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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 4, Cumulated No. 110, April 25, 2017

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CONTENTS   

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1

Severe acute painful episode and hemolysis following systemic corticosteroid administration in a patient with sickle cell anemia

 

Nabeel Shamsan1, Yahya El ficki2, Safaa Allam3, Abdulwahab Sultan Al Sultan4, Mohammed Alabbasi4, Abdullah Suleiman Babalghaith4, Mohammed SalehDumyati4, Hanadi Ali Alsadeq4

 

1 Chairman internal medicine department and consultant Gastroenterology King Abdul Azziz Hospital Jeddah, KSA

2 Vice Chairman and consultant Int Med, King Abdul Azziz Hospital, Jeddah, KSA

3Senior registrar Int Med, King Abdul Azziz Hospital Jeddah, KSA

4 Research Assistant and Coordinator King Abdul Azziz Hospital, Jeddah, KSA

profelficki@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Many cases have been reported with rebound pain and hospital readmissions after corticosteroid treatment for acute painful episode or acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease (SCD), but there are only few case reports of severe pain episodes in SCD occurring shortly after initiating systemic steroids for other steroid-responsive conditions where steroids are mandatory line of treatment despite their well known rebound adverse outcome in sickle cell disease. We report another case of severe prolonged painful episode in a patient with SCD few days after starting systemic steroids for severe drug allergic reaction in the form of angio-edema, and intensely itching erythema marginatum lesions. Patient dramatic improvement and discharge from hospital was followed by readmission few days later with severe vasoocclusive crisis, andhence, continuous admission for observation should be considered for any sickle cell patient receiving systemic steroids.

[Nabeel Shamsan, Yahya El ficki, Safaa Allam, Abdulwahab Sultan AlSultan, Mohammed Alabbasi, Abdullahsulaiman Babalghaith, Mohammed Saleh Dumyati, Hanadi Ali Alsadeq. Severe acute painful episode and hemolysis associated with systemic corticosteroid treatment in a patient with sickle cell anemia. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):1-5]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.01.

 

Keywords: Steroids, sickle cell disease, acutesickle cell pain episode, erythema marginatum, angioedema, allergic reaction

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An overview on the prospective CDKs inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs: Review article

 

Khulood H. Oudah, Nermin S. Abdou, Rabah A. T. Serya and Khaled A. M. Abouzid

 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo 11566, Egypt.

Khaled.abouzid@pharma.asu.edu.eg, khyasemin890@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: CDKs are members of serine/threonine kinase family and key enzymes in cell cycle progression and transcription and other major biological processes including neural differentiation and metabolism. Constitutive or deregulated hyperactivity of these kinases due to amplification, over expression or mutation of cyclins or CDK, contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and irregular activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. Therefore, CDKs considered as attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. This review first summarizes the different functions of CDKs and the biological structure of CDKs, cell cycle and their role in cell cycle regulation. Then it focuses on CDKs inhibitors as anticancer and the different strategies in developing it, CDK2 inhibitors that inter clinical trials and CDK4/6 inhibitors that in the way of approval have been discussed. Future perspective of CDKs inhibitors as anticancer will be defined in the development of new target CDK1and CDK9 inhibitors.

[Khulood H. Oudah, Nermin S. Abdou, Rabah A. T. Serya and Khaled A. M. Abouzid. An overview on the prospective CDKs inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs: Review article. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):6-23]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.02.

 

Key words: CDKs, cell cycle, kinase inhibitors, CDK2, clinical trial, ATP competitive inhibitors, peptide, allosteric, CDK4/6 inhibitors, transcription, CDK1, CDK9.

