center. A quasi-experimental research was used to conduct this study. The study was conducted at the mother and child health center(M.C.H) affiliated to the ministry of health and population at El- Fayoum village (Sanoras). A purposeful sample was included 35 nurses who were working in M.C. Hcenter after receiving their consents for participation in the research. Two tools were used to achieve the objective of the study: Tool I: An interview questionnaire was developed and used by the researchers as a tool for data collection. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: The first part: Is concerned with: The demographic characteristics of nurses. The second part: A pre and post test questionnaire was used to collect the nurses' knowledge regarding standard precautions. Tool II: An observational checklist sheet was used to record performance of the nurses regarding application of standard precautions. Majority of the studied nurses experienced deficit in their knowledge and performance regarding infection control standard precautions which is mainly related to not being used to do it and this deficit was corrected after implementation of the training program. It was concluded that training program regarding infection control standard precautions was effective in improving nurses’ knowledge and performance in M.C.H center with highly statically significant differences in all tested items between pre/post program implementation( P< 0.001). It was recommended that establishment of a training program for nurses and health team members working in M.C.H centers with continuous supervision, assessment and evaluation of nurses performance related to infection control measures to improve the quality of care given in relation to prevention and control of infection in M.C.H centers.

[Hala Hassan Saied Khalil and Hoda Ahmed Hussein. Effect of a Training Program on Nurses' Knowledge and Performance Regarding Infection Control Standard Precautions at M.C.H. Center in Rural Area. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):64-75]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.06.

 

Keywords: Infection control, standard precautions, nurses’ knowledge – performance, nurses training program.

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Impact of Plant Spacing on Growth and Yield of Two Sweet Pepper Cultivars

 

Sabreen Kh. A. Ibraheim and A. A. M. Mohsen

 

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

sabreenkh75@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during two summer seasons of 2014 and 2015 at El-Khattara Experimental Farm, Fac. Agric., Zagazig University, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, to study the effect of plant spacing (20, 30, 40 and 50 cm) on growth, yield and fruit quality for two sweet pepper cultivars (Primo and Mohannad 4010). The results showed that, Primo cultivar gave the highest values of plant height, total dry weight per plant, leaf area/ plant (LA), leaf area index (LAI), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), absolute growth rate (AGR), average fruit weight, fruit yield/plant, total yield (ton/feddan) and K (%) in fruits. While, Mohannad 4010 cultivar showed higher values of number of fruits per plant and vitamin C content in fruits. In addition, total dry weight per plant, LA, LAR, AGR, average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant and vitamin C content in fruits increased with increasing plant spacing up to 50 cm spacing. Furthermore, plant spacing at 40 or 50 cm between plants recorded the highest values of plant height, number of both leaves and branches per plant with no significant differences between them. While, plant spacing at 20 cm between plants recorded higher values of LAI, SLA and total yield. The interaction treatments between Primo cultivar and plant spacing at 50 cm had significant effect on LA, AGR and fruit yield/plant. While, Primo cultivar with plant spacing at 40 or 50 cm gave the highest values of plant height, total dry weight per plant and average fruit weight. On the other hand, Primo cultivar with plant spacing at 20 cm was the best interaction treatment in respect to LAI, SLA and total yield in the two studied seasons.

[Sabreen Kh. A. Ibraheim and A. A. M. Mohsen. Impact of Plant Spacing on Growth and Yield of Two Sweet Pepper Cultivars. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):76-83]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.07.

 

Key words: Sweet pepper, plant spacing, cultivars, growth and yield.

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Nursing Intervention for Enhancing Hemodialysis Patient Adherence to Therapeutic Regimen

 

Ghalia Elmoghazy Elkasaby Elmoghazy1, Salwa Abbas Ali Hassan1, Amany Sobhy Sorour1 and Ahmad Farouk Donia2

 

1Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Internal Medicine Department, Nephrology Urology & Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt

domtymo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adherence with the prescribed medical regimen is a crucial factor for achieving good therapeutic results in dialysis patients. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hemodialysis patients' education in improving their adherence to therapeutic regimens. Design: A quasi-experimental research design. Setting: Two hemodialysis units in Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura City. Sample: A purposive sample (120 patients) was used. Tools: An interview questionnaire and Adherence measures form. Results: The study results revealed that a highly statistically significant improvement in the study subjects’ knowledge about therapeutic regimen post program implementation also, daily life activities were improved. Statistically significant positive correlationswere found between scores of knowledge, awareness, self-reported practices, willingness and level of education. Conclusion: Patients who were exposed to the educational program showed improvement in their adherence to therapeutic regimen and daily living activities. Recommendations: Ongoing health education is highly needed for the hemodialysis patients, and their care givers, using a multitude of audiovisual materials that suit the needs for each patient. A booklet contained information about therapeutic regimen should be available in all units providing hemodialysis.

[Ghalia Elmoghazy Elkasaby Elmoghazy, Salwa Abbas Ali Hassan, Amany Sobhy Sorour and Ahmad Farouk Donia. Nursing Intervention for Enhancing Hemodialysis Patient Adherence to Therapeutic Regimen. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):84-93]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.08.

