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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 3, Cumulated No. 109, March 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1303

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Depiction of Women in the Media: Examining the Effect of Portrayals on Education

 

Maha Al-Zahrani

 

Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

jam7474@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Undoubtedly, women around the world both deserve and need a positive portrayal in the media. This includes television programs, commercials, newspaper articles, other forms of print media and radio. The growing influence of social media provides another critical avenue for women to promote the importance of providing access to all area of society. The economic benefit of including women in traditionally male-dominated careers is another reason to embrace this change. By harnessing media to promote a gender-positive message in which women are capable of anything in society, rates of discrimination will likely decrease. Perhaps most importantly, rates of both physical and sexual violence will also be reduced following attitudinal change.

[Maha Al-Zahrani. Depiction of Women in the Media: Examining the Effect of Portrayals on Education polymer. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):1-4]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.01.

 

Keywords: Depiction; Women; Media; Examine; Effect; Portrayal; Education

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Effect of methotrexate on the liver of male albino rats and possible protective role of Barley's grains

 

Doha Saber Mohammed1 and Salwa M. Ouies2

 

1 Department of Human Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

2 Department of Human anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University.

salwaouies@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The most common side effects associated with the use of methotrexate (MTX) in the commonly used doses is hepatic toxicity. As a herbal alternative Hordeumvulgare seeds (Commonly known as Barley) commonly used by traditional medical practitioners in the treatment of many diseases including liver diseases. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to study the potential protective effect of Barley's grains on MTX induced liver injury. Materials and methods: adult male rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups each of them consists of 10 rats: Group I: (control group): were injected with IP saline. Group II: were IP injected with MTX in a dose of 6mg/kg /day for 5 days. Group III: Barley grains were given at a dose of 200g /kg/day for 30 days plusintraperitoneal injections of MTX on the day 25, at the dose 6mg/kg /day for 5 days. the rats were sacrificed by decapitation then liver pieces for light microscopic study were obtained. Results: MTX markedly affected the liver tissue as appeared by light microscopic, immunohistochemical examinations and morphometric studies. Pretreatment of Barley's grains could attenuate some of these changes. Conclusion: Pretreatment of Barley's grains had a possible protective effect against MTX induced liver injury.

[Doha Saber Mohammed and Salwa M. Ouies. Effect of methotrexate on the liver of male albino rats and possible protective role of Barley's grains. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):5-13]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.02.

 

Keywords: liver, MTX, Barley's grains.

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Provisional Prosthetic Nasal Rehabilitation following Total Rhinectomy Using a Silicone Based Prosthesis

 

Yasser Araby

 

Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

dr.yasser.araby@qudent.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Tumors of the nasal skin are common, and can usually be managed with local excision and reconstruction or radiotherapy. Extensive, neglected or recurrent nasal tumors may require rhinectomy for complete excision. Surgical reconstruction of the rhinectomy defect is challenging. Attempts at autologous reconstruction with regional flaps or free tissue transfer are frequently unsatisfactory, even in the hands of the most skilled surgeon. A good prosthesis is invariably better than the best reconstruction. The literature indicates that 3 to 5 months of postoperative healing may be required to allow for contraction and organization of the tissue bed before commencing fabrication of a definitive nasal prosthesis. This delay in rehabilitation can be a hardship for the patient and result in adverse psychological consequences. Early rehabilitation through the use of a temporary nasal prosthesis offers a means of overcoming these difficulties. The purpose of this article is to present a clinical report that describes the provisional prosthetic rehabilitation using a silicone based prosthesis of a patient who had undergone a total rhinectomy as a result of a neglected basal cell carcinoma of the nose to fulfill the esthetic requirements of the patient and allow him to practice his social activities confidently.

[Araby Y. Provisional Prosthetic Nasal Rehabilitation following Total Rhinectomy Using a Silicone Based Prosthesis. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):14-18]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.03.

