Loading

 

Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/marsjas, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 107, 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1301

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 4, 2017. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net; americansciencej@gmail.com, or contact with author(s) directly.

 

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

 

CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

Full

Text

No.

1

Fighting Varroa Destructor Parasitizing The Honey Bee "Apis Mellifera Linnaeus" Using Black Seed "NigellaSativa" Infusion, and Neem Tree "Azadirachta Indica" Fruit Powder Infusion

 

NadaO.Edrees

 

Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Branch of Zoology King Abdulaziz University. Jeddah, Saudi arabia

nedress@kau.edu.sa; nada.algalb@hotmail.com; dr_nada_edrees2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effectiveness of the black seed (Nigella Sativa) infusion and fruit powder infusion of the Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica), the widespread in the Arabian Peninsula desert was tested, in fighting Varroa destructor on honey bees (Apismellifera). The results showed variation in the number of destructor falling during treatment periods that extended to four consecutive weeks, the results were counted though calculation of the number of deaths at the end of each one of the four weeks, for each of the samples treated with both preparations, where the samples treated with the fruit powder infusion of the Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) recorded the highest level of the falling numbers during the third week, (112,5741), followed by the second week (85,2857 ), and then the fourth (33.2857), while the first week recorded the least proportion of the falling destructordue to treatment (28,5714). The samples treated with the black seed (Nigella Sativa) infusion the highest percentage of the falling destructor in the third week (135,7143), followed by the second week where the score was (73,5714), and then the fourth week (58,2857), and finally the first week thatscored the lowest number of falling destructor, with an average of (32,8571), where it is likely to attribute the rise in the third week tothe penetration of the material used in control in the bees, helping to get rid of the samples infected with Varroa destructor due to the penetration of the material used in the treatment in the parasite tissues, while the decline in the last week is attributed to the decrease of the numbers of the infected bees in the hives. We recommend using the black seed (Nigella Sativa) infusion, and the dried fruit powder infusion of the Neem tree (Azadirachtaindica) in the fight against Varroa destructor, being two products safe to the beehive products, and their easy use throughout the year, and low economic cost.

[Nada O. Edrees. Fighting Varroa Destructor Parasitizing The Honey Bee "Apis Mellifera Linnaeus" Using Black Seed "Nigella Sativa" Infusion, and Neem Tree "Azadirachta Indica" Fruit Powder Infusion. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):1-4]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.01.

 

Key Words: Varroa destructor, Apismellifera Linnaeus, Nigella Sativa, Azadirachtaindica

Full Text

1

2

Effect of the Presence of Coronary Collaterals on Biventricular Functions in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease, Tissue Doppler Study

 

Mohamed Mahmoud

 

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut), Egypt

d.mohammedmahmoud@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Coronary collaterals or "natural bypasses" are anastomotic connections without an intervening capillary bed between portions of the same coronary artery and between different coronary arteries. Collateral circulation potentially offers an important alternative source of blood supply when the original vessel fails to provide sufficient blood. So it provides protection to myocardium in CAD, and it limits the ischemic area after total coronary occlusion. So presence of well-developed collaterals helps in preserving both systolic and diastolic LV functions. Several methods have been developed over the years to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively different parameters of LV function. Echocardiography has been the most popular since it is a non-invasive technique that can provide information on the structure of the heart as well as on its function. In addition it can help assessing the etiology of the heart condition and improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology; one of the first clinical applications of tissue velocity imaging (TVI) has been as a method of assessing left ventricular systolic function. Assessment of this parameter remains the commonest indication for echocardiography, as other standard methods are often limited by technical difficulties, inaccuracy and poor reproducibility. Pulsed Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) is a sensitive, reproducible, accurate, non invasive echocardiographic technique that become a very useful clinical tool for the diagnostic, follow-up, and evaluation of the prognosis of cardiac diseases. and quantify on-line systolic and diastolic ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction. It appears to be a promising method to quantify regional wall motion abnormalities in the setting of ischemic heart disease Aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of presence of coronary collaterals on biventricular functions in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler study. Subjects and methods: the study included 50 patients, 39 (78 %) males and 11 (22 %) females, with age from 40 to 67 years old with mean age 55.92. Inclusion criteria: Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Exclusion criteria 1. Patients with rheumatic heart disease. 2. Patients with end stage renal disease. 3. Patients with end stage liver disease. 4. Heamodynamicaly unstable patients. 5. Patients with acute coronary syndrome. 6. Patients with single and two vessel disease. 6. patients with decompensated heart failure. The following was done for all patients. a. Full history taking, b. Complete clinical examination, c. Resting surface 12 leads electrocardiography (ECG), d. Coronary angiography, and e. Transthorasic echocardiography. Results: All patients in the study had coronary collaterals:. According to the number of coronary collateral pathways patients divided to: Patients with ≥ 5 pathways are 35 patients (70 %). Patients with < 5 pathways are 15 patients (30 %). Echocardiography results: LV systolic function by 2D: Normal (EF ≥ 55) in 13 (26 %) patients. Mild impaired (EF 45: < 55 %) in 13 (26 %) patients. Moderate impaired (EF 30: < 45 %) in 18 (36 %) patients. Severe impaired (EF < 30) in 6 (12 %) patients. LV systolic function by TDI: Normal (average S wave > 8.25 cm/s) in 19 (38 %) patients. Impaired (average S wave < 8.25 cm/s) in 31 (62 %) patients. LV diastolic function by pulsed Doppler over mitral flow: Normal or pseudonormal (E/A ratio 1- 2) in 5 (10 %) patients. Impaired relaxation (E/A ratio < 1) in 41 (82 %) patients. Restrictive pattern (E/A > 2) in 4 (8 %) patients. LV diastolic function by TDI: Average Em wave normal (> 12 cm/s) in 7 (14 %) patients. Average Am wave normal (> 5.05 cm/s) in 9 (18 %) patients. LV diastolic function impaired (Em/Am ratio < 1) in 44 (88 %) patients. LV systolic function by 2D: Normal (fractional area change 32 – 60 %) in 40 (80 %) patients. Mild impaired (fractional area change 25 – 31 %) in 10 (20 %) patients. No patients had moderate or severe impairment. RV systolic function by TDI: Normal (Lat T S wave > 11.5 cm/s) in 15 (30 %) patients. Impaired (Lat T S wave < 11.5 cm/s) in 35 (70 %) patients. RV diastolic function by pulsed Doppler over tricuspid flow: Normal (E/A ratio >1) in 11 (22 %) patients. Impaired relaxation (E/A ratio < 1) in 39 (78 %) patients. RV diastolic function by TDI: Normal (Lat T E/A ratio > 1) in 7 (14 %) patients. Impaired relaxation (Lat T E /A ratio < 1) in 43 (86 %) patients Conclusion: Coronary collaterals can preserve resting global LV and RV systolic and diastolic functions which is not detected with conventional echo and detected with TDI. These findings are important especially to patients not eligible for PCI or CABG.

