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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 2, Cumulated No. 108, February 25, 2017

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

Effect of sesame oil on feed intake, body weight gain, and histopathological changes in rat liver exposed to oxidative stress of Monosodium glutamate

 

Maha, A. Hijazi; Amani, A. Alrasheedi and Nahed A. Hareeri

 

Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

mhijazi@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The present research was conducted on twenty-four male mature Wistar rats to study the protective role of sesame oil against the oxidative stress caused by feeding monosodium glutamate. The rates were allocated in four equal groups. The1st one used as negative control without any treatment. The 2nd group used as positive control feed monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6 mg/gm body weight. The 3rd group received monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6 mg/gm body weight and treated with sesame oil at doses 4 ml/kg body weight. The 4th group received monosodium glutamate at dose rate 1.6mg / gm body weight and treated with sesame oil at dose rate 8 ml/kg body weight. The feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG %), feed efficiency ratio and histopathological changes of liver in rats after 14 days were studied. Oral intake of Monosodium glutamate (MSG) at dose 1.6mg/g to rats caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight gain (BWG %), Daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) in all experimental groups compared to control group. Also, the liver relative weights were increased significantly in all experimental groups compared to negative control group. Oral intake of sesame oil in the treated doses 4 and 8 ml/kg body weight caused a significant (p<0.05) decreased in BWG%, DFI, FER and liver relative weight when compared to (positive control group). These effects are associated with amelioration of degenerative histopathological changes in liver tissue induced by MSG. The most effective concentration of sesame oil as a hepatoprotective agent (8 ml/kg. body weight).

[Maha, A. Hijazi: Amani, A. Alrasheedi and Nahed A. Hareeri. Effect of sesame oil on feed intake, body weight. gain, and histopathological changes in rat liver exposed to oxidative stress of Monosodium glutamate. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):1-9]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.01.

 

Key words: Sesame oil, Monosodium glutamate, oxidative stress, histopathological changes of liver.

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Effect of Light Curing Unit and Adhesive System on the Durability of Resin Composite Restorations

 

Abo El Naga A.

 

Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

aaboelnaga@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the microtensile bond strength of two different adhesives when cured with three different curing units. Materials and Methods: Scotchbond Universal Total-Etch Adhesive (SU) and Adper Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (EB) [3M/ESPE] were used in this study. Occlusal surfaces of 18 human third molars were sectioned to obtain a flat dentin surface. The teeth were randomly assigned into 2 groups (n=9) according to the tested adhesive. Both adhesives were applied on the flat dentin surfaces according to manufacturer’s instructions. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups (n=3) according to the curing units that were used to polymerize the adhesive systems and the resin composite: 1) cured with halogen light curing unit, (PRO-DEN systems, Inc.-North Lombard street-Portland, USA); 2) cured with Elipar S10 unit (3M/ESPE); and 3) cured with Bluephaseunit (Ivoclar Vivadent). Composite resin (Feltik Z350 XT, 3M/ESPE) block was built up on each bonding surface by the incremental technique. After 24 hours distilled water storage at 37C, the bonded specimens were sectioned vertically through the resin composite parallel to their long axis in mesiodistal and linguolabial directions forming 0.8mm2 sticks for microtensile bond testing. Lloyd universal testing machine was used to test microtensile bond strength at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni’s post-hoc test (P≤ 0.05). Results: Regardless of the tested curing unit, Scotchbond Universal adhesive showed statistically significantly higher mean microtensile bond strength (39.7 MPa). Meanwhile, both adhesives cured with Bluephase unit showed highest mean microtensile bond strength values (43.96 MPa). Conclusions: under the test conditions, Adper Easy Bond adhesive showed decreased bond strength when cured with either Elipar S10 or Bluephase. Curing with Bluephase improved microtensile bond strength of both tested adhesives.

[Abo El Naga A. Effect of Light Curing Unit and Adhesive System onthe Durability of Resin Composite restorations. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):10-17]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.02.

