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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/marsjas, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 107, January 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1301

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

Fighting Varroa Destructor Parasitizing The Honey Bee "Apis Mellifera Linnaeus" Using Black Seed "NigellaSativa" Infusion, and Neem Tree "Azadirachta Indica" Fruit Powder Infusion

 

NadaO.Edrees

 

Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Branch of Zoology King Abdulaziz University. Jeddah, Saudi arabia

nedress@kau.edu.sa; nada.algalb@hotmail.com; dr_nada_edrees2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effectiveness of the black seed (Nigella Sativa) infusion and fruit powder infusion of the Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica), the widespread in the Arabian Peninsula desert was tested, in fighting Varroa destructor on honey bees (Apismellifera). The results showed variation in the number of destructor falling during treatment periods that extended to four consecutive weeks, the results were counted though calculation of the number of deaths at the end of each one of the four weeks, for each of the samples treated with both preparations, where the samples treated with the fruit powder infusion of the Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) recorded the highest level of the falling numbers during the third week, (112,5741), followed by the second week (85,2857 ), and then the fourth (33.2857), while the first week recorded the least proportion of the falling destructordue to treatment (28,5714). The samples treated with the black seed (Nigella Sativa) infusion the highest percentage of the falling destructor in the third week (135,7143), followed by the second week where the score was (73,5714), and then the fourth week (58,2857), and finally the first week thatscored the lowest number of falling destructor, with an average of (32,8571), where it is likely to attribute the rise in the third week tothe penetration of the material used in control in the bees, helping to get rid of the samples infected with Varroa destructor due to the penetration of the material used in the treatment in the parasite tissues, while the decline in the last week is attributed to the decrease of the numbers of the infected bees in the hives. We recommend using the black seed (Nigella Sativa) infusion, and the dried fruit powder infusion of the Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) in the fight against Varroa destructor, being two products safe to the beehive products, and their easy use throughout the year, and low economic cost.

[Nada O. Edrees. Fighting Varroa Destructor Parasitizing The Honey Bee "Apis Mellifera Linnaeus" Using Black Seed "Nigella Sativa" Infusion, and Neem Tree "Azadirachta Indica" Fruit Powder Infusion. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):1-4]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.01.

 

Key Words: Varroa destructor, Apismellifera Linnaeus, Nigella Sativa, Azadirachtaindica

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Effect of the Presence of Coronary Collaterals on Biventricular Functions in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease, Tissue Doppler Study

 

Mohamed Mahmoud

 

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut), Egypt

d.mohammedmahmoud@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Coronary collaterals or "natural bypasses" are anastomotic connections without an intervening capillary bed between portions of the same coronary artery and between different coronary arteries. Collateral circulation potentially offers an important alternative source of blood supply when the original vessel fails to provide sufficient blood. So it provides protection to myocardium in CAD, and it limits the ischemic area after total coronary occlusion. So presence of well-developed collaterals helps in preserving both systolic and diastolic LV functions. Several methods have been developed over the years to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively different parameters of LV function. Echocardiography has been the most popular since it is a non-invasive technique that can provide information on the structure of the heart as well as on its function. In addition it can help assessing the etiology of the heart condition and improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology; one of the first clinical applications of tissue velocity imaging (TVI) has been as a method of assessing left ventricular systolic function. Assessment of this parameter remains the commonest indication for echocardiography, as other standard methods are often limited by technical difficulties, inaccuracy and poor reproducibility. Pulsed Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) is a sensitive, reproducible, accurate, non invasive echocardiographic technique that become a very useful clinical tool for the diagnostic, follow-up, and evaluation of the prognosis of cardiac diseases. and quantify on-line systolic and diastolic ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction. It appears to be a promising method to quantify regional wall motion abnormalities in the setting of ischemic heart disease Aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of presence of coronary collaterals on biventricular functions in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler study. Subjects and methods: the study included 50 patients, 39 (78 %) males and 11 (22 %) females, with age from 40 to 67 years old with mean age 55.92. Inclusion criteria: Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Exclusion criteria 1. Patients with rheumatic heart disease. 2. Patients with end stage renal disease. 3. Patients with end stage liver disease. 4. Heamodynamicaly unstable patients. 5. Patients with acute coronary syndrome. 6. Patients with single and two vessel disease. 6. patients with decompensated heart failure. The following was done for all patients. a. Full history taking, b. Complete clinical examination, c. Resting surface 12 leads electrocardiography (ECG), d. Coronary angiography, and e. Transthorasic echocardiography. Results: All patients in the study had coronary collaterals:. According to the number of coronary collateral pathways patients divided to: Patients with ≥ 5 pathways are 35 patients (70 %). Patients with < 5 pathways are 15 patients (30 %). Echocardiography results: LV systolic function by 2D: Normal (EF ≥ 55) in 13 (26 %) patients. Mild impaired (EF 45: < 55 %) in 13 (26 %) patients. Moderate impaired (EF 30: < 45 %) in 18 (36 %) patients. Severe impaired (EF < 30) in 6 (12 %) patients. LV systolic function by TDI: Normal (average S wave > 8.25 cm/s) in 19 (38 %) patients. Impaired (average S wave < 8.25 cm/s) in 31 (62 %) patients. LV diastolic function by pulsed Doppler over mitral flow: Normal or pseudonormal (E/A ratio 1- 2) in 5 (10 %) patients. Impaired relaxation (E/A ratio < 1) in 41 (82 %) patients. Restrictive pattern (E/A > 2) in 4 (8 %) patients. LV diastolic function by TDI: Average Em wave normal (> 12 cm/s) in 7 (14 %) patients. Average Am wave normal (> 5.05 cm/s) in 9 (18 %) patients. LV diastolic function impaired (Em/Am ratio < 1) in 44 (88 %) patients. LV systolic function by 2D: Normal (fractional area change 32 – 60 %) in 40 (80 %) patients. Mild impaired (fractional area change 25 – 31 %) in 10 (20 %) patients. No patients had moderate or severe impairment. RV systolic function by TDI: Normal (Lat T S wave > 11.5 cm/s) in 15 (30 %) patients. Impaired (Lat T S wave < 11.5 cm/s) in 35 (70 %) patients. RV diastolic function by pulsed Doppler over tricuspid flow: Normal (E/A ratio >1) in 11 (22 %) patients. Impaired relaxation (E/A ratio < 1) in 39 (78 %) patients. RV diastolic function by TDI: Normal (Lat T E/A ratio > 1) in 7 (14 %) patients. Impaired relaxation (Lat T E /A ratio < 1) in 43 (86 %) patients Conclusion: Coronary collaterals can preserve resting global LV and RV systolic and diastolic functions which is not detected with conventional echo and detected with TDI. These findings are important especially to patients not eligible for PCI or CABG.