[Mohamed Mahmoud. Effect of the Presence of Coronary Collaterals on Biventricular Functions in Patients with Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease, Tissue Doppler Study. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):5-19]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.02.

 

Key words: coronary collaterals, CAD= coronary artery disease, echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and left ventricular function

Full Text

2

3

Origami-Nano-Technological Refugee Tent

 

Omar M Amireh PhD, Associate Professor

 

Department of Architecture, University of Jordan

amireh@ju.edu.jo; +962 790334959

 

Abstract: In a natural and normal design process, combining art with science and technology and in the appropriate environments would with no doubt generates and provide effective and enduring products or solutions. While art may be considered an unnecessary extravagance value in designing a refuge shelter or tent (whether disasters or war refugees), science and technology is counted as substantial waste in an excessive cost when applied in harsh and rough environments and at short time and tight space. This paper aims at studying the possibility of conceptual designing an Ori-Nano-Refugee-Tent, which based on the idea of combining Origami as an Art with Nanomaterial as a technology and Architecture as a science. The research investigates, on the one hand the poor; aesthetic, utilization and critical conditions of the existing refugee structures, along with, on the other hand, the strong self-folding static dynamic techniques of the appealing artistic concepts of the Origami Art, and the added technical, operational and contextual attributes and values of the Nanotechnology applications. Introducing both Origami and Nanotechnology would respond to the changing human-environment needs to reach, a consensus between both the design principles of the Origami, which provides for multi folding forms and variable aesthetic structures, and the Nanotechnology, which provides durability, usability and controllability. The research resulted in proposing an experimental-conceptual Origami structure of Nanocellulose sheets operating with self-folding electrical activation current. The research needs further analytical, mathematical and laboratory investigation in order to reach the suitable Origami folding form and turning the idea into a real application.

[Omar M Amireh. Origami-Nano-Technological Refugee Tent. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):20-30]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.03.

 

Keywords: Origami, Refugee House, Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Nanocellulose Technological Refugee; Tent

Full Text

3

4

The effect of aqueous extracts of Fennel (Foenicul umvulgare Mill) seeds on some neurotransmitters Content and histological structure changing of cerebellar cortexin the brain of male albino rats

 

A. E. Bawazirand, L. E. Bokhary

 

Department of Biology (Zoology), Faculty of Science – Al-Faisalyyah campus, Biology Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Email: ebawazi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Back ground: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill) is amedical and aromatic plant wildly used in Saudi Arabia as traditional medicine for a wide range of diseases. Objective: To study the effect of aqueous extract of Foeniculumvulgare Mill. on some neurotransmitters content in all brain region of male albino rats. Methods: Forty two male albino rats were divided in to three groups: normal control (contain 6 rats) and treated group (24 rats) receiving orally aqueous extracts of fennel seeds (200 mg/ kg b.w.) for four consecutive weeks and decapitated 6 rats after 1,2,3,4 weeks for physiological study and (12 rats) decapitated 6 rats after 2 and 4 weeks for histological study. Results: Results showed that the daily ingestion of aqueous extract of fennel seeds caused significant increase in the total content of neurotransmitters in all the tested regions. This probably due to the presence of active compounds such as Saponin and estragole where worked on the inhibition of release neurotransmitters studied from producing cells resulting in a higher content inside brain cells With the neuroprotective effects of the cerebellar cortex tissue fennel to contain a high amount of antioxidants. Conclusion: The study concluded that the fennel extract is likely to be an effective influence as a sedative as well as his protective effects nervous for the maintenance of brain tissue.

[A. E. Bawazir and L. E. Bokhary. The effect of aqueous extracts of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds on some neurotransmitters Content and histological structure changing of cerebellar cortexin the brain of male albino rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):31-36]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.04.

 

Key words: Fennel Foeniculum vulgare, Neurotransmitter, Brain, Rats, cerebellum

Full Text

4

5

Effect of gender on outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective comparative study

 

A. A. EL-Motaleb1, S. A. Ammar1, F. A. Al-Bassiouni2, M. M. El-Shafie1

 

1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

2 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

a.aly82@aun.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Introduction and aim of work: Bariatric surgery is becoming the standard of care for morbid obesity. Several operations are utilized to treat these cases with differences in response between males and females. In this study we explored the difference in early response to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) according to patients' gender. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients (15 females and 15 males) with morbid obesity were subjected to LSG and followed up for a period of 6 months (at 1, 3, and 6 months). Weight loss and BMI loss were calculated. Results: The mean weight loss in males was 13.00, 22.47 and 34.33 at 1, 3 and 6 months respectively while females lost 10.00, 16.93 and 23.80 at the same time points. The mean male BMI loss was 4.39 1.43, 7.56 2.17 and 11.56 3.20 at 1,3 and 6 months respectively, while female BMI loss at the same time points was3.88 1.47, 6.55 2.06 and 9.17 2.66. Conclusion: LSG is an effective procedures for weight loss, however there is difference in response according to gender, where men perform favorably in short term. Longer periods of follow up are needed to confirm the stability of these results.