 

Keywords: Nasal defect, nasal prosthesis, facial prosthesis, Rhinectomy, silicone prosthesis

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Detection of toxicity and effects of some insecticides to local honey bee race (Apismelliferajemenatica)

 

Dalal Musleh Aljedani

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Al Faisaliah, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Email: daljedani@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Toxicity of some insecticides (Azadirachtin, Imidacloprid and Methoxyfenozide) were tested on the foragers honeybee Apismelliferajemenatica, under laboratory conditions. All these three insecticides were used at the same concentrations: 0.5, 2.5, 7.5 and 10 ppm and control group (0 ppm) and comparing the mix of the three insecticides. Assessments were made after 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,12,24,48,72 and 96 hours after treatment. There were differences in foragers honeybee workers mortality between the control and all insecticides treatments, also mortality differences were found among the various treatments were the most dangerous insecticides after 48 h. is the Imidacloprid whose mortality rate was the highest reaching to 100% at 7.5 and 10 ppm. At 0.5 ppm, Azadirachtin and Methoxyfenozide had the lowest mortality rate. Foragers honeybee workers mortality increased with time after treatment. Anyway, at 7.5 ppm, the LT50= 2.714, 5.061, 7.052 and 8.687 hours in Imidacloprid, Mix, Methoxyfenozide and Azadirachtin, respectively. The control group (Control) showed the longest age of the honey bee workers having an LT50 = 1749.421 hours. These findings indicate that Imidacloprid then Methoxyfenozide greatly affect forager honeybees workers, whereas Azadirachtin was less effective because it was associated with lower death rate and a longer life span seen with the honeybees workers. In conclusion, the present study clearly showed that these were the most effective insecticides at the rate each was tested.

[Dalal Musleh Aljedani. Detection of toxicity and effects of some insecticides to local honey bee race (Apismelliferajemenatica). J Am Sci 2017;13(3):19-31]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.04.

 

Keywords: Honey bees; Azadirachtin; Imidacloprid; Methoxyfenozide; Concentrations; Toxicity. Apismelliferajemenatica. Foragers honeybee workers.

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Pathophysiology and Perioperative Care of Sickle Cell Patients, towards a better outcome: A Literature Review

 

Nabeel shamsan1, Elficki Yahya2, Abdullah Alamry3, TarnimAlghamdi3, Faisal Aljedani3, Ekram Tahir3

 

1Chairman Internal Medicine Deprtment, King Abdul Azziz Hospital, Jeddah, KSA

2 FRCP-UK, Consultant Internal Medicine. King Abdul Aziz Hospital, Jeddah KSA

3Research Assistant and Coordinator, Internal Medicine. King Abdul Aziz Hospital Jeddah, KSA

profelficki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sicklecell anemia (SCA) primarily affects people with African, Mediterranean, South American, Middle Eastern, and Indian ancestry. Sickle cell disease is an inherited hemoglobinopathy that develops from a genetic mutation and the production of a dysfunctional variant of hemoglobin. A number of physiological disturbances encountered during the perioperative period (blood loss, hypotension, acidosis, and hypoxia) may induce "sickling" of the biochemically altered hemoglobin, producing painful microvascular occlusion, hemolytic anemia, and impaired oxygen delivery. The only available curative therapy requires bone marrow transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease and the pertinent preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of patients with the disease. Persons with sickle cell anemia are more likely to undergo surgery than are the general population during their lifetime. As surgery exposes patients to many of the factors that are known to precipitate red blood cell sickling, persons with SCD undergoing surgery require specific clinical care to prevent peri-operative sickle cellrelated complications.

[Nabeel shamsan, Elficki Yahya, Abdullah Alamry, TarnimAlghamdi, Faisal Aljedani, Ekram Tahir. Pathophysiology and Perioperative Care of Sickle Cell Patients, towards a better outcome: A Literature Review. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):32-40]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.05.

 

Keywords: sickle cell anaemia, sickle cell disease, drepanocytosis, perioperative.

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Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Campanian-Maastrichtian Sudr Formation at Esh El-Mellaha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Abdel Galil A. Hewaidy1, Sherif Farouk2 and Arafa F. El-Balkiemy1

 