 

Keywords: resin composite; light curing units; microtensile bond strength; adhesive systems

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Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Selected Libraries of University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Giwa, Holy Johnson and Ogunjobi, Adeniyi Adewale

 

Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

g.jofsh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The health and wellbeing of the public are affected by the physical, chemical and biological properties of their indoor environments. There are many multiple drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms of public health significance found in indoor air and on indoor surfaces which are inadvertently introduced on and into the body through contact. Antibiotic sensitivity of 40 identified bacteria isolated from indoor air and book surfaces in selected libraries in University of Ibadan to different broad spectrum commonly antibiotics was carried out using the disc diffusion method. The settle plate method was used to collect indoor air samples while book surfaces were swabbed using sterile swabs to collect microbial contaminations. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Micrococcus, Yersenia, Erwinia, Klebsiella Serratia, Pseudomonas and Providencia. Bacillus spp. had the highest occurrence of 27.5% followed by Staphylococcus sp. (22.5%), Erwinia and Providencia spp. had the lowest occurrence of 2.5% each. Resistance of these organisms to the test antibiotics ranged between 17.5% for ciprofloxacin to 75% for tetracycline. Irrespective of species, 46.25% of the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics while 42.5% were susceptible to them all. Also, 100% were resistant to at least one or more antibiotics while 82.5% were multiple drugs resistant. Three (7.5%) of the Gram positive bacteria isolated from these libraries (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus cohnii) showed 100% resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Results of this study shows that library environments (indoor air and books), can serve as environmental reservoirs of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria capable of being transferred to other environments through contact with any of these media. Regular disinfection of library environment and proper hand washing with soap free of antimicrobial agents prior to and after handling library materials were recommended to effectively prevent a pathogen’s path of transmission from person to person.

[Giwa, Holy Johnson and Ogunjobi, Adeniyi Adewale. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Selected Libraries of University of Ibadan, Nigeria. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):18-25]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.03.

 

Keywords: Prevalence; Multiple Antibiotic Resistant; Bacteria; Nigeria

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Relation of IL-6 expression in human placental tissue and fetal viability in Iraqi idiopathic preterm delivery

 

Yasmin L. Alsaadi 1, Samia A. Eleiwe 2

 

1 Faculty member- Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Faculty member- Department of Anatomy, Histology& Embryology, College of Medicine, Al- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.

samia_a_eleiwe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a worldwide public health dilemma that has significant undesirable effects on neonatal mortality and/or morbidity. In Iraq, idiopathic PTB prevalence seemed to be continued to increase and it stays put an imperative public health; hence any research in this context could deliver a new strategy in the prevention, detection and management of this important scene. Aims: This work was designed to compare the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in placental tissue from Iraqi women who had either spontaneous term delivery; or idiopathic preterm delivery using immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique; in relation to fetal viability. Methods: Ninety placentas were collected from labor room at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital and Al-Khadhraa Private Hospital meant for vaginal delivery. These placentas were divided into control group consisted of 30 mothers had spontaneous alive term deliveries at completed 37th to 40th week of gestation and another two groups each consisted of 30 mothers had preterm deliveries (PTD), with length of pregnancy less than completed 36th week; one group of them were belonged to PTD with alive neonates and the other one were belonged to PTD gave stillbirths. All samples were fixed in 10% formalin solution and were managed as routine paraffin sections. Then used for immunohistochemical tests. Results: The mean immunoreactivity score (IRS) values of IL-6 at the placental decidual cells and blood vessels were significantly higher (P<0.05), nevertheless its value in the villous trophoblasts was very highly significant (P<0.0005) in PTD with stillbirths as compared to each of PTD having alive neonates and term alive deliveries (control group). Conclusion: Immunoreactivity score values of IL-6 expression in the human placental tissue were significantly increased in PTD with stillbirths, suggesting that IL-6 could be a useful marker for early detection and diagnosis of fetal bad outcomes and PTD. The importance of this cytokine to pregnancy and labor process may be illustrated by their activities in acceleration of labor process.

[Yasmin L. Alsaadi –B.Sc., M.Sc., Samia A. Eleiwe –M. B. Ch. B., M. Sc., Ph.D., D.G.O. Relation of IL-6 expression in human placental tissue and fetal viability in Iraqi idiopathic preterm delivery. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):26-33]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.04.

