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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 5, Cumulated No. 111, May 25, 2017

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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Leading Risk Factors to Neonatal Mortality: A retrospective study in Iraqi sample

 

Abbas AL hussainy1; Thabat J. A. Al-Maiahy2; Abdulsattar J. Khalaf3; Samia a. Eleiwe4

 

1Pediatrician specialist: Head of Fatima Al-Zahraa Administrative hospital, Baghdad, Iraq.

2Thabat J. A. Al-Maiahy: Faculty member- Department of Gynecology and Obstetrician, College of Medicine, Al- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.

3Anesthetist and Intensive Care specialist in Sheikh Zayed General Administrative hospital, Baghdad, Iraq.

4Faculty member- Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, Al- Mustansiriyah University, Staff member at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrician, Al- Khadhraa Private Hospital Baghdad, Iraq.

samia_a_eleiwe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The neonatal period is on the whole labeled as the initial 28 days of life which has the majority susceptible era for neonatal survival chance. Nowadays, the neonatal mortality is appeared to be declining worldwide. The international neonatal mortality incidence is decreased to about the half at the phase stuck between1990 - 2015. At the same period; the newborn death frequency within the initial 28 days of life diminished to more than half. Aim: This retrospective study was designed to assess risk factors for early neonatal mortality in Iraqi society. Nevertheless, recognizing of these risk factors; could help in managing next cases in order to prevent the chance of such health dilemma in the successive pregnancies. Patients and Methods: This retrospective work included all 15,837 neonates who were born either by vaginal deliveries or caesarean sections under general anesthesia at Fatima Al-Zahraa Administrative hospital, Baghdad, Iraq; at the period from 1st of June / 2011 to 1st of June / 2012. Data were obtained from the reserved case-sheets of all mothers admitted on labor at that time. The neonates were divided into two groups; the 1st group was consisted of neonates had been dead within the first 28th days of life and the 2nd group was consisted of alive neonates within the same period (control group). Planned data were: The neonatal age, sex, weight and Apgar score. The maternal risk factors data were: age, parity, antenatal healthcare, level of education and history of previous clinical risk factors. Mode of delivery: as vaginal deliveries or caesarean sections (only with general anesthesia). All data were represented in tables and figures. Results: The highest neonatal mortality frequency was seen within the 1st 7 days of life, mostly at male fetuses, more in group bellow 1000mg body weight, plus, infants with low Apgar scoring had neonatal death percentage about three folds as that of high Apgar scoring. Most of neonatal deaths according to maternal factors; were at groups belong to; mothers of 25-30 years, parity ≥ 5 children, deprived education and poor antenatal care. From history of previous clinical risk factors; the maximum neonatal deaths were for mothers at the group entitled as ''no identified risk factors''. The highest percentage of neonatal deaths according to direct apparent neonatal causes of death; proved that the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) related to prematurity was the utmost one. The majority of these neonatal deaths cases had normal vaginal delivery (NVD) in comparison to less than half number with those born by caesarean sections. Conclusion: Iraqi mothers and neonates might had more or less, the same global known deadly risk factors, so as these facts may give a punctual hint for doctors and health-staff for instant identification of neonatal death related factors in order to assist for rapid managing the "at high risk fetuses"; so, this may help in decreasing the incidence of undesirable postnatal lethal outcomes.

[Abbas AL Hussainy; Thabat J. A. Al-Maiahy; Abdulsattar J. Khalaf; Samia a. Eleiwe. Leading Risk Factors to Neonatal Mortality: A retrospective study in Iraqi sample. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):1-7]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.01.

 

Keywords: Neonatal death, Neonatal mortality, Apgar score, prematurity and RDS

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A histological study on the possible ameliorating effect of selenium on chromium (VI) induced neurotoxicity in the adult male Guinea pig cerebellar cortex

 

Amira Fahmy

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine; Menoufia University, Egypt.

