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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 9, Cumulated No. 115, September 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1309

 

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CONTENTS   

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Titles / Authors

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1

Palm trees as an environmental source for the development of artistic works   In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Tibra Jameel Khusaifan

 

Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts and Design, King Abdul-Aziz University – Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia

tibrajameel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia possesses outputs of palm trees after droughts as basic raw material which can be used in many products and artistic works, the most important of which are fibrous tissue and twisted products and woven, as well as the manufacture of environmental furniture and the manufacture of various types of pallets. The palm tree industry is one of the scientific projects that contribute to development on Local and regional level as well. The research problem is determined by presenting the contemporary concept of creative industries that can be obtained from the environmental raw materials in the scope of artistic and practical products. The researcher seeks to find a contemporary vision that represents these products to a developmental and aesthetic value with a contemporary Saudi identity. The aim of the study is to contribute to increase the visibility of the richness of palm trees and the diversity of their industrial use perspective, thus becoming an economic and aesthetic addition to the Saudi society and environment. The importance of this study lies in monitoring the basic aspects for which technical work is carried out in the field of raw materials available in the Saudi environment, especially palm tree elements. And the awareness of Saudi society and decision-makers of the importance of the development of handicraft industries in the medium, small and micro industries. With the presentation of some innovative ideas with the addition of technical, technical and functional, and the appropriate economic return. In order to contribute to the results of this study in the submission of specific proposals for the means of developing products made from palm trees and open new horizons and visions of contemporary environmental and economic.

[Tibra Jameel Khusaifan. Palm trees as an environmental source for the development of artistic works   In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):1-11]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.01.

 

Keywords: palm trees - environmental source - development - art works - Saudi Arabia

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The possible ameliorative effect of Grape Seed Extract against of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) on retina of chick embryo during the incubation period (to Manifest Scientific Miracles in Quran)

 

Fawzyah Al-Ghamdi

 

Biology Department, Science Faculty, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

dr_fawzyah1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer added to thousands of food, This study aims investigate the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) on the retina of chick embryo and The possible ameliorative effect of Grape Seed Extract during the incubation period (to Manifest Scientific Miracles in Quran (.. In this study, we use 300 eggs were divided into six groups based on injection period and the injected substances, which are the first group control and the second group treated with GSE, the third group treated MSG, the fourth group common, the fifth group protective and the sixth group is therapeutic, We are studying the effect of experimental materials in the fetal development during the following ages (14, 16) day. The results showed that the treatment of embryos with MSG (0.1 ml) caused abnormalities at the level of the gross morphology and tissue abnormalities at the level of the retina. After the treatment of the fetus with the grape seed extract, the ability of the grape seed extract to reduce the effects of MSG. This improvement in the treatment group has been shown more and better than the preventive and joint group. The current study concludes that treating the fetus with grape seed extract and giving a longer period of time to allow the fetal body interact with the active grape seed compounds leads to the risk of MSG damage. We recommend future studies to study the effect of GSE at different doses and different stages of development.

[Fawzyah Al-Ghamdi. The possible ameliorative effect of Grape Seed Extract against of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) on retina of chick embryo during the incubation period (to Manifest Scientific Miracles in Quran). J Am Sci 2017;13(9):12-24]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.02.

 

Key words: chick embryo, monosodium glutamate, Retina, Grape seed extract, Scientific Miracles

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Management of Thoracic Spine Tumors

 

Youssef A. Barakat, Usama M. El Shokhaiby, Ahmed Ayad, Omar M. Abdul Rahman.

 