 

Keywords: interleukin-6 (IL-6), Preterm birth (PTB), immunohistochemistry (IHC), preterm delivery (PTD)

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A Correlation Study on Health Related Quality of Life and Coping Strategy among Multiple Sclerosis Patients

 

Hoda Ahmed Hussein1 and Zienab Mohamed Ibrahim 2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing Department. 2Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Department. Faculty of Nursing. Modern University for Technology and Information. Egypt.

hoda_hussein@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on health related quality of life and coping strategy. This study aimed to describes the correlation on health related quality of Life and coping strategy among multiple sclerosis patients. A descriptive correlation design was used for conducting this study. This study was conducted at the Neurology out patient's clinic at Nasser institute for research and treatment. A convenience sample was consisted of 60 patients, aged from 20 to 50 years. The patients included in the study fulfilled the following criteria: Multiple sclerosis diagnoses with no complain of other disease who visited the neurology outpatient clinic at Nasser institute for research and treatment. Four tools were used to achieve the objective of the study: 1-Patients' socio-demographic characteristic, 2-Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life -54 (MSQOL-54), 3- Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE), 4- Profile of Mood States (POMS). The result of the present study shows significant correlation between physical health problems and health related quality of life, also shows highly significant correlation between COPE subscale, mood statues and multiple sclerosis disease. It was concluded that the majority of multiple sclerosis patients had health related quality of life and satisfactory coping. There is a significant relationship between the health related quality of life and coping strategies of multiple sclerosis patients. It was recommended that heath team member should be well-informed about multiple sclerosis, available treatments and rehabilitation.

[Hoda Ahmed Hussein and Zienab Mohamed Ibrahim. A Correlation Study on Health Related Quality of Life and Coping Strategy among Multiple Sclerosis Patients. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):34-42]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.05.

 

Key word: Multiple sclerosis, health related quality of life, coping strategies

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Detection of severity of Acute Coronary Syndrome using N Terminal PRO-BNP and as a prognostic marker

 

Faheem Abd EL Azim Rageb1; Dalia Mohammed Rageb1; Ahmed Hossam Moafy1; Amr Mohammed Essmat2; Ahmed Fathy Mohammed Mahmoud2

 

1Critical care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Critical care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt.

elkhateeb_ahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Patients with unstable CAD encompass a heterogeneous group that varies widely regarding severity of the underlying coronary artery disease, prognosis and response to treatment. Patients with the highest risk of subsequent events usually have the largest benefit of an intensified pharmacological treatment and early mechanical intervention. Levels of natriuretic peptides have been shown to reflect cardiac performance and there is emerging role of these peptides in the early risk stratification of unstable CAD patients. Aim of the study: To study the prognostic value of natriuretic peptides in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Patients and methods: Seventy four patients were included in this study all patients included were subjected to History taking and full clinical assessment, Routine Laboratory investigation, Cardiac specific troponin I and CK-MB, Serum level of NT – pro BNPand Echocardiography for all patients for evaluation of both systolic and diastolic functions, Coronary angiography for detection of severity of affection of coronary vessel. Results: In our study N Terminal BNP was significantly higher in more sever coronary artery affection with p value 0.015, that there is a trend toward higher mortality with increasing levels of N terminal BNP and this trend was statistically significant with p value 0.025. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Serum N Terminal BNP can be used to detect severity of the lesion and follow up patients with CAD, significantly higher in more severe coronary artery affection and there is a higher mortality with its increasing levels.

[Faheem Abd EL Azim Rageb; Dalia Mohammed Rageb; Ahmed Hossam Moafy; Amr Mohammed Essmat; Ahmed Fathy Mohammed Mahmoud. Detection of severity of Acute Coronary Syndrome using N Terminal PRO-BNP and as a prognostic marker. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):43-48]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.06.

 

Key Words: Acute coronary syndrome, brain (B‐type) natriuretic, peptide (BNP), N‐terminal fragment of proBNP (NT‐proBNP).

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Arthroscopic All inside Meniscal Repair of The Posterior Horn of The Medial Meniscus Using Outside-in Piecrusting Technique of The Medial Collateral Ligament

 

Ahmed Waly

 

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Drwaly28@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The posterior third of the medial meniscus is a common localization of meniscal tears, and an unrestricted view of this portion of the meniscus is a prerequisite for adequate resection. Since the medial femoral condyle obstructs the visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in stable knees, it is generally difficult to visualize and to use instruments to approach the meniscal pathologies in this area, especially in patients with tight knees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technique of piecrusting technique for better arthroscopic evaluation of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Between June 2011 till May 2013, 32 patients had tight knees with difficult visualization of their posterior compartment. Their mean age was 30.30 year (SD 5.65). All patients were assessed using IKDC subjective scoring. The mean preoperative IKDC score was 49.9% (39 – 57%). The overall results were considered as satisfactory in all patients except one patient who sustained MCL injury. The median IKDC score preoperatively was 50% (39%-57%). The median IKDC score had increased after one month postoperatively to 76% (67%- 85%) with P value < 0.05 which was statistically significant. After three months, the median IKDC was 91% (87%-98%). In most of the patients a 3mm to 5 mm increase in medial compartment height with an average number of 13 punctures (5-15 punctures) was achieved. Piecrusting technique is a very safe, effective technique for the visualization of the PHMM in tight knees.