[Mohamed Mahmoud. Effect of the Presence of Coronary Collaterals on Biventricular Functions in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease, Tissue Doppler Study. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):5-19]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.02.

 

Key words: coronary collaterals, CAD= coronary artery disease, echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and left ventricular function

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Origami-Nano-Technological Refugee Tent

 

Omar M Amireh PhD, Associate Professor

 

Department of Architecture, University of Jordan

amireh@ju.edu.jo; +962 790334959

 

Abstract: In a natural and normal design process, combining art with science and technology and in the appropriate environments would with no doubt generates and provide effective and enduring products or solutions. While art may be considered an unnecessary extravagance value in designing a refuge shelter or tent (whether disasters or war refugees), science and technology is counted as substantial waste in an excessive cost when applied in harsh and rough environments and at short time and tight space. This paper aims at studying the possibility of conceptual designing an Ori-Nano-Refugee-Tent, which based on the idea of combining Origami as an Art with Nanomaterial as a technology and Architecture as a science. The research investigates, on the one hand the poor; aesthetic, utilization and critical conditions of the existing refugee structures, along with, on the other hand, the strong self-folding static dynamic techniques of the appealing artistic concepts of the Origami Art, and the added technical, operational and contextual attributes and values of the Nanotechnology applications. Introducing both Origami and Nanotechnology would respond to the changing human-environment needs to reach, a consensus between both the design principles of the Origami, which provides for multi folding forms and variable aesthetic structures, and the Nanotechnology, which provides durability, usability and controllability. The research resulted in proposing an experimental-conceptual Origami structure of Nanocellulose sheets operating with self-folding electrical activation current. The research needs further analytical, mathematical and laboratory investigation in order to reach the suitable Origami folding form and turning the idea into a real application.

[Omar M Amireh. Origami-Nano-Technological Refugee Tent. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):20-30]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.03.

 

Keywords: Origami, Refugee House, Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Nanocellulose Technological Refugee; Tent

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The effect of aqueous extracts of Fennel (Foenicul umvulgare Mill) seeds on some neurotransmitters Content and histological structure changing of cerebellar cortexin the brain of male albino rats

 

A. E. Bawazirand, L. E. Bokhary

 

Department of Biology (Zoology), Faculty of Science – Al-Faisalyyah campus, Biology Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Email: ebawazi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Back ground: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill) is amedical and aromatic plant wildly used in Saudi Arabia as traditional medicine for a wide range of diseases. Objective: To study the effect of aqueous extract of Foeniculumvulgare Mill. on some neurotransmitters content in all brain region of male albino rats. Methods: Forty two male albino rats were divided in to three groups: normal control (contain 6 rats) and treated group (24 rats) receiving orally aqueous extracts of fennel seeds (200 mg/ kg b.w.) for four consecutive weeks and decapitated 6 rats after 1,2,3,4 weeks for physiological study and (12 rats) decapitated 6 rats after 2 and 4 weeks for histological study. Results: Results showed that the daily ingestion of aqueous extract of fennel seeds caused significant increase in the total content of neurotransmitters in all the tested regions. This probably due to the presence of active compounds such as Saponin and estragole where worked on the inhibition of release neurotransmitters studied from producing cells resulting in a higher content inside brain cells With the neuroprotective effects of the cerebellar cortex tissue fennel to contain a high amount of antioxidants. Conclusion: The study concluded that the fennel extract is likely to be an effective influence as a sedative as well as his protective effects nervous for the maintenance of brain tissue.

[A. E. Bawazir and L. E. Bokhary. The effect of aqueous extracts of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds on some neurotransmitters Content and histological structure changing of cerebellar cortexin the brain of male albino rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):31-36]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.04.