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

omarmustafa_1432@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In our study on thoracic spine tumors on 30 cases 17 cases were (56.67%) females while males were 13 cases (43.33%). Cases ages range from 1.5y: 75y, majority of cases were of old age with mean age 46.317y. The most common presenting symptom was back pain (46.67%), followed by weakness (26.67%), (13.33%) of cases are presented by radiculopathy. At time of assesment (83.33%) of cases have back pain, (70.00%) have weakness, (66.67%) have sensory deficit, (43.33%) have sphencteric disturbance & (20%) have radiculopathy. Correlation between clinical picture & clinical progress days post operative, 6months, 1year shows that the patient dont having neurological deficits shows better clinical progress at short & long terms. In (53.33%) of our cases the tumor was extradural, (50%) of them are metastatic in (36.67%) it was intradural extramedullary mostly Meningioma & nerve sheath tumors. (10%) intramedullary, (66.67%) of them were Epindymoma, (33.33%) were Glioblastoma. In our study most cases are managed surgically while (13.33%) are managed conservatively. (57.69%) of our cases operated for tumor excision, (19.23%) have decompression, (11.54%) have decompression & posterior fixation, (3.85%) have anterior fixation & (7.69%) have both anterior & posterior fixation. most surgically managed cases are operated by posterior approach, (3.85%) are operated laterally, (3.85%) are operated anteriorly & (7.69%) operated by combined posterior & lateral approach. (13.33%) of our cases have received radiotherapy (50%) of them received it post operative & (50%) have it as 1ry treatment, only (3.33%) of cases have received chemotherapy. Primary source of metastases was the lung, breast, prostate & Kidney. days post operative ( 69.23%) of our 26 surgically managed cases are clinically improved, (23.08%) have the same clinical picture, (7.69%) get worse, after 6 months, (70%) of cases are clinically improved (13.33%) have the same clinical picture, (13.33%) of cases died during these 6 months. 19 cases of the survived 26 case which followed for 1year, 14 of them (73.68%) clinically improved, 5 cases died (26.32%). of 26 surgically managed cases, 22 have posterior approach, 1 has anterior, 1 lateral & 2 have combined approach, of posterior group (72.73%) of cases are clinically improved, (18.18%) have the same clinical picture & (9.09%) get worse, of anterior group there is only 1 case and clinically improved, of lateral group there is only 1 case and clinically worsen, of combined group there are 2 case 1 of them (50%) clinically improved & the other case get worse. After 6 months (86.36%) of posteriorly approached cases are clinically improved, (9.09%) had the same clinical picture & (4.55%) died, of anterior group there is only 1 case and clinically improved, of lateral group there is only 1 case and clinically worsen, of combined group there are 2 case 1 of them (50%) clinically improved & the other case get worse. 18 of the survived surgically managed cases has been followed up for 1 year, 15 of them managed by posterior approach 12 case (80%) clinically improved, 3 cases (20%) died, the single case which managed laterally has been died among year post operative (100%), 2 cases which managed by combined approach 1 of them (50%) get improved & the other case died. correlation between clinical picture & clinical progress days post operative, 6months, 1year shows that the patients don't having neurological deficits shows better clinical progress at short & long terms.

[Youssef A. Barakat, Usama M. El Shokhaiby, Ahmed Ayad, Omar M. Abdul Rahman. Management of Thoracic Spine Tumors. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):25-30]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.03.

 

Keywords: Management; Thoracic; Spine; Tumor

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Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the possible protective effect of hesperidin on the ovaries of adult female albino rats treated with cyclophosphamide

 

Amira Fahmy

 

Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine; Menoufia University, Egypt

amirafahmy356@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent widely used in the treatment of many types of malignant tumors and autoimmune disorders. Although, CP treatment is important for survival of the patient, might have negative side effects, including detrimental effects on the reproductive system. It is usually associated with a high risk of female infertility resulting from premature ovarian insufficiency. Hesperidin (HSP) is a plant chemical that is classified as bioflavonoid, it is found in citrus fruits, vegetables, in food products and beverages derived from plant, as tea and olive oil. It has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, which include, antioxidants, antitumor, anti- allergic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective effects. It has strong cellular antioxidant protection against the damaging effects induced by cyclophosphamide treatment. The target of the present study is to estimate the possible protective effect of hesperidin against cyclophosphamide induced ovarian toxicity. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (Control group), the animals were given phosphate buffered saline for eight days. Group II (Hesperidin treated group), the animals were given HSP 100 mg/kg/d orally for eight days. Group III (Cyclophosphamide treated group), the animals were given CP 150 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection on the 8th day of the experiment. Group IV (Cyclophosphamide and hesperidin treated group), the animals were given HSP 100 mg/kg/d orally for eight days and CP 150 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection on 8th day of the experiment. Animals were then sacrificed at the end of experiment and ovaries were used for histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study. CP-treated group showed degenerative changes of the ovary with highly significant reduction of primordial, primary, secondary and graafian follicles when compared with the control group. However, combined treatment of HSP and CP showed amelioration of the histological changes in the ovary. Conclusion: It has been concluded that hesperidin improves the histological changes caused by cyclophosphamide in the ovary.

[Amira Fahmy. Histological and Immunohistochemical study on the possible protective effect of hesperidin on the ovaries of adult female albino rats treated with cyclophosphamide. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):31-42]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.04.