amirafahmy356@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chromium has been considered as a potential environmental and occupational poison and increases neurobehavioral disturbances in humans and experimental animals. The antioxidant has a major role in inhibition of metal induced toxicity. Selenium (Se) has antioxidant action and is considered an essential trace element in humans. Selenium reduces oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, also prevents many chronic illness as neurodegenerative diseases and specific cancers. This study was aimed to evaluate the possible protective effect of selenium against chromium induced toxicity of the cerebellar cortex of adult male Guinea pig. The guinea pigs were divided into four equal groups (10 guinea pigs each). The control group, the guinea pigs were given PBS 0.5 ml daily for three weeks intraperitoneally. Selenium treated group, the animals were administrated selenium 0.5 mg/kg/d, I.P. Chromium treated group, the guinea pigs were given potassium dichromate 60 /kg/d, I.P. Selenium-chromium treated group, the guinea pigs were given selenium and potassium dichromate in the same route and doses for three weeks. The four groups were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical studies. Chromium administration showed a highly significant decrease in the Purkinje cells number with prominent histological changes in the molecular, granular and Purkinje cell layers. Immunohistochemical results revealed a highly significant increase in the GFAP positive astrocytes number. Also, an apparent increase in the apoptotic cells number was observed. These histological and immunohistochemical changes were ameliorated by supplementation of selenium.

[Amira Fahmy. A histological study on the possible ameliorating effect of selenium on chromium (VI) induced neurotoxicity in the adult male guinea pig cerebellar cortex. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):8-17]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.02.

 

Key words: Cerebellum, Chromium, Selenium, Caspase-3

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Technological development in some electrical and electronic Appliances and its impact on the environment

 

Nibras mohammed abdulrasool alsaffar

 

Market research center and consumer protection/University of Baghdad/Iraq

nibras22877@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The research aims to compare some electronic appliances and small electrical size of widespread use, particularly in Iraq as a result of instability of electrical power interruptions continuous and sudden hand and keep pace with the other hand and thus resorted citizen to protection devices home and the like (breakers session electrical and breakers session electrical, electronic switch and switch with protection device, a division of power and the division with the protection device, an electricity transformer Manual and an electricity transformer automatic, engine index computer screen plain and other Wireless, bell Plain and bell battery) and look how maintenance and installation, reuse and its impact on environment and throw it in the waste indiscriminately and appreciation of some of the elements by atomic absoribtion spectrophoto meter (AAS) (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb).

[Nibras mohammed abdulrasool alsaffar. Technological development in some electrical and electronic Appliances and its impact on the environment. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):18-22]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.03.

 

Keywords: AAS; Cd; Cr; Cu; Pb

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Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Surgical and Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Micropapillary Thyroid Carcinoma

 

Heba G.M.Mahmoud1, Mohamed Salama1, Nevine Habashy2, Huda Fathy3 and Khaled khalf Allah3

 

1Surgical Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

3 Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

m_salama201010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of surgical treatment followed by radioactive iodine-131 ablation in micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. Patients and Methods: forty-four patients with pathologically proven papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University were analyzed retrospectively to detect the incidence of recurrence and outcome during the period from 2008 till 2014 in NCI after surgery with or without adjuvant radioactive iodine. Results: the study included 44 patients ranging in age from 18 to 71 years with a median of 36 years old. Females represented 81.8% (36 females), all patients underwent preoperative neck U/S. FNAC biopsy before surgery was done for 21 patients with solitary thyroid nodules. The micropapillary thyroid carcinoma was detected incidentally in 19 patients (43. 2%). The capsular invasion was detected in seven patients (15. 9%). The patients underwent surgery in the form of hemi, completion, near total or total thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection. Eleven patients had positive deposits in lymph nodes in post-operative pathology. Adjuvant radioactive iodine ablation/therapy was given to 28 patients and 16 patients were kept under regular follow up. Patients received either high dose (80-150mCi) or low dose (30mCi) according to their risk. There was no statistical significant relation between the type of surgery and the recurrence within 2 years P = 0.19. Also, the relation the incidence of recurrence was not related to capsular invasion P = 0.513) oradjuvant radioactive iodine-131, P = 1. The presence of lymph node deposits, size of the micro-papillary lesion (whether more or less than 0.5 cm), subtype of pathology as well as the presence of multicentric disease and incidental MPTC were not predictors of recurrence in this study. The Disease-free survival after 2 years was 95.5% and after 5 years was 90.9%. The overall survival is 100%. Conclusion: Patients with micropapillary disease have favorable outcome & overall 5-year survival. A randomized, controlled trial is necessary and feasible to determine if aggressive surgery and radioiodine ablation of thyroid remnants is advantageous in patients with intrathyroidal micropapillary cancer.

[Heba G.M. Mahmoud, Mohamed Salama, Nevine Habashy, Huda Fathy, Khaled khalf Allah. Outcome and prognostic factors of surgical and radioactive iodine treatment in micropapillary thyroid Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):23-30]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.04.