[A. A. EL-Motaleb, S. A. Ammar, F. A. Al-Bassiouni and M. M. El-Shafie. Effect of gender on outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A prospective comparative study. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):37-40]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.05.

 

Keywords: Sleeve gastrectomy, gender effect, sex difference, outcomes, bariatric surgery and weight loss

Full Text

5

6

Effect of mesenchymal stem cells injection on induced stomatitis in chemotherapy treated rats

 

Asmaa Serry1, Souzi F. Shinaishin2 and Khaled El Haddad3

 

1 lecturer assistant, oral biology department, Faculty of dentistry -BeniSeuif University, Egypt

2Head of oral biology department, Faculty of dentistry- Ain Shams University, Egypt

3 Lecturer, Oral biology department, Faculty of dentistry- Ain Shams University, Egypt

dr.asmaaelgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intravenous injection of mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells (MBMSCs) on induced stomatitis in rats receiving chemotherapy. Methodology: All the rats used in the study were subjected to stomatitis induction protocol by scratching the buccal mucosa and divided into 3 groups. gr.1: exposed to stomatitis induction only, gr. 2: injected with 5-FU and exposed to stomatitis induction, gr. 3: injected with 5-FU followed by stomatitis induction then injected with labelledstem cells. At day 10 all groups were sacrificed and subjected to the following investigations: oralmucositis scoring system (OMS), Routine histological examination with H&E, Immunohistochemical profile using PCNA stain and finally florescent microscope. Results: It was found that the treated group (gr. 3) showed better improvement than gr.2 in OMS, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Conclusion: from the present study it was found that intravenous injection of MBMSCs reduce severity of stomatitis in rats receiving chemotherapy.

[Asmaa Serry, Souzi F. Shinaishin and Khaled El Haddad. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells injection on induced stomatitis in chemotherapy treated rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):41-50]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.06.

 

Key Words: chemotherapy induced stomatitis, oral mucositis, stomatitis induction protocol, intravenous stem cells injection, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

Full Text

6

7

Menstrual pattern and factors affecting among Egyptian adolescent females

 

Mosaad Abdel Hameed1, Mohammed Shawkat1, Manal A. Alsayed1, Hesham M. Hamad1, Hany Mahmoud1, Maha abdel-Ghany2and Safwat Hegazy2

 

Departments of Gynecology & Obstetrics1 and Pediatrics2 Alsahel Teaching Hospital, Egypt

dr.hamdybehairy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: menstruation is a normal physiological phenomenon for females indicating her capability for procreation. However, this normal often associated with some degree of suffering and embarrassment. The prevalence of menstrual disorders has been recorded as high as 87%. Aim and objectives: to find out the mean age of menarche of adolescent girls 8 -18 years and to know menstrual pattern and to find out the prevalence and types of menstrual disorders. Material and methods: cross sectional study was carried out at Alsahel teaching hospital. Total 500 adolescent girls randomly selected from outpatient clinics of 8-18 years age and asked to complete an anonymous Arabic questionnaire included data on demographics, socioeconomic status, menstrual pattern, related menstrual symptoms and the impact of menstruation on daily life after verbal consent. Results: The mean age of menarche was found 12.5 +1.5 years. Regular menstrual cycles were found in 77% while 22% had irregular cycles. Oligomenorrhoea was found in 14.5%, polymenorrhoea in 14%. The mean duration of blood flow 4 + 1.5 days. Average blood loss was found in 92%, heavy blood loss in 5%, scanty flow in 3%. Dysmenorrhoea was found 72% of girls. Limited social activities was found in 25% while school abstinence found in 10%.

[Mosaad Abdel Hameed, Mohammed Shawkat, Manal A. Alsayed, Hesham M. Hamad, Hany Mahmoud, Maha abdel-Ghany and Safwat Hegazy. Menstrual pattern and factors affecting among Egyptian adolescent females. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):51-54]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.07.

 

Key words: menstrual pattern – adolescent girls – menstrual disorders.

Full Text

7

8

Laparoscopic TAPP Repair for Bilateral Inguinal Hernia, Single Large Mesh versus Double Mesh Technique

 

Hany Mohamed El-Barbary, FRCS, FACS and Nasser Ahmed Nazeer, MD.

 

Department of General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain shams university (ASU)

nassernazer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of laparoscopic repair of bilateral inguinal hernia with trans-abdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) technique using a single large prosthetic mesh to reinforce the posterior wall versus the use of two separate meshes. Patients and methods: We performed a prospective randomized clinical study involving forty patients with bilateral non complicated inguinal hernias ranging from 18-49 years of age. These were operated from January 2013 till January 2015 and followed up for 6-24 months. Twenty patients with bilateral inguinal hernias had TAPP repair with a single large mesh and another twenty patients TAPP repair with double meshes. The main outcome measurements were: hernia type, BMI, operative time, post-operative pain, postoperative complications, hospital stay and recurrence rate. Results: We had thirty two males and eight females. Average operating time was 72 minutes in TAPP using single large mesh, and 102 minutes in TAPP with double mesh. There was less postoperative pain in the single large mesh group. We had one patient with transient hematuria and one with lower abdominal hematoma which resolved by medications in the single mesh group. We had one recurrence in double mesh group after 18 months. We had no recurrences in the single mesh group. Conclusion: laparoscopic TAPP approach using a single large mesh is a safe, time saving and cost effective approach for non-complicated bilateral inguinal hernias, especially in patients with low BMI. It is suitable for patients with Nyhys III & IV with large defect in the posterior wall. Nyhus II inguinal hernia or small direct hernias in obese patients are best treated with double mesh technique.