 

Key words: Fennel Foeniculum vulgare, Neurotransmitter, Brain, Rats, cerebellum

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Effect of gender on outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective comparative study

 

A. A. EL-Motaleb1, S. A. Ammar1, F. A. Al-Bassiouni2, M. M. El-Shafie1

 

1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

2 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

a.aly82@aun.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Introduction and aim of work: Bariatric surgery is becoming the standard of care for morbid obesity. Several operations are utilized to treat these cases with differences in response between males and females. In this study we explored the difference in early response to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) according to patients' gender. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients (15 females and 15 males) with morbid obesity were subjected to LSG and followed up for a period of 6 months (at 1, 3, and 6 months). Weight loss and BMI loss were calculated. Results: The mean weight loss in males was 13.00, 22.47 and 34.33 at 1, 3 and 6 months respectively while females lost 10.00, 16.93 and 23.80 at the same time points. The mean male BMI loss was 4.39 ± 1.43, 7.56 ± 2.17 and 11.56 ± 3.20 at 1,3 and 6 months respectively, while female BMI loss at the same time points was3.88 ± 1.47, 6.55 ± 2.06 and 9.17 ± 2.66. Conclusion: LSG is an effective procedures for weight loss, however there is difference in response according to gender, where men perform favorably in short term. Longer periods of follow up are needed to confirm the stability of these results.

[A. A. EL-Motaleb, S. A. Ammar, F. A. Al-Bassiouni and M. M. El-Shafie. Effect of gender on outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective comparative study. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):37-40]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.05.

 

Keywords: Sleeve gastrectomy, gender effect, sex difference, outcomes, bariatric surgery and weight loss

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Effect of mesenchymal stem cells injection on induced stomatitis in chemotherapy treated rats

 

Asmaa Serry1, Souzi F. Shinaishin2 and Khaled El Haddad3

 

1 lecturer assistant, oral biology department, Faculty of dentistry -BeniSeuif University, Egypt

2Head of oral biology department, Faculty of dentistry- Ain Shams University, Egypt

3 Lecturer, Oral biology department, Faculty of dentistry- Ain Shams University, Egypt

dr.asmaaelgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intravenous injection of mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MBMSCs) on induced stomatitis in rats receiving chemotherapy. Methodology: All the rats used in the study were subjected to stomatitis induction protocol by scratching the buccal mucosa and divided into 3 groups. gr.1: exposed to stomatitis induction only, gr. 2: injected with 5-FU and exposed to stomatitis induction, gr. 3: injected with 5-FU followed by stomatitis induction then injected with labelledstem cells. At day 10 all groups were sacrificed and subjected to the following investigations: oralmucositis scoring system (OMS), Routine histological examination with H&E, Immunohistochemical profile using PCNA stain and finally florescent microscope. Results: It was found that the treated group (gr. 3) showed better improvement than gr.2 in OMS, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Conclusion: from the present study it was found that intravenous injection of MBMSCs reduce severity of stomatitis in rats receiving chemotherapy.

[Asmaa Serry, Souzi F. Shinaishin and Khaled El Haddad. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells injection on induced stomatitis in chemotherapy treated rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):41-50]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.06.

 

Key Words: chemotherapy induced stomatitis, oral mucositis, stomatitis induction protocol, intravenous stem cells injection, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

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Menstrual pattern and factors affecting among Egyptian adolescent females

 

Mosaad Abdel Hameed1, Mohammed Shawkat1, Manal A. Alsayed1, Hesham M. Hamad1, Hany Mahmoud1, Maha abdel-Ghany2and Safwat Hegazy2

 

Departments of Gynecology & Obstetrics1 and Pediatrics2 Alsahel Teaching Hospital, Egypt

dr.hamdybehairy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: menstruation is a normal physiological phenomenon for females indicating her capability for procreation. However, this normal often associated with some degree of suffering and embarrassment. The prevalence of menstrual disorders has been recorded as high as 87%. Aim and objectives: to find out the mean age of menarche of adolescent girls 8 -18 years and to know menstrual pattern and to find out the prevalence and types of menstrual disorders. Material and methods: cross sectional study was carried out at Alsahel teaching hospital. Total 500 adolescent girls randomly selected from outpatient clinics of 8-18 years age and asked to complete an anonymous Arabic questionnaire included data on demographics, socioeconomic status, menstrual pattern, related menstrual symptoms and the impact of menstruation on daily life after verbal consent. Results: The mean age of menarche was found 12.5 +1.5 years. Regular menstrual cycles were found in 77% while 22% had irregular cycles. Oligomenorrhoea was found in 14.5%, polymenorrhoea in 14%. The mean duration of blood flow 4 + 1.5 days. Average blood loss was found in 92%, heavy blood loss in 5%, scanty flow in 3%. Dysmenorrhoea was found 72% of girls. Limited social activities was found in 25% while school abstinence found in 10%.

[Mosaad Abdel Hameed, Mohammed Shawkat, Manal A. Alsayed, Hesham M. Hamad, Hany Mahmoud, Maha abdel-Ghany and Safwat Hegazy. Menstrual pattern and factors affecting among Egyptian adolescent females. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):51-54]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.07.

 

Key words: menstrual pattern – adolescent girls – menstrual disorders.