 

Keywords: Ovary, Cyclophosphamide, Hesperidin, Caspase-3

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Agglutinated Foraminiferal Morphogroups across the Paleocene- Eocene Boundary at Wasif Section, Safaga Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Hatem Aly

 

Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

hateem135@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Analysis of agglutinated foraminiferal morphogroupsin Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits at Wasif section, Safaga area, Eastern Desert, Egypt, was carried out. The Paleocene-Eocene succession at Wasif section containsmoderately-diverseof agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages. Three morphogroups were differentiated within the foraminiferal assemblages based on shell architecture (general shape, mode of coiling and number of chambers), the microhabitat (epifaunal, shallow infaunal and deep infaunal) and feeding strategy (suspension-feeder). The environment of the analysed section is interpreted, in a sequence stratigraphic framework, using a combination of the stratigraphic distribution of morphogroups, species diversityand sedimentary data. The decreasing trend in tubular, elongate keeled and elongate subcylindrical forms towards the top part of the Esna Shale Formation might indicates on the shallowing regional bathymetry around the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

[Hatem Aly. Agglutinated Foraminiferal Morphogroups across the Paleocene- Eocene Boundary at Wasif Section, Safaga Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):43-59]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5 doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.05.

 

Key Words: Agglutinated foraminifera, morphogroups, Early Paleogen, Eastern desert, Egypt.

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Xylitol in Chewing Gums

 

Hani Nassar

 

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

hnassar@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Xylitol is a naturally occurring sweetener that cannot be metabolized by oral microorganisms. When used as sugar substitute, it can lead to a reduction in dental caries incidence. The use of xylitol and other sugar alternatives is not common practice in restorative dentistry. One reason for this could be the lack of understanding of the proper rationale for utilizing such a preventive modality. This effort aims to summarize the literature concerned with xylitol in chewing gums and provides a concise guideline for the use of this preventive approach in clinical practice.

[Hani Nassar. Xylitol in Chewing Gums. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):60-66]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.06.

 

Keywords: Xylitol, sugar alcohol, chewing gum, caries

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Mechanical Oil Expression from African Oil Bean Seed as Affected by Moisture Content and Seed Dimension

 

Ademola K. AREMU and Clement A. OGUNLADE

 

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Clement2k5@yahoo.com; Telephone: +2348033680988

 

Abstract: Present production level of vegetable oil cannot meet the demand of the citizenry; new low cost oil seeds are needed to produce inexpensive and readily available oil suitable for food, pharmaceutical and industrial applications especially from under-utilized oil seed crop like African oil bean. Investigations were carried out on effect of moisture content and seed dimension on mechanical oil expression from African oil bean seed using an oil expeller. Fresh seeds were procured, de-hulled and found to have initial moisture content of 12% db; the seeds were conditioned by dehydration and rehydration prior to oil expression to obtain moisture levels 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16%db. Major diameter of the seeds were measured using digital vernier caliper and further classified into size dimensions (<40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-55, >55mm). Oil yield and expression efficiency were obtained in accordance with standard evaluation methods. Highest oil yield and expression efficiency (51.7 and 85.4%) was obtained at moisture content 8%db and seed dimensions less than 40mm while lowest oil yield and expression efficiency was obtained at 14%db and seed dimension >55mm. Increase in moisture content causes reduction in oil yield and expression efficiency while increase in the seed dimension causes decrease in the oil yield. African oil bean seed contains high oil yield; extraction of the oil will aid its commercialization and boost its economic status.

[Ademola K. AREMU and Clement A. OGUNLADE. Mechanical Oil Expression from African Oil Bean Seed as Affected by Moisture Content and Seed Dimension. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):67-73]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.07.

 

Keywords: moisture content, seed dimension, oil yield, expression efficiency, African oil bean seed

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Haematological and Serum indices of West African Dwarf Goats fed Panicum maximum hay and leaf meal supplement

 

*Ajayi Festus Temitope 1, Abegunde Taiwo Olurotimi 2, Olona Joseph Folami 3, Balogun Fatima Adeola3

 

1. Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria

2. Department of Animal Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3. Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Ibadan, Nigeria

*Corresponding author E-mail: festus2ajay@gmail.com; Phone: +2347039394840

 

Abstract: The Performance of West African dwarf goats were evaluated by feeding concentrates consisting of mixture of Vernonia amygdalina and Tithonia diversifolia leafmeal in varying proportions. The study lasted 105 days. The goats were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% leafmeal mixture in compounded ration in a completely randomized design with Panicum maximum hay as basal diet. The crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) of V. amygdalina and T. diversifolia were 17.2 and 4.3 g/100g DM while CP and EE were 18.3 and 5.1 g/100g DM respectively. The CP of compounded ration ranged from 19.7 g/100g DM in control diet (T1) to 17.6 g/100g DM in 20% leaf meal mixture (T4). The EE (3.7 – 3.0 g/100g DM), NDF (41.7 – 55.3 g/100g DM). Packed Cell Volume (PCV) ranged from 24.0 % in T1 to 31.8 % in T3. Goats on T3 had the highest Hb (11.2 g/d) and red blood cell (13.1 x 1012/L). The white blood cell (WBC) ranged from 8.7 x 109/L in T1 to 11.4 x 109/L in T5. Glucose (53.7 g/L – 72.7 g/L) and Urea N (6.4 – 16.7 mmol/L). Cholesterol decreased from T1 (1.9 mmol/L) to T5 (1.4 mmol/L). It is concluded that the mixture of Vernonia amygdalina and Tithonia diversifolia leafmeal improved the PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC and serum glucose of the goats with reduction in their cholesterol content.