[Hany Mohamed El-Barbary and Nasser Ahmed Nazeer. Laparoscopic TAPP Repair for Bilateral Inguinal Hernia, Single Large Mesh versus Double Mesh Technique. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):55-61]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.08.

 

Key words: bilateral inguinal hernia, laparoscopic hernia repair.

Full Text

8

9

The effect of pomegranate leaves powder on biological, biochemical and histological changes of induced obese rats

 

Maha, A. Hijazi and Haneen, H. Mouminah

 

Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

mhijazi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The present research was conducted on thirty male mature Wistar rats to study the effect of pomegranate leaves powder on Body weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER), Liver Enzymes Activity, serum glucose levels, lipid profile and histological changes of liver in obese rats after 28 days were studied. Thirty male Wister Albino rats were distributed into five equal groups (6 rats each) as follows: group1: negative control, group 2: positive control was fed on high fat diet (obese rats), groups 3, 4 and 5 fed on high fat diet (obese rats) and treated with fed on 1,3 and 5% pomegranate leaves powder of the weight of rats respectively. The results showed that, obese rats (positive control group) had a significant (P<0.05) increase in body weight gain (BWG), feed Intake (FI) and feed efficiency ratio (FER). Compared to group 1 (negative control) by 142.28, 31.33 and 4.10% respectively. Rats were fed on pomegranate leaves powder at (1%, 3% and 5%) significantly (P<0.05) decreased of body weight gain (BWG), feed Intake (FI) feed efficiency ratio (FER), when compared to group 2 (positive control). Obese rats (positive control) had a significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes, serum glucose level, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, lipoprotein fraction and Atherogenic index comparing to group 1 (negative control group). On the other hand, Feed obese rats on pomegranate leaves powder at (1%, 3% and 5%) significantly (p<0.05) decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes, serum glucose level, Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, lipoprotein fraction and Atherogenic index when compared to group 2 (positive control). Histopathological examination of liver sections of rats of pomegranate leaves powder -treated groups showed slight vacuolization of hepatocytes, and focal cytoplasmic vacuolization of some hepatocytes was observed in liver hepatotoxic rats from1, 3 and 5% pomegranate leaves powder respectively.

[Maha, A. Hijazi and Haneen, H. Mouminah. The effect of pomegranate leaves powder on biological, biochemical and histological changes of induced obese rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):62-70]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.09.

 

Key words: Pomegranate leaves powder, liver functions, lipid profile, phenolic compound histopathology, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), atherogenic index (AI).

 Full Text

9

10

Effect of sesame on liver enzymes and lipid profile inrats exposed to oxidative stress induced by Monosodium glutamate

 

Nahed A. Hareeri1, Amani A. Alrasheedi1, Mamdouh M. Eassaw2

 

1 Food and Nutrition Department, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

2Regional Center for Food and Feed (RCFF), Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

2Basic Medical Sciences Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Al Baha, Saudi Arabia.

Aalrasheedi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The present research was conducted on twenty-four male mature Wistar rats to study effect of sesame oil on liver enzymes, lipid profile and the protective role against the oxidative stress caused by feeding monosodium glutamate which may be affect the liver. The rates were allocated in four equal groups. The 1stone used as negative control without any treatment. The 2nd group used as positive control feed on monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6 mg/gm bodyweight. The 3rd group received monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6 mg/gm body weight and treated with sesame oil at doses 4 ml/kg. body weight. The 4th group received monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6mg / gm bodyweight and treated with sesame oil at dose rate 8 ml/kg bodyweight.. Results indicated that oral intake of sesame oil at doses 4 and 8 ml/kg. body weight for 14 days significantly improved total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), lipoprotein fractions, decreased the elevated serum levels of liver enzymes Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), when compared to the control positive group. Oxidative stress markers Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were significantly improved as compared to the control positive group. We can have concluded that the consumption of sesame oil may be have protective effects against the oxidative stress caused by consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and its recommended to intake sesame oil daily for people who consume food with monosodium glutamate (MSG).

[Nahed A. Hareeri, Amani A. Alrasheedi, Mamdouh M. Eassaw. Effect of sesame on liver enzymes and lipid profile in rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by Monosodium glutamate. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):71-78]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.10.

 

Key words: Sesame oil, Monosodium glutamate, oxidative stressliver functions, lipid profile, antioxidant

Full Text

10

11

The Microshear Bond Strength of Repaired Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments.

 

Abo El Naga A.1 and Zahran R.2

 

1Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Operative Dentistry. Faculty of Dentistry, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo, Egypt.

aaboelnaga@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Background: Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. In addition, reports on the efficacy of surface treatments are debated. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the microshear bond strength of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty six circular composite discs, each was approximately 2mm in thickness and 1cm internal diameter were obtained from a specially designed split Teflon mold. Twelve specimens were used as control without any aging or mechanical treatment, while the other twenty four discs were aged in distilled water for 6 months. The aged discs were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=12), according to the mechanical surface treatment used. They were treated with either flat end cylinder diamond bur or air abrasion. Two adhesive systems (n=6) (Prime & Bond NT, etch and rinse adhesive system, Dentsply and Xeno V, self-etch adhesive system, Dentsply) were applied to bond the mechanically treated composite substrates to the new resin composite. Ceram X resin composite (Dentsply) was used for composite cylinders builds up (0.9 mm in diameter x 0.5 mm in height). Three composite cylinders were constructed on each treated surface (n=18 in each subgroup). Lloyd universal testing machine was used to test microshear bond strength at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Data was calculated and statistically analyzed. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for testing the significance for effect of surface treatment on microshear bond strength. Tukey’s post-hoc test and Student’s t-test were used for pair-wise comparison between the means when ANOVA test is significant. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The microshear bond strengths of the groups treated by air abrasion were significantly higher and more stable than those treated by grinding. Moreover, significant differences were observed among the conditioning procedures where etch and rinse approach was superior when compared to self-etch adhesives. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it seems that air abrasion combined with clinically well-proven adhesives may play a role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths.