[Ahmed Waly. Arthroscopic All inside Meniscal Repair of The Posterior Horn of The Medial Meniscus Using Outside-in Piecrusting Technique of The Medial Collateral Ligament. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):49-54]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.07.

 

Keywords: Posterior horn medial meniscus; Tight knee; Pie-crusting

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Underlying Causes of Death in Extreme Preterm Infants

 

Eman Shajira1, Abdulrahman Al-Matary2

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Royal Medical Services, Kingdom of Bahrain

2Children’s Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

eman.shajera@bdfmedical.org

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the causes of death among extremely premature infants and to assess temporal changes in overall mortality. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the causes of death in all extremely premature infants with gestational ages between 23+0/7 and 28+6/7 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at the Children’s Hospital of King Fahad Medical City. We compared infants born between 2010 and 2012 to those born between 2013 and 2015. We obtained data regarding age, sex, gestational age (GA), weight at birth, infant and maternal characteristics, and cause of death. Results: The overall mortality rate was decreased by 14.6% from 432 (CI: 345 to 519) to 369 (CI: 286 to 452) deaths per 1,000 live births during the second period. Deaths due to prematurity and intraventricular hemorrhage were increased by 54.9% and 8.3%, respectively. Sepsis reduced by 40%, respiratory distress syndrome reduced by 42.3%, and pulmonary hemorrhage was reduced by 17%. In infants born at 23-24 weeks, prematurity caused 54% of total deaths, followed by IVH and sepsis (12.1% each). Sepsis accounted for 35.3% of deaths in infants born at 25-26 weeks. Other causes of death at this age included RDS, pulmonary hemorrhage, and prematurity (13.7% each). In infants born at 27-28 weeks of gestation, sepsis caused 20% of deaths, and RDS caused 15.5%. Conclusion: The overall rates of death and deaths attributed to sepsis, RDS, and pulmonary hemorrhage were reduced during the second period. Meanwhile, deaths due to prematurity and IVH have increased. Necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and congenital anomalies showed no significant trends. Causes of death were more clearly identified in the infant charts from the second period. More multicenter, prospective studies are required to implement strategies against the lethal complications of premature birth.

[Eman Shajira, Abdulrahman Al-Matary. Underlying Causes of Death in Extreme Preterm Infants. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):55-60]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.08.

 

Key Words: Cause-specific death rate, age-specific death rate, prematurity, sepsis, RDS (respiratory distress syndrome), BPD (bronchopulmonary dysplasia), IVH (intraventricular hemorrhage), NEC (necrotizing enterocolitis), GA (gestational age), NICU (Neonatal intensive care unit)

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Ethnomedicinal Plants of Kumaun and Garhwal Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand

 

Vinay Mohan Pathak, Navneet

 

Department of Botany & Microbiology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar 249-404, Uttarakhand, India

vinaymohanpathak@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Uttarakhand is well- known places for their natural wealth. Two major region of Uttarakhand i.e. Kumaun and Garhwal that comes under cross line area of Himalaya. These areas have great biodiversity that are serving as vital source of ethno-medically importance plants. There are many rear plants that uses as medicine or in pharmaceutical formation of drugs found in these regions. In India the use of traditional medicine are much popular and acceptable by several tribal communities of India. Several peoples facing the side effects problems with allopathic drugs and due to this reason the market natural product based medicines increases. It influence the market demands raw material and lowering the availability medicinal plants in the absence of proper management strategies. There are need to some especial programme for conservation and sustainability of medicinal plants of Himalayan cross line areas.

[Vinay Mohan Pathak, Navneet. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Kumaun and Garhwal Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):61-68]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.09.

