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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 6, Cumulated No. 112, June 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1306

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

Determination of heavy metal concentrations in nails of car workshops workers in Baghdad

 

Nada Abdulrahman F. Al-Easawi, Mahmood Basil Mahmood*, Hassanein A. Hassoon

 

University of Baghdad, Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad, Iraq.

* ecologist77@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The increasing number and old models of cars in Baghdad city, Iraq leads to an increase in vehicles repair and maintenance workshops. These workshops are considered as highly polluted environments and the workers in these places are directly in contact with various pollutants and have different health problems. In this study, nail samples were taken from 60workers whom work includes cars maintenance, tires repairs, and welding. The present study is aimed to measure the concentrations of heavy metals which are associated with health hazards: Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb in nail samples of car workshops workers in Baghdad to provide some information about levels of these selective heavy metals. The concentrations of several heavy metals, such as (Cd, Ni, Zn, and Pb), in these nail samples, were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that welding workers recorded the highest concentration levels of heavy metals in their nail samples while car mechanics exhibited the lowest levels. Ni levels were found to be the highest in comparison to other heavy metals while Cd was recorded to be the lowest one. Results also revealed that the age of these workers might affect positively in heavy metals levels especially for Zn and Pb, 20.9, 6.8 µg/g, respectively, in age 41­50years old. In addition, Smoking among workers might contribute to increase metals concentrations, heavy metals levels were observed to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in smokers in comparison to non-smoking workers especially in terms of Zn and Pb. Conclusion: From these results this study conclude that the vehicle repairing workshop environments are regarded as important pollution sources for heavy metals and those workers in these places should be kept aware about the dangers relevant to these types of occupations to avoid health issues resulted from the continuous exposure to such dangerous pollutants.

[Nada Abdulrahman F. Al-Easawi, Mahmood Basil Mahmood, Hassanein A. Hassoon. Determination of heavy metal concentrations in nails of car workshops workers in Baghdad. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):1-8]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.01.

 

Keywords: Heavy metal; Nails; car workshops.

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Evaluation of food intake effect on liver stiffness values in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

 

Eman Ahmed Rewisha, Abdelaleem Khair Helal, Ashraf Eljaky, Mohamed Melegy Ahmed, Tary Abdel Hamid Salman

 

Department of Hepatology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebeen El-Kom, Egypt.

ashrafeljaky@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Liver fibrosis is a wound healing response to various injuries to the liver. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis and staging. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is a non-invasive physical approach for assessing liver fibrosis. Aim: impact of fasting and food intake on liver stiffness values measured by FibroscanTM. Methods: one hundred native patients with viral hepatitis (HCV=80, HBV=20) were enrolled. Liver functiontest, CBC, INR, HCV RNA, HBV DNA level and abdominal ultrasonography were done. Both APRI and FIB.4 formulae were calculated. LSM was done using FibroscanTM after 8 hours fasting and 90 minutes after eating diet (500 kcal, 55% carbohydrates, 25% fat and 20% protein). The patients were classified into F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4. Results: There was statistically significant difference (p=0.05) among the 3 groups regarding age, serum bilirubin, albumin, AST, ALT, INR, hemoglobin, platelets, APRI and FIB.4 score. In each group there was statistically significant (p=0.05) increase of LSM 90 minutes after meal compared to fasting status (F0-F1; 8.24 ±1.17 vs. 5.16 ±0.98 kPa), (F2-F3; 11.79 ±2.36 vs. 9.19 ±1.49 kPa), (F4; 22.41 ±7.17vs. 21.67 ±6.42) and total elastography value (13.65 ±10.15 vs. 11.57±8.62 kPa). The delta change (postprandial –fasting value) was more obvious with F4 fibrosis compared to F0-F1 (3.74 ±3.11 vs. 1.08 ±0.82 kPa) and F2-F3 (3.74 ±3.11 vs.1.6 ±1.97 kPa). The delta change was more noted in HCV patients than HBV patients (2.32 ±2.56 vs.1.09 ±1.05 kPa; p=0.009). Conclusion: Food intake increases the liver stiffness value measured by FibroScanTM especially in HCV patients.