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Effect of Nandrolone on Rat Cardiac Muscle and the Possible Protective Role of Vitamin E: A Light & Electron Microscopic Study

 

Maha El-Sayed Soliman, Ghada Hasan El-saify, Nadia S. Badawy khair, Mona A. Mohamed Soliman, Soad S. Abo-Habsa

 

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

gh_hasan_2010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Evaluating the effects of nandrolone on cardiac muscle of adult male albino rats and the possible protective role of vitamin E. Background: Nandrolone is an anabolic androgenic steroid used to increase the strength and improve the physical appearance. Material and Methods: Adult male albino rats (n=50) were used & classified into four groups: Group I (n= 10) served as control, group II(n= 10) treated with vitamin E (400 mg/kg/day) orally for 4weeks,group III (n= 20) treated with nandrolone (10 mg/kg/week) IM injection for 4weeks then, half the animals were killed (subgroup IIIA), and the other half were left without treatment for another 2 weeks (subgroup IIIB) & group IV(n= 10) treated with both nandrolone & vitamin E. At the end of the experiment, the heart was excised & processed for light, electron microscopic and statistical analysis. Results: Cardiac muscles of nandrolone treated rats showed considerable histological, ultrastructural & histochemical changes in the form of fragmentation, pyknotic nuclei, loss of striations, dehiscent intercalated disc, vacuolation, hemorrhage & dilated endomysium. There were increased collagen fibers in the endomysium & glycogen deposition. Intracellular cessation of nandrolone administration resulted in mild improvement of the changes. Co-administration of vitamin E with nandrolone revealed minimal changes. Conclusion: Nandrolone had toxic effect on rat cardiac muscle. This effect is partially reversible after cessation of treatment. Vitamin E had marked protective effect when co-administrated with nandrolone.

[Maha El-Sayed Soliman, Ghada Hasan El-saify, Nadia S. Badawy khair, Mona A. Mohamed Soliman, Soad S. Abo-Habsa. Effect of Nandrolone on Rat Cardiac Muscle and the Possible Protective Role of Vitamin E: A Light & Electron Microscopic Study. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):24-36]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.03.

 

Key words: Cardiac muscle, intercalated disc, nandrolone, fragmentation, vitamin E

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The relationship between responsibility, empathy and self-expression with behavior-oriented coach

 

Bita Rismanian Yazdi (Corresponding Author)

 

Department of governmental management, science and research branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran.

Batol Rismanan Yazdi, Department of Commercial Management, science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: One of the most important things that can help leaders and managers in response to these changes is familiar with emotional intelligence of managers and employees. Since managers face many challenges dealing with global climate change, human resource managers face many challenges they should be professional and to adapt to the demands of the employees on their efforts, The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and behavior of oriented coach. To achieve this objective, 15 variables related to emotional intelligence is measured by behavior-oriented coach. The study population consisted of 350 medical staff are teaching hospitals in Yazd province whose members are chosen through classified sampling and to test variables used is simple regression method and Spss software. As well as to collect information from a standard questionnaire was used emotional intelligence and coaching oriented. The results show that between responsibility, empathy and self-expression with behavior-oriented coach there is a significant relationship.

[Bita Rismanian Yazdi. The relationship between responsibility, empathy and self-expression with behavior-oriented coach. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):37-42]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.04.

 

Key words: responsibility, self-expression, collaborative management

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Preparation and In vitro Evaluation of Paracetamol and Metoclopramide HCl Double-layered Suppositories for Migraine Treatment

 

Muaadh A. Mohamed Ali

 

Department of pharmaceutics, Faculty of pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Taiz Branch, Yemen

Muaadhpharm@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The combination of paracetamol and metoclopramide HCl is commonly used to manage the symptoms of migraine. The aim of the present study was to prepare a double-layered suppository of paracetamol and metoclopramide HCl to increase the efficacy of the two drugs in combination for the effective treatment of migraine headaches, nausea and vomiting. Rectal double-layered suppositories containing 250 mg paracetamol in the first layer and 15 mg metoclopramide HCl in the second layer were prepared by the fusion method using cocoa butter, witepsol W35, different grades of polyethylene glycol (400, 4000, and 6000). Weight variation, drug content, friability, mechanical strength (hardness) and melting time of the formulations were determined. In vitro release test was carried out using USP type 1 rotating basket apparatus using phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as dissolution media. For paracetamol, the best release profile was obtained with suppositories prepared from the combination of PEG 400 and PEG 4000 with 94.3% of the drug released in 60 minutes. On another hand, the best metoclopramide HCl release profile was obtained with suppositories prepared using fatty bases prepared from witepsol W35 and cocoa butter with the release of 90.2% and 71.0% of the drug content respectively in 30 minutes. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that, 1:3 PEG 400: PEG4000 that was used in formula F5, was selected as the base of choice for double-layered suppository since it exhibited optimum physical properties with a reasonable release profile for both drugs. Analysis of the release data of paracetamol proved that the release from all PEG bases followed first order release model, while fatty bases obeyed Higuchi model. The release data of metoclopramide HCl showed that for PEGs based suppositories, the release profile were best explained by Higuchi model, but for fatty bases, the release profile found to follow first order kinetics. It was found that most formulions exhibited n values between 0.5 - 1 indicating anomalous (non-Fickian) release mechanism.