1 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Exploration Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Arafa_stratigraphy60@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three upper Campanian- upper Maastrichtian exposures on the western flank of Esh El-Mellaha range, north Eastern Desert, Egypt from north to south: Wadi Dib, Wadi Abu Had, and Bir Mellaha sections are studied. This interval is represented by the Sudr Formation which is classified into Markha and Abu Zeneima members from base to top. This rock unit is found very rich in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. Fifty seven planktonic foraminiferal species belonging to seventeen genera, six subfamilies, five families, four superfamilies and one suborder are recorded and most of them are belonging to family "Globotruncanidae” where it includes eleven genera and thirty eight species. So, the phylogenetic development of the recorded species and genera from this important family is discussed. Eleven planktonic foraminiferal biozones are distinguished in the studied sequence; one of late early Campanian to late Campanian age (Globotruncana ventricosa Zone); two of late Campanian age (Globotruncanella havanensis (=CF9) and Globotruncana aegyptiaca (CF8a) zones); four of early Maastrichtian age (Rugoglobigerina hexacamerata (CF8b), Gansserina gansseri (CF7), Contusotruncana contusa (CF6), Pseudotextularia intermedia (CF5) zones); and for the first time four of late Maastrichtian age (Racemiguembelina fructicosa (CF4), Pseudoguembelina hariaensis (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebera (CF2), and Plummerita hantkeninoides (CF1) zones). The Campanian / Maastrichtian boundary is located within the lower part of the Abu Zeneima Member between (CF8a) and (CF8b) zones, while the early / late Maastrichtian boundary is located within the upper part of the Abu Zeneima Member between (CF5) and (CF4) zones. Two unconformity surfaces are recorded within the Sudr Formation. The first one is recorded at the three studied sections and it lies between the Markha and Abu Zeneima Members due to absence of the late Campanian Globotruncanita calcarata Zone; while the second unconformity surface is recorded at both Wadi Abu Had and Wadi Dib sections only and it lies within the uppermost part of Abu Zeneima Member due to absence of the last two latest Maastrichtian CF2 and CF1 zones.

[Abdel Galil A. Hewaidy, Sherif Farouk and Arafa F. El-Balkiemy. Planktonic Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Campanian-Maastrichtian Sudr Formation at Esh El-Mellaha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):41-69]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.06.

 

Key words: planktonic foraminifera, Sudr Formation, systematic, phylogeny, biostratigraphy, upper Campanian, upper Maastrichtian, Esh El-Mellaha.

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Tuberculosis of the Stomach, Diagnostic Role of Endoscopic Cytology Case Report and Review of Literature

 

Nabeel Shamsan1, Yehya Alficki2, Linah Faiz Faour3, Hadeel Ali AlQahtani3, Tammani Mohsen Alghamdi3 and Abdulraheem Fadel Alsadat3

 

1 Consultant Gastroenterology King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, KSA.

2 Consultant Internal Medicine King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, KSA.

3 Research Assistant and Coordinator at King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, KSA.

profelficki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gastric tuberculosis is an uncommon site of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis infection; clinically gastric tuberculosis resembles peptic ulcer disease or less likely a gastric malignant growth. We report a case of an endoscopic large gastric mass in an HIV negative immunocompetent male patient secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis presented with severe chronic abdominal pain and vomiting found to have a large tuberculoma at the fundus of the stomach, follow up endoscopy after 12 month of antituberculous treatment showed remnants of fibrotic bands with complete recovery of the patient from his pulmonary as well as the extra pulmonary gastric TB. This case report highlight the utility of endoscopic brush smears in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in clinically suspected cases and necessity of application of Z-N stain smear on endoscopic brush cytology as a reliable and simple modality for the diagnosis of gastric tuberculosis.

[Nabeel Shamsan, Yehya Alficki, Linah Faiz Faour, Hadeel Ali AlQahtani, Tammani Mohsen Alghamdi and Abdulraheem Fadel Alsadat. Tuberculosis of The Stomach, Diagnostic Role of Endoscopic Cytology, Case Report and Review of Literature. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):70-73]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.07.

 

Key words: Gastrodudenal TB, Endoscopic Brush cytology, Z-N Stain.

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Pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine based scaffold as purine analogues with diverse biological activity

 

Mazin A. A. Najm, Rabah A. T. Serya and Khaled A. M. Abouzid

 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt

Khaled.abouzid@pharma.asu.edu.eg; Mazinsajad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purine can be considered as the most ubiquitous and functional N-heterocyclic compounds in nature. Structural modifications of natural purines, particularly using isosteric ring systems, have been in the focus of many drug discovery programs. Due to the structural similarity between the pyrazolo[1,5-a] [1,3,5] triazine scaffold and the purine system, modifications of this scaffold have given rise to a lot of bioactive agents which could interact with targets of biogenic purines. The present review to the best of our knowledge about synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a] [1,3,5] triazine scaffold as enzyme inhibitors with therapeutic value.

[Mazin A. A. Najm, Rabah A. T. Serya, Khaled A. M. Abouzid. Pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine based scaffold as purine analogues with diverse biological activity. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):74-95]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.08.