[Eman Ahmed Rewisha, Abdelaleem Khair Helal, Ashraf Eljaky, Mohamed Melegy Ahmed, Tary Abdel Hamid Salman. Evaluation of food intake effect on liver stiffness values in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):9-13]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.02.

 

Keywords: Evaluation; food; intake; effect; liver; stiffness; value; patient; chronic viral hepatitis

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 The Effect of Interaction between the Speaker's Gender (Male/ Female) and the Learner's Gender (Male/ Female) on Developing Reading Skills

 

Mohammed Abdul Galeil Ibraheim Alnagar

 

An Educational Developer and Quality Responsible In Excellence International School, Al-Qassim, KSA.

mohammd_alngar73@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of interaction between the speaker's gender (male/ female) and the learner's gender (male/ female) on developing reading skills through multimedia programs. There were two ex­perimental treatments: FS (female speaker) and MS (male speaker). Participants were 64 pupils (32 males and 32 females) of grade five. Thus, there are four groups: female speaker with male learners group (FSML), female speaker with female learners group (FSFL), male speaker with male learners group (MSML) and male speaker with female learners group (MSFL). Data analyses were conducted to investigate the hypotheses derived from research questions. Two-way ANO­VA test was used to investigate the main effects of the independent variables on the overall reading skills and each reading sub skill. The findings revealed that female speakers were better than male ones in reading skills and in the fluency skill, and there is no significant difference between female speakers and male ones in the accuracy skill. Furthermore, female learners were better than male ones in reading skills and in the fluency skill but male learners were better than female ones in the accuracy skill. There are no significant interactions between the speaker’s gender and the learner’s gender in reading skills and in each reading sub skill.

[Mohammed Abdul Galeil Ibraheim Alnagar. The Effect of Interaction between the Speaker's Gender (Male/ Female) and the Learner's Gender (Male/ Female) on Developing Reading Skills. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):14-21]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.03.

 

Key Words: multimedia programs, speaker's gender (male, female), learner's gender (male, female), reading skills, fluency skill, accuracy skill.

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Different Treatment modalities for anterior mandibular fractures (A retrospective study)

 

Mahmoud E. Khalifa, Emad F. Essa and Rafic R. Pedar

 

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University. Egypt

drmekhalifa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was aimed to evaluate the different methods of fixation used for fixation of anterior mandibular fractures as a retrospective study. Patients and methods: Seventy eight patients with anterior mandibular fractures were included in this study. (50 Males and 28 Females) the patient age range from 20-52y with mean of 37.5years. the intra and postoperative patient's data were collected to evaluate and compare the different methods of fixation used for these patients. Results: Patients with isolated anterior fractures (3 patients) were treated by open reduction one miniplate in addition to the solid arch bar which used as a tension band that removed after one month, 25 patients treated by using 2 miniplate at the Champy's lines, 13 using 3D miniplate, 10 patients using 2 titanium lag screws, 7 patients using one lag screw, 10 patients using single lag screw with single miniplate and 10 patients using low profile (1.5mm) locking reconstruction plate placed almost midway between the inferior border of the mandible and subapical region. Post-operative radiographic examination revealed no changes in the position of the fractured segments and the fracture line easily detected in cases with single miniplate and 2 miniplate but hardly detected in cases with 3D miniplates, lag screws and reconstruction plates. Conclusion: 1-Champy's miniplate system is a better and easier method for fixation of mandibular fractures. 2- The 3D miniplate system provides good stability in most cases and operative time is shorter because of simultaneous stabilization at both superior and inferior borders. 3- Lag scerw provides adequate compression to the fracture segments so that primary bone healing can be achieved and produced excellent adaptation and maximum stability. 4- Reconstruction plate

[Mahmoud E. Khalifa, Emad F. Essa and Rafic R. Pedar. Different Treatment modalities for anterior mandibular fractures (A retrospective study). J Am Sci 2017;13(6):22-29]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.04.

 

Key Wards: Anterior Mandibular fracture, lag screw, 3D minipalates

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Therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells in carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatic pathogenesis in the adult male albino rat: A microscopic and biochemical study.