[Muaadh A. Mohamed Ali. Preparation and In vitro Evaluation of Paracetamol and Metoclopramide HCl Double-layered Suppositories for Migraine Treatment. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):43-50]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.05.

 

Keywords: Paracetamol; metoclopramide HCl; double-layered suppositories; cocoa butter, witepsol W35, PEG 400, PEG 4000, and PEG 6000; In vitro evaluation.

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Diagnostic Implication of Iron Deficiency in the management of Toxicity Associated with Chronic Diseases

 

Nabeeh Helal Al-Fadaly1, Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy2, Nabila Ibrahim EL-Desoki3 and Eman Rashed Mossaed3

 

1Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

2Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

3 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

Elwyabdelhamid@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The current investigation focuses on the differentiation between true iron deficiency anemia (IDA), anemia of chronic diseases (ACD) and coexistence iron deficiency anemia in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders (ACD/IDA), in order to avoid toxicity and complications resulting from serious effects of therapeutic iron supplementation to patients with anemia of chronic diseases (ACD). Therefore, the accurate iron therapy could be given safely to those patients. To achieve these goals, 64 anemic patients (males and females), in addition to 10 healthy normal subjects were chosen. Individual parameters in blood serum related to iron and inflammation besides, bone marrow examination for the presence of stainable iron were estimated. Patients and Methods: The anemic patients were classified into three groups according to the presence or absence of stainable iron in bone marrow, also according to clinical data. I- True iron deficiency anemia (IDA) Group: patients had no stainable iron in the bone marrow. I-Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) Group: patients had stainable iron in bone marrow with chronic disorders. III-COMBI (ACD/ IDA) group: patients had no stainable iron in bone marrow together with an infectious diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases or non- hematological malignancy, in addition to patients who had a C-reactive protein (CPR) above 20mg/l. Samples and analysis: 1-Bone marrow aspiration: was collected from the sternum bone or iliac crest by using bone marrow aspiration needle under local anesthesia, and many thin smears from bone marrow were done immediately. 2-Blood analysis: included; complete blood count with the assessment of RBCs indices. 3-Serum iron profile: included; serum iron concentration, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) (an indirect measurement of transferrin concentration) and serum ferritin level. 4-Estimation of C- reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as indicators for the presence of inflammation.5-Determination of serum transferrin receptors level (sTfR) 6-Measurement of serum hepcidin hormone concentration. Results: Regard to, sex and age distributions: there were insignificant differences between the studied groups. Hemoglobin concentrations: showed significant decrease between three patient groups (IDA, ACD and ACD/ IDA) with normal group. MCH & MCV values: indicated significant decrease between IDA, ACD/ IDA groups with normal groups, but there was insignificant difference between ACD group with normal group. Regard to RBCs count, there was significant decrease between the three patient groups (IDA, ACD and ACD/ IDA) with normal group. Considering the reticulocytes count, there was significant increase between the three patient groups (IDA, ACD and ACD/ IDA) with normal group. Regard to serum iron concentrations, there were significant decrease between the three patient groups with normal group. Regard to TIBC values, There were significant increase differences between IDA, ACD/IDA groups with normal group, but there were significant decrease between ACD group and normal group, whereas there was significant increase between IDA with ACD/IDA groups. Regard to ferritin levels, showed significant decrease between IDA group with normal group and significant increase between ACD and ACD/IDA groups with normal group. Considering CRP levels, there were insignificant differences between IDA group with normal group, but there were significant increase between ACD and ACD/IDA groups with normal group. Considering serum transferrin receptors level, there were significant increase between IDA and ACD/IDA groups with normal group, but insignificant differences between ACD group with normal group and between IDA with ACD/IDA. As regards hepcidin level, there was significant decrease between IDA group with normal group, but significant increase differences between ACD and ACD/IDA groups with normal groups. Also, there was significant increase between ACD group with ACD/IDA group. In conclusion: the present data suggested that the sTfR could be used as a credible differentiating marker in the diagnosis of true iron deficiency anemia accompanied by chronic disorders (ACD/IDA). As well as, serum hepcidin might be worthy diagnostic gadget to recognize between ACD and ACD/IDA to appraise the ability to respond to oral iron therapy and stimulating the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods for these disorders. Therefore, the proper iron supplementation could be given safely, to avoid toxicity resulting from the growth-promoting effect of iron on microorganisms, as well as the negative effect of iron on innate immune functions.