 

Keywords: Bioisostere, Purine, Pyrazolo [1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine, Synthetic strategy.

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Integrated Channel Maintenance with Stakeholders Participation (Case Study)

 

Tarek G. El Din Ahmed, Salwa M. Abou El Ella and Tarek A. El Samman

 

Channel Maintenance Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621, Egypt.

salwaabouelella@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Participation of water user associations (WUAs) is considered the key factor contributing to the long term maintenance sustainability of branch open irrigation channels. Therefore, this paper describes a new experience and study of management program for sustainable branch canals maintenance through involvement of water users and stakeholders (irrigation officials and beneficiaries). The principal study of the project is to situate and examine a comprehensive open waterways maintenance strategy that incorporates technical civil works with related social activities that consider social dimensions of water users. This strategy aims to guarantee maintenance process sustainability while in parallel provide social activities for farm organic residuals elimination and conversion into compost and biogas; that consequently would reduce farm expenses and enhance life style. The study was implemented in four branch canals that cover four different regions in Egypt. The implemented integrated channel maintenance program comprised of three principal directions; (1) branch canal rehabilitation (2) aquatic weeds management and (3) increase public awareness with capacity building of water user association members. The general impression regarding the experience of teaming up beneficiaries with irrigation officials was highly satisfactory; as the experiment could create case of excellent communication and understanding regarding beneficiaries’ demands and irrigation directorates’ facilities. Accordingly maintenance efforts could be managed and planned more clearly and effectively. Partial rehabilitation of open channel result in satisfactory hydraulic performance enhancement with reasonably reduced cost. Moreover general recommended guidelines/strategy for developing open channel maintenance are included the paper.

[Tarek G. El Din Ahmed, Salwa M. Abou El Ella and Tarek A. El Samman. Integrated Channel Maintenance with Stakeholders Participation (Case Study). J Am Sci 2017;13(3):96-101]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.09.

 

Key Words: Manual weed control, farmers' participation, integrated maintenance.

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A Rare Morphological Variant Accessory Posterolateral Cusp of Mitral Valve with Accessory Papillary Muscle in Left Ventricle in An Adult Cadaver in Middle East-A Case Report

 

Shweta Chaudhary

 

Dr Shweta Chaudhary, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, PO Box 418, Asir 61431, Phone 07-241911907, E mail- drshwetarishi@gmail.com, Mobile Phone: +096658995976

 

Abstract: Various cases of accessory leaflets of mitral valve or tissue around the opening have been reported in the past. In some cases they were the main etiological factor for sub aortic stenosis or regurgitation. Here we report a rare finding of accessory posterolateral cusp of mitral valve with accessory papillary muscle in left ventricle of an adult male cadaver. Such variation has not been reported earlier in our region. We noticed additional commissure (as deep as rest of the other two) with chordae tendonae attached from the tip of additional papillary muscle. Such Variations may cause regurgitation or may compress outflow tract causing stenosis which may require their immediate removal. Awareness of such variations on the part of the surgical team is extremely important before operating in cases of mitral valve prolapse or regurgitation, aortic or mitral stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and various valvular repair and graft surgeries. Knowledge of these would help in proper designing and placement of valve prosthesis.

[Chaudhary S. A Rare Morphological Variant Accessory Posterolateral Cusp of Mitral Valve with Accessory Papillary Muscle in Left Ventricle in An Adult Cadaver in Middle East-A Case Report. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):102-105]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.10.

 

Keywords: Accessory cusp, Mitral valve, Accessory papillary muscle, Left atrioventricular opening, Heart

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Arthropods associated with human remains and determination of postmortem interval in Jeddah, kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Layla A. H. Al-Shareef1; Mammdouh K. Zaki2

 

1Faculty of Science-Al Faisaliah, King Abdulaziz University, Ministry of Education, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2Forensic Medicine Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Layladr@hotmail.com, mklz@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study arthropods fauna which attracted to an exposed human corpse was detected in summer season at Jeddah city, west region of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The fauna were; third instar larvae in post-feeding phase and pupae of the blowfly Chrysomya albcipes (Diptera; Calliphoridae), adults of each beetles Dermestes frischii Kugelann, 1792 (Coleoptera; Dermestidae) and Necrobia rufipes De Geer, 1775 (Coleoptera; Cleridae), and adult stage of spiders. The post-mortem interval was estimated based on the age of largest unadult stage of the blowfly Chrysomya albcipes; pupa; which was 9.5 days. This study Confirmed presence of Dermestes frischii and Necrobia rufipes together on human corpsein later stages of decomposition. Also, presence of spiders as adventives visitor to the corpse.