[Abo El Naga A. and Zahran R. The Microshear Bond Strength of Repaired Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):79-86]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.11.

 

Keywords: resin composite; repair; microshear bond strength; adhesive systems; air abrasion.

Full Text

11

12

Postburn facial resurfacing using locoregional flaps

 

Ahmed Gamil Elsharkawy, Tarek Ashour and Ahmed Rezk El Naggar

 

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Medicine; Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

ahmedrezk1000000@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Postburn hypertrophic scar in the face is extremely challenging to the reconstructive surgeons. Numerous methods have been postulated for the management of the hypertrophic scars, but till now, the single best choice has not been established. Among these treatments are surgical excision with grafting however cosmetic results were suboptimal, others include pressure therapy, topical and intralesional corticosteroids, laser therapy, silicone gel sheeting and others aiming at decreasing collagen synthesis. In this study scar excision and resurfacing with locoregional flap was tried to provide pliable tissues with best colour/texture match. Eight patients with various degrees of hypertrophic scar in the face were reconstructed with fasciocutaneous supraclavicular artery flap in this study and their outcome was evaluated.

[Ahmed Gamil Elsharkawy, Tarek Ashour and Ahmed Rezk El Naggar. Postburn facial resurfacing using locoregional flaps. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):87-92]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.12.

 

Key words: hypertrophic scar, supraclavicular flap, postburn scar management.

Full Text

12

13

Quantitative multi-parametric MRI in characterization of ovarian cystic masses

 

Esam M Hemat; Khaled M El-Gerby and Ahmed A Ismail.

 

Radiology department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

esamhemat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To assess quantitative multi-parametric MRI examination in characterization of ovarian complex cystic masses. Patients: Thirty female patients with a mean age of 47 years (31 to 64 years old) were presented with ovarian cystic masses by pelvic ultrasound or pelvic CT scanning. All patients were referred to radiology department for a pre-operative multi-parametric pelvic MRI. Methods: Conventional MRI, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were performed by a 1.5 T MRI machine. Regions of interest (ROIs) were applied over the solid and cystic components of the masses. Post-operative histopathology was done to determine the nature of ovarian cystic masses. Results: Thirty female patients were included (11 malignant & 19 benign cases by histopathology). DCE-MRI sequences had a significant higher mean values in malignant lesions than benign ones (p-value <0. 001). Regarding malignant lesions, time of initial peak of contrast uptake ranged from 55 to 100 seconds with an average 77 seconds. On the other side, benign lesions showed time of peak range from 58 to 230 seconds with an average of 104 seconds. The mean ADC value of benign lesions was (1.36 x 10-3 0.77 mm2/s), and of malignant lesions was (0.58x 10-3 0.21 mm2/s). Our cutoff value was 1.23 x 10-3 mm2/s. Conclusion: Multi-parametric MRI, such as conventional MRI criteria, DCE-MRI curves, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value can independently differentiate benign from malignant ovarian masses.

[Esam M Hemat, Khaled M El-Gerby, and Ahmed A Ismail. Quantitative multi-parametric MRI in characterization of ovarian cystic masses. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):93-103]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.13.

 

Key Words: Ovarian masses; dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI; quantitative MRI.

Full Text

13

14

Basic Construction of Fibrewise Group

 

AE. Radwan1, F. A. Ibrahem1, S. S. Mahmoud1 and N. S. Abdanabi2

 

1Department of Mathematics, faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Mathematics, faculty of Science, Al Asmarya Islamic University, Libya

s.abdelmoghith@gmail.com; smsamir201062@yahoo.com; nsalem1962008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concepts of fibrewise group, fibrewise subgroup and fibrewise homomorphism. Also we give several results concerning it.

[A.E. Radwan, F. A. Ibrahem, S. S. Mahmoud and N. S. Abdanabi. Basic Construction of Fibrewise Group. J Am Sci 2017;13(1):104-106]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas130117.14.

 

Keyword: fibrewise group, fibrewise subgroup, fibrewise homomorphism

Full Text

14

15

 

Full Text

15

16

 

Full Text

16

17

 

Full Text

17

18

 

Full Text

18

19

 

Full Text

19

20

 

Full Text

20

21

 

Full Text

21

22

Full Text

22

23

 

Full Text

23

24

Full Text

24

25

Full Text

25

26

Full Text

26

27

Full Text

27

28

Full Text

28

29

Full Text

29

30

Full Text

30

31

Full Text

31

32

Full Text

32

33

Full Text

33

34

Full Text

34

35

Full Text

35

36

Full Text

36

37

 

Full Text

37

38

Full Text

38

39

Full Text

39

40

Full Text

40

41

Full Text

41

42

Full Text

42

43

Full Text

43

44

Full Text

44

45

 

Full Text

45

46

Full Text

46

47

Full Text

47

48

Full Text

48

49

Full Text

49

50

Full Text

50

51

Full Text

51

52

Full Text

52

53

Full Text

53

54

Full Text

54

55

Full Text

55

56

Full Text

56

57

Full Text

57

58

Full Text

58

59

Full Text

59

60

Full Text

60

61

Full Text

61

62

Full Text

62

63

Full Text

63

64

Full Text

64

65

Full Text

65

66

Full Text

66

67

Full Text

67

68

Full Text

68

69

Full Text

69

70

Full Text

70

71

Full Text

71

72

Full Text

72

73

Full Text

73

74

Full Text

74

75

Full Text

75

76

Full Text

76

77

Full Text

77

78

Full Text

78

79

Full Text

79

80

Full Text

80

81

Full Text

81

82

Full Text

82

83

Full Text

83

84

Full Text

84

85

Full Text

85

86

Full Text

86

87

Full Text

87

88

Full Text

88

89

Full Text

89

90

Full Text

90

91

Full Text

91

92

Full Text

92

93

Full Text

93

94

Full Text

94

95

Full Text

95

96

Full Text

96

97

Full Text

97

98

Full Text

98

99

Full Text

99

100

Full Text

100

101

Full Text

101

102

Full Text

102

103

Full Text

103

104

Full Text

104

105

Full Text

105

106

 