[Nabeeh Helal Al-Fadaly, Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy, Nabila Ibrahim EL-Desoki and Eman Rashed Mossaed. Diagnostic Implication of Iron Deficiency in the management of Toxicity Associated with Chronic Diseases. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):51-59]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.06.

 

Keywords: True iron deficiency anemia (IDA), Anemia of chronic diseases (ACD), Coexistence iron deficiency anemia in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders (ACD/IDA), Iron, Total iron binding capacity (TIBC), Ferritin, C- reactive protein (CRP), Transferrin receptors (sTfR) and Hepcidin.

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Neonatal Cutaneous Myxoma

 

Dr. Sarah ElNassir ElNigoumi1, Dr. Babiker Kambalwi Hassan2

 

1. Department of Pediatrics, Bahrain Defence Force Royal Medical Services, Kingdom of Bahrain

2. Department of Pediatrics, Head of the Department, Bahrain Defence Force Royal Medical Services, Kingdom of Bahrain.

sarahnelnigoumi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The association of myxoid subcutaneous tumors with pigmented skin lesions. Patients with rare skin and soft tissue lesions suffer from delays in diagnosis and subsequently care. It is difficult for the clinician to keep up with the most current treatment recommendation since literature review is very few. Our institution benefits from multi-specialty efforts as evidenced from the case aforementioned. It is recommended that multidisciplinary approach is necessary for optimal management.

[Sarah ElNassir ElNigoumi, Babiker Kambalwi Hassan. Neonatal Cutaneous Myxoma. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):60-62]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.07.

 

Keywords: association; myxoid; subcutaneous tumor; skin lesion; patient; tissue

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Implementation of a Rapid and Low-cost Test of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Suspected Individuals

 

Mogahid M. El Hassan

 

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, KSA.

e-mail: mogahielhassan@yahoo.com; mmemam@taibahu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In this project, we aimed to develop a new rapid and low-cost screening test to detect pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected subjects. A total of one hundred and seventy-four (n=174) individuals, who attended Abu-Anga Hospital for chest diseases and Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital (Sudan) were included in this project. ZN stain was performed seeking for the presence of acid-fast bacilli in their sputum samples. Occult blood (OB) in all sputum samples was also investigated with the aid of special commercial strips. Furthermore, we selected eighteen sputum specimens which appeared positive with (OB) and negative with ZN technique to be tested for the presence of a 123 bp DNA band by amplifying IS 6110 as a conservative region in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, using PCR technique. Our results proved that 38/174 samples (21.8%) were ZN positive whereas 136/174 specimens (78.2%) were ZN negative. For OB, 139/174 samples (79.9%) were positive whereas 35/174 (20.1%) appeared as negative. Shifting to PCR results 10/18 sputum specimens (55.6%) were positive while the remaining 8/18 (44.4%) appeared as negative. In conclusion and putting into consideration some exclusion criteria with minor modifications, the use of OB strips will be a suitable screening technique to investigate pulmonary tuberculosis especially in remote areas where specialized well-equipped laboratory are scarce.

[Mogahid M. El Hassan. Implementation of a Rapid and Low-cost Test of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Suspected Individuals. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):63-66]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.08.