[Layla A.H. Al-Shareef; Mammdouh K. Zaki. Arthropods associated with human remains and determination of postmortem interval in Jeddah, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):106-114]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.11.

 

Key words: Forensic entomology, postmortem interval, Chrysomya albcipes, Dermestes frischii, Necrobia rufipes

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Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the possible protective effects of curcumin and garlic against aflatoxinB1 induced toxicity on the renal cortex of adult male guinea pig

 

Amira Fahmy

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine; Menoufia University, Egypt

E-mail: amerafahmy16@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: AflatoxinB1 (AFB1) is considered the most potent mycotoxins. When AFB1 is administrated through contaminated food causes severe kidney damage. curcumin and garlic have antioxidants effects and may be effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of AFB1. Aim: This work was carried out to study the histological changes in AFB1-induced toxicity in the kidney and the possible protective role of curcumin and garlic in adult male guinea pigs. Material & Methods: In this study, sixty adult male guinea pigs were used. They were divided into six groups (10 rats for each): group I (control), group II (curcumin treated group), group III (garlic treated group), group IV (AFB1 treated group), group V (AFB1 and curcumin treated group) and group VI (AFB1 and garlic treated group). Kidney specimens were obtained at the end and processed. Results: Light studies showed degenerative changes; most glomeruli showed marked distorsion, some glomeruli were enlarged, other glomeruli were segmented and atrophied. The renal tubules showed marked degenerative changes. There were hyaline material deposition, dilated congested blood vessels and mononuclear cellular infilteration. Curcumin and garlic treatment decreased the toxic effects of AFB1. Garlic administration showed higher protection against AFB1 toxicity. Conclusion: It was concluded that, the garlic has a better protective effect than curcumin against toxic effect of AFB1.

[Amira Fahmy. Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the possible protective effects of curcumin and garlic against aflatoxinB1 induced toxicity on the renal cortex of adult male guinea pig. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):115-124]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.12.

 

Key words: Aflatoxins, curcumin, garlic, kidney, caspase-3

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Cytokine storm evaluation expression following experimental infection of native saso chickens with (IBDV.228 -E) at 7, 21 and 35 days of age

 

Bayoumie, H.A.A1, Maha, M. El Deib 2, Deeb, K.A.3, Rania, I. Mohamed3, Soliman A.4 and Ismail A N.5

 

Poultry Diseases Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig, Egypt 1

Central Lab., Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt2

Pathology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura, Egypt3

Pathology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Ismalia, Egypt 4

Emeritus professor, Poultry and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

khaled_eldeeb1968@yahoo.com, heshambayoumie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study 160 day old native saso chicks were given the hot vaccinal strain (IBDV. 228-E) at 7, 21 and 35 days of age to study some of itspath -biological alteration. (Completeblood picture, bursal body weight index, Kidney functions, Cytokine storm components, pathological alterations in bursa, thymus and spleen, scoring of bursal lesion after virus administration, Beside studying the immunohistochemistry of bursae. Administration of the hot vaccinalstrain (IBDV.228- E) in native saso chicks having low MDA at the age 7,21 and 35 days was shocking since 7 days old chicks with low MDA did not show clinical disease when inoculated, and clinical disease was observed in most of the inoculated birds at 21 and 35 days of age. Morbidity was 60% while mortality was 12% when inoculation was made at 21 day of age. Morbidity was 80% and mortality was 8% when inoculation was made at 35 days of age. Typical PM lesion of IBD was recorded in sacrificed morbid or dead birds at 21 or 35 days of age. Administration of hot vaccinal strain (IBDV.228- E) in native as so chicks having low MDA at the age 7,21 and 35 days resulted in a bursal atrophy at the three age points evidenced by the results of BBI, pathological lesion scoring and immunohistochemistry examination. Assessment of the cytokine storm through ELISA estimation of the pro-inflammatories (IL-6, TNF, INFα 1/13) at the 2nd,4th, and 6th day following the (IBDV.228-E ) administration at 7,21 or 35 day of age was done. Gotten results were utilized to interpret the recorded symptoms, mortality and immunosuppression.