 

Key words: Micropapillary Thyroid carcinoma, Thyroidectomy, Surgery, Radioactive iodine

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Presentation, Imaging, Surgical Management and Outcome of Pheochromocytoma: NCI experience

 

Heba G. M. Mahmoud1, Mohamed Salama1, Huda Fathy2, Omnia Talaat2.

 

1 Surgical Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

2 Nuclear Medicine Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

m_salama201010@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To review the clinical presentation and outcome of the surgically managed pheochromocytomas in a tertiary cancer care center in Egypt. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients (36 patients) diagnosed with pheochromocytomas and underwent surgery in NCI in Cairo University during the period from 2010 to 2015. Results: The most common presentation was abdominal pain in 20cases (55.6%), surgical resections of 35 pheochromocytomas were done through a classic laparotomy approach in 33 (91.7%) and 2 (5.6%) through laparoscopic resection. Intraoperative transient hypertensive crisis occurred in 33 (91.7%) cases despite the use of preoperative medical treatment for hypertensive cases. Cure was achieved in 33 cases (91.7%) with overall survival of 100% and recurrence in 2 cases (5.6%). Conclusion: The safe surgical management of pheochromocytomas requires close intraoperative monitoring of hemodynamic functions as well as tight intraoperative blood pressure control. Limiting manipulations of the tumor prior to ligation of adrenal veins which should be done early prevents life threatening hypertensive crisis especially when dealing with asymptomatic adrenal masses. Adequate exposure avoids other organ injury and helps complete tumor resection.

[Heba G. M. Mahmoud, Mohamed Salama, Huda Fathy, Omnia Talaat. Presentation, imaging, surgical management and outcome of pheochromocytoma: NCI experience. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):31-35]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.05.

 

Keywords: Pheochromocytoma, Adrenalectomy, Preoperative preparation, Vanylmandelic acid.

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The Application of Double-J Stents in a University Hospital: Revision of the Indications and Audit

 

Asem Ali, Sayed Hathout and Abul-fotouh Abdel-maguid, Yaser Ali

 

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

dr.asem.diasty@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To revise retrospectively the indications of double-J ureteric stent fixation in patients presenting to our department during one-year period and to check if the objective of this fixation has been fulfilled and if they were associated with notable morbidity. Materials and Methods: Our study included 276 patients who underwent JJ ureteral stent fixation. Patient age, gender, side, the medical history, the findings during clinical examination, the lab profile, the imaging studies, The full clinical diagnosis, the operative details, the reason behind fixation of the double-J ureteral stent, any mis events during the double-J ureteral stent fixation and the follow-up data for the patients until the double-J ureteral stents were removed were recorded. Results: Median patient age was 45 years (range 6 months to 81 years). Male to female ratio was 67:33. JJ fixation was unilateral in 256 patients and bilateral in 20 patients. 91.2% of stents were placed after endoscopic procedures while 8.8% were placed after open or laparoscopic procedures. The most common complications were lower urinary tract symptoms in the form of irritative voiding symptoms (93/276; 33.7%) and gross haematuria (22/276; 8.0%). Two patients (1/276; 0.4%) had reported UTI, proved by urine culture. Only one case (1/296; 0.3%) complicated with upward stent migration and other case (1/296; 0.3%) had severe incrustation with stone formation. Conclusions: In our study, there is an abuse in JJ placement after endoscopic procedures especially ureteroscopy. Indication of JJ placement must be more precise and clarified to avoid abuse and complications.

[Asem Ali, Sayed Hathout and Abul-fotouh Abdel-maguid, Yaser Ali. The Application of Double-J Stents in a University Hospital: Revision of the Indications and Audit. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):36-39]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.06.

 

Key words: Double-J ureteric, Unilateral and Haematuria.

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Changes in Health Related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Zagazig University Hospital; An interventional study

 

Mona S.Hamed1, Amal A. El badawy1; Hanan M. ELtokhy1; Mona M. Aboserea1; Heba A. Seliem2

 