 

Keywords: Occult blood, IS 6110, ZN Stain, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Sudan

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The CD4 T-cell count and the neurological manifestations among Sudanese patients with HIV/AIDS; a prospective comparative study

 

Etedal Ahmed Ibrahim1, Ahmed Osman Abdalla2, Mohamed Nageeb Abdallah3

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Elneelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan

3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

E-mail: eetedalibrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The neurological manifestation of HIV/AIDS are increasing in Sudan in spite of the introduction of antiretroviral since 2006 by the WHO global fund. The present study evaluated the CD4 count and neurological manifestation in HIV-infected Sudanese patients. Methods: This prospective cohort hospital based study conducted at four HIV/AIDS centers in Sudan during the period from May 2011` to June 2013. Participants 18 years or above were invited to sign a written informed consent and then interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The patients then underwent a full examination by a neurologist followed by the relevant investigations including CSF analysis and CT/MRI imaging. The chi-square test was used to compare the categorical data with a P-value < 0.05 considered significant. Results: They were 100 patients with HIV/AIDS, their ages ranged from 18-68 years, more than two-thirds were males, the commonest presenting symptoms were fever (83%), followed by diarrhea in (79%), the commonest nervous system opportunistic infection was tuberculosis (41%), followed by cerebral toxoplasmosis in 28% of the patients, while Cytomegalovirus retinitis was observed in 23%. Focal neurological signs were evident in 66% of patients. The neurological complications were higher among those with CD4 count< 200. Conclusion: The neurological complications were prevalent among HIV/AIDS Sudanese patients and were commoner among patients with low CD4 counts.

[Etedal Ahmed Ibrahim, Ahmed Osman Abdalla, Mohamed Nageeb Abdallah. The CD4 T-cell count and the neurological manifestations among Sudanese patients with HIV/AIDS; a prospective comparative study. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):67-71]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.09.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Neurological manifestations, CD4 count, Sudan

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Biodegradation of Cladinafop Propargyl by Bacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus Isolated from Field Crop

 

Ismail Ahmed1, Omer Mohammed2, MagdyBahgat3, Heba Montaser2*

 

1Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Egypt.

2Agricultural Microbiology Department, Soils, water and Environment Institute, ARC, Egypt.

3Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Egypt.

*mhawaryy@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Objectives: to remove clodinafoppropargyl (CF) residue from wheat soil field by using CF as a sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source by two CF-degrading bacterial strains. Results: Two bacterial strains were identified as Bacillus sp. strain HT31 and B. cereus strain HT44. 88.7 and 87.5% CF were degraded out of initial provided 80 mg/L CF by the strains HT31 and HT44, respectively. Degradation of CF was accompanied by release of chloride ion. In the same time, the two strains exhibited esterase activity during the degradation at 12 and 24 hours. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of Bacillus sp. and B. cereus were between pH from 7 to 8 and temperature from 30-35C in the mineral salts medium supplemented with CF. An actively growing culture of the two strains degraded CF to clodinafop acid and 4-(4-Chloro-2-fluoro-phenoxy)-phenol within 12 h, as determined by GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: Those strains could be a potential candidate to remove CF from contamination sites due to its high degradation efficiency.

[Ismail Ahmed, Omer Mohammed, Magdy Bahgat, Heba Montaser. Biodegradation of Cladinafop Propargyl by Bacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus Isolated from Field Crop. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):72-78]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.10.

 

Keywords: Bacillus sp. strain HT31, Bacillus cereusstrain HT44, Biodegradation, Clodinafoppropargyl

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Light and electronic histological studies to the effect of Sofosbuvir on the visual cerebral cortex of adult male albino rat

 

Noha M. Issa and Neveen M. El-Sherif

 