Full Text

106

107

 

Full Text

107

108

 

Full Text

108

109

 

Full Text

109

110

 

Full Text

110

111

 

Full Text

111

112

 

Full Text

112

113

 

Full Text

113

114

 

Full Text

114

115

 

Full Text

115

116

 

Full Text

116

117

 

Full Text

117

118

 

Full Text

118

119

 

Full Text

119

120

 

Full Text

120

121

 

Full Text

121

122

 

Full Text

122

123

 

Full Text

123

124

 

Full Text

124

125

 

Full Text

125

126

 

Full Text

126

127

 

Full Text

127

128

 

Full Text

128

129

 

Full Text

129

130

 

Full Text

130

131

 

Full Text

131

132

 

Full Text

132

133

 

Full Text

133

134

 

Full Text

134

135

 

Full Text

135

136

 

Full Text

136

137

 

Full Text

137

138

 

Full Text

138

139

 

Full Text

139

140

 

Full Text

140

141

 

Full Text

141

142

 

Full Text

142

143

 

Full Text

143

144

 

Full Text

144

145

 

Full Text

145

146

 

Full Text

146

147

 

Full Text

147

148

 

Full Text

148

149

 

Full Text

149

150

 

Full Text

150

151

 

Full Text

151

152

 

Full Text

152

153

 

Full Text

153

154

 

Full Text

154

155

 

Full Text

155

156

 

Full Text

156

157

 

Full Text

157

158

 

Full Text

158

159

 

Full Text

159

160

 

Full Text

160

161

 

Full Text

161

162

 

Full Text

162

163

 

Full Text

163

164

 

Full Text

164

165

 

Full Text

165

166

 

Full Text

166

167

 

Full Text

167

168

 

Full Text

168

169

 

Full Text

169

170

 

Full Text

170

171

 

Full Text

171

172

 

Full Text

172

173

 

Full Text

173

174

 

Full Text

174

175

 

Full Text

175

176

 

Full Text

176

177

 

Full Text

177

178

 

Full Text

178

179

 

Full Text

179

180

 

Full Text

180

181

 

Full Text

181

182

 

Full Text

182

183

 

Full Text

183

184

 

Full Text

184

185

 

Full Text

185

186

 

Full Text

186

187

 

Full Text

187

188

 

Full Text

188

189

 

Full Text

189

190

 

Full Text

190

191

 

Full Text

191

192

 

Full Text

192

193

 

Full Text

193

194

 

Full Text

194

195

 

Full Text

195

196

 

Full Text

196

197

 

Full Text

197

198

 

Full Text

198

199

 

Full Text

199

200

 

Full Text

200

201

 

Full Text

201

202

 

Full Text

202

203

 

Full Text

203

204

 

Full Text

204

205

 

Full Text

205

206

 

Full Text

206

207

 

Full Text

207

208

 

Full Text

208

209

 

Full Text

209

210

 

Full Text

210

211

 

Full Text

211

212

 

Full Text

212

213

 

Full Text

213

214

 

Full Text

214

215

 

Full Text

215

216

 

Full Text

216

217

 

Full Text

217

218

 

Full Text

218

219

 

Full Text

219

220

 

Full Text

220

221

 

Full Text

221

222

 

Full Text

222

223

 

Full Text

223

224

 

Full Text

224

225

 

Full Text

225

226

 

Full Text

226

227

 

Full Text

227

228

 

Full Text

228

229

 

Full Text

229

230

 

Full Text

230

231

 

Full Text

231

232

 

Full Text

232

233

 

Full Text

233

234

 

Full Text

234

235

 

Full Text

235

236

 

Full Text

236

237

 

Full Text

237

238

 

Full Text

238

239

 

Full Text

239

240

 

Full Text

240

241

 

Full Text

241

242

 

Full Text

242

243

 

Full Text

243

244

 

Full Text

244

245

 

Full Text

245

246

 

Full Text

246

247

 

Full Text

247

248

 

Full Text

248

249

 

Full Text

249

250

 

Full Text

250

251

 

Full Text

251

252

 

Full Text

252

253

 

Full Text

253

254

 

Full Text

254

255

 

Full Text

255

256

 

Full Text

256

257

 

Full Text

257

258

 

Full Text

258

259

 

Full Text

259

260

 

Full Text

260

261

 

Full Text

261

262

 

Full Text

262

263

 

Full Text

263

264

 

Full Text

264

265

 

Full Text

265

266

 

Full Text

266

267

 

Full Text

267

268

 

Full Text

268

269

 

Full Text

269

270

 

Full Text

270

271

 

Full Text

271

272

 

Full Text

272

273

 

Full Text

273

274

 

Full Text

274

275

 

Full Text

275

276

 

Full Text

276

277

 

Full Text

277

278

 

Full Text

278

279

 

Full Text

279

280

 

Full Text

280

281

 

Full Text

281

282

 

Full Text

282

283

 

Full Text

283

284

 

Full Text

284

285

 

Full Text

285

286

 

Full Text

286

287

 

Full Text

287

288

 

Full Text

288

289

 

Full Text

289

290

 

Full Text

290

291

 

Full Text

291

292

 

Full Text

292

293

 

Full Text

293

294

 

Full Text

294

295

 

Full Text

295

296

 

Full Text

296

297

 

Full Text

297

298

 

Full Text

298

299

 

Full Text

299

300

 