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Laparoscopic TAPP Repair for Bilateral Inguinal Hernia, Single Large Mesh versus Double Mesh Technique

 

Hany Mohamed El-Barbary, FRCS, FACS and Nasser Ahmed Nazeer, MD.

 

Department of General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain shams university (ASU)

nassernazer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of laparoscopic repair of bilateral inguinal hernia with trans-abdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) technique using a single large prosthetic mesh to reinforce the posterior wall versus the use of two separate meshes. Patients and methods: We performed a prospective randomized clinical study involving forty patients with bilateral non complicated inguinal hernias ranging from 18-49 years of age. These were operated from January 2013 till January 2015 and followed up for 6-24 months. Twenty patients with bilateral inguinal hernias had TAPP repair with a single large mesh and another twenty patients TAPP repair with double meshes. The main outcome measurements were: hernia type, BMI, operative time, post-operative pain, postoperative complications, hospital stay and recurrence rate. Results: We had thirty two males and eight females. Average operating time was 72 minutes in TAPP using single large mesh, and 102 minutes in TAPP with double mesh. There was less postoperative pain in the single large mesh group. We had one patient with transient hematuria and one with lower abdominal hematoma which resolved by medications in the single mesh group. We had one recurrence in double mesh group after 18 months. We had no recurrences in the single mesh group. Conclusion: laparoscopic TAPP approach using a single large mesh is a safe, time saving and cost effective approach for non-complicated bilateral inguinal hernias, especially in patients with low BMI. It is suitable for patients with Nyhys III & IV with large defect in the posterior wall. Nyhus II inguinal hernia or small direct hernias in obese patients are best treated with double mesh technique.

[Hany Mohamed El-Barbary and Nasser Ahmed Nazeer. Laparoscopic TAPP Repair for Bilateral Inguinal Hernia, Single Large Mesh versus Double Mesh Technique. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):55-61]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.08.

 

Key words: bilateral inguinal hernia, laparoscopic hernia repair.

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The effect of pomegranate leaves powder on biological, biochemical and histological changes of induced obese rats

 

Maha, A. Hijazi and Haneen, H. Mouminah

 

Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

mhijazi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The present research was conducted on thirty male mature Wistar rats to study the effect of pomegranate leaves powder on Body weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER), Liver Enzymes Activity, serum glucose levels, lipid profile and histological changes of liver in obese rats after 28 days were studied. Thirty male Wister Albino rats were distributed into five equal groups (6 rats each) as follows: group1: negative control, group 2: positive control was fed on high fat diet (obese rats), groups 3, 4 and 5 fed on high fat diet (obese rats) and treated with fed on 1,3 and 5% pomegranate leaves powder of the weight of rats respectively. The results showed that, obese rats (positive control group) had a significant (P<0.05) increase in body weight gain (BWG), feed Intake (FI) and feed efficiency ratio (FER). Compared to group 1 (negative control) by 142.28, 31.33 and 4.10% respectively. Rats were fed on pomegranate leaves powder at (1%, 3% and 5%) significantly (P<0.05) decreased of body weight gain (BWG), feed Intake (FI) feed efficiency ratio (FER), when compared to group 2 (positive control). Obese rats (positive control) had a significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes, serum glucose level, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, lipoprotein fraction and Atherogenic index comparing to group 1 (negative control group). On the other hand, Feed obese rats on pomegranate leaves powder at (1%, 3% and 5%) significantly (p<0.05) decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes, serum glucose level, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, lipoprotein fraction and Atherogenic index when compared to group 2 (positive control). Histopathological examination of liver sections of rats of pomegranate leaves powder -treated groups showed slight vacuolization of hepatocytes, and focal cytoplasmic vacuolization of some hepatocytes was observed in liver hepatotoxic rats from1, 3 and 5% pomegranate leaves powder respectively.

[Maha, A. Hijazi and Haneen, H. Mouminah. The effect of pomegranate leaves powder on biological, biochemical and histological changes of induced obese rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):62-70]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.09.

 

Key words: Pomegranate leaves powder, liver functions, lipid profile, phenolic compound histopathology, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), atherogenic index (AI).

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Effect of sesame on liver enzymes and lipid profile inrats exposed to oxidative stress induced by Monosodium glutamate

 

Nahed A. Hareeri1, Amani A. Alrasheedi1, Mamdouh M. Eassaw2

 

1 Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

2Regional Center for Food and Feed (RCFF), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

2Basic Medical Sciences Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Al Baha, Saudi Arabia.

Aalrasheedi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The present research was conducted on twenty-four male mature Wistar rats to study effect of sesame oil on liver enzymes, lipid profile and the protective role against the oxidative stress caused by feeding monosodium glutamate which may be affect the liver. The rates were allocated in four equal groups. The 1stone used as negative control without any treatment. The 2nd group used as positive control feed on monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6 mg/gm bodyweight. The 3rd group received monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6 mg/gm body weight and treated with sesame oil at doses 4 ml/kg. body weight. The 4th group received monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6mg / gm bodyweight and treated with sesame oil at dose rate 8 ml/kg bodyweight.. Results indicated that oral intake of sesame oil at doses 4 and 8 ml/kg. body weight for 14 days significantly improved total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), lipoprotein fractions, decreased the elevated serum levels of liver enzymes Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), when compared to the control positive group. Oxidative stress markers Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were significantly improved as compared to the control positive group. We can have concluded that the consumption of sesame oil may be have protective effects against the oxidative stress caused by consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and its recommended to intake sesame oil daily for people who consume food with monosodium glutamate (MSG).