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

drnohaissa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analog that has activity against all hepatitis c virus genotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Sofosbuvir on the visual cerebral cortex in adult male albino rat. Twenty adult male albino rats were used in this experiment; each of them was weighing 150-200 grams. Animals were equally divided into two groups: Group I (Control) and Group II (Sovaldi treated) that received Sofosbuvir available in the form of tablets. Each tablet contained 400 mg of Sofosbuvir; these tablets were dissolved in distilled water and given for rats orally by gastric tube in a dose of 4mg/kg per day for 5 weeks. Examination of H&E stained sections of the visual cortex of Sovaldi treated rats showed hypercellularity. Neurons were distorted in shape and shrunken with deeply stained nuclei and surrounded by vacuolated pale areas. Ghost masses with deeply stained fragmented nuclei and surrounded by clear halos were present. Neuropil appeared vacuolated and showed vascular dilatation and extravasation of blood. Sovaldi treatment dramatically up-regulated the expression of Ki67 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Pyramidal and granular neurons exhibited irregular heterochromatic shrunken nuclei and peripheral clumping of chromatin. Cytoplasm appeared rarefied and showed degeneration of cellular organelles with cristolysis of the mitochondria. The axons exhibited irregular contour and multiple splitting of their myelin lamellae with wide spaces in between. Sofosbuvir treatment resulted in histological changes on the visual cerebral cortex.

[Noha M. Issa and Neveen M. El-Sherif. Light and electronic histological studies to the effect of Sofosbuvir on the visual cerebral cortex of adult male albino rat. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):79-87]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.11.

 

Keywords: Sofosbuvir, visual cerebral cortex, Ki67, GFAP

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Characteristics of Design Managers

 

Abeer A. Alawad, Donia M. Bettaieb, Reem D. Alothmany and Salwa E. Alghamdi

 

Department of Housing, Interior Design and Furniture, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. KSA.

Email: aalawad@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Design Management (DM) is a relatively new profession in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); there is no corresponding training and/or educational programme implemented in the KSA. In this study, the researchers sought to discover the specific characteristics of design managers by developing a competency framework for Design Managers (CFDM) and by analysing the learning outcomes of nine undergraduate Design Management academic programmes that are offered at universities in various countries. This research is one segment of a series of studies that will highlight the career development of a design manager. This study addresses the following question: What are the competencies and skills of a design manager? The contribution to new knowledge will provide an excellent introduction to the field of design management for readers who are unfamiliar with this topic, and this study will help to better define the role of a Design Manager. The researchers sought to help curriculum decision-makers understand the importance of Design Management academic programmes by presenting the primary issues related to curriculum, teaching and learning that should be considered when new courses are developed.

[Abeer A Alawad, Donia M Bettaieb, Reem D Alothmany and Salwa E Alghamdi. Characteristics of Design Managers. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):88-100]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.12.

 

Keywords: Design Management, Design Manager, Academic Programs, Saudi Arabia, learning outcomes.

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Comparison between GMAW, GTAW and FSW Techniques Based on Power Consumption and Joint Strength

 

Tarek M. Refaat 1,2, Adel B. El-Shabasy3, Taher G. Abo El-Yazied4, Aly A. El-Domiaty5

 

1Dept. Manager, Quality Sector, Kader Factory, A.O.I.

2Dept. of Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3Dept. of Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Director of Materials Engineering & Metallurgy Consulting Unit, Cairo, Egypt

4Vice Dean, Dept. Design and Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

5Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Egyptian_navigator@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Welding of steel sheets can be carried out by many techniques each one has its own advantages and limitations. Selection of one among these techniques to fabricate specific structure is very delicate and most of the time is based on personal experience. Fusion welding Techniques like GMAW, GTAW are extensively used in many applications in metal fabrication industry. Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered as one of promising solid state welding techniques based on power consumption and weld quality. The present work is a trial to validate this statement. GMAW, GTAW and FSW welding techniques were used to weld a sheet of 3 mm thickness of low carbon low alloy steel sheet with a length of 120 mm. The comparison which have been made to determine which one of these welding techniques consumes less energy and produce sound joint shows that FSW consumes less energy and produce bitter joint. The theoretical model used to predict the energy consumption by FSW gave reasonable prediction with an error of 5 percent compared with the experimental finding.

[Tarek M. Refaat, Adel B. El-Shabasy, Taher G. Abo El-Yazied, Aly A. El-Domiaty. Comparison between GMAW, GTAW and FSW Techniques Based on Power Consumption and Joint Strength. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):102-108]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.13.