Full Text

300

301

 

Full Text

301

302

 

Full Text

302

303

 

Full Text

303

304

 

Full Text

304

305

 

Full Text

305

306

 

Full Text

306

307

 

Full Text

307

308

 

Full Text

308

309

 

Full Text

309

310

 

Full Text

310

311

 

Full Text

311

312

 

Full Text

312

313

 

Full Text

313

314

 

Full Text

314

315

 

Full Text

315

316

 

Full Text

316

317

 

Full Text

317

318

 

Full Text

318

319

 

Full Text

319

320

 

Full Text

320

321

 

Full Text

321

322

 

Full Text

322

323

 

Full Text

323

324

 

Full Text

324

325

 

Full Text

325

326

 

Full Text

326

327

 

Full Text

327

328

 

Full Text

328

329

 

Full Text

329

330

 

Full Text

330

331

 

Full Text

331

332

 

Full Text

332

333

 

Full Text

333

334

 

Full Text

334

335

 

Full Text

335

336

 

Full Text

336

337

 

Full Text

337

338

 

Full Text

338

339

 

Full Text

339

340

 

Full Text

340

341

 

Full Text

341

342

 

Full Text

342

343

 

Full Text

343

344

 

Full Text

344

345

 

Full Text

345

346

 

Full Text

346

347

 

Full Text

347

348

 

Full Text

348

349

 

Full Text

349

350

 

Full Text

350

351

 

Full Text

351

352

 

Full Text

352

353

 

Full Text

353

354

 

Full Text

354

355

 

Full Text

355

356

 

Full Text

356

357

 

Full Text

357

358

 

Full Text

358

359

 

Full Text

359

360

 

Full Text

360

361

 

Full Text

361

362

 

Full Text

362

363

 

Full Text

363

364

 

Full Text

364

365

 

Full Text

365

366

 

Full Text

366

367

 

Full Text

367

368

 

Full Text

368

369

 

Full Text

369

370

 

Full Text

370

371

 

Full Text

371

372

 

Full Text

372

373

 

Full Text

373

374

 

Full Text

374

375

 

Full Text

375

376

 

Full Text

376

377

 

Full Text

377

378

 

Full Text

378

379

 

Full Text

379

380

 

Full Text

380

381

 

Full Text

381

382

 

Full Text

382

383

 

Full Text

383

384

 

Full Text

384

385

 

Full Text

385

386

 

Full Text

386

387

 

Full Text

387

388

 

Full Text

388

389

 

Full Text

389

390

 

Full Text

390

391

 

Full Text

391

392

 

Full Text

392

393

 

Full Text

393

394

 

Full Text

394

395

 

Full Text

395

396

 

Full Text

396

397

 

Full Text

397

398

 

Full Text

398

399

 

Full Text

399

400

 

Full Text

400

401

 

Full Text

401

402

 

Full Text

402

403

 

Full Text

403

404

 

Full Text

404

405

 

Full Text

405

406

 

Full Text

406

407

 

Full Text

407

408

 

Full Text

408

409

 

Full Text

409

410

 

Full Text

410

411

 

Full Text

411

412

 

Full Text

412

413

 

Full Text

413

414

 

Full Text

414

415

 

Full Text

415

416

 

Full Text

416

417

 

Full Text

417

418

 

Full Text

418

419

 

Full Text

419

420

 

Full Text

420

421

 

Full Text

421

422

 

Full Text

422

423

 

Full Text

423

424

 

Full Text

424

425

 

Full Text

425

426

 

Full Text

426

427

 

Full Text

427

428

 

Full Text

428

429

 

Full Text

429

430

 

Full Text

430

431

 

Full Text

431

432

 

Full Text

432

433

 

Full Text

433

434

 

Full Text

434

435

 

Full Text

435

436

 

Full Text

436

437

 

Full Text

437

438

 

Full Text

438

439

 

Full Text

439

440

 

Full Text

440

441

 

Full Text

441

442

 

Full Text

442

443

 

Full Text

443

444

 

Full Text

444

445

 

Full Text

445

446

 

Full Text

446

447

 

Full Text

447

448

 

Full Text

448

449

 

Full Text

449

450

 

Full Text

450

451

 

Full Text

451

452

 

Full Text

452

453

 

Full Text

453

454

 

Full Text

454

455

 

Full Text

455

456

 

Full Text

456

457

 

Full Text

457

458

 

Full Text

458

459

 

Full Text

459

460

 

Full Text

460

461

 

Full Text

461

462

 

Full Text

462

463

 

Full Text

463

464

 

Full Text

464

465

 

Full Text

465

466

 

Full Text

466

467

 

Full Text

467

468

 

Full Text

468

469

 

Full Text

469

470

 

Full Text

470

471

 

Full Text

471

472

 

Full Text

472

473

 

Full Text

473

474

 

Full Text

474

475

 

Full Text

475

476

 

Full Text

476

477

 

Full Text

477

478

 

Full Text

478

479

 

Full Text

479

480

 

Full Text

480

481

 

Full Text

481

482

 

Full Text

482

483

 

Full Text

483

484

 

Full Text

484

485

 

Full Text

485

486

 

Full Text

486

487

 

Full Text

487

488

 

Full Text

488

489

 

Full Text

489

490

 

Full Text

490

491

 

Full Text

491

492

 

Full Text

492

493

 

Full Text

493

494

 

Full Text

494

495

 

Full Text

495

496

 

Full Text

496

497

 

Full Text

497

498

 

Full Text

498

499

 

Full Text

499

500

 

Full Text

500

501

 

Full Text

501

502

 

Full Text

502

503

 

Full Text

503

504

 

Full Text

504

505

 

Full Text

505

506

 

Full Text

506

507

 

Full Text

507

508

 

Full Text

508

509

 

Full Text

509

510

 

Full Text

510

511

 

Full Text

511

512

 