[Nahed A. Hareeri, Amani A. Alrasheedi, Mamdouh M. Eassaw. Effect of sesame on liver enzymes and lipid profile in rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by Monosodium glutamate. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):71-78]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.10.

 

Key words: Sesame oil, Monosodium glutamate, oxidative stressliver functions, lipid profile, antioxidant

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The Microshear Bond Strength of Repaired Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments.

 

Abo El Naga A.1 and Zahran R.2

 

1Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Operative Dentistry. Faculty of Dentistry, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo, Egypt.

aaboelnaga@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Background: Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. In addition, reports on the efficacy of surface treatments are debated. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the microshear bond strength of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty six circular composite discs, each was approximately 2mm in thickness and 1cm internal diameter were obtained from a specially designed split Teflon mold. Twelve specimens were used as control without any aging or mechanical treatment, while the other twenty four discs were aged in distilled water for 6 months. The aged discs were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=12), according to the mechanical surface treatment used. They were treated with either flat end cylinder diamond bur or air abrasion. Two adhesive systems (n=6) (Prime & Bond NT, etch and rinse adhesive system, Dentsply and Xeno V, self-etch adhesive system, Dentsply) were applied to bond the mechanically treated composite substrates to the new resin composite. Ceram X resin composite (Dentsply) was used for composite cylinders builds up (0.9 mm in diameter x 0.5 mm in height). Three composite cylinders were constructed on each treated surface (n=18 in each subgroup). Lloyd universal testing machine was used to test microshear bond strength at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Data was calculated and statistically analyzed. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the significance for effect of surface treatment on microshear bond strength. Tukey’s post-hoc test and Student’s t-test were used for pair-wise comparison between the means when ANOVA test is significant. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The microshear bond strengths of the groups treated by air abrasion were significantly higher and more stable than those treated by grinding. Moreover, significant differences were observed among the conditioning procedures where etch and rinse approach was superior when compared to self-etch adhesives. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it seems that air abrasion combined with clinically well-proven adhesives may play a role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths.

[Abo El Naga A. and Zahran R. The Microshear Bond Strength of Repaired Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):79-86]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.11.

 

Keywords: resin composite; repair; microshear bond strength; adhesive systems; air abrasion.

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Postburn facial resurfacing using locoregional flaps

 

Ahmed Gamil Elsharkawy, Tarek Ashour and Ahmed Rezk El Naggar

 

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Medicine; Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

ahmedrezk1000000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Postburn hypertrophic scar in the face is extremely challenging to the reconstructive surgeons. Numerous methods have been postulated for the management of the hypertrophic scars, but till now, the single best choice has not been established. Among these treatments are surgical excision with grafting however cosmetic results were suboptimal, others include pressure therapy, topical and intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, silicone gel sheeting and others aiming at decreasing collagen synthesis. In this study scar excision and resurfacing with locoregional flap was tried to provide pliable tissues with best colour/texture match. Eight patients with various degrees of hypertrophic scar in the face were reconstructed with fasciocutaneous supraclavicular artery flap in this study and their outcome was evaluated.

[Ahmed Gamil Elsharkawy, Tarek Ashour and Ahmed Rezk El Naggar. Postburn facial resurfacing using locoregional flaps. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):87-92]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.12.

 

Key words: hypertrophic scar, supraclavicular flap, postburn scar management.

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Quantitative multi-parametric MRI in characterization of ovarian cystic masses

 

Esam M Hemat; Khaled M El-Gerby and Ahmed A Ismail.

 

Radiology department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

esamhemat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To assess quantitative multi-parametric MRI examination in characterization of ovarian complex cystic masses. Patients: Thirty female patients with a mean age of 47 years (31 to 64 years old) were presented with ovarian cystic masses by pelvic ultrasound or pelvic CT scanning. All patients were referred to radiology department for a pre-operative multi-parametric pelvic MRI. Methods: Conventional MRI, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were performed by a 1.5 T MRI machine. Regions of interest (ROIs) were applied over the solid and cystic components of the masses. Post-operative histopathology was done to determine the nature of ovarian cystic masses. Results: Thirty female patients were included (11 malignant & 19 benign cases by histopathology). DCE-MRI sequences had a significant higher mean values in malignant lesions than benign ones (p-value <0. 001). Regarding malignant lesions, time of initial peak of contrast uptake ranged from 55 to 100 seconds with an average 77 seconds. On the other side, benign lesions showed time of peak range from 58 to 230 seconds with an average of 104 seconds. The mean ADC value of benign lesions was (1.36 x 10-3 ± 0.77 mm2/s), and of malignant lesions was (0.58x 10-3 ± 0.21 mm2/s). Our cutoff value was 1.23 x 10-3 mm2/s. Conclusion: Multi-parametric MRI, such as conventional MRI criteria, DCE-MRI curves, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value can independently differentiate benign from malignant ovarian masses.