1Departments of Community Medicine, Environment and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*Department of Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

drmonasami@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease, strike during the most productive years of adulthood, between the ages of 20 and 40 years, the main aim of management is to suppress disease activity, prevent loss of function, control joint damage, maintain pain control and enhance self-management and to evaluate the impact of the condition on the patient’s quality of life. Self-management programs are effective non-drug treatments of Rheumatoid Arthritis, patients’ education about its treatments, exercise and relaxation approaches, joint protection, foot care and nutritional recommendation is being of crucial importance. The study was done to assess functional status, disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients and to design, implement and evaluate a health education program for rheumatoid arthritis patients about self-management for better quality of life through application of transtheoritical model. This interventional study was carried out on a sample of 54 rheumatoid arthritis patients attending the outpatient clinic of rheumatology and rehabilitation department, at Zagazig University hospital during academic year (2015-2016). The Study carried out through 3 phases: 1st phase (pre-intervention) which was conducted through the following tools; Questionnaire for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history of the disease, knowledge about rheumatoid arthritis, practice of self-care and Staging of behavior change readiness, World health organization group Quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), The modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) and Disease activity score 28 (DAS-28) for measuring disease activity, 2nd phase (intervention phase): Self-management rheumatoid arthritis educational program included the disease overview, overview of medications, exercise, nutritional recommendations and joint protection techniques. 3rd phase (Post intervention): Post-test was done after 3 months of intervention and Follow up test after 6 months of intervention. Results: The total RA patient’s knowledge had changed throughout the program to be (72.2%) after 3 months and 97.5% after 6 months of the program, also total practice among RA patients was 34.04% before program and increased to be 97.66% by the end of the educational program. The education program had also positive effect on improving the patient’s health status through improving their quality of life, as knowledge had statistical significant positive correlation with practice throughout the program, and with quality of life at post program (r= 0.429), Also practice had statistical significant positive correlation with quality of life at post program and during follow up. In conclusion: Continuous use of self-management behaviors plays an important role in controlling RA patients; therefore, should be considered in designing, planning, implementing programs.

[Mona S. Hamed, Amal A. El badawy; Hanan M. ELtokhy; Mona M. Aboserea; Heba A. Seliem. Changes in Health Related Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Zagazig University Hospital; An interventional study. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):40-54]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.07.

 

Keywords:quality of life, behavioral change, health education, rheumatoid arthritis, transtheoritical model, stages of change, self-management care practices, exercise, dietary recommendation for RA, Arthritis care.

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Intracerebral Calcification, Seizures and Hypocalcaemia: A Tale of Two Bahraini Patients

 

Shawg Ganawa, Shamaila Dar, Ali Jaffar, Yahya AL Zaman

 

Department of Medicine, Bahrain Defense Forces Hospital, Kingdom of Bahrain

Corresponding Author: Shawg Ganawa. Email: drshawg@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The combination of hypocalcaemia, seizures or extrapyramidal symptoms should alert the treating physician to assess for intracerebral calcification (ICC) on brain computerized scan (CT). Should the ICC be shown then the likely diagnosis is hypoparathyroidism. We describe two cases of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism who presented with hypocalcaemia, neurological diseases and ICC. The Authors present the clinical and radiological findings and review this rare presentation of a rare disease. Summary: The first patient was a 40 -years old Bahraini female, have been observed to have hypocalcaemia three years earlier, who presented with seizures. The second patient was a 20-years old Bahraini male who was referred for the management of poorly controlled Epilepsy associated with the diagnosis of juvenile Parkinson’s 8 years earlier. Background: Hypoparathyroidism can present with neurological symptoms like seizures, paresthesia, depression, psychosis, extrapyramidal manifestations and features of raised intracranial pressure. Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are the most common causes of pathological Intracerebral Calcification. The standard therapy is calcium and vitamin D replacement although there is recent evidence that PTH replacement may play a role. The cases illustrate the delay in diagnosis of both cases and are presented to increase awareness of hypoparathyroidisms and its long term neurological complications which are related to uncontrolled chronic hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia.

[Shawg Ganawa, Shamaila Dar, Ali Jaffar, Yahya AL Zaman. Intracerebral Calcification, Seizures and Hypocalcaemia: A Tale of Two Bahraini Patients. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):55-58]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.08.

 

Keywords: Intracerebral Calcification, Basal Ganglia calcification, Hypoparathyroidism.