 

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal; traditional medicines; skin diseases; treatment

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Evaluation of some farming practices on soil physicochemical properties and performance of maize Zea mays (L.) in Southeastern Nigeria.

 

Omovbude, S. and Benwari, A.O

 

Department of Crop and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. sundayomovbude@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was carried out at Teaching and Research Farm of University of Port Harcourt between May and August, 2016 to evaluate the effect some farming practices on soil physicochemical properties and performance of maize Zea mays (L.) in Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment consisted of six treatments namely: control, pumpkin cover, 10t/ha dry guinea grass mulch, 10t/ha poultry manure, 250kg/ha N:P:K 20:10:10 and 10t/ha dry guinea grass (bush burning). These treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replicates. Results showed that farming practices did not significantly (P >0.05) increased in soil physical properties such as sand and clay particles except silt. Soil chemical properties (N, P and K) were significantly (P<0.05) increased by the various farming practices when compared with the control. However, soil pH, Ca, and organic matter did not followed any particular trend as others soil chemical properties. Organic matter was significantly higher in plots treated with cover crop (40.60 g/kg) and lower in N:P:K 20:10:10 (15.25 g/kg). Soil pH was significantly higher in burnt plot (5.5) and lower in N:P:K 20:10:10 (4.0). Ca content (12.65mg/kg) was higher (P< 0.05) in burnt plot and lower in poultry manure (4.35 mg/kg). At 12WAP plants height were superior with plots treated with 250kg/ha N:P:K 20:10:10 producing the tallest plants (2.91m) which was statistically the same with that of bush burning (2.81m) and poultry manure (2.71m) while the shortest (2.11m) were produced in plots with pumpkin cover which were statistically the same with plots mulched with dry guinea grass (2.42m). In the same vein, leaf areas at 12WAP were superior with plots treated with N:P:K 20:10:10 producing the largest leaf area (9.37m2) which was statistically the same with that of bush burning (9.16m2), poultry manure (8.78m2) and dry guinea grass mulch (8.62m2) while the smallest were produced in plots with pumpkin cover (6.97m2) which was statistically the same with the control (7.00m2). N:P:K 20:10:10 plot produced the highest yield (0.17t/ha) which was not significantly different from that of bush burning (0.15t/ha) and poultry manure (0.12t/ha). In conclusion, the choice of which farming practice to use is sometime difficult to make but comparative analysis will put N:P:K 20:10:10, followed by bushing burning and poultry manure above all others practices. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the cost implications of these practices before a recommendation can be made.

[Omovbude, S. and Benwari, A.O. Evaluation of some farming practices on soil physicochemical properties and performance of maize Zea mays (L.) in Southeastern Nigeria. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):69-76]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.10.

 

Keywords: Evaluation, farming practices; maize, soil properties, Southeastern Nigeria

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The Role of MRI in Differentiation of Bone Infarction and Osteomyelitis in Pediatric Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

 

Ghada Abdel monaem 1*; Engy Fathy Ahmed Tantawy 1; Ashgan Abdullah Alghobashy 2

 

1Department of Radiodiagnosis; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

ghada12009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To differentiate between bone infarction and osteomyelitis in pediatric patients with Sickle Cell Disease using MRI. Patients and Methods: Prospective study analyzed 48 pediatric cases of sickle cell disease with bone pain. The imaging include Conventional radiography, Ultrasound and MRI with and without contrast enhanced imaging which were done for all 48 cases, however, Computed tomography and Isotope scan were done for only (15 cases) from (48 cases). Results: The incidence in MRI diagnosis is that infarction is more common among studied group. About 22 cases represent about 45.8% while infection is the least common cases, which diagnosed in 5 cases and represent 10.4 % of studied age group. as well as, equivocal were 9 cases and represent about 18.8 %. MRI has high sensitivity as all equivocal cases diagnosed by MRI as infarction show negative blood culture and that diagnosed as infection gave positive culture, thus blood culture and joint aspirate are the gold standard in diagnosis equivocal cases. Conclusion: MRI is the most sensitive but not specific in detection abnormality in early bone marrow infection and infarction. A positive blood culture or joint aspirate are the gold standard in diagnosis osteomyelitis, be that as it may, a negative blood culture does not prohibit the analysis of early osteomyelitis.

[Ghada Abdel monaem; Engy Fathy Ahmed Tantawy; Ashgan Abdullah Alghobashy. The Role of MRI in Differentiation of Bone Infarction and Osteomyelitis in Pediatric Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):77-85]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.11.