[Esam M Hemat, Khaled M El-Gerby, and Ahmed A Ismail. Quantitative multi-parametric MRI in characterization of ovarian cystic masses. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):93-103]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.13.

 

Key Words: Ovarian masses; dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI; quantitative MRI.

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Basic Construction of Fibrewise Group

 

AE. Radwan1, F. A. Ibrahem1, S. S. Mahmoud1 and N. S. Abdanabi2

 

1Department of Mathematics, faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Mathematics, faculty of Science, Al Asmarya Islamic University, Libya

s.abdelmoghith@gmail.com; smsamir201062@yahoo.com; nsalem1962008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concepts of fibrewise group, fibrewise subgroup and fibrewise homomorphism. Also we give several results concerning it.

[A.E. Radwan, F. A. Ibrahem, S. S. Mahmoud and N. S. Abdanabi. Basic Construction of Fibrewise Group. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):104-106]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.14.

 

Keyword: fibrewise group, fibrewise subgroup, fibrewise homomorphism

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Evaluating oxygen dynamics, water quality parameters and growth performance of Nile Tilapia by applying different dietary nitrogen levels

 

M.A. Elnady, R.K. Abd Elwahed and G.H. Gad

 

Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

E-mail: rashakhaled123@yahoo.ecom

 

Abstract: Nile tilapia juveniles with initial weights range of 95.1 to 106.8 grams /fish were distributed into 18 concrete tanks with a constant water depth of 75 cm to evaluate the effect of different feed loads and crude protein levels on oxygen dynamics, water quality parameters and growth performance. Two feeding loads (inputs) were added at 7 and 10 grams diet/m2/day, six days a week. The commercial feed contained three levels of dietary protein (25, 30 and 35%). The rearing experiment lasted 60 days. There was no effect on oxygen concentrations at sunset among the 7 grams and 10 grams treatments. Slightly higher early morning oxygen deficits were observed in the 10 grams treatments. When feed loads increased from 7 grams to 10 grams algal blooms took place in the higher feed load. There were no significant differences in TAN, PO4P and NO2-N concentrations among treatments. Feeding Nile tilapia at 7 grams/m2/day had comparable growth performance and better feed conversion ratios to those fed at 10 grams/m2/day. Consequently, higher feed inputs neither improved economic efficiency, nor enhanced oxygen budget. Increasing crude protein within the 7 gram treatments above 30% did not improve protein efficiency ratio (PER).

[M.A. Elnady, R.K. Abd Elwahed and G.H. Gad. Evaluating oxygen dynamics, water quality parameters and growth performance of Nile Tilapia by applying different dietary nitrogen levels. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):107-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.15.

 

Key words: Nile tilapia, protein levels, oxygen dynamics, water quality, growth performance.

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Usefulness of 128 slice Multidetector Computed Tomography in evaluation of Coronary Stent Patency

 

Mai E.M. Khamis1*, Ghada A Abdel monem1, Enass M Khattab1, Hisham Samir Roshdy2.

 

1Radiodiagnosis Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*maikhamis2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess diagnostic performance of 128 slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of coronary stent patency. Patients and methods: Twenty two patients with 30 evaluable coronary stents were included, they examined by 128 slice MDCT followed by conventional coronary angiography. Results: In MDCT, stent restenosis was diagnosed in 6 stents (3 were confirmed by conventional angiography as true positive and 3 were false positive) and stent occlusion was diagnosed in 4 stents (proved by conventional angiography as 3 true positive and 1 false positive). Twenty stents were correctly diagnosed as patent by MDCT (proved by conventional angiography as true negative). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of MDCT was 100 %, 83.3%, 60%, 100% and 86.7 % respectively. Conclusion: The 128 MDCT is an appropriate non invasive method for assessment of coronary stent patency and it is a good negative test for exclusion of stent occlusion or restenosis.

[Mai E.M. Khamis, Ghada A Abdel monem, Enass M Khattab, Hisham Samir Roshdy. Usefulness of 128 slice Multidetector Computed Tomography in evaluation of Coronary Stent Patency. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):116-122]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.16.

 

Keywords: stent, MDCT, occlusion, re stenosis, patent.

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Effect of different curing units/modes and load cycling on the tooth/restoration interfacial seal

 

Abo El Naga A.

 

Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

aaboelnaga@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using two different curing units and two different curing modes on the longevity of the tooth/restoration seal after being subjected to load cycling. Methods: Kerr adhesive (Opti Bond Solo Plus) and resin composite (HERCULITE) were used in this study. Wedge-shaped cavities were prepared at CEJ of buccal surfaces on 80 sound extracted human premolars. Cavities were randomly divided into four groups according to the curing units and modes (n=20), 1) cured with Elipar S10 unit (3M/ESPE) for 20seconds continuous curing (continuous mode), 2) cured with Bluephase G2 unit (Ivoclar Vivadent) for 20seconds continuous curing, 3) cured with Elipar S10 unit (3M/ESPE) for 5seconds then 10seconds rest followed by 20 seconds curing (pulse-delay mode)and 4) cured with Bluephase unit (Ivoclar Vivadent) for 5seconds then 10seconds rest followed by 20 seconds curing. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups (n=10): subgroup A; No load cycling was applied, and subgroup B; was subjected to occlusal load cycling (90 N) for 10000 cycles. Specimens were tested for gap formation along both occlusal and gingival interfaces using Quanta Environmental SEM. Data were statistically analyzed using three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni’s post-hoc test (P<.05). Results: Elipar S10 curing unit showed statistically significantly higher mean gap values than Bluephase G2 curing unit. Whereas, continuous mode showed statistically significantly higher mean gap values (10.1 ± 2.4) than pulse-delay mode (5.0 ± 1.9). However, these values significantly increased following load cycling. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, Bluephase G2provided better interfacial sealing. The pulse-delay mode of curing improved the adhesive sealing ability. Meanwhile, the load cycling deteriorated the interfacial sealing of the tested material.