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Effects of Dietary Soybean Phytoestrogens Usage on the Skeleton of Albino Rats During In-Utero Development

 

El-Nahla, S.M.M.1; El-Mahdy, T.O.M.1; Takahashi, S. 2,3,4 ; Basha, W.A. 1,2,3 *

 

1Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

2Laboratory Animal Resource Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

3Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

4International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

walaaanatomy85@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Soybean is recognized as the major dietary source of phytoestrogens, which is commonly found in the diets of domesticated and experimental animals. No data existed in the literature about the potential interactive effects of isoflavone mixture present in soybean on the embryonic skeletal growth and development. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the possible skeletal anomalies resulting from usage of dietary soybean phytoestrogens when given to the pregnant dams of albino rats during the critical period of in- utero development. A total of 12 pregnant albino rats were divided into three groups (4 rats for each): A control group fed on casein- based diet free from soybeans, the second group received low phytoestrogenic diet containing 20% soybeans and the third group was fed on high phytoestrogenic diet containing 30% soybeans. All groups were treated from gestation day (GD) zero through GD 20. Dams were sacrificed on GD 20 and the obtained foeti were examined grossly and then stained by the double staining method using alizarin red and alcian blue. Samples from the foetal metacarpi and metatarsi were collected for histological and histochemical examination. Our findings suggested dose dependent effects of the dietary soy phytoestrogen treatment on the in- utero development of the albino rat foeti skeleton which varied from delayed ossification in some bones of the low dose treatment to delayed ossification of most bones together with cleft plate and incomplete closure of the sagittal suture between the frontal and parietal bones of the skull in the high dose treated group. Our entire results confirmed that exposure to a mixture of phytoestrogens present in soybean during the critical periods of development especially the prenatal period possessed a high risk not only on the animal but also on the human.

[El-Nahla, S.M.M.; El-Mahdy, T.O.M.; Takahashi, S.; Basha, W.A. Effects of Dietary Soybean Phytoestrogens Usage on the Skeleton of Albino Rats During In-Utero Development. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):59-72]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.09.

 

Keywords: soybean, phytoestrogen, skeleton, in-utero, fetus

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Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy, Stages Boundaries and Paleoecology of the Uppermost Maastrichtian - Lower Eocene Succession at Esh El-Mellaha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Abdel Galil A. Hewaidy1, Sherif Farouk2 and Arafa F. EL-Balkiemy1

 

1 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Exploration Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

arafa_stratigraphy60@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The uppermost Maastrichtian- lower Eocene succession exposed at three sections located on the western flank of Esh El-Mellaha range, north Eastern Desert at Wadi Dib, Wadi Abu Had, and Bir Mellaha sections from north to south are detailed examined for their foraminiferal contents. This time interval is represented by the uppermost part of the Sudr, Esna, and Thebes formations from base to top. These rock units are found very rich with foraminiferal assemblages. 209 foraminiferal species have been identified. This include 71 planktonic species which are belonging to 24 genera, 6 subfamilies, 7 families, 4 superfamilies and 1suborder; and 138 benthic species belonging to 60 genera, 24 subfamilies 33 families, 18 superfamilies and 3 suborders. The planktonic assemblage is used to classify the studied interval into twelve planktonic foraminiferal biozones; three of latest Maastrichtian (Pseudoguembelina hariaensis (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebra (CF2), and Plummerita hantkeninoides (CF1) zones); three of early Paleocene (Danian): Globanomalina compressa (P1c), Praemurica trindadensis (P1d), and Praemurica uncinata (P2) zones; one of early late Paleocene (Salendian): Morozovella angulata (P3a) Zone; one of latest Paleocene (latest Thanetian): Morozovella velascoensis (P5) Zone; two of earliest Eocene (Sparnacian): (Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis /Morozovella velascoensis (E2) and Morozovella marginodentata (E3) zones; and two of early Eocene (Ypresian): Morozovella formosa formosa (E4) and Morozovella aragonensis / Morozovella subbotinae (E5) zones. Also, this interval is classified into five benthic zones, one of latest Maastrichtian: Bolivinoides draco draco Zone; one of early Paleocene (middle – late Danian): Siphogenerinoides eleganta Zone; one of late early Paleocene (latest Danian) to early late Paleocene (Salendian) Alabamina midwayensis Zone; one of latest Paleocene (latest Thanetian): Gavelinella danica Zone; and one of early Eocene: Marginulina wetherellii intercostata- Marginulina wetherellii longiscata Zone. The Cretaceous/ Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary is located between (CF1) and (P1c) zones at Bir Mellaha, while at both Wadi Abu Had, and Wadi Dib sections it is located between (CF3) and (P1d) zones. The Danian/ Salendian (D/S) boundary is located between (P2) and (P3a) zones; Salendian/ Thanetian (S/ Th.) boundary is located between (P3a) and (P5) zones; while the Paleocene / Eocene (P/E) boundary is located between (P5) and (E2). Three sedimentary gaps are detected in the studied stratigraphic sequence; the first one is located between the Sudr and the Esna formations and includes K/Pg boundary; the second is located within the middle part of the Esna Formation and it includes S/Th boundary; while the third sedimentary gap is located within the uppermost part of Esna Formation and it includes the P/ E boundary. The planktonic and benthonic foraminiferal assemblages are used to build a paleoecologic interpretation and sea level changes over the study area during the uppermost Maastrichtian-lower Eocene time.