 

Key Words: Sickle Cell Disease, bone marrow, magnetic resonance imaging, pediatric bone marrow disorders

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Lap sleeve gastrectomy vs. lap gastric bypass after gastric band failure in morbid obese patient

 

Nasser Ahmed Abdelnazer and Rabbah k. Abdellatif

 

Department of General surgery, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

nassernazer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Laparoscopic gastric band had gained a great popularity as a bariatric operation due to its simplicity and good short-term outcomes, while its long term out comes have been shown to be not that favorable. This study aimed to compare laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) with laparoscopic gastric bypass (LRYGB) as a revisional procedure for treatment of gastric band failure. Methods: From June 2013 to November 2016, 29 patients (19 females and 10 males) who had either LSG or LRYGB for failed gastric banding at bariatric center, Elite Hospital, Riyadh, KSA were enrolled to our study. Patients were divided into 2 groups, group (A) included 16 patients (10 females and 6 males), where LSG was performed and group (B) included 13 patients (9 females and 4 males), where LRYGB was done. Patient demographics, indications for revision, operative and postoperative data were recorded. Perioperative and clinical outcomes were compared between both groups. Results: 29 patients with gastric band failure were candied for revisional bariatric surgery, divided into 2 groups. In group (A) (n = 16), LSG were performed in concurrence with the band removal as a one-stage operation in 13 (81.3%), while 3 (18.7%) patients were performed in two-stages. while in group (B) (n = 13), one-stage operation were done for 11 (84.6%) patients and only 2 (15.4%) patients underwent two-stages surgery. Mean age for group (A) was 37.315.3 years, while it was 36.917.21 for group (B). Mean BMI was 44.510.2 kg/m2 for group (A), and 45.516.31 kg/m2 for group (B). Mean operative time for Group (A) was143.625.12 minutes, while it was 21656.36 minutes for Group (B) with a significant statistical difference. Mean length of hospital stay were 2.91.3 days and 3.10.8 for group (A) and (B) respectively. One case (7%) in group (B) had leakage from the gastro-jejunal anastomosis that needed reoperation. The excess weight loss (%EWL) at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months were 29.710.2%, 43.316.21%, 50.417.6% and 48.916.83% respectively for group (A), while in group (B), it was 30.89.41%, 45.38.62%, 51.3214.31% and 50.5213.42 % respectively without a significant statistical difference. Conclusion: conversion to LRYGB as well asLSG, after gastric band failure, is feasible and safe with a significant advantage in terms of further weight lossafter surgery.

[Nasser Ahmed Abdelnazer and Rabbah k. Abdellatif. Lap sleeve gastrectomy vs. lap gastric bypass after gastric band failure in morbid obese patient. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):86-94]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.12.

 

Keywords: Gastric band failure- Revisional surgery- LSG-LRYGB

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Impact of sludge produced from drinking water plants on groundwater and its treatment by a natural polymer

 

Ragaa EL-sheikh1, Moustafa M. S. Abo-ELfadl2, Mohamed E. A. Ali2, Khalid Khader3

 

1Facultyof Science, Department of Chemistry, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2Hydrogeochemistry Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3 Holding Company at 10th of Ramadan

m7983ali@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main aim of this work is to utilize the sludge water through treatment of the water turbidity and residual aluminum to prevent the seepage of the aluminum into the groundwater. Cross-linked chitosan was used as coagulant to remove turbidity and adsorb aluminum ions from the sludge water. The effect of several variables on the rate of gelation of chitosan glutaraldehyde system for maximum residual turbidity and aluminum removal from sludge water were studied. FT-IR spectrum was used as a tool to confirm the formation of cross-linked chitosan from pure chitosan using glutaraldehyde. A set of jar test experiments were conducted to find the optimal cross-linker concentration and coagulant dosage. The obtained results demonstrated that coagulation/flocculation process can assure turbidity removal from low to high turbidity waters effectively (10-18NTU), using relatively low doses of cross-linked chitosan (0.6-0.8 ppm). The results showed that turbidity removal is dependent on pH, coagulant dosage, and cross-linking degree as well as initial turbidity of water for both used coagulants. The highest turbidity removal efficiency was 85.1-92.4% with maximum removal of aluminium of 95 % for cross-linked chitosan over theapplied range of turbidity.