[Bayoumie, H.A.A, Maha,M. El Deib, Deeb, K.A., Rania, I. Mohamed, Soliman A. and Ismail A N. Cytokine storm evaluation expression following experimental infection of native saso chickens with (IBDV.228 -E) at 7, 21 and 35 days of age. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):125-139]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.13.

 

Key words: IBDV, ELISA, cytokine storm, intefron, interleukine -6, tumor necrosis factor,bursal lesion scoring, immunohistochemistry.

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Neoaortoiliac system (NAIS) for treatment of infective aortic disease

 

Hossam M. Saleh, MD

 

Vascular Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

hosamsaleh2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Aortic graft infection (AGI) historically has been treated with extraanatomical bypass, graft excision, and aortic stump closure, with very high mortality and amputation rates. In-situ reconstruction is alternatives to this strategy. This study demonstrates our experience in 12 patients with aortic graft infection, treated by graft excision and in-situ aortobiofemoral reconstruction using the femoral vein. Methods: During 5 years, all patients with AGI or aortic mycotic aneurysm and have an adequate FPVs were prospectively selected for NAIS procedure. Results: The mean ASA score was 3 1, mean operative time was 5.3 2.1 hours. One patient died postoperative due to MI. The mean follow-up was 16 months. No evidence of reinfection in all patients. Conclusions: Using FPV in pantaloon configuration for AGI treatment is an excellent conduit which is resistant to infection.

[Hossam M. Saleh. Neoaortoiliac system (NAIS) for treatment of infective aortic disease. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):140-145]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.14.

 

Key words: Aortic graft infection, Neoaortoiliac system, femoropopliteal vein

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Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Interleukin-6 in Nutmeg Induced Pulmonary Injury in Adult Albino Rats: A Light Microscopic and Molecular Study

 

Ghada Hasan El-saify; Nadia Said Badawy khair and Nermeen Mohamed Noor Eldien

 

Departments of Histology & Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

amarsmile2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nutmeg is a popular spice & flavor that has a long list of associated health benefits. It is the shelled, dried seed of the plant Myristica fragrans. Nutmeg is used for treatment of diarrhea, nausea, stomach spasms and pain, and intestinal gas. It is also used for treating cancer, kidney disease, and trouble sleeping (insomnia). Nutmeg is widely used for increasing menstrual flow, causing a miscarriage. Because it contains chemicals that affect central nervous system, many people used it as a hallucinogen and as a general tonic. Side effects such as thirst, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, feelings of pressure in the chest or stomach, dry mouth, stomach pain, and many other problems might occur in some people. Large dosage can be toxic, producing disorientation, double vision and convulsions, and even death. Objectives: Evaluating the role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) in Nutmeg Induced Pulmonary Injury in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Adult male albino rats (n=40) were used & classified into two groups: Group I (n= 20) served as control& group II (n= 20) treated with nutmeg in a dose of 500mg/kg orally daily for 12 weeks (1/10 LD50). At the time of sacrifice, the lungs were dissected and tissue samples were processed for light microscopic & molecular studies. Histological (haematoxylin and eosin, Toluidine blue & Masson trichrome stains) and immunohistochemical studies (CD68 to show alveolar macrophages) were done. Morphometric study was also done for septal alveolar wall thickness and number of alveolar macrophages. The mRNA expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the lung tissue was quantified by competitive RT-PCR. Results: Administration of nutmeg markedly disrupted the normal architecture in the form of thickening of inter-alveolar septa, over expansion of alveoli, congestion of blood vessels, cellular infiltration, proliferation and vacuolation of pneumocytes type II. Increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels was also noticed. Conclusion: It could be concluded that prolonged administration of nutmeg in rats can induce lung damage with possible role of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 cytokines for further studies.

[Ghada Hasan El-saify; Nadia Said Badawy khair and Nermeen Mohamed Noor Eldien. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha and Interleukin- 6 in Nutmeg Induced Pulmonary Injury in Adult Albino Rats: A Light Microscopic and Molecular Study. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):146-153]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.15.