 

Keywords: Low carbon low alloy GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding), GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), Friction Stir Welding (FSW).

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Copper sulfate nanoparticles enhance growth parameters, flavonoid content and antimicrobial activity of Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus

 

Ezzat A. Genady1, Shreen S. Ahmed2, Ashraf. H. Fahmy3 and Rehab M. Ashour4

 

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo,11651, Egypt

2Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 12619 Giza, Egypt

3Agriculture Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 12619 Giza, Egypt

4 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, 11562, Egypt

genady2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nanotechnology has provided new insights in Phytomedicine. We hypothesized that copper sulfate nanoparticles (CuSO4-NPs) enhance growth parameters, flavonoid content and antimicrobial activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). In order to test our hypothesis, the impact of copper sulphate versus CuSO4-NPs on sweet basil was tested. The treatment with 5, 10 and 15 M/LCuSO4-NPsenhanced the growth parameters (fresh weight, root and shoot length) where 5M was found to be optimal. Flavonoids were present in all tested samples. The group treated with CuSO4-NPs showed the highest levels of flavonoid content calculated as quercetin equivalent as compared to other control groups. TheCuSO4-NPs also exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against the 13 tested microorganisms included in this study. The Klebsiella pneumonia, was most sensitive to the CuSO4-NPstreatment. The optimum CuSO4-NPs concentration for the flavonoid content and antimicrobial activity was10M. To the best of knowledge, this is the first in vitro CuSO4-NPs application of Ocimum basilicum L. to enhance its pharmaceutical performance characteristics. In conclusion, CuSO4-NPs can improve growth parameters, flavonoid content and antimicrobial activity in Ocimum basilicum L.

[Ezzat A. Genady, Shreen S. Ahmed, Ashraf. H. Fahmy and Rehab M. Ashour. Copper sulphate nanoparticles enhance growth parameters, flavonoid content and antimicrobial activity of Ocimumbasilicum Linnaeus. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):109-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.14.

 

Key words: Copper Sulfate Nanoparticles (CuSO4-NPs), In vitro, Ocimum basilicum, Growth, Antimicrobial Activity, Flavonoid Content.

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Profitability Analysis of the Adoption of Improved Agricultural Technologies among Cassava Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

 

Adesakin, Moyinoluwa Folaranmi and Oluwatusin, Femi Michael*

 

Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension Services, Ekiti State University, P. M.B 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

*E-mail: femi.oluwatusin@eksu.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The importance of improved technologies in agricultural production cannot be overemphasized. This research was carried out to analyse the profitability of the adoption of improved agricultural technologies among cassava farmers in the study area. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 180 cassava farmers while a well structured questionnaire was used to retrieve information from the selected respondents. Both descriptive statistics and partial budget analysis were used to analyse the data collected. The results show that the mean age of the farmers was 42 years and 78.9 percent of them were male while 68.9 percent were married with mean household size of 9 persons. About 88.9 percent of the farmers had formal education and 43.3 percent were members of farmers’ organizations. The mean years of farming experience was 20 years. The major source of information to farmers was radio. In the study area nine improved agricultural technologies were identified. They are: improved cassava cultivars; cassava planting machine; selective herbicides for cassava; Different methods of land preparation; pests and diseases control chemical; cassava harvesting machine; cassava processing machine; Improved plant spacing 1m x 0.75m; and Application of fertilizer. The level of adoption of the improved agricultural technology was low. Marginal rate of returns (MRR) of ₦2.16 was recorded on every ₦1.00 spent, while the main constraints to adoption of improved agricultural technologies among the cassava farmers in the study area were high cost of innovation, inadequate farm input, transportation, inadequate extension visit, unstable market prices and inadequate information. It was recommended that in order to raise the level of adoption, cassava farmers should be empowered by the government on the use of the available improved agricultural technologies in the study area.

[Adesakin, Moyinoluwa Folaranmi and Oluwatusin, Femi Michael. Profitability Analysis of the Adoption of Improved Agricultural Technologies among Cassava Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. J Am Sci 2017;13(4):115-121]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas130417.15.

 

Keywords: Assessment, adoption, agriculture, technologies, cassava, farmers

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 8, 2017. 

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