[Ragaa EL-sheikh, Moustafa M. S. Abo-ELfadl, Mohamed E. A. Ali, Khalid Khader. Impact of sludge produced from drinking water plants on groundwater and its treatment by a natural polymer. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):95-105]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.13.

 

Keywords: sludge water, turbidity, aluminium removal, cross-linked chitosan, glutaraldehyde, Water treatment.

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Surface, Biological and Antitumor Activity of some thio- based cationic surfactants

 

Sharbat A. Bakr

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-AzharUniversity, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt, B.O. Box, 11754.

dr.sharbatbakr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three thio-based cationic surfactants were synthesized depend on reaction of anthranilic and sulphanilic acids with fatty isothiocyanate having hydrocarbon chain length of C12, C16 and C18 followed byquaternerization with ethyl iodide. Elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, mass spectra and H1 NMR spectra were performed to insure the structure of the prepared compounds. Their anticancer activity was tested by using Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) as a model system of mice cell tumor. The compounds were also tested in vitro on three human tumor cell lines: MCF 7 (breast carcinoma), HEPG 2 (liver carcinoma) and HCT 116 (colon carcinoma), antimicrobial activity against different species of bacteria and fungi using agar well diffusion methods. The surface properties of these surfactants were investigated. The surface properties studied included Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC), maximum surface excess (Γmax), and minimum surface area (A min). Free energy of micellization (ΔGmic) and adsorption (ΔGads) were calculated.

[Sharbat A. Bakr. Surface, Biological and Antitumor Activity of some thio- based cationic surfactants. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):106-120]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.14.

 

Key words: Surface activity, Biological activity, Antitumor activity, thio-bsed cationic surfactants.

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Practice and Efficiency of Breast Self-Examination Among Female Health Workers In A Premier Tertiary Hospital In Nigeria

 

Elizabeth E. Olanloye1*, Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi2 and Onoja M. Akpa2

 

1Department of Radiotherapy, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

ebunoluwayinka@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Recommendation by physicians has been shown to motivate women to obtain one of the breast cancer screening (BCS), however information about the contribution of female health workers (FHWs) is generally lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was to ascertain BSE practice and its efficiency among female health workers. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 336 consenting FHWs at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, using an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses respectively. All analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 at 5% significant level. Results: Nearly all the respondents (99.4%) were aware of breast cancer, and of BSE, CBE and mammography as breast cancer screening methods (99.1%, 97.5% and 94.6% respectively). One hundred and ninety-four (57.7%) respondents had good overall knowledge score of the disease. Health programmes appeared to be the major source of our respondents’ information on BSE. Although a larger proportion 318/336 (94.6%) practiced BSE, only 46.3% practiced it on a monthly basis. Those who resides in urban areas were 0.049 times more likely to have practiced BSE when compared with those who resides in semi-urban locations (OR = 0.049, 95% CI = 0.037 – 0.992). Conclusion: The level of awareness, knowledge and practise of BSE among the FHWs in UCH was high but the efficiency of its practice was poor among them. Continuous education of health workers by primary care providers and hospital managements on BSE screening intervention with emphasizes on competence in its practice is of utmost importance. This enables them serve as positive role models through their own participation in the behaviours being promoted.

[Elizabeth E. Olanloye, Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi and Onoja M. Akpa. Practice and Efficiency of Breast Self-Examination Among Female Health Workers In A Premier Tertiary Hospital In Nigeria. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):121-131]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.15.

 

Keywords: Breast cancer screening, Breast self-examination, Female Health workers, Practice, Efficiency

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Synthesis, Spectroscopic characterization, Antimicrobial, Antitumor Properties of new 4-amino-2,3 dimethyl-1-phenyl -3- pyrazolone-5-one (antipyrine) Schiff Bases and its transition metal complexes

 