 

Key words: Nutmeg, TNF-alpha, IL-6, lung, albino rats, pneumocytes type II, CD68

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Acute toxicity of two different types of the nanoparticles quantum dots suggested for biomedical applications: an in vivo experimental study

 

Eman I. Draz1, Sally E. Abu-Risha2, and Omnia K. Risk3

 

1Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2 Pharmacology and Toxicology department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

3 Pathology departments, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Eman.daraz@med.tanta.edu.eg, sally.abouresha@pharm.tanta.edu.eg, omnia.rizk@med.tanta.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Nanoparticles are a promising evolution in this era. Toxicities of nanoparticles are not well known yet. Quantum dots (QDs) are nanoparticles that could be used in biomedical field. Quantum dots containing cadmium are good semiconductors and could play an important role for biomedical applications. In vivo toxicity studies are still not sufficient to evaluate Cd containing QDs for biomedical applications. Two types of ‘aqueous QDs included CdSe/ZnS and CdTe, with green emission color and 520-550 emission peak, were used. Acute toxicity was studied by injecting single mounting high doses “5, 50, 500 g/ kg” intravenously in the tails of mice and samples were collected 14 days after injection. Cadmium “Cd”, selenium “Se”, and tellurium “Te” levels were measured in animals’ blood using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), a highly sensitive multi-elemental method of micro-analysis. Complete blood picture, liver function and kidney function tests were measured. Histopathological examination was performed for samples from the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Heavy metals were distributed to all of the studied organs with higher levels than the control group. Intravenous cadmium nanoparticles were distributed to all organs including the lung. Cadmium could cause lung toxicity due to the developed chemical pneumonitis. Tellurium containing QD could be more nephrotoxic. The results revealed variant degrees of pathological changes in the organs and elevated normal levels of the laboratory investigations. The studied QDs were unstable in vivo and were still existed in the body 14 days following intravenous administration. No dose related toxicity was noticed. Histopathological changes could be reversible and could not hinder the use of the studied QDs for biomedical applications. Further studies are recommended for longer period for detection of excretion time and long sequel toxicity, and for evaluation of the QDs stability few hours after injection to assess its in vivo usage.

[Eman I. Draz, Sally E. Abu-Risha, and Omnia K. Risk. Acute toxicity of two different types of the nanoparticles quantum dots suggested for biomedical applications: an in vivo experimental study. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):154-166]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.16.

 

Key words: quantum dots, acute toxicity, semiconductors nanoparticles

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Selection for productivity and earliness of (Pisum sativum L.) under late sowing

 

Abdel-Haleem A.H. El-Shaieny1 and Ebaid M. A. Ibrahim2

 

1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, 83523. Egypt

2Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, 83523. Egypt

a.elshaieny@agr.svu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Productivity and earliness of pea population (Barl X Protor), under late sowing date (5th December), were studied for some quantitative characters via selection. Four field experiments were conducted at the Experimental farm of Faculty of Agriculture South Valley University, Qena Governorate, during the four winter seasons (2012/2013 – 2015/2016). Highly significant was detected among generations (F3, F4 and F5), for all investigated traits. The generations were earlier than the base population (F2) by 5.7, 8.5 and 9.5 days respectively, and earlier by 3.5 and 5.5 days for average two parents and check cultivar compared to F5 generation. Dry seed yield/plant, green seed yield/plant, number of pods/plant, weight of 100-dry seeds, weight of 100-green seeds, shell – out %, number of seeds/pod and pod length traits were increased by 64.15%, 42.8%, 29.14%, 44.33%, 17.65%, 17.65, 10.25% and 2.12%, respectively. In the F5 generations as compared to F2, percentage of response to selection of the mid-parent showed values of -4, 84, -4.05 and -6.41 in the F3, F4 and F5 populations, and it was value of -8.81, -11.25 and – 9.94 in F3, F4 and F5 generations as percentage of the check cultivar in NDF trait. Slightly differences were observed between PCV% and GCV% in all populations for all studied traits. Estimates of broad sense heritability value ranged from 36.41% in the F4 populations for NS trait to 99.85% in F5 population for 100-WGS. These results indicating the importance of the genetic effects in controlling the inheritance of all traits compared to the environmental conditions. the genetic variation and broad sense heritability were high for number of days to flowering and green seed yield/plant in F3 generation, the genetic improvement could be by selection.

[Abdel-Haleem A.H. El-Shaieny and Ebaid M. A. Ibrahim. Selection for productivity and earliness of (Pisum sativum L.) under late sowing. J Am Sci 2017;13(3):167-172]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas130317.17.

 

Key words: Pisum sativum, GCV%, Heritability, Late sowing date, pedigree selection.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from February 14, 2017. 

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