[Abo El Naga A. Effect of different curing units/modes and load cycling on the tooth/restoration interfacial seal. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):123-130]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.17.

 

Keywords: curing modes, curing unit, load cycling, adhesives, gap formation.

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Identification of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis (AFs) by MDCT and MR Imaging

 

Nadia Abd El Sater Metwally1; Hoda Mohammed Abd El Wahab1; Bothina Ahmed Mohammed2

 

1Radiodiagnosis Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls – Al Azhar University Cairo, Egypt

2ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls – Al Azhar University Cairo, Egypt

Dr. Hani.hammam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Fungal related disease of the paranasal sinuses encompasses a broad spectrum of clinical entities, ranging from mildly symptomatic to rapidly fatal. Allergic funal sinusitis (AFs) is differe from other forms of fungal sinusitis and often misdiagnosed, therefore its recognition will lead to multimodality treatment which heavily relies on surgery and corticosteroids. Aim of the Work: To determine CT and MR diagnostic findings in patients with allergic fungal sinusitis. Subjects and Methods: (16) patients with an age ranged from (11-56 years) with clinical symptoms of chronic sinusitis and suspected to have allergic fungal sinusitis (AFs) were conducted in this prospective study. All patients underwent MDCT imaging and eight of them had MR examination of the Paranasal sinuses. All CT and available MR images were reviewed with respect to the clinical symptoms, laboratory findings and were confirmed by histopathological results in patients who underwent surgery. Results: Adult males were commonly affected in 10(62.5%) with M:F ratio (1.6:1) patients the mean age (35.2years). Non contract in enhanced CT showed central areas of hyperdensity within the involved opacified sinuses. T1 and T2 weighted MR images revealed hypointense or signal void with or without peripheral enhancement. A symmetrical bilateral pansinusitis diagnosed in 12(75%) patients, unilateral in 3(18.7%) and isolated sphenoid sinus involvement in 1(6.2%). Sinus expansion seen in 15(93.7%), polyposis seen in 12(75%) amd localized bone erosion in 8(50%) patients with extra-sinus extension. The main bulk of the disease being intrasinus rather than extrasinus, were another diagnostic imaging feature of allergic fungal sinusitis. Conclusion: Allergic fungal sinusitis is a distinct clinical entity with non specific symptoms. While CT may suggest its initial diagnostic features, MR gives accurate assessment of the extrasinus extension. These radiological findings should alert the clinician to use appropriate diagnostic techniques for confirmation and for therapy planning.

[Nadia Abd El Sater Metwally; Hoda Mohammed Abd El Wahab; Bothina Ahmed Mohammed. Identification of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis (AFs) by MDCT and MR Imaging. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):131-135]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.18.

 

Keywords: Allergic fungal sinusitis – MDCT – MR allergic sinusitis

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Short-Term Efficacy of Percutaneous Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation in Treatment of Overactive Bladder

 

Tarek Abdullah Salem

 

Urology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

drtareksalem@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) in the treatment of patients with over active bladder (OAB). Patients and Methods: In a prospective manner, over a one year period, we evaluated all patients with OAB symptoms for possible study participation. All patients underwent thorough medical history with voiding diary, clinical examination, urine analysis, measurement of blood glucose level, pevi-abdominal ultrasonography and urodynamic study. Only patients with urodynamically confirmed detrusor overactivity were included in the study. Patients with neurologic disorders, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, crystalluria and those on pharmacological treatment for OAB were excluded. PTNS was performed 2 times weekly for 12 weeks. Patients were followed-up by medical history with voiding diary one week after completion of the treatment course. Baseline pre-treatment symptoms were compared with the post-treatment symptoms. Reduction of symptom by 50% was considered improvement. Results: The study included 20 patients (11 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 42.4±17.90. Seventeen patients, 17 (85%) were comfortable with the treatment. Eleventh patients (55%), 15 (75%), 16 (80%) and 15 (75%) showed improvement of the micturation frequency, urgency episodes, urgency and urge incontinence, respectively. Eighty percent of patients reported mild tolerable pain. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: The study results showed that PTNS is an effective, less invasive treatment option for OAB. It can be easy applied safely to treat OAB symptoms with minimal morbidity.

[Tarek Abdullah Salem. Short-Term Efficacy of Percutaneous Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation in Treatment of Overactive Bladder. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):136-140]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.19.