 

Key words: Adherence, non-adherence, therapeutic regimen, hemodialysis patients.

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Impact of mix food colors with Barly Water (Talbina) on some neurotransmitters in different brain regions, biochemical and histological structure of liver male albino rats

 

Bawazir A. E

 

Department of Zoology, King Abdul-Aziz University Faculty of Science, Jeddah, K.S.A

ebawazir@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Many azo dye derivatives are used as food colorants has been neurotoxic effects. The objective of current study is to investigate the effect of chronic administration of mix Food color with Barly Water on neurotransmitters contents in different sides of brain. Particularly (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, brain steam and hippocampus). Moreover, liver functions of male albino rats will be examined. Results show that the daily oral intake of mix food colors lead to decrease in the content of some neurotransmitters in brain areas at the different time, this might have caused oxidative stress leading to disturbances in neural function and decreased synthesis of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic cell. The daily oral intake of mix food colors with barly water caused a significant increase in total content of neurotransmitters in brain areas after treatment. In addition, the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase in rats oral administration with mix food colors were significant increase in treated rate. Chronic oral administration of mix food colors with barly water caused high in the level of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in treated rate. The present result in could be concluded that chronic oral administration of barly water with mix food color showed that an improvement in the tissue of liver. Finally, It was concluded that barly water improve the damage resulting from chronic intake of a mixture of food color due to its contains antioxidant substances that have the ability to capture free radicals.

[Bawazir A. E. Impact of mix food colors with Barly Water (Talbina) on some neurotransmitters in different brain regions, biochemical and histological structure of liver male albino rats. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):94-103]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.09.

 

Key words: food colors, barly water, some neurotransmitters, Brain regions. liver function, male albino rats.

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Case Report H Syndrome

 

Abdullah Alshaya1, Sultan Alkhonaizan2, Majed Alfadhl3, Fatemah Altamimi1, Ali Almajhad4, Maher Alshami1, Badi Alenazi1, and Mosleh Jabari5

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Alyamamah Maternity and Children Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Dermatology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

4Department of Dermatology, King Salman Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

5Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

dr.mus888@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: H syndrome is a monogenic systemic inherited form of histiocytosis, with characteristic cutaneous findings accompanying systemic manifestations. The major common endocrine manifestations like hypogonadism, short stature and diabetes mellitus with characteristic genodermatosis lead to the diagnosis. Objective: To report a rare case of H syndrome, an autosomal non autoimmune disorder in a three years old Syrian boy who was presented with diabetes mellitus type one, hyperpigmented hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, aortic stenosis. Method: We described the clinical spectrum of H syndrome with multisystem spectrum involvement, the solute carrier family 29(nucleoside transporters), member 3(SLC29A3) gene was screened for molecular diagnosis utilizing the NGS based mutational analysis. Results: H-syndrome is caused by a mutation in SLC29A3 gene which encodes for the human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-3(hENT3). a 3 years old boy who was diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus, his clinical phenotype included hyperpigmented hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, short stature, cardiac involvement, a clinical diagnosis of H SYNDROME were suspected, and we identified a reported homozygous pathogenic variant c.1279G^A(p. Gly427ser)in the SLC29A3 gene by sequencing. Conclusion: The characteristic pigmentary hypertrichosis and cardiac involvement in diabetes mellitus patient raised the suspicion of H syndrome. NGS with its multiplexing option offers a rapid and robust platform for molecular diagnosis at an affordable cost.

[Abdullah Alshaya, Sultan Alkhonaizan, Majed Alfadhl, Fatemah Altamimi, Ali Almajhad, Maher Alshami and Mosleh Jabari. Case Report H Syndrome. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):104-105]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.10.

 

Keyword: Syndrome.

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Effect of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA6061-O Aluminum Alloys

 

Mostafa. S. S. El-Deeb1, S. A. Khodir2, Sayed A. Abdallah3, A. M. Gaafer3 T. S. Mahmoud3

 

1Teaching Assistant, Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Production Technology, Modern Academy for Engineering and Technology, Cairo Egypt.

2Welding Technology and Inspection Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Mechanical Engineering Department, Shoubra Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt.

engmostafaeldeeb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present work is to study the effect of the welding conditions and T4 and T6 post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) on the microstructure and hardness values of AA6061-O aluminum plates joined using friction stir welding (FSW). The welding was conducting using three rotational speeds of 400, 500 and 630 rpm and two welding speeds of 25 and 40 mm/min. After FSW, the AA6061 joints were subjected to T4 and T6 heat treatments. Microstructural characterization was examined using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the grain size of the stir zone increased by increasing the rotational speed or by decreasing welding speed. Hardness significantly decreased as rotation speed increased and the values of hardness for the welded joints after artificial aging (T6) are greater than solution heat treatment (T4).

[Mostafa. S. S. El-Deeb, S. A. Khodir, Sayed A. Abdallah, A. M. Gaafer, T. S. Mahmoud. Effect of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA6061-O Aluminum Alloys. J Am Sci 2016;12(11):106-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas121116.11.

 

Keywords: Friction stir welding, AA6061 aluminum alloy, microstructures observations, Hardness measurement.

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