[Ajayi FT, Abegunde TO, Olona JF, Balogun FA. Haematological and Serum indices of West African Dwarf Goats fed Panicum maximum hay and leaf meal supplement. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):74-78]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.08.

 

Keywords: Blood indices, leafmeal, Vernonia amygdalina, Tithonia diversifolia

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Antimicrobial Effects Of Some Local Plants On The Growth Of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend), A Crown Gall Phytopathogenic Bacterium

 

Ijato, J.Y

 

Department Of Plant Science, Faculty Of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, M.B. 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria

E-mail: considerureternity@gmail.com; GSM: 08067335124

 

Abstract: Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a gram-negative, pathogenic bacterium causing crown gall disease on plants. The antimicrobial activities of aqueous leaf extracts of five plants: Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera, Bauhinia monandra, Vernonia amygdalina, Azadirachta indica were screened against A. tumefaciens using agar diffusion method. Fresh leaves of the test plants were collected, air dried and pulverized. Hundred grams of powdered leaves of each test plant was mixed with 200ml of distilled cold water at room temperature and left overnight, this was filtered and the filtrate served as extracts. The inhibitory effect of A. indica (0.20cm) extracts was highest at 5%. J. curcas (0.43cm) extracts inhibited most at 5%, while V. amygdalina extracts reduced the growth of A. tumefaciens at 5% by 0.46cm. Similarly, M. oleifera extracts was against A. tumefaciens at 5% by 0.70cm. B. monandra extracts was most inhibitive at 5% by 0.35cm.

[Ijato, J.Y. Antimicrobial Effects Of Some Local Plants On The Growth Of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend), A Crown Gall Phytopathogenic Bacterium. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):79-81]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.09.

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Effect; Local Plant; Growth; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Crown Gall; Phytopathogenic Bacterium

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Long Term Measurements Of Ambient Air Pollutants Near A Developing Industrial Township Of District Haridwar, India

 

Sadhna Awasthi, P. C. Joshi, Chhavi P. Pandey1, Narendra Singh2, Hemwati Nandan3

 

Department of Zoology & Environmental Sciences, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, India -249404

1Department of Physics, Kanya Gurukula Campus, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, India-249404

2Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital, India -263002

3Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, India -249404

Phone: +91-9012677665; prakash127@yahoo.com; sadhnaawasthi02@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation is to elucidate the persistent increase in the concentration of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in an area fastly developing as an industrial belt in district Haridwar after the development of State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand (SIDCUL) in 2002. An attempt is made to analyze the increase in the level of ambient air pollutants such as suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOX), during a period of six consecutive years (2003-2009) at Bahadarabad, this area is located in close vicinity of Haridwar city on Delhi-Haridwar National Highway (NH-58) in Uttarakhand. The concentration of these parameters is found to increase significantly by manifold over a period of six years of measurements. The concentrations of SPM and RSPM are compared with the concentration of gaseous pollutants SO2 and NOX. A detailed statistical analysis has been carried out on the basis of monthly average values of the observed pollutants and it is observed that the SPM and RSPM show significant positive correlation with SO2 and NOx concentration. The values of the correlation coefficient for all possible correlations among the particulate matter and the gaseous pollutants are found to be in the range 0.86 to 0.77.

[Sadhna Awasthi, P. C. Joshi  Chhavi P. Pandey, Narendra Singh, Hemwati Nandan. Long Term Measurements Of Ambient Air Pollutants Near A Developing Industrial Township Of District Haridwar, India. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):82-89]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.10.

 

Keywords: Gaseous pollutants (GPs), Particulate Matter (PM), Industrial Emissions, Statistical Analysis.