N. G. El-Kholy

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science (Girl, s), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

nagdaelkholy2017@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A Schiff base ligands L1, L2, L3 were prepared from condensation reaction of 4 amino-2,3- dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazoline-5-one(4aminoantipyrine) with P. methoxybenzaldehyde (L1), O. methoxy-benzaldehyde (L2) and 4 hydroxy-3-methoy benzaldehyde (L3) in absolute ethanol solution. The prepared ligands forms a series of Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) complexes in good yield. The structures of the newly ligands and their transition metal complexes are investigated and characterized using different physicochemical studies as elemental analysis, IR spectra, 1HNMR, UV-Vis spectra and solid reflectance, mass spectra, magnetic susceptibility, and thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). The spectroscopic data of the complexes suggest their 1:1 (M: L) complex structures. Also the spectroscopic studies suggest the octahydral structure for all complexes. Further, some of these complexes show lower conductance values, supporting their non electronic nature while the others complexes high conductance value supporting 1:1 electrolytic nature. Moreover the synthesized Schiff bases L1, L2, L3 and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer activity. The antimicrobial efficiency of these complexes reveals that the complex containing cobalt, cadmium and nickel exhibited the highest broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Also the results of antitumor activities of the purified compounds confirm that the highest inhibitory effect was reported at IC50 value 27.1 g /ml for compound (5).

[N. G. El-Kholy. Synthesis, Spectroscopic characterization, Antimicrobial, Antitumor Properties of new 4-amino-2, 3 dimethyl-1-phenyl -3- pyrazolone-5-one (antipyrine) Schiff Bases and its transition metal complexes. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):132-145]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.16.

 

Key word: 4 amino antipyrine, methoxybenzaldehydes, Schiff bases, transition metal complexes, antimicrobial antifungal and antitumor activity

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SYNTAX Score as a Predictor of Angiographic No-reflow and MACE in Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

 

Ghada A. Kazamel

 

Cardiology Department, National Heart Institute, Egypt

ghada_kazamel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Angiographic no-reflow during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with STEMI may result in unfavorable outcomes. The SYNTAX score is angiographic score which calculate the complexity and severity of CAD and predict the outcome. We aimed to assess the ability of Syntax score as an independent predictor of no reflow phenomenon and MACE with PPCI patients. Patients and methods: The study was conducted prospectively on 760 patients admitted with acute STEMI and were subjected to primary PCI. All patients with complete history taking including comorbidities and risk factors, full data of clinical examination, routine full labs including Cardiac biomarkers, ECG and Echocardiography during hospital stay were included. All patients were managed according to guidelines in the management of acute coronary syndrome. PPCI was done and SYNTAX score was calculated. Coronary no-reflow observed with an interventional cardiologist recorded and patients were classified into two groups I has normal coronary restoration flow and II has No-reflow. Hospital stay and 6 month follow up for developing MACE was traced. Results: There was significant difference between patients within two study groups for their Syntax score and TIMI risk scores denoting higher predicted risks and higher anatomical complexity for No-reflow patients, (22.25.8 vs. 37.43.8 and 5.61.3 vs. 10.12.3, P value <.001 for all). No-reflow patients had lengthier lesions, (19.46.9 vs. 26.47.2, P value <.001). MACE were correlated to no-reflow phenomenon (r value:.869, P value: <.001). No-reflow phenomenon was correlated to SYNTAX score, (r value.682, P value <.001). Conclusions: Syntax score can be used as an independent predictor of no reflow phenomenon and MACE.

[Ghada A. Kazamel. SYNTAX Score as a Predictor of Angiographic No-reflow  and MACE In Patients With ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):146-152]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.17.

 

Keywords: No reflow-primary percutaneous coronary intervention-SYNTAX score

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Combined retrograde pedal access and antegrade femoral access for endovascular management of patients with critical limb ischemia

 

Hossam M. Saleh, MD

 

Vascular Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

hosamsaleh2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: We aimed to analyze the outcomes combined retrograde pedal access and antegrade femoral access in patients with critical limb ischemia with an unsuccessful attempt at revascularization through an antegrade access. Methods: Limbs with unsuccessful crossing of the tibial occlusion through antegrade access were included in the study. Limb salvage rate were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: 50 limbs were included in the study. Technical success rate was achieved in 96%. The reported limb salvage rates were 70%, 59%, and 53% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Conclusion: Combined retrograde and antegrade access for complex popliteo-tibial occlusions after failed recanalization via antegrade access is safe, effective, and technically feasible to reestablish flow to the foot.

[Hossam M. Saleh. Combined retrograde pedal access and antegrade femoral access for endovascular management of patients with critical limb ischemia. J Am Sci 2017;13(2):153-158]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas130217.18.

 

Keywords: Antegrade access, retrograde access, tibial occlusion

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 19, 2017. 

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