 

Key words: Detrusor over activity; Neurostimulation; Overactive bladder; Posterior tibial nerve

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Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Antibodies in Egyptian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and it’s Relation to Disease Activity

 

Gamal Ali Badr¹, Esam Mohammed Ghamry¹, Arafat A. Kasem¹, Wael Refaat Hablas², Sayed Mohammed Ahmed³, Ali Mohammed Naguib ali³

 

¹Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

²Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Al- Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

³Department of Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Al-Sahel Teaching Hospital, Egypt

arafatkassem1970@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most common organ specific autoimmune condition, affecting approximately 2% of the female population and 0.2 % of the male population. Thyroid dysfunction and autoantibodies have been frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Objective: To determine the association between hypothyroidism, thyroid autoantibodies with rheumatoid arthritis, and to evaluate any deviation of RA course with presence of thyroid antibodies. Methods: This study included 100 subjects, 70 of them were patients with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed according to the EULAR/ARC 2010 revised criteria and 30 healthy controls. RA patients were subjected to a full assessment of medical and rheumatological history, and examination as well as routine laboratory tests. Patients and controls underwent thyroid function testing including thyroid antibodies. Patients disease activity was determined using the Modified Disease Activity Score and their functional status was assessed using the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire. Results: Nineteen (27.1%) RA patients were found to have thyroid dysfunction. The most common thyroid dysfunction was hypothyroidism which was found in 15 (21.4%) RA patients; followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in 3 (4.3%) patients, whereas subclinical hyperthyroidism was present in one (1.4%) patient. Whereas among the control group one (3.33%) showed clinical hypothyroidism and one (3.33%) showed subclinical hypothyroidism. As regard thyroid autoantibodies; this study demonstrated that 25 (35.7%) of RA patients were positive for anti-TPO and 16 (22.9%) were positive for anti-TG. Three patients (10%) of the control group were positive for anti-TPO and two (6.66%) were positive for anti-TG. Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunctions are common in RA patients, with hypothyroidism being the most prevalent one. TSH has shown an evident positive correlation with RA disease activity as well as clinical and laboratory disease parameters.

[Gamal Ali Badr, Esam Mohammed Ghamry, Arafat A. Kasem, Wael Refaat Hablas, Sayed Mohammed Ahmed, Ali Mohammed Naguib ali. Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Antibodies in Egyptian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and it’s Relation to Disease Activity. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):141-148]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.20.

 

Keywords: Hypothyroidism, Thyroid antibodies, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis Disease Activity

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Novel and Conventional Causes of Trigeminal neuralgia

 

Mahmoud Abdel-Moety Monzer1 and Abdel-Salam El Ashry2

 

1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine (For Boys), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (For Boys), Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

mahmoudabdelmoety@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the most excruciating pain known to humanity and considered one of the most painful afflictions known in medical practice. There are two main types: typical or “classic” form and atypical form of trigeminal neuralgia. The aim of this study: The aim is identification if there are new etiology for trigeminal neuralgia. This will help to reach more accurate diagnosis and may contribute to more effective treatment. Subject and methods: All patients were submitted to detailed history, clinical examination and neuroimaging as CT and / or, MRI ± MRA brain. Laboratory investigations, carotid and vertebrobasilar duplex, ECG, Echocardiography, Nerve conduction study and different modalities of Evoked Potential were done for patients according to etiology and when indicated. Results: This study was carried out on 73 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. It affects females more than males. In the vast majority of cases (91.8%) pain is limited to one side of the face, however right side (53.4%) more affected than left side (38.4%). Occasionally it affects both sides of the face in 8.2 % of cases at different times in an individual, or even more rarely at the same time (called bilateral TN). Pain involve three divisions of the face in 86.3 % of cases, lower part of the face in 9.6 % of cases and upper part of the face in 4.1 % of cases. 95.2 % of patients have typical or “classic” form of trigeminal neuralgia TN1. TN2 is present in 7 % of cases. Regarding etiological factors for symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia in this study; trigeminal hypoesthesia is present in 14 % of cases, hearing affection is present in 7 % of cases, pyramidal signs are present in 12.6 % of cases and long sensory tract affection is present in 7 % of cases. Normal MRI & MRA Brain is present in 39.2 %. Normal MRI with attenuated one or both vertebral arteries in MRA Brain is present in 12.6 % of cases. Also, this study found that stroke etiology present in 43.8 % of cases and rare in people under the age of 40 (7 %) of cases but migraine is not rare (12.6 %) of cases. 4.2 % of cases has space occupying lesions aged 31- 48 years. 4.2 % of cases has polyneuropathy aged 23-32 years. Also, one case (1.4 %) has multiple sclerosis. Pain after oral surgery o physiotherapy for Bell`s palsy is present in (2.8 %) for each. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and dyslipidemia were risk factors for strokes. Conclusion: Detailed history, clinical examination, and neuroimaging as MRI ± MRA brain are essential to know etiology, diagnosis with subsequent effective treatment for patient with trigeminal neuralgia. Attenuated one or both vertebral arteries, stroke, migraine, space occupying lesions, polyneuropathy, multiple sclerosis, oral surgery or Bell`s palsy and it`s physiotherapy are etiological factors for symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia.

[Mahmoud Abdel-Moety Monzer and Abdel-Salam El Ashry. Novel and Conventional Causes of Trigeminal neuralgia. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):149-158]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.21.

 

Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, causes, novel causes, stroke, migraine

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 4, 2017. 

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