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Nanoparticle syntheses of biological application in orchid plant stem extract. An endemic flora in India

 

Dr. A. Kalaiarasan

 

Assistant Professor, Centre for Bioscience and Nanoscience Research, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-Mails: myla_kalai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nanoscience is improving of modern world young research in have fast current years in the field of bimolecule science. Nanosynthesis of properties is of basic importance in advanced plant biomolecule components search in the biomedical. Indian flora towards World long history of sidda medicine in kolli hills triple people. In the present investigation work designed to nanosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticle has been done using a selected medicinal plant part Blbophyllum kaitense (Orchidaceae) stem though there are biochemical present in the plant. The synthesis of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and Chloroauric acid (HAuCL4) for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoprticles respectively with the plant stem extract. The plant stem extract is mixed with (AgNO3) and (HAuCL4) incubated furthermore studied synthesis of nanoparticle using UV Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticle were molecule morphology characterization of FT-IR spectra, Scanning electron spectroscopy, Transmission electron spectroscopy equipped with XRD. The generally found to be spherical crustal shaped but it size range of 102 nm. Whereas the synthesized gold nanoparticle were found to be dispersed crystal nanoparticle in the size range of 108nm. The silver synthesis nanoparticle TEM analysis was employed to visualize was found to be spherical shaped in the size range of 98nm. Whereas the synthesized gold nanomolecules were spherical shaped in the range of 102nm. The work carried out showed the stem extract is excellent bio reductant. The antimicrobial activity of synthesis silver and gold nanomolecules active against human pathogenic organisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi.

[A. Kalaiarasan. Nanoparticle syntheses of biological application in orchid plant stem extract. An endemic flora in India. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):90-97]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.11.

 

Keywords: Blbophyllum kaitense, AgNO3, HAuCL4, UV Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectra and TEM analysis

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Biotic Index Assessment of Human Perturbations in Qua Iboe River Estuary Using Macro-Benthic Invertebrate as Indicator Organisms

 

George, Ubong1, Inyang-Etor, Aniema2 Friday, Edifon1

 

1Department of Zoology & Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

2Faculty of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: talk2georgeubong@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Studies on Biotic index assessment of human perturbations in Qua Iboe River Estuary using macro-benthic invertebrate as indicator organisms was conducted for 12 months (between May 2015 and April 2016) with the aim of Understanding the ecological status of the system and provide measures which allows policy makers and local actors to design programs and policies to improve the existing practices and mitigate future problems. Macro invertebrates were collected monthly at five different stations across the study area using a van Veen grab sampler. For each sampling station, 3 or 4 hauls were made by sending the grab down into the bottom. The content of the grab was emptied into 3 sieved of 2mm, 1mm and 0.5mm mesh sizes and sieved in-situ to collect the benthos. Sieved samples were poured into 500 ml wide-mouth plastic containers in each of the sampling station, labelled and preserved in 4% formaldehyde solution prior to identification in the laboratory using the relevant identification keys. A total of thirteen thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven (13897) macro-benthic invertebrate individuals, which was made up of twenty six (26) species belonging to three (3) phylum and five classes (5) were observed in the Qua Iboe River Estuary. Macro-invertebrates were represented by Phylum Arthropoda, Mollusca and Annelida. The classes of macro-invertebrate recorded were crustacean, insecta, gastropoda, polychaeta and oligochaeta. The dominant phylum in terms of macro-benthic invertebrate species composition was Arthropoda (13 species); this was closely followed by the phylum Mollusca (11 species) while the phylum with the least species composition was Annelida (2 species). In regards to macro-benthic invertebrate’s abundance, the phylum mollusca which was represented by gastropod accounted for 7351 individuals forming 52.90 % of the total macro-benthic invertebrates while the least abundance was Annelida represented by Oligochaeta which contributed 370 individuals forming 2.66 % of the total population encountered during the study. Through-out the study, the most abundant macro-benthic invertebrate species was Uca tangeri (1707 individuals), while the least were Atractomorpha acutipennis (18 individuals). Ecological indices such as, Shannon, Simpson and equitability indices were higher in station 1 and station3 when compared to other stations. Species dominance was low in all the stations throughout the study. Macro-invertebrates were more abundant during the dry season (7235 individuals) than rainy season (6662 individuals). The results obtained from the family biotic index (FBI) showed that the water quality ratings across the stations were fairly poor to good. Station 1 to 4 had a fairly poor water quality while station 5 had a good water quality. This indicates significant organic pollution going on within the study area. In the light of this study, awareness should be created by the Government, NGO’S and concerned stakeholders in educating the public on the ills and detrimental effects of water pollution.

[George U, Inyang-Etor A, Friday Edifon. Biotic Index Assessment of Human Perturbations in Qua Iboe River Estuary Using Macro-Benthic Invertebrate as Indicator Organisms. J Am Sci 2017;13(9):98-107]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130917.12.

 

Keywords: Biotic index, Human perturbations, Macro-benthic Invertebrates, indication organisms, Qua Iboe River Estuary

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 8, 2017. 

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