Full Text

512

513

 

Full Text

513

514

 

Full Text

514

515

 

Full Text

515

516

 

Full Text

516

517

 

Full Text

517

518

 

Full Text

518

519

 

Full Text

519

520

 

Full Text

520

521

 

Full Text

521

522

 

Full Text

522

523

 

Full Text

523

524

 

Full Text

524

525

 

Full Text

525

526

 

Full Text

526

527

 

Full Text

527

528

 

Full Text

528

529

 

Full Text

529

530

 

Full Text

530

531

 

Full Text

531

532

 

Full Text

532

533

 

Full Text

533

534

 

Full Text

534

535

 

Full Text

535

536

 

Full Text

536

537

 

Full Text

537

538

 

Full Text

538

539

 

Full Text

539

540

 

Full Text

540

541

 

Full Text

541

542

 

Full Text

542

543

 

Full Text

543

544

 

Full Text

544

545

 

Full Text

545

546

 

Full Text

546

547

 

Full Text

547

548

 

Full Text

548

549

 

Full Text

549

550

 

Full Text

550

551

 

Full Text

551

552

 

Full Text

552

553

 

Full Text

553

554

 

Full Text

554

555

 

Full Text

555

556

 

Full Text

556

557

 

Full Text

557

558

 

Full Text

558

559

 

Full Text

559

560

 

Full Text

560

561

 

Full Text

561

562

 

Full Text

562

563

 

Full Text

563

564

 

Full Text

564

565

 

Full Text

565

566

 

Full Text

566

567

 

Full Text

567

568

 

Full Text

568

569

 

Full Text

569

570

 

Full Text

570

571

 

Full Text

571

572

 

Full Text

572

573

 

Full Text

573

574

 

Full Text

574

575

 

Full Text

575

576

 

Full Text

576

577

 

Full Text

577

578

 

Full Text

578

579

 

Full Text

579

580

 

Full Text

580

581

 

Full Text

581

582

 

Full Text

582

583

 

Full Text

583

584

 

Full Text

584

585

 

Full Text

585

586

 

Full Text

586

587

 

Full Text

587

588

 

Full Text

588

589

 

Full Text

589

590

 

Full Text

590

591

 

Full Text

591

592

 

Full Text

592

593

 

Full Text

593

594

 

Full Text

594

595

 

Full Text

595

596

 

Full Text

596

597

 

Full Text

597

598

 

Full Text

598

599

 

Full Text

599

600

 

Full Text

600

601

 

Full Text

601

602

 

Full Text

602

603

 

Full Text

603

604

 

Full Text

604

605

 

Full Text

605

606

 

Full Text

606

607

 

Full Text

607

608

 

Full Text

608

609

 

Full Text

609

610

 

Full Text

610

611

 

Full Text

611

612

 

Full Text

612

613

 

Full Text

613

614

 

Full Text

614

615

 

Full Text

615

616

 

Full Text

616

617

 

Full Text

617

618

 

Full Text

618

619

 

Full Text

619

620

 

Full Text

620

621

 

Full Text

621

622

 

Full Text

622

623

 

Full Text

623

624

 

Full Text

624

625

 

Full Text

625

626

 

Full Text

626

627

 

Full Text

627

628

 

Full Text

628

629

 

Full Text

629

630

 

Full Text

630

631

 

Full Text

631

632

 

Full Text

632

633

 

Full Text

633

634

 

Full Text

634

635

 

Full Text

635

636

 

Full Text

636

637

 

Full Text

637

638

 

Full Text

638

639

 

Full Text

639

640

 

Full Text

640

641

 

Full Text

641

642

 

Full Text

642

643

 

Full Text

643

644

 

Full Text

644

645

 

Full Text

645

646

 

Full Text

646

647

 

Full Text

647

648

 

Full Text

648

649

 

Full Text

649

650

 

Full Text

650

651

 

Full Text

651

652

 

Full Text

652

653

 

Full Text

653

654

 

Full Text

654

655

 

Full Text

655

656

 

Full Text

656

657

 

Full Text

657

658

 

Full Text

658

659

 

Full Text

659

660

 

Full Text

660

661

 

Full Text

661

662

 

Full Text

662

663

 

Full Text

663

664

 

Full Text

664

665

 

Full Text

665

666

 

Full Text

666

667

 

Full Text

667

668

 

Full Text

668

669

 

Full Text

669

670

 

Full Text

670

671

 

Full Text

671

672

 

Full Text

672

673

 

Full Text

673

674

 

Full Text

674

675

 

Full Text

675

676

 

Full Text

676

677

 

Full Text

677

678

 

Full Text

678

679

 

Full Text

679

680

 

Full Text

680

681

 

Full Text

681

682

 

Full Text

682

683

 

Full Text

683

684

 

Full Text

684

685

 

Full Text

685

686

 

Full Text

686

687

 

Full Text

687

688

 

Full Text

688

689

 

Full Text

689

690

 

Full Text

690

691

 

Full Text

691

692

 

Full Text

692

693

 

Full Text

693

694

 

Full Text

694

695

 

Full Text

695

696

 

Full Text

696

697

 

Full Text

697

698

 

Full Text

698

699

 

Full Text

699

700

 

Full Text

700

701

 

Full Text

701

702

 

Full Text

702

703

 

Full Text

703

704

 

Full Text

704

705

 

Full Text

705

706

 

Full Text

706

707

 

Full Text

707

708

 

Full Text

708

709

 

Full Text

709

710

 

Full Text

710

 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 4, 2017. 

 All comments are welcome: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com, or contact with author(s) directly.

For back issues of the Journal of American Science, click here.

Emails: editor@americanscience.org; americansciencej@gmail.com

 

Marsland Press: http://www.sciencepub.net

 

2017 Marsland Press

 

Terms of Service  |  Privacy Policy  |

2017 Marsland Press