[Abdel Galil A. Hewaidy, Sherif Farouk and Arafa F. EL-Balkiemy. Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy, Stages Boundaries and Paleoecology of the Uppermost Maastrichtian - Lower Eocene Succession at Esh El-Mellaha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):73-113]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.10.

 

Key Words: Planktonic foraminifera, benthonic foraminifera, Esna Formation, Thebes Formation, biostratigraphy, stages Boundaries, paleoecology, upper Maastrichtian, lower Eocene, Esh El-Mellaha

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Determine the concentration of aluminum component in the deodorant samples

 

Fatimah haider kadhim

 

Market research center and consumer protection/University of Baghdad/Iraq

Fhk20453@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study included the Aluminum levels in (16) samples of antiperspirants, that from different origins in local markets (Baghdad). The Aluminum concentration was estimating using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The results shown that the ranges of concentration of Aluminum in samples between (108-336ppm) and the rate of the percentage of aluminum in these samples (5-36) these data shown that six sampled higher than the (FDA) without a prescription as the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) allowed the percentage of aluminum in antiperspirants between (1%-25%) without prescription and (25%-40%) with prescription.

[Fatimah haider kadhim. Determine the concentration of aluminum component in the deodorant samples. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):114-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.11.

 

Key word: Aluminum, Antiperspirants, Atomic Absorption spectrometer, sweat

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Evaluation of Snodgraft Technique in Primary Distal Hypospadias

 

Ahmed El-Shamy

 

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Drahmed_elshamy2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) considered to be one of the most successful operations for repair hypospadias of the distal penis. Development of neomeatal stenosis and fistula often prohibit distal lengthening of the midline incision of the urethral plate (MIUP). It remains a persistent limiting factor in apical neomeatus (NM) reformation. The raw area of the incised urethral plate (UP) was grafted with inner preputial skin during Snodgrass urethroplasty to improve the functional and cosmetic outcome of the operation. Patients and methods: This study included 100 cases of primary distal hypospadias. The grafted tubularised incised-plate urethroplasty (GTIP) repair was used. Standard technique of Snodgrass urethroplasty was used. Urethral plates were classified as flat, cleft, and grooved. The midline incision of the urethral plate was grafted with a free preputial skin graft and fixed to the bed with Vicryl 6/0 interrupted sutures. The urethral plate was tubularised and reinforcement of the suture line was done with Dartos flap. Urethral catheter was maintained for 14 days. Postoperatively, patients were followed-up regularly at 1st, 3rd and 6th months. Morbidity of the procedure (meatal stenosis, glandular dehiscence, and fistula formation) were recorded. HOSE system (Hypospadias Objective Scoring Evaluation) was used for validation of the outcome. Results: External meatus was glanular in 8, coronal in 56, subcoronal in 30, and distal penile in six patients preoperatively. Urethral plate was flat in 32%, cleft in 40%, and grooved in 28%. Width of the urethral plate was >7 mm in 82 cases and <7 mm in 18. Operative duration was 90 - 120 (mean 102) min. No observed postoperative morbidity results from prolonged anesthesia time. Achievement of an apical neomeatus was perfect in 93% of the patients. Urethrocutaneous fistula incidence was 4%, all of them occurred in cases with <7 mm urethral plate (P = 0.001). Failed calibrations with 8 Fr catheter was more common in patients with <7 mm urethral plate compared with those>7 mm (P = 0.01). Graft and suture tracks were present at the edges of the neomeatus in 3% and 4% of patients, respectively. Cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory in 96% of the cases at HOSE scores of >14. Higher fistula rate and cannulation failure with 8 Fr were encountered in patients with flat urethral plate. Conclusion: The grafted tubularised incised-plate urethroplasty repair is a simple and straightforward technique for construction of properly sited apical neomeatus, with an optimum outcome according to HOSE scoring system.

[Ahmed El-Shamy. Evaluation of Snodgraft Technique in Primary Distal Hypospadias. J Am Sci 2017;13(5):116-125]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130517.12.

 

Keywords: Grafted tubularized incised plate urethroplasty, Primary hypospadias

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