 

Hafyz Waly Attallah1; Safwat Wadie Gerges1; Laila Ahmed Rashed2; Maha Khaled Abd-El-Wahed3; Radwa Mohamed El-Sayed3

 

1Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

mahakhaled007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells against CCL4-induced hepatotoxic changes. Hepatotoxicity was induced in this study by injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) subcutaneously at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg body weight twice weekly for four and eight weeks durations. Another two groups were injected with CCl4 for four and eight weeks then left to observe the effect of spontaneous recovery after four weeks. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were injected into the tail vein at a dose of 1x106 stem cells labeled with PKH26 dye in 1 ml phosphate buffer saline in two groups after injected with CCl4 for four and eight weeks. Liver specimens were examined by both light and transmission electron microscopic methods. Different levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and GGT) were measured. This study revealed that intravenous injection of MSC was more effective in rescuing liver failure than spontaneous recovery and could be used as a suitable line of therapy than liver transplantation in end-stage liver disease.

[Hafyz Waly Attallah; Safwat Wadie Gerges; Laila Ahmed Rashed; Maha Khaled Abd-El-Wahed; Radwa Mohamed El-Sayed. Therapeutic role of mesenchymal stem cells in carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatic pathogenesis in the adult male albino rat: A microscopic and biochemical study. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):30-52]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.05.

 

Key words: Hepatotoxicity, Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), Mesechymal stem cells (MSC).

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Hepatic Dysfunction in Critically Ill Patients

 

Ahmed Abdelmoaty Elnaggar, MD. and Taher Elzanaty, MD.

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

aanaggar71@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate abnormalities of liver functions in patients admitted to different ICU units and correlating these functions with the clinical situation predisposing the patient to this hepatic dysfunction. Study design: Case control study. Subjects: fifty patients admitted in different ICU units with hepatic dysfunction and ten control patients without hepatic dysfunction. Place: Kasr Al Ainy Hospital, Cairo University. Method: The fifty patients were subdivided into five groups, Group I 9 patients with hepatic dysfunction related to sepsis. Group II thirteen patients with hepatic dysfunction related to total parentral nutrition. Group III included eleven patients with ischemic hepatitis. Group IV five patients with drug induced hepatotoxicity. Group V included twelve patients with more than one of the previous causes. Assessment: The assessment was carried out by obtaining full patients history (personal, cause of admission to ICU, history of chronic diseases and drug history). Laboratory work was done in the form of CBC, bilirubin (total and direct), aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, serum albumin and coagulation profile. Abdominal ultrasound was done to exclude patients with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension or hepatocellular carcinoma. The gained measures were analyzed by using SPSS program and ANOVA test was used to compare between groups. Results: The study showed that there was affection of synthetic and secretory functions of the liver. There were different patterns in hepatic dysfunction with dramatic elevation in liver enzymes (ALT & AST) in shocked hypoxic patients. Also elevated levels of (ALT & GGT) in group with hepatotoxicity and affection of albumin and coagulation profile in patients with sepsis. Conclusion: Ischemic hepatitis, parentral nutrition, sepsis and drug hepatotoxicity are predisposing factors to liver dysfunction in critically ill patients.

[Ahmed Abdelmoaty Elnaggar and Taher Elzanaty. Hepatic Dysfunction in Critically Ill Patients. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):53-56]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.06.

 

Key words: liver dysfunction / Ischemic hepatitis/ total parentral nutrition

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Mapping of Aquaculture in River Nile Using Google Earth Images and GIS Procedures - Rosetta Branch, Egypt

 

Hala M. Ebaid1 and Salwa M. Abou El Ella2

 

[1]Associate professor, Survey Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621, Egypt.

2Professor, Channel Maintenance Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621, Egypt.

hala_srif@yahoo.com, salwaabouelella@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Negative impact of fish cages on the environment, water quality, bio-deposits on sediment, and hydraulic efficiency were the main reason for monitoring fish farms in Nile River. Due to hard traditional field work and long time consumption to monitor illegal fish cages, a technique was developed for monitoring fish cages in Rosetta branch of River Nile in Egypt. Eighty, high resolution satellite images were extracted from Google Earth in 10/2/2016 using "Map Window GIS". These images were first preprocessed as: they were georeferenced, sorted, mosaiced, and the entire branch was subseted. A sequential of GIS procedures under Arc GIS environment were applied on the branch for fish cages polygons determination. These procedures comprise:1-Statistical filter, 2- Iso classification for fish farms class discrimination,3- Extraction of polygons of fish cages in raster format,4-Some generalization tools were applied on the resulted fish cages raster data, 5-Conversation from raster to vector and Enhancing tools were also applied, which produce final accurate fish cages layer in polygons vector format. Hence the numbers and the positions of all fish cages across the entire study area can be easily detected. The resulted total number of fish cages were 9857, with approximated total area about 600,000 m2, for about 20 km length. This technique provides decision maker with information about illegal fish cages areas in fast, accurate manner and cost effective instead of costly traditional field work. Hence a proper actions can be applied for environment protection.

[Hala M. Ebaid and Salwa M. Abou El Ella. Mapping of Aquaculture in River Nile Using Google Earth Images and GIS Procedures - Rosetta Branch, Egypt. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):57-63]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.07.

 

Keywords: Google Earth; Satellite Images; Fish cages; GIS; Rosetta Branch; Egypt

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Production And Evaluation Of Mixed Single Strength Juice From Local Fruits Lemon, Pineapple, Grape, Pawpaw And Water Melon

 

*Okafor D. C.1; Ijioma B. C 2; Ibeabuchi J. C.1; Njoku N. E1; Alagbaoso, S. O.1;. Ofoedu C. E1; Onyeka E. U.1and Njoku C. C1

 

1Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, P. M. B. 1526 Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

2Department of Biology, Alvan Ikoku Fedral Colledge of Education

*Corresponding author: okafordamaris@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Three samples of single strength juice were prepared from five local fruits. The fruit used included watermelon, pawpaw, grape, lemon and pineapple. The fruit juices samples (A, B, and C have different combination/percentages to these fruits. After blending, the juices were bottled pasteurized and kept at ambient temperature. At interval of one week, samples were withdrew and tested for chemical changes as well as consumer acceptability. Total titratable acidity of the juices increased with storage time. Panel of judges preferred fresh ones indicating that the means of storage explored in this research was not very adequate to retain features of the freshly prepared juices however the use of mixed fruit in preparing single strength juice is a viable option.

[Okafor D. C.; Ijioma B. C.; Ibeabuchi J. C.; Njoku N. E; Alagbaoso, S. O.; Ofoedu C. E; Onyeka E. U. and Njoku C. C. Production And Evaluation Of Mixed Single Strength Juice From Local Fruits Lemon, Pineapple, Grape, Pawpaw And Water Melon. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):64-70]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.08.

 

Keywords: Mixed fruits, Consumer acceptability, Total soluble solids, Indigenous fruits

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Discovery and Development of Bromodomain Inhibitors

 

Mostafa S. Radwan and Rabah A. Taha

 

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

moustafa.radwan@pharma.asu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Bromodomains is one of the epigenetic readers that can recognize and bind to acetylated lysine residues. Since the discovery of the first selective bromodomain inhibitor, extensive research was conducted in order to design novel potent bromodomain inhibitors. In this review, we are summarizing some of the work that has done is in this area.

[Mostafa S. Radwan and Rabah A. Taha. Discovery and Development of Bromodomain Inhibitors. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):71-84]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.09.

 

Keywords: Bromodomain, Inhibitors.

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An Analytical Study for Monopolism Phenomenon in Sport in the Arab World

 

Dr. Ez El-Din Mohamed Ahmed

 

Assistant professor, Department of Sports Administration, Faculty of Physical Education, Helwan University, Egypt

prof.dr_ezzeldin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current research aims to analyze monopolism in Arab sport through identifying: Reasons that may lead to monopolism in Arab sport - Forms of monopolism in Arab sport - Effects of monopolism in Arab sport - Methods and measures for facing monopolism in Arab sport. The researcher used the descriptive approach.The researcher randomly chose (97) members who work in the sports field in Arab countries.The researcher distributed (640) questionnaires and only (97) were returned and this was considered the main sample. Results indicated that: for the first axis, responses of participants tended to agree on all items as agreement percentages ranged from 40.2% to 86.6% while significance on P≤0.05 = 39.35%. Therefore, the researcher managed to identify causes of monopolism in Arab sport. For the second axis, responses of participants tended to agree on all items as agreement percentages ranged from 39.6% to 92.8% while significance on P≤0.05 = 39.35%. Therefore, the researcher managed to identify the forms of monopolism in Arab sport as they are related to: industrialization – training – media – sports events – financing – administration – rules and regulations – human resources. For the third axis, responses of participants tended to agree on all items as agreement percentages ranged from 49.1% to 94.3% while significance on P≤0.05 = 39.35%. Therefore, the researcher managed to identify the consequences of monopolism in Arab sport. For the fourth axis, responses of participants tended to agree on all items as agreement percentages ranged from 49.5% to 58.6% while significance on P≤0.05 = 39.35%. Therefore, the researcher managed to identify the methods for facing monopolism in Arab sport.

[Ez El-Din Mohamed Ahmed. An Analytical Study for Monopolism Phenomenon in Sport in the Arab World. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):85-101]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.10.

 

Keyword: Sports Management, Monopolism, Arab countries

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Celiac Disease in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

 

Ahmed Abdelmoaty Elnaggar, MD1, Waleed Elnabawy, MD2, Mohammed Ibrahim Atta, MD2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Swef University, Egypt.

Aanaggar71@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: The symptoms of celiac disease are often confused with the symptoms of IBS, which makes diagnosing celiac disease that much more difficult. Between 5 and 15% of those diagnosed with celiac disease were originally diagnosed with IBS, suggesting that celiac disease testing in this population is very important. This study was done to detect celiac disease in IBS population as this will help to give proper treatment and have a better outcome. Study design: Cross sectional study. Place: Internal medicine department, Kasr Al Ainy Hospital, Internal Medicine department, Beni swef university hospital. Subjects & Method: 160 patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome by using Rome IV criteria. Their age ranged from 18 to 45 years old. Assessment: The assessment was carried out by obtaining full personal history and diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome according to Rome IV criteria. Full clinical general and abdominal examination was done. Laboratory investigations were done in the form CBC, stool analysis, liver function tests and anti-tissue transglutaminase screen test for celiac disease. Anti- tissue transglutaminase test is a sensitive and specific test (98% and 96%) respectively. Patients with positive tests were submitted to duodenal biopsy to confirm the possibility of celiac disease. The gained measures were analyzed by using SPSS program were used to compare between groups. Results: This study included 160 patients with IBS diagnosed by Rome IV criteria, 22 of them were males and 138 females, the patients with age ranging from 18 to 45 years. Anti-Tissue-Transglutaminase screening and standard biopsy were taken detect prevalence of celiac disease among IBS patients was 2.5%.

[Ahmed Abdelmoaty Elnaggar, Waleed Elnabawy, Mohammed Ibrahim Atta. Celiac Disease in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):102-106]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.11.

 

Key words: celiac disease /irritable bowel syndrome / Rome IV criteria

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Incidence of Anastomotic Leak in Primary Repair in Colorectal Emergencies. Our Experience

 

Emad Abdellatief Daoud, M D, MRCS. Sherief M. Mohsen M.D, M.R.C.S

 

Department of General Surgery, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

emsurg@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: In the first half of the twentieth century the general concept between surgeons to treat Colorectal emergencies which include: traumatic, obstructive and inflammatory was stomal diversion and this concept started to be challenged by primary repair in the second half of that century. Several recent reviews analyzed the role of primary repair in treatment of colon injuries and pointed out that in conditions of similar intensity of general and local trauma, and similar intraoperative findings, primary repair had better results regarding complications, deaths and final outcome than diversion. Aim of the work: determine the role of primary repair and to investigate the possibility of expanding indications for primary repair of the colon in colorectal emergencies conditions. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Ain shams university hospitals from April 2014 to January 2016. Forty patients were involved in this study, all patients presented in ER department with any of colorectal emergencies where they were examined, resuscitated and managed. Results: the anastomotic leaks present in four patients (10%) and no anastomotic leaks in thirty six patients (90%). Conclusion. Primary repair of the colon in colorectal emergent conditions was recommended especially in case of traumatic injuries and benign obstruction.

[Emad Abdellatief Daoud and Sherief M. Mohsen. Incidence of Anastomotic Leak in Primary Repair in Colorectal Emergencies. Our Experience. J Am Sci 2017;13(6):107-114]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130617.12.

 

Key words: Anastomotic Leak, Colorectal Emergencies, Repair

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from May 23